Chinese Military Informationized Warfare – Integrating New Combined Arms // 中國軍事信息化戰爭 – 整合新型聯合武器

Chinese Military Informationized Warfare – Integrating New Combined Arms // 中國軍事信息化戰爭 – 整合新型聯合武器

While the development of science and technology is promoting the rapid birth of new arms, the cohesiveness of war integration is also affecting the integration of military construction. Under the conditions of informationization, the trend of integration of arms and services is becoming more and more obvious, and there is a tendency to accelerate development. Today’s “Liberation Army Daily” article pointed out that the integration of military services and eventually moving toward integration is the inherent requirement of informationized warfare and the basic law of military construction and development. In seeking the initiative of army building, we should make forward-looking decisions in promoting the integration of the military and plan ahead.

The army has given birth to the military and other military services. With the advent of the information age, the integration of battlefields and combat operations has made the integration of services a new trend and destination for the development of military construction.

Service integration: the general trend of informationized army construction

By – Wang Xueping

The development of things often presents a spiral rising path, following the law of negation of negation. The development of human military activities, especially military construction, is also in line with this law. Before the information age, the army of the army was from one to many. The army had given birth to the sea and air. With the advent of the information age, the rapid development of technology has made the integration of military services a trend and a destination for the development of new military construction.

The future battlefield does not distinguish between land, sea and air

Under the condition of mechanization, the pattern of independent existence of land, sea, air and sky battlefields began to merge under the catalysis of the new military revolution. Multidimensional and multi-war occasions are the basic forms of the future battlefield.

The promotion of rapid development of science and technology. With the continuous development of science and technology and the improvement of mankind’s ability to control the battlefield, it is an inevitable trend that the battlefield will be dispersed from integration to integration. Science and technology are the driving force for the integration of battlefields and unlimited expansion into the air. The development of high-tech such as information technology, positioning and guidance technology has made the performance of weapons and equipment surpass the traditional land, sea and airspace boundaries. Global mobility, global arrival and global strike have become the targets of the development of the military of the world’s military power. The development of space situational awareness technology integrates surveillance, reconnaissance, intelligence, meteorology, command, control and communication, and integrates the battlefield information network to realize battlefield information sharing. Joint operations and precision strikes become the basic style of future warfare. The rapid development of space technology has made the surface information and the information of the global environment unobstructed. The expansion of the battlefield into space has condensed the traditional land, sea and air battlefields into one, becoming a stepping stone and pedal for the vast innocent space battlefield.

The inevitable evolution of the form of war. With the in-depth development of the new military revolution, the intensity of the war to informationization will further increase. Informatized warfare is not only a “speed war” but also a “precise war” and an “integrated war.” The acceleration of the war integration process is first manifested in the integration of land, sea and airspace, and the integration of the scope of the battlefield as the war develops. This is the basic condition for information warfare. The speed of war and the improvement of precision strike capability require that the military must have global maneuver, global combat and precision strike capability that transcends land, sea and air, cross-border, trans-ocean, and vacant, and battlefield integration is the basic guarantee. The war science and technology contest has intensified, and the requirements for battlefield resource sharing have become more obvious. Military personnel have broken through the geographical and military barriers and broke the boundary between land, sea and airspace. It is an important weight to win the war.

The requirements for quick fixes in combat objectives. Speed ​​and precision are the main thrust of future wars. Eliminating battlefield barriers, integrating land, sea, air, and battlefields is the way to reach a speedy battle. The quickness and determination of the purpose of informatized warfare has promoted the integration of force preparation, equipment and operations. The integration of force preparation, equipment and operations has also promoted the arrival of battlefield integration. The military system is integrated into the arms and services. The scope of action has surpassed the narrow space of a single service. The ability to operate in a wide area and in a large space makes it difficult to divide the battlefield into a land battlefield, a sea battlefield, and an air battlefield. Weapons and equipment combines the performance of land, sea and air weapons. Its combat function surpasses the land, sea and airspace range, providing material conditions and support for battlefield integration. The strategic battle tactical action is integrated into one, the joint operations are divided into groups, the small squad completes the large task, and the informatized war characteristics of the tactical action strategy purpose will inevitably catalyze the dispersed battlefield toward one.

Signs of military integration appear quietly

While the development of science and technology is promoting the rapid birth of new arms, the cohesiveness of war integration is also affecting the integration of military construction. Under the conditions of informationization, the trend of integration of arms and services is becoming more and more obvious, and there is a tendency to accelerate development.

The theory of integration theory is repeated. The fusion of theory is a prelude to the integration of the military, and it is the magic weapon and sword to win the information war. Under the impact of the new military revolution, theoretical innovations have surpassed the waves, especially the integration of theoretical innovations aimed at joint operations. In order to adapt to the new changes in the form of war and the international pattern, in the 2010 “four-year defense assessment report” of the United States, the theory of joint operations of “sea and air warfare” was clearly put forward. In order to adapt to the requirements of the network-centric warfare, the French military integration theory innovation is at the forefront. The Army proposed the air-to-ground combat bubble theory, and the Navy proposed the theory of joint action from sea to land. The Indian Army has referenced and learned from the US “air-ground integration” and “quick-decisive” operational theories, and put forward the “cold-start” operational theory. The core is to strengthen the cooperation between the army and the sea and air force in order to seek the initiative of the operation and strive for the shortest time. The purpose of the battle is achieved within.

Integrated equipment surfaced. The rapid development of science and technology has continuously enhanced the comprehensive functions of weapons and equipment, and integrated equipment integrating land, sea, air and sky has become a material support and an important driving force for the development of military services. In order to win the initiative of integrated joint operations, the world’s military powers have accelerated the research and development of integrated equipment. The US military “Independence” stealth warship, which was once popular, is a very typical new integrated equipment. The ship integrates anti-submarine, mine-clearing, surveillance, reconnaissance and force deployment functions. It can carry three helicopters, some special forces and armored vehicles, and integrates the “ground and air” equipment. The ship-borne gun can carry out three-dimensional attacks on missiles launched from air, land and underwater targets, which greatly enhances the integrated combat capability of the equipment.

The integrated forces first appeared. The future informationized warfare is an integrated joint warfare operation carried out in multi-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, sky, and information. It is required that the participating troops must be an integrated military system. To meet this requirement, the army of the world’s powerful countries has intensified the construction of integrated forces. Joint expeditionary forces such as the US military include the Army Division, the Naval Aircraft Carrier Combat Group, the Marine Corps Division (sub-) and the Air Force Fighter Wing. The Russian military formed a mobile unit that spanned three services and one independent unit, including the Army’s Mobility Division, tank division, special brigade, rocket brigade, air force fighter, attack aircraft, bomber regiment, naval marine battalion and airborne troops. Airborne division. The rapid reaction force formed by France consists of different types of divisions of five arms. In accordance with operational needs, Germany has directly organized the Defence Forces into three units: the Intervention Force, the Stabilization Force and the Support Force. It can be seen that the integrated forces of multiple arms and services have become the direction of army construction and development in the information age.

Looking into the future, planning the army of today

The integration of the services and the ultimate integration are the inherent requirements of the information war and the basic law of the army’s construction and development. This law does not shift from people’s will. In order to seek the initiative of army building, we should follow this trend and make forward-looking decisions in promoting the integration of the military.

In-depth exploration of the theory of military integration. Theory is the forerunner of action, and it is the reflection on the top of the mountain. Aiming at the trend of the times, accumulating strength and finding countermeasures through theoretical research is the experience and practice of world-class military construction and development. The first is to strengthen the theoretical exploration of integrated construction. We should study the issue of integrated military construction as soon as possible, explore the construction goals, standards, paths, methods, and methods of the integrated military, and build bridges and paved roads for the military integration. The second is to strengthen the exploration of integrated operational theory. The development trend of military integration will inevitably bring about new changes in combat theory. It is necessary to strengthen the study of the characteristics of the integrated military operations, strengthen the study of integrated military operations and command methods, strengthen the study of the basic military tactics of the integrated military, and make forward-looking theories a traction in the development of military construction. The third is to strengthen the theoretical exploration of new talent training. To train new talents that meet the needs of the development of integrated military construction needs to be prepared in theory. The institutional structure, teaching content and teaching methods of colleges and universities need to focus on the law of integrated military construction and development, theoretically research, clear, and even through pilot exploration, so that the training of college personnel can adapt to the general trend of military integration development as soon as possible. For the development of integrated military construction, it is necessary to make a good talent reserve.

Accelerate the development of integrated equipment for the military. Integrated equipment is the material basis for the integration of services. In line with the general trend of the development of integrated military construction, our military should speed up the research and development of military integrated weapons and equipment. The first is the “collection” type of equipment. For example, the aircraft carrier-style “collection” type of equipment, with the hull as the basic platform, fuses fighters, artillery, anti-aircraft guns, missiles, and chariots into one, so that the equipment has the ability to multi-domain and multi-air combat. Our military should develop such “collection” type equipment based on land or sea or air, and promote the development of weapons and equipment to the integration of various arms and services. The second is the “all-round” type of equipment. In the future, the equipment must be able to run on the ground, fly in the air, swim in the water, and operate at high speed on the water, underwater, on land, and in the air, and the “human outfit” is integrated. The combatants follow the operational needs. Become a super equipment that “takes the sea and catches the moon, and picks up the moon.”

Explore the construction of a military united army. Comply with the general trend of the integration and development of the informatized military, actively promote the exploration of the construction of the military-integrated forces, and explore ways to accumulate experience for the development of military integration. Under the current circumstances, it is mainly necessary to build a large article on the integration of hybrid force preparation and create conditions for the integration of the military system. The establishment of a multi-service hybrid pilot unit will be rolled forward in actual combat training. Take the Army as an example, it is to build a hybrid force that integrates rifle, tan, gun, and land. For example, the integrated ground detachment consisting of armored forces, artillery, machine infantry, missile corps, attack and transport helicopter detachments, which was formed by the US Army, foreshadowed the development trend of integrated force formation that broke the arms and even the service line. With the accumulation of experience, the maturity of the conditions, and the improvement of the level of science and technology, the scope of the composition of the force has gradually expanded, and eventually an integrated experimental unit with complete strengths of the arms and services has been established.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

科技發展在推動新軍兵種快速誕生的同時,戰爭一體化的內聚力也在牽動軍隊建設走向融合。信息化條件下,軍兵種一體化的趨勢日漸明顯,大有加速發展之勢。今天的《解放軍報》刊文指出,軍種融合,並最終走向一體,是信息化戰爭的內在要求,是軍隊建設發展的基本規律。謀求軍隊建設的主動性,我們就應該在推進軍隊一體化建設上前瞻決策,未雨綢繆。

陸軍曾孕育了海、空等軍種。信息時代的到來,戰場、作戰行動的一體化,使得軍種融合成為新型軍隊建設發展的走向與歸宿——

軍種融合:信息化軍隊建設大趨勢

事物的發展往往呈現著螺旋式上昇道路,遵循著否定之否定的規律。人類軍事活動發展特別是軍隊建設也暗合著這種規律要求。在信息時代以前,軍隊的軍種是從一到多,陸軍曾孕育了海、空等軍種。而信息時代的到來,技術的迅猛發展使得軍種融合成為新型軍隊建設發展的走向與歸宿。

未來戰場不分陸海空天

機械化條件下,陸、海、空、天戰場獨立存在的格局,在新軍事革命的催化下開始走向融合,多維立體、多戰場合一是未來戰場的基本形態。

科技快速發展的推動。隨著科技的不斷發展和人類對戰場控制能力的提高,戰場由分散走向融合是必然趨勢。而科學技術則是戰場融合一體,並向空天無限擴展的推動力。信息技術、定位與製導技術等高新技術的發展,使武器裝備性能超越了傳統的陸、海、空域界線,全球機動、全球到達、全球打擊成為世界軍事強國軍隊發展的目標。空間態勢感知技術的發展,使監視、偵察、情報、氣象、指揮、控制和通信等融合一體,一體化戰場信息網絡,實現了戰場信息共享,聯合作戰、精確打擊成為未來戰爭的基本樣式。太空技術的快速發展,使地表信息和地球環境信息盡收眼底,戰場向太空的拓展,使傳統的陸海空戰場濃縮為一體,成為廣闊無垠太空戰場的墊腳石與踏板。

戰爭形態演變的必然。隨著新軍事革命的深入發展,戰爭向信息化演變的力度將進一步加大。信息化戰爭,既是“速度戰爭”,又是“精確戰爭”,更是“一體化戰爭”。戰爭一體化進程的加快,首先表現為陸域、海域、空域的融合,以及隨著戰爭發展而不斷拓展的戰場空間範圍的一體化,這是進行信息化戰爭的基本條件。戰爭速度與精準打擊能力的提升,要求軍隊必須具有超越陸海空界線,跨境、跨海、騰空的全球機動、全球作戰和精確打擊能力,而戰場一體化則是基本保障。戰爭科技較量加劇,戰場資源共享的要求更加明顯,軍事人才更衝破了地域、軍種壁壘,打破陸域、海域、空域戰場界線,是贏得戰爭的重要砝碼。

作戰目的速決的要求。速度與精確是未來戰爭的主旨。而消除戰場壁壘,融陸、海、空、天戰場為一體,則是達成戰爭速決的通道。信息化戰爭作戰目的速決性,推動了部隊編制、裝備、行動的融合。而部隊編制、裝備、行動的融合,又促進了戰場一體化的到來。部隊體制編制諸軍兵種融於一體,行動範圍已超越了單一軍種的狹小空間,廣地域、大空間行動的能力,使戰場很難再分為陸戰場、海戰場和空戰場。武器裝備集陸海空天兵器性能於一身,其作戰功能超越了陸域、海域、空域範圍,為戰場一體化提供了物質條件和支撐。戰略戰役戰術行動融於一體,聯合作戰分隊化,小分隊完成大任務,戰術行動戰略目的的信息化戰爭特性,必然催化分散的戰場走向一體。

軍種融合跡象悄然出現

科技發展在推動新軍兵種快速誕生的同時,戰爭一體化的內聚力也在牽動軍隊建設走向融合。信息化條件下,軍兵種一體化的趨勢日漸明顯,大有加速發展之勢。

一體化理論見解迭出。理論融合是軍種融合的前奏,更是打贏信息化戰爭的法寶與利劍。在新軍事革命大潮衝擊下,理論創新一浪高過一浪,特別是瞄準聯合作戰需要的一體化理論創新更是見解迭出。為適應戰爭形態和國際格局的新變化,2010年度美國《四年防務評估報告》中,明確提出了“海空一體戰”聯合作戰理論。為適應網絡中心戰的要求,法國軍隊一體化理論創新更是走在了前列,陸軍提出了空地作戰氣泡理論,海軍提出了由海向陸聯合行動理論。印度陸軍參考和借鑒美軍“空地一體”和“快速決定性”作戰理論,提出了“冷啟動”作戰理論,核心是強化陸軍與海、空軍的配合作戰,以謀求作戰的主動性,爭取在最短時間內達成作戰目的。

一體化裝備浮出水面。科技的快速發展,使武器裝備的綜合功能不斷增強,融陸、海、空、天於一身的一體化裝備不斷問世,成為軍兵種編制向一體化發展的物質支撐和重要推動力。為贏得一體化聯合作戰的主動權,世界軍事強國紛紛加快了一體化裝備的研發力度。曾經熱炒的美軍“獨立號”隱形戰艦,就是非常典型的新型一體化裝備。該艦融反潛、掃雷、監視、偵察和兵力部署綜合功能於一體,可載3架直升機、一些特種部隊和裝甲車,融“地空”裝備於一身。艦載炮可對空中、陸地和水下目標發射導彈進行立體攻擊,使裝備的一體化戰鬥力大大提升。

一體化部隊初見端倪。未來信息化戰爭,是在陸、海、空、天、信息等多維空間進行的一體化聯合作戰行動,要求參戰部隊必須是一體化的軍事系統。適應這一要求,世界強國軍隊紛紛加大了一體化部隊建設的力度。如美軍組建的聯合遠征部隊包括陸軍師、海軍航母戰鬥群、海軍陸戰隊部(分)隊和空軍戰鬥機聯隊。俄軍組建的機動部隊橫跨3個軍種和1個獨立兵種,包括陸軍的摩步師、坦克師、特種旅、火箭旅,空軍的戰鬥機、強擊機、轟炸機團,海軍的陸戰隊營和空降兵的空降師。法國組建的快速反應部隊由5個軍兵種的不同類型師組成。德國則根據作戰需求把國防軍直接編組為乾涉部隊、穩定部隊和支援部隊三種性質部隊。足見,多軍兵種一體化部隊已成為信息時代軍隊建設發展的方向。

放眼未來謀劃今日之軍

軍種融合,並最終走向一體,是信息化戰爭的內在要求,是軍隊建設發展的基本規律。這一規律不以人們的意志為轉移。謀求軍隊建設的主動性,我們就應該順應這一趨勢,在推進軍隊一體化建設上前瞻決策,未雨綢繆。

深入探索軍種一體理論。理論是行動的先導,更是“山頂”上的思考。瞄準時代走向,通過理論研究積蓄力量、尋找對策,是世界一流軍隊建設發展的經驗做法。一是加強一體化建設理論探索。應儘早研究一體化軍隊建設問題,探索一體化軍隊的建設目標、標準、路徑、方式、方法,為軍隊一體化建設從理論上搭好橋樑、鋪好路基。二是加強一體化作戰理論探索。軍隊一體化發展趨勢必然帶來作戰理論的全新變化。要加強一體化軍隊作戰運用的特點規律研究,加強一體化軍隊作戰行動和指揮方法研究,加強一體化軍隊基本戰法研究,讓前瞻性的理論成為軍隊建設發展的牽引。三是加強新型人才培養理論探索。培養適應一體化軍隊建設發展需要的新型人才,需要在理論上早做準備。院校的體制格局、教學內容、教學方法都需要著眼一體化軍隊建設發展規律,從理論上研究透,搞清楚,甚至通過試點探索,使院校人才培養儘早適應軍隊一體化發展的大趨勢,為一體化軍隊建設發展需要做好人才儲備。

加速軍種一體裝備研製。一體化裝備是軍種融合的物質基礎。順應一體化軍隊建設發展的大趨勢,我軍應加快軍種一體武器裝備的研發。一是“集合”型裝備。如航空母艦式的“集合”型裝備,其以艦體為基本平台,融戰機、火砲、高炮、導彈、戰車於一體,使裝備具有海陸空天多域多空作戰的能力。我軍應研發這種以陸或海或空為基本平台的“集合”型裝備,推進武器裝備建設向諸軍兵種融合一體方向發展。二是“全能”型裝備。今後的裝備要達到地上能跑、空中能飛、水中能遊,水上水下、陸上、空天都可高速機動作戰,而且“人裝”一體,戰鬥人員根據作戰需要隨進隨出,真正成為“下海捉鱉,上天摘月”的超能裝備。

進行軍種一體部隊建設探索。順應信息化軍隊一體化建設發展的大勢,積極推進軍種一體部隊建設探索,為軍隊一體化建設發展探索路子、積累經驗。當前情況下,主要應做好建設混合型部隊編制融合的大文章,為軍種體制編制走向一體創造條件。組建多兵種混合一體試點部隊,在實戰訓練中滾動推進。以陸軍為例,就是建設融步、坦、炮、陸航等兵種於一體的混合型部隊。如,美陸軍組建的由裝甲兵、砲兵、機步兵、導彈兵、攻擊與運輸直升機分隊組成的一體化地面分隊,預示了打破兵種甚至軍種界線的一體化部隊編制的發展趨勢。隨著經驗的積累、條件的成熟,以及科技水平的提高,部隊力量構成的範圍逐漸擴大,最終組建成軍兵種力量齊全的一體化試驗部隊。

Original Chinese Military URL: http://www.81.cn

 

Chinese Military Analysis of Cyber Space Deterrence – Important Strategic Points // 淺析網絡空間威懾的特徵、類型和運用要點

Chinese Analysis of Cyber Space Deterrence – Important Strategic Points

淺析網絡空間威懾的特徵、類型和運用要點

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Academy of Military Sciences Yuan Yi

January 04, 2016    

Editor’s note: When both opposing parties have the ability to ensure intrusion and damage to the other party’s network, they can bring about two-way network containment, making the two parties obliged to comply with the game rules that do not attack each other’s network under certain conditions, forming an invisible safety valve. Even international conventions or conventions that do not attack each other’s networks will be formed. The cyberspace has thus become a strategic area that can produce a huge deterrent effect. After the deterrence of cyberspace followed by nuclear deterrence, it began to enter the strategic vision of big country politicians and military strategists. Studying the characteristics, types, and points of use of cyberspace deterrence must be taken into consideration and necessary action by the Internet powers and the cyber force.

With the increasing dependence of human society on cyberspace, cyberspace has become the “second type of living space” for human production and life and the “fifth-dimensional combat space” for military confrontation. Countries around the world have fiercely competed for the dominant rights, control rights, and discourse power of cyberspace. The competition in the cyberspace has reached the level of human survival, national destiny, and success or failure of military struggles. Thinking about cyberspace deterrence capacity building has great practical and theoretical value.

First, analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of cyberspace deterrence

Cyberspace deterrence refers to the actions and actions taken in the cyberspace to demonstrate and control enemy cyberspace, and to control the enemy’s physical space through cross-domain cyberspace, so as to achieve the goal of destroying enemy forces, stopping the enemy, blocking the enemy, and preventing deterrence. A form of strategic deterrence for the enemy’s purpose. Compared with the physical space, the “virtual and real duality” of network space and the uniqueness of network warfare compared with traditional combat styles have determined that the advantages and disadvantages of cyberspace deterrence are very obvious.

(A) The advantages of cyberspace deterrence

The advantages of cyberspace deterrence are mainly reflected in the following: First, the deterrence approach has become more civilized and humane. Compared with nuclear, chemical, and chemical weapons based on physical, biological, and chemical killing mechanisms, the direct killing and destructive effects of cyber warfare weapons are much smaller than the former. Normally, they will not cause permanent damage and pollution to the natural environment, nor will they cause large numbers of people. Casualties and humanitarian disasters. Second, deterrence costs are inefficient. The network warfare weapons are dominated by viruses, Trojans and other software. The costs are relatively low, and the technical threshold is low. The destructive effects are rather alarming. The network defense points are multi-faceted, and they are hard to prevent. To increase the level of network security by one level, the input cost will increase exponentially. The contrast between the low cost of cyber offense and the high cost of cyber defense makes the offensive and defensive performance of the network a feature of “spirit shield”, and the cyber warfare weapon is thus called “the atomic bomb of the poor country”. The third is that deterrence methods are diverse and practical. The variety of cyber warfare weapons and the multiple goals of cyber attacks have determined that there are diversified cyberspace deterrent methods to choose from. The effects of cyberattacks are recoverable to a certain extent. As long as the application is properly implemented, the risk of causing war and escalating the war is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrence value of nuclear weapons is far greater than the value of actual combat, and cyber warfare weapons are both practical values ​​and deterrence values. Fourth, the use of repeatability and deterrence is strong. Once the “nuclear threshold” crosses, a full-scale nuclear war will erupt, and the two sides at the nuclear balance will fall into a state of mutual destruction. The easy implementation of nuclear deterrence, especially nuclear deterrence against non-nuclear countries, will also be condemned by international public opinion. These factors are all The use of nuclear deterrence is greatly limited. The deterrence of software and hardware and the controllable characteristics of cyberspace deter- mine the flexibility and control of deterrence in light of the changes and needs of the military struggle. It can be used in advance, used throughout, and used repeatedly. It has strong flexibility.

(B) Defects in cyberspace deterrence

The deterrence of cyberspace is mainly reflected in: First, the credibility of the deterrence effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, as of now, the real network war has not really exploded. People’s astonishing destructive power over cyber warfare is more of a speculation and worry. The real power of cyber warfare can only be convincing after being tested by actual combat. Second, the reliability of deterrence measures is not very high. Network warfare is a dynamic process of continuous offensive and defensive interaction between the two sides of the enemy and me. The characteristics of network confrontation and technicality determine that the network warfare attack has greater uncertainty and may not achieve the desired operational objectives, which will greatly reduce the effectiveness of deterrence. . For example, when the enemy performs cyberspace deterrence, if the enemy takes various effective defense measures in a timely manner, it will increase the difficulty of its own cyber attack and reduce the damage, and even lead to the failure of the attack. Third, the controllability of deterrence scope needs further improvement. As one of the important weapons of cyber warfare, viral weapons have strong dissemination, poor controllability, and a wide range of influence. It is difficult to launch targeted and targeted attacks on enemy computers and networks. If it can’t control its effective scope, it will spread to third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim. As a result, the use of virus weapons suffers from the use of “imposed rats.” The fourth is the selective limitation of deterrence objects. Nuclear deterrence is clear and effective for any country, and the effectiveness of cyberspace deterrence has a lot to do with the level of informatization of enemy countries. Cyberspace deterrence is extremely effective for countries with a high degree of informatization, and for those underdeveloped countries with weak information infrastructure and weak network dependence, it is difficult for them to exert results, or even completely ineffective. Fifth, the organization of deterrence is relatively complicated. All nuclear powers in the world implement centralized and unified management of strategic nuclear forces. Command and control powers are highly centralized. When organizations implement nuclear deterrence operations, they can accurately control each combat unit, and the organization is well-executed. The implementation of the deterrence of cyberspace involves many forces such as investigation, control, defense, and control. It has many personnel and large scales and is scattered among different departments and units in the military and the military. It is very complicated to organize and it is difficult to form a synergy.

Second, the main types of cyberspace deterrence

The cyberspace deterrence includes four types: cyberspace technology test deterrence, cyberspace equipment demonstration deterrence, cyberspace operational deterrence deterrence, and cyberspace operational deterrence. Among them, the first three are demonstrative deterrence, and the latter is actual deterrence.

(A) Cyberspace Technology Test Deterrence

The cyberspace technology test deterrence is a field in the field of cyber warfare. It constantly conducts preliminary exploratory experiments on new concepts of warfare, new experiments on the effectiveness of attack mechanisms and tactics, and practical experiments on the weaponization of new technologies. The outside world is disclosed to demonstrate its strong strength in the basic research of information technology and its enormous potential for transforming it into a cyber warfare capability to achieve deterrence. At present, network offensive and defensive technology is still developing rapidly. A breakthrough in a key technology will often have a significant impact on cyberspace security and operations, and even lead to revolutionary changes. Whoever preempts the strategic commanding heights of the network offensive and defensive technology, who will be able to achieve a clear advantage in the future of network warfare.

(B) Cyberspace Equipment Demonstration

The demonstration of cyberspace equipment deterrence is the development of network warfare equipment development planning, technology development, target testing, stereotyped production and other development stages. According to the needs of the appropriate disclosure of network warfare equipment models, performance, characteristics, parameters and development schedule, etc. Reach the purpose of deterring opponents. There are two main ways: one is through public disclosure in official media such as national defense white papers, diplomatic bulletins, and newspapers, periodicals, and large-scale websites; and the other is through online social media or other unofficial. The channel has deliberately leaked equipment-related information and implemented hidden deterrence. The cyber space equipment demonstrates deterrence. On the one hand, it can invent new cyber-warfare equipment with new mechanisms and new concepts and render its unique combat capabilities. On the other hand, it can deliberately exaggerate the operational effectiveness of existing cyber warfare equipment. There are facts in the virtual reality, there is something in the real, and the implementation of fuzzy policies, so that the other party can not understand their true situation and strength, resulting in fear and jealousy. For example, the U.S. military’s “Shuute” on-board network power system has been put into practical use several times and poses a serious threat to the air defense systems of its hostile countries. However, its basic principles, working mechanisms, and combat technical indicators have not been publicly disclosed. It has not been completely mastered by other countries and has remained in a state of secrecy. It is difficult to distinguish between reality and reality and has played a very good deterrent effect.

(3) Deterrence in cyberspace operations exercises

The deterrence of cyberspace operations exercises is to conduct drills in cyberspace through virtual or virtual methods, and use various media channels to show potential war opponents their own cyber warfighting capabilities, strengths and determinations in order to achieve deterrence. Cyberspace operations can be divided into two kinds: actual drills and virtual exercises. The former is usually carried out nationwide or in alliance with allies, and is generally based on the joint exercise of military space and space defense operations. In recent years, the United States and its allies have held “Network Storm” series of cyber warfare exercises and “Shriver” series of space-network space exercises, which have demonstrated the mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of cyber warfare. Determination. The latter is usually held at the national large-scale network integrated shooting range, and is generally based on the offensive actions of the military professional cyber warfare forces.

(D) Deterrence in cyberspace operations

The deterrence of cyberspace operations is the actual deterrence of attacking specific opponents by deterring opponents with certain attacks. There are two opportunities for its use: First, when one’s own side is aware that the enemy is about to wage a war on one’s own side, one’s own choice of the key cyber targets of the enemy’s key defenses will be targeted to combat them, and preventive and deterrent deterrence will be implemented; When the Party initiates a tentative cyber attack on its own side and implements cyberspace deterrence, it must immediately conduct effective retaliatory and disciplinary deterrence. There are many types of cyber warfare operations that have deterrent effects. For example, infiltrate the enemy’s telecommunications network, send a large number of anti-war messages to the enemy’s citizens, and attack the enemy’s power grid, resulting in a short-term blackout of major cities in the enemy’s power; attacking the enemy’s broadcast television networks and inserting their own broadcasts during prime time. Special video programs; etc.

Third, the use of cyberspace deterrence points

The general requirements for the use of cyberspace deterrence are: combination of wartime and warfare, with strength, actual display capability, and determination, strive to demonstrate deterrence with small battles, ensure deterrence with strikes, and achieve deterrence with a small price. Specifically, the following points should be achieved.

(A) Combination of peacetime and long-term preparation

“Frozen feet, not a cold day.” Successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence requires a combination of peacetime and warfare, and we must fully and carefully prepare for peacetime. The first is to conduct comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires the combination of spying, reconnaissance and technical reconnaissance, wireless reconnaissance, and cable reconnaissance. Conduct long-term and continuous network reconnaissance of enemy network targets, gradually understand the basic conditions of the enemy’s network, draw a picture of its network topology, and in particular analyze and find all kinds of soft enemies. Hardware system vulnerabilities. The second is to conduct a large number of effective strategic presets. Using hacking methods, secretive infiltrate all types of networks through the use of system vulnerabilities or password cracking, leaving the back door, setting up a springboard machine, and laying down logic bombs and Trojans to set a breakthrough for launching cyber attacks in the future. The third is to conduct pre-prepared cyber defenses. When deterring cyberspace deterrence against the enemy, one must adjust the deployment of network defenses in advance, make the enemy’s pre-designed attack path, anticipate the use of system loopholes, and plan to implement an attack plan that is difficult to implement, or the effect of implementation is greatly reduced to minimize the enemy’s Losses caused by cyber retaliation.

(B) careful decision-making, control strength

Sun Tzu said: “The Lord must not anger and raise a teacher. Cyberspace deterrence is a strategic game behavior between countries, especially with deterrence and sensitivity. It must be rational, beneficial, and tangible. It must not be abused because of the low threshold of deterrence. Otherwise, its effect may be counter-productive. . Cyberspace deterrence has a high requirement for combat intensity control. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, the enemy’s government and people will not have fear and will not achieve the deterrent effect they deserve. The other party may also use the same methods to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontational escalation and deterring one’s own deterrence. On the other hand, if it is too strong, it will cause huge economic losses and casualties to the enemy countries. This will cause the condemnation of the international community and the hatred of the enemy governments and people. It may trigger the enemy’s use of conventional forces to carry out large-scale revenge. Nuclear countries may even Nuclear power may be used. This will not only stop the war but will also play a role in warfare.

(III) Unified command and careful organization

The implementation of the deterrence of cyberspace requires centralized command, unified planning, and good coordination. The first is meticulous organization of strength. Uniformly organize the four forces of military investigation, attack, defense, and control, and actively coordinate the strength of the cyber warfare forces of all parties to form a joint force. In particular, it is necessary to organize and coordinate the strength of civil non-professional cyber warfare, especially patriotic hacking, so that there can be no phenomenon of “blindness” so as to avoid triggering friction, escalating fire, causing an escalation of cyber warfare, or prematurely exposing attack intentions and giving people a handle. , leading to uncontrollable situations or failure of operations. The second is to select the target. Should choose a wide range of influence, easy to produce a clear deterrent effect of the goal. For example, broadcast television channels with the highest ratings, portals with a large number of visitors, and wireless communication networks with numerous users. It is not possible to choose attacks that are irrelevant, insignificant, and indifferent to the target. They can easily be mistaken for cybersecurity incidents created by ordinary hackers and do not achieve the desired deterrent effect. In addition, we must also consider the constraints of international law and war laws. We must not choose targets that are easy to cause humanitarian disasters. We should try our best not to select the network goals of railways, aviation, finance, and medical departments so as not to arouse condemnation and resentment from the international community and the people of the other side. The third is the precise control of the process. Prior to the deterrent strikes in cyberspace, it is necessary to publicize the momentum through extensive public opinion, issue warnings to the enemy countries, and declare the justice of their actions to the world in order to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. In order to highlight the deterrent effect, one can highly announce the target of the enemy’s network to be attacked, break through the enemy’s layered network defenses, and implement a resolute and effective cyber attack. If necessary, the network attack effect can be resumed regularly to show its superiority. The cyber attack technology and means make the enemy’s decision makers and the public have a sense of frustration that is hard to defend and difficult to parry, thus forming a strong shock effect.

(4) Combining actual situation with actual situation, focusing on strategy

The grandson said that “it is not possible to show and not to use it,” and it is used to deter online space. Its main points are summarized as “showing without propaganda, advocating without showing.” “Indicating nothing” means that it is difficult to track and locate using cyber attacks and conduct cyber attacks on specific targets. However, it is not done for others to announce that they are doing their own thing. It not only demonstrates their own capabilities, but also makes the enemy’s suspicion of doing their own thing. However, there is no evidence and it cannot be pursued. “Proclaiming but not showing” is the publicity or inadvertent disclosure of the type, performance, and characteristics of the advanced cyber warfare equipment developed or fabricated by the company, deliberately exaggerating its combat effectiveness, falsifying facts, and integrating facts and facts, so that the enemy can’t understand its true strength. , resulting in a deterrent effect. The cyber warfare operations have the characteristics of difficulty in tracking and traceability and complexity in forensics. The initiating party can either admit or deny it, or push the responsibility to civil hacker organizations. (Source: China Information Security).

Original Communist Mandarin Chinese:

編者按:當敵對雙方都具有確保侵入破壞對方網絡的能力時,就可以帶來雙向網絡遏制,使得雙方不得不在一定條件下,遵守互不攻擊對方網絡的遊戲規則,形成一個無形的安全閥,甚至國際上也會形成互不攻擊對方網絡的慣例協議或公約,網絡空間由此成為可以產生巨大威懾效應的戰略領域。網絡空間威懾繼核威懾之後,開始進入大國政治家和軍事家的戰略視野。研究網絡空間威懾的特徵、類型和運用要點,成為網絡強國、網絡強軍的必須考量和必要行動。

隨著人類社會對網絡空間依賴程度的不斷加深,網絡空間成為人類生產生活的“第二類生存空間”和軍事對抗的“第五維作戰空間”。世界各國圍繞網絡空間的主導權、控制權、話語權展開了激烈的爭奪,網絡空間的競爭已達到與人類生存、國家命運和軍事鬥爭成敗休戚相關的程度。思考網絡空間威懾能力建設,具有重大現實和理論價值。

一、網絡空間威懾的優劣分析

網絡空間威懾,是指在網絡空間採取各種行動,展示癱瘓控制敵方網絡空間,並通過網絡空間跨域控制敵方實體空間的決心和實力,從而達到懾敵、止敵、阻敵、遏敵目的的一種戰略威懾形式。網絡空間與實體空間相比所具有的“虛實二相性”,網絡戰與傳統作戰樣式相比所具有的獨特性,決定了網絡空間威懾的優缺點都非常明顯。

(一)網絡空間威懾的優點

網絡空間威懾的優點,主要體現在:一是威懾方式更趨文明和人道。與基於物理、生物、化學殺傷機理的核生化武器相比,網絡戰武器的直接殺傷和破壞效應要遠小於前者,通常不會對自然環境造成永久性破壞和污染,也不會造成大量的人員傷亡,並引發人道主義災難。二是威懾成本低效費比高。網絡戰武器以病毒、木馬等軟件為主,成本相對低廉,技術門檻較低,而造成的破壞效果卻相當驚人。網絡防禦點多面廣,防不勝防,要網絡安全程度每提高一個等級,投入成本會呈指數級增加。網絡進攻的低成本與網絡防禦的高成本對比鮮明,使得網絡攻防呈現“矛尖盾薄”的特點,網絡戰武器因而被稱為“窮國的原子彈”。三是威懾手段多樣實用性強。網絡戰武器多種多樣,網絡攻擊目標多元,決定了有多樣化的網絡空間威懾手段可供選擇。網絡攻擊效果在一定程度上是可恢復的,只要運用實施得當,引發戰爭和促使戰爭升級的風險相對較小。從某種意義上講,核武器的威懾價值遠大於實戰價值,而網絡戰武器則是實戰價值與威懾價值兼具。四是威懾運用可重複靈活性強。 “核門檻”一旦跨過就會爆發全面核戰爭,處於核均勢的雙方將陷入相互摧毀狀態,輕易實施核威懾特別是對無核國家進行核威懾,還會招致國際輿論的譴責,這些因素都極大地限制了核威懾手段的使用。而網絡空間威懾軟硬結合、威力可控的特點,決定了其可根據軍事鬥爭形勢的變化和需要,適時調控威懾強度,先期使用、全程使用、反複使用,具有很強的靈活性。

(二)網絡空間威懾的不足

網絡空間威懾的不足,主要體現在:一是威懾效果的可信性未得到充分驗證。核威懾的可信度已在實戰中得到了驗證。然而,截止目前,真正意義上的網絡大戰還沒有真正爆發過。人們對網絡戰驚人的破壞力,更多的只是一種猜測和擔憂,網絡戰的真實威力只有經過實戰檢驗後,才能真正令人信服。二是威懾手段的可靠性不太高。網絡戰是敵我雙方網絡攻防持續互動的動態過程,網絡對抗複雜、技術性強的特點,決定了網絡戰攻擊效果具有較大的不確定性,有可能達不到預期作戰目的,使威懾效果大打折扣。例如,對敵實施網絡空間實戰威懾時,敵方若及時採取各種有效防御手段,就會增加己方網絡攻擊的難度和降低破壞效果,甚至導致攻擊行動的失敗。三是威懾範圍的可控性需進一步改善。病毒武器作為網絡戰的重要武器之一,其傳播性強、可控性較差、影響範圍比較廣,很難針對敵國計算機和網絡發動專門性、針對性極強的攻擊。如果不能控制其有效作用範圍,就會波及第三方中立國家,甚至使自身也成為受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威懾對象的可選擇性受限。核威懾對任何國家都是明確而有效的,而網絡空間威懾的效果與敵國的信息化程度有很大關係。網絡空間威懾對信息化程度高的國家極為有效,而對那些信息基礎設施薄弱,網絡依賴性不強的不發達國家,則很難發揮效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威懾實施的組織相對複雜。世界各個核國家無不對戰略核力量實施集中統管,指揮控制權高度集中,組織實施核威懾行動時可以準確控製到每一個作戰單元,組織實施十分周密。而網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要涉及偵、控、防、控等多支力量,人員多、規模大,且分散在軍地不同部門和單位,組織起來非常複雜,形成合力不易。

二、網絡空間威懾的主要類型

網絡空間威懾主要有網絡空間技術試驗威懾、網絡空間裝備展示威懾、網絡空間作戰演習威懾和網絡空間作戰行動威懾四種類型。其中,前三種是示形威懾,後一種是實戰威懾。

(一)網絡空間技術試驗威懾

網絡空間技術試驗威懾,是在網絡戰領域,經常性地進行新作戰概念的先期探索性試驗、新攻擊機理和戰術的效果印證性試驗、新技術的實用化武器化試驗等,並通過媒體向外界披露,以展現本國雄厚的信息技術基礎研究實力,以及轉化為網絡戰能力的巨大潛力,以達到威懾對手的目的。當前,網絡攻防技術仍在快速發展,一項關鍵性技術的突破,往往會對網絡空間安全和作戰產生重大影響,甚至引發革命性變化。誰搶先佔領了網絡攻防技術的戰略制高點,誰就能在未來網絡戰中取得明顯優勢。

(二)網絡空間裝備展示威懾

網絡空間裝備展示威懾,是在網絡戰裝備發展規劃制定、技術開發、打靶試驗、定型生產等各個發展階段,根據需要適當披露網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點、參數以及研製進度等情況,以達到威懾對手的目的。其方式主要有兩種:一種是通過在國防白皮書、外交公報以及報紙、期刊、大型網站等權威媒體從官方渠道公開披露,實施顯性威懾;另一種是通過網絡社交媒體或其他非官方渠道,刻意洩露裝備相關情況,實施隱性威懾。網絡空間裝備展示威懾,一方面可以虛構新機理、新概念的新型網絡戰裝備,並渲染其獨特的作戰能力;另一方面可以刻意誇大已有網絡戰裝備的作戰效能。虛中有實、實中有虛,實施模糊政策,使對方摸不清己方真實情況和實力,產生恐懼和忌憚心理。例如,美軍的“舒特”機載網電一體攻擊系統已多次投入實戰使用,對其敵對國家的防空體系構成了嚴重威脅,但其基本原理、工作機制、戰技指標既沒有公開披露,也沒有被他國完全掌握破解,一直處於保密狀態,令人虛實難辨,起到了很好的威懾作用。

(三)網絡空間作戰演習威懾

網絡空間作戰演習威懾,是以實兵或虛擬的方式在網絡空間展開演習活動,並藉助各種媒體渠道,向潛在作戰對手展現本國網絡戰能力、實力與決心,以達到威懾對手的目的。網絡空間作戰演習可分為實兵演習和虛擬演習兩種。前者通常在全國范圍內或與盟國聯合進行,一般以演練軍地聯合網絡空間防禦行動為主。近幾年來,美國及盟國多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列網絡戰演習,以及“施里弗”系列太空-網絡空間演習,很好展現了網絡戰的動員實力、整體防禦水平,以及實施網絡戰的決心。後者通常在國家大型網絡綜合靶場舉行,一般以演練軍隊專業網絡戰力量的進攻行動為主。

(四)網絡空間作戰行動威懾

網絡空間作戰行動威懾,是指對特定的網絡目標實施攻擊,以確信的攻擊效果來威懾作戰對手的一種實戰性威懾。其運用的時機有兩個:一是當己方覺察敵方即將對己方發動戰爭時,己方選擇敵方重點防禦的關鍵性網絡目標進行針對性打擊,進行預防性、遏制性威懾;二是當敵方通過對己方發起試探性網絡攻擊,實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應立即進行有效的報復性、懲戒性威懾。具有威懾效果的網絡戰行動有多種。例如,對敵電信網滲透破壞,向敵國民眾手機大量發送宣傳反戰短信;對敵電力網進行攻擊,造成敵重要城市短時間的大面積停電;對敵廣播電視網進行攻擊,在黃金時段插播己方特製的視頻節目;等等。

三、網絡空間威懾的運用要點

網絡空間威懾總的運用要求是:懾戰結合,以實力、實戰展示能力和決心,力求以小戰體現威懾、以精打確保威懾,以較小的代價實現威懾目的。具體說來,應做到以下幾點。

(一)平戰結合,長期準備

“冰凍三尺,非一日之寒”。成功實施網絡空間威懾,需要平戰結合,在平時就要進行充分細緻的準備。一是要進行全面周密的網絡偵察。要求諜報偵察與技術偵察、無線偵察與有線偵察相結合,對敵網絡目標進行長期持續的網絡偵察,逐步摸清敵網絡基本情況,繪製其網絡拓撲結構圖,尤其是分析查找出敵各種軟硬件系統的漏洞。二是要進行大量有效的戰略預置。採用黑客手段,通過利用系統漏洞或口令破譯等辦法,秘密滲透進入敵各類網絡,留下後門,設置跳板機,埋設邏輯炸彈和木馬,為未來發動網絡攻擊預留突破口。三是進行預有準備的網絡防禦。在對敵實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應提前調整網絡防禦部署,使敵預先設計的攻擊路徑,預期利用的系統漏洞,預定執行的攻擊方案難以實施,或實施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敵網絡報復造成的損失。

(二)慎重決策,控制強度

孫子曰:“主不可以怒而興師,將不可以慍而致戰”。網絡空間威懾是國家之間的戰略博弈行為,尤其是實戰威懾,敏感性強,必須做到有理、有利、有節,決不能因為威懾“門檻”較低而濫用亂用,否則其效果可能會適得其反。網絡空間實戰威懾對作戰強度控制的要求很高。一方面,若強度太小,敵國政府和民眾不會產生畏懼心理,起不到應有的威懾效果,對方還可能採取同樣的手段實施反威懾,最終導致對抗升級,使己方威懾失效。另一方面,若強度過大,給敵國造成巨大的經濟損失和人員傷亡,引起國際社會的譴責和敵國政府、民眾的仇恨心理,就可能引發敵國運用常規力量進行大規模報復,有核國家甚至可能會動用核力量,這樣不但不能懾止戰爭,反而會起到戰爭導火索的作用。

(三)統一指揮,周密組織

網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要集中指揮,統一籌劃,搞好協同。一是精心組織力量。統一組織軍隊偵、攻、防、控四支力量,積極協調軍地各方網絡戰力量形成合力。尤其是要組織和協調好民間非專業網絡戰力量特別是愛國黑客,不能出現“盲動”現象,以免引發磨擦,擦槍走火,引起網絡戰的升級,或過早暴露攻擊意圖,授人以柄,導致局勢不可控或行動失敗。二是精當選擇目標。應選擇影響面廣,易產生明顯威懾效果的目標。例如,收視率排名靠前的廣播電視頻道、訪問量巨大的門戶網站、用戶眾多的無線通信網絡等。不能選擇無關痛癢、影響面小、民眾漠不關心的目標進行攻擊,易被誤認為是普通黑客製造的網絡安全事件,起不到應有的威懾效果。此外,還要考慮國際法和戰爭法約束,不能選擇易造成人道主義災難的目標,盡量不選取鐵路、航空、金融、醫療等部門的網絡目標,以免激起國際社會和對方民眾的譴責和反感。三是精確控制進程。實施網絡空間威懾性打擊之前,要通過廣泛的輿論宣傳造勢,向敵國發出打擊警告,並向全世界宣告己方行動的正義性,以爭取國際輿論的理解和支持。為突出威懾效果,己方可以高調宣布要攻擊的敵國網絡目標,再突破敵方層層網絡防禦,實施堅決有效的網絡攻擊,必要時最後還可對網絡攻擊效果進行定時恢復,以展現己方高超的網絡攻擊技術和手段,讓敵方決策者和民眾產生防不勝防、難以招架的心理挫折感,從而形成強烈的震懾效果。

(四)虛實結合,注重謀略

孫子所說的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,運用到網絡空間威懾,其要點概括起來就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。 “示而不宣”,就是利用網絡攻擊難以追踪定位這一點,對特定目標實施網絡攻擊,但不對外宣布是己方所為,既展示了己方能力,又使得敵方雖然懷疑是己方所為,但沒有證據,無法追究。 “宣而不示”,就是公開宣傳或不經意透露己方研製或虛構的先進網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點,刻意誇大其作戰效能,虛虛實實,虛實結合,使敵摸不清己方真實實力,從而產生威懾效果。網絡戰行動具有追踪溯源困難、取證複雜的特點,發起方既可以承認,也可以矢口否認,或把責任推給民間黑客組織。 (來源:中國信息安全)

Original URL:

Chinese Military Electromagnetic Spectrum Technology Determines the Future Development of Defeating the US at War

Chinese Military Electromagnetic Spectrum Technology Determines the Future Development of Defeating the US at War

For a long time, in order to solve the A2/AD dilemma and achieve a new offset strategy, the U.S. has launched combat operations such as open space/air-sea warfare, cyber-centric warfare, distributed killing, multi-domain warfare, and mixed warfare. With new ideas, we constantly seek military advantages such as missile offensive and defense, cyber-electromagnetics, and multi-domain space. Today, the electromagnetic spectrum war has become the new darling of leading a new round of military theory and technological innovation. Researching and analyzing the status quo and characteristics of the development of the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum combat has important practical significance for our military’s success in defeating the enemy in the information battlefield.

1  Development of Electromagnetic Spectrum Warfare

In 1956, Admiral Sergei Gorschkov, the former Soviet naval commander, pointed out: “Who controls the electromagnetic spectrum, who will win the next war.” Sixty years later, the electromagnetic spectrum has become one of the key battlefields of modern warfare. In order to compete for the advantages of the electromagnetic spectrum in the battlefield, the US military conducted in-depth explorations from combat theory to equipment technology and developed rapidly.

1.1 Evolution of theory

Electromagnetic spectrum control has a long history. In the early 1970s, Thomas H, chairman of the US Senate Association. Moorer said that the winner of World War III will be a party that can highly control and manage the electromagnetic spectrum. The United States “Old Ravens” Association first proposed the use of electromagnetic control (EMC) as the fourth component of the concept of electronic warfare. In 2009, Strategic Command launched the early concept of electromagnetic spectrum warfare (EMSW), and added tasks such as electromagnetic spectrum management (EMSM), electromagnetic spectrum control (EMSC), and electromagnetic battle control (EMBC) on the basis of electronic warfare [1]. In 2012, the Strategic Command established the Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Control Center (JEMSCC) to achieve full integration of electronic warfare and electromagnetic spectrum management, and each of the units also established corresponding organizational coordination agencies and detachments [2]. In the same year, the US Navy proposed the concept of Electromagnetic Maneuver Warfare (EMMW) [3], and in March 2015 released the “21st Century Maritime Force Cooperation Strategy,” which outlines the goals, components, technology projects, and implementation paths of the electromagnetic maneuver warfare [4]. In December 2015, Terry Halvorsen, chief information officer of the US Department of Defense, pointed out that the electromagnetic spectrum is expected to be considered as the sixth battlefield following land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace [5]; in the same month, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments Defining Electromagnetic Waves: Regaining U.S. Dominance in the Electromagnetic Spectrum Field[6] The report proposes the concept of “low-zero-power” electromagnetic spectrum warfare, expounding concept ideas, trend features, capabilities and technical requirements and current obstacles, and presenting views, concepts, Procurement, technical, verification, etc. At the end of November 2016, the 53rd International Conference of the “Old Ravens” Association of the United States took the theme “Global Vision of Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” as the theme to demonstrate the new concepts and technical achievements of electronic warfare, spectrum sensing and conflict resolution, and explored the electromagnetic spectrum operational environment. Policy regulations, equipment procurement, joint training and combat capabilities, etc. [7]. In January 2017, the new Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter signed the first “Electronic Warfare Strategy” document, officially establishing the electromagnetic spectrum as an independent operational domain and elaborating on how to conduct operations [8].

1.2 Policies and Orders

Strategic policies and military doctrines reflect the development of the US military’s combat theory. From 2006 to 2014, the US Department of Defense updated the “Electromagnetic Spectrum Strategy” to focus on advancing strategic objectives such as development of spectrum equipment, flexibility of spectrum operations, spectrum management, and improvement of policy response capabilities [9]; Strategic Command released in August 2010. Winning the 21st Century Economic and Security Advantage: Strategic Framework for Electromagnetic Spectrum Control, building an electromagnetic spectrum control system architecture from multiple perspectives including objectives, requirements, strategic development, etc. [10]; the Joint Venture Association has promulgated JP6-01 “Joint” in March 2012. “Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Action” joint publication [11], signed in December 2012 CJCSM3320.01C “Chairman’s Handbook of Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations in Electromagnetic Operation Environment” [12], issued CJCSI3320.01D “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum” in January 2013 Operational Instructions [13] and CJCSM 3320.04 “Electronic Warfare Supporting Combined Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” Manual [14]. In March 2015, the “Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Joint Concept” document [15] was signed, which systematically stated that the Joint Forces launched electromagnetic spectrum combat operations. Strategic vision, organizational structure and functions, command and management relationships, plan formulation and operational implementation, operational integration and action synergy, and gradually Tactical, technical, and program (TTP) refinement of control, interference cancellation, spectrum management, and electronic warfare reprogramming, etc.; US Army released TRADOC P525-7-16, “The US Army’s Future Modular Force Conceptual Capability in December 2007 Plan 2015-2024 – Electromagnetic Spectrum Operation Manual [16]. Field regulations FM6-02.70 “Army Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” [17] were issued in May 2010. Field Manual FM3-38 “Network Electromagnetic Actions” was issued in January 2014. [18] Published in December 2015, ATP6-02. 70 “Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Combat Operations Skills” [19], updated in February 2016 AR525-15 “Network Reconfiguration of Electromagnetic Action Software” provisions [20], US Air Force updated 2017 AFI10-703 “electronic warfare integrated reprogramming” instructions [21] Define the concept of electromagnetic spectrum operations under the guidance of joint directives, and elaborate on issues such as organization and responsibilities, operational architecture, plan development and coordination control, task list and decision process, action team and management tools, and DOTMLPF, and promote electromagnetics. The integration of spectrum operations, electronic warfare, and cyberspace warfare. In addition, Kevin D, head of the United States Joint Force Development Department. In October 2016, Scott signed the JDN3-16 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operation” bulletin[22], standardized terminology and operational framework standards, and made a procedural description of the functional roles, organization, planning, operational implementation, and evaluation. It was awarded the Joint Spectrum Interference Cancellation Program CJCSM3320.02D signed in January and March 2013 by the Joint Committee, CJCSI3320.02F Joint Spectrum Interference Cancellation, and CJCSI3320.02E-1 Joint Spectrum Interference in February 2014. The three major regulations [23][24][25] to eliminate the confidentiality of the program were the important operational support and became the latest guidance for the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum warfare.

1.3 Equipment and Technology

Military technology leads and supports advanced operational concepts. To transform the concept of electromagnetic spectrum warfare from concept to capability, the U.S. military is striving to develop technological innovation and equipment development, and to develop new systems featuring networking, dexterity, multifunction, miniaturization, and adaptability.

On the spectrum management and control system[19][26], the US Department of Defense has developed and deployed the Allied Nations Joint Spectrum Management Planning Tool (CJSMPT) and the Global Electromagnetic Spectrum Information System (GEMSIS) since 2005, followed by the Spectrum XXI and the Modified Spectrum XXIO, Spectrum. Perception Management and Planning System (SSC-SSMPS), Spectrum Situational Sensing System (S2AS), Maritime Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Action Project (AESOP), Joint Automatic Communication Electronic Action Instruction System (JACS), Host Country Global Online Spectrum Database, etc., with real-time spectrum Measurement and online analysis, spectrum planning and deduction and frequency allocation, electromagnetic interference analysis and conflict elimination, electromagnetic warfare environment modeling simulation, electromagnetic situation sharing and frequency efficiency evaluation, spectrum resource access and database functions and capabilities.

In combat equipment and technology projects [3][26][27], in 2011, the DARPA began to initiate behavioral learning adaptive electronic warfare (BLADE), adaptive radar confrontation (ARC), extreme radio frequency spectrum CommEx, Active Electronic Scan Array (AESA) technology, Near Zero-Power Radio Frequency and Sensor Operation (N-ZERO), under the conditions of the project, through the development of new technologies such as real-time evaluation of countermeasures, autonomous generation of measures, immediate feedback of effects, etc. Unknown waveform and behavioral electromagnetic spectrum threats Real-time tactical confrontation new capabilities; In 2010, the Air Force launched a Cognitive Jammer and HiPERDAC project based on Networked Software Defined Architecture (SDA) and passive RF PRIDE, SWEATER, and CHAMP (Eliminate High-Power Microwave Advanced Missiles) to develop active and passive target threat automatic recognition, real-time assessment and adaptive confrontation technologies and capabilities The US Navy conducts a maritime electronic warfare improvement (SEWIP-Block I/II/III) SLQ-32 shipboard electronic warfare system and ship signalling Equipment (SSEE), electromagnetic command and control (EMC2), integrated mast (InTop) shipborne antenna, next-generation jamming machine (NGJ) and other projects to improve real-time threat assessment and situational awareness, mission program modeling simulation, automatic distribution of electromagnetic spectrum , Combat Operations Analysis and other capabilities; the US Army launched the Electronic Warfare Planning and Management Tool (EWPMT) and Multi-Functional Electronic Warfare (MFEW), Defensive Electronic Assault (DEA) and Silencer Electronics scheduled for September 2016 Warfare and other systems enhance the electronic support for the perception of radio signals and the ability to send electronic signals that interfere with or deceive signals. Earlier this year, the Strategic Command Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC) initiated research on new technologies that provide improved electromagnetic battle management capabilities for electromagnetic spectrum situational awareness and command and control, and plans to implement real-time strategy-based spectrum control and advanced electromagnetic battle sequences (EOB) within five years. ) Characterization and action plan modeling, simulation, analysis, and other capabilities and achieve 7-8 level of technology maturity [28]. Driven by cognitive EW and artificial intelligence technologies, DARPA launched the Radio Frequency Machine Learning System (RFMLS) and Spectrum Joint Challenge Program on August 11, 2017 to develop automatic identification and characterization of target signals from a large number of complex spectrum signals. New technology [29].

2  Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Theory

The electromagnetic spectrum warfare is the latest theory of information warfare of the US military in the 21st century. As research and understanding continue to deepen, the U.S. military will gradually place new strategic ideas as tactics and tactical measures. In order to unify the battlefield electromagnetic spectrum utilization and control actions, the U.S. military issued a series of directives, regulations, regulations, and other documents to publish a summary of the JDN3-16 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operation” regulations, and standardized the operational concept, mission category, organization, and combat planning and implementation. Evaluation and so on.

2.1 Basic concepts

Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations (EMSO) is the conceptual starting point for the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum warfare theory. It is based on electronic warfare and spectrum management and is based on joint electromagnetic spectrum operations. The goal is to achieve electromagnetic spectrum advantages in electromagnetic operating environment (EMOE), involving spectrum management operations, joint electromagnetic spectrum operations (JEMSO) and joint electromagnetic spectrum. Management actions and other concepts. According to the US military regulations JP1-02 “Defense Ministry Military Terms Glossary” [30], JP6-01 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Action”, JDN3-16 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” and ATP6-02.70 “Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Combat Operations Skills” , United electromagnetic spectrum operations are coordinated military operations carried out by two or more units for use, attacks, protection and management of operational electromagnetic environment. The electromagnetic spectrum management action refers to the interaction between the spectrum management, frequency allocation, host country coordination, policy compliance, and conflict resolution in the entire phase of military operations to jointly promote the planning, management, and implementation of operations within the electromagnetic operations environment. The relationship between various concepts and categories is shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 1 Diagram of related concepts of electromagnetic spectrum operations [19]

2.2 Task Domain Positioning

The U.S. military believes that the joint electromagnetic spectrum combat mission domain is composed of four-dimensional missions of electromagnetic spectrum utilization, management, attack, and protection. Among them, missions include signal intelligence gathering, distribution, and electronic warfare support. Management tasks include electromagnetic spectrum management and electromagnetic battle management. Missions have electronic attacks and navigation warfare, protection tasks have electronic protection and joint spectrum interference cancellation. The operational concept aims to operationally integrate the electromagnetic spectrum operations of the joint forces in the electromagnetic operating environment, establish key priorities, organize action coordination, and eliminate conflicts. Through the full integration of electromagnetic maneuvering schemes, strength and action to strengthen coordination and unification, the electromagnetic spectrum of the battlefield is realized. control. It plays a key role in the formation of joint operational capability in all operational areas, and has a profound impact on the joint forces’ command and control, intelligence, firepower strikes, adjustment and mobility, protection, and maintenance of operational capabilities.

2.3 Organizational Framework

The organization of the joint electromagnetic spectrum operations is responsible for the formulation and publication of policy directives and operational guidelines for commanders and commanders, and for combat planning, operational implementation, coordination of operations, and operational evaluation. The person in charge of electromagnetic spectrum control assigned by the Joint Force Commander shall assume the overall responsibility for the joint electromagnetic spectrum operations. The Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Unit (JEMSOC) is the chief staff of the Joint Force, and the person in charge of electromagnetic spectrum control assigns a supervisor to direct the command. Each service set up an electromagnetic spectrum operations division, each of which administers an electromagnetic spectrum operational unit, and assumes the functions of integrated network operations, electronic warfare, and spectrum management operations. They are the Army’s electronic warfare officer’s network of electromagnetic action units and the Navy’s maritime operations. The operational center electromagnetic spectrum operational unit, the Air Force air operations center electronic warfare coordination unit, the Marine Corps Combat Development and Integration Command’s cyberspace and electronic warfare coordination unit, and the Multinational Force Joint Staff Operations Department’s contracted electronic warfare coordination unit. The Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Organization of the Joint Force is shown in Figure 2. The joint electromagnetic spectrum combat unit architecture is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2 Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Organization

Figure 3 Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Unit Architecture

2.4 Combat Planning Process

Joint electromagnetic spectrum combat planning is jointly completed by all levels of joint electromagnetic spectrum combat units. During task analysis, the combat plan development team develops a staff assessment plan to determine the electromagnetic spectrum support degree in the formulation and analysis of the action plan as a strategic basis for achieving the advantages of the electromagnetic spectrum; after the action plan is selected, joint electromagnetics are developed. The spectrum operations appendix describes mission tasks, priorities, policy strategies, process steps, and implementation procedures for the entire operational phase, establishing coordination measures, specific procedures, and engagement rules for the use of electromagnetic battle management and control systems in the joint operations domain; The Ministry submits its own electromagnetic spectrum operations plan and integrates it into this appendix. During the planning and implementation of the plan, the Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Unit strengthens the electromagnetic spectrum operations plans of each division and participates in the development of various divisions, establishment of priorities, establishment of operational integration and operational coordination, and the creation of an electromagnetic spectrum control plan. Then, the updated electromagnetic spectrum control plan is adjusted to start the joint electromagnetic spectrum combat implementation cycle to generate an electromagnetic spectrum control sequence that guides the use of the electromagnetic spectrum of the joint force. The combat planning process is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Combat Plan Development Process

2.5 Operational methods

The joint electromagnetic spectrum operations implementation process is a continuous cycle of planning, implementation and evaluation. The united electromagnetic spectrum combat unit completes the formulation of the electromagnetic spectrum control plan and the electromagnetic spectrum control sequence, and establishes the combat cycle for combat operations. After the approval of the person in charge of electromagnetic spectrum control, it publishes and organizes the implementation to each branch’s combat unit and unit. The electromagnetic spectrum combat unit fully participates in the key combat flow of the joint force and adjusts the update plan and sequence in time according to the user needs of the subunits and the electromagnetic spectrum of the battlefield during the operation period to ensure that each electromagnetic spectrum control sequence is effectively generated and efficiently Released and executed. The basic processes are: Formulation and release of control plans, update of control plans for each division, preparation of operational plans, generation and distribution of control sequences, execution and adjustment of operational implementation plans and control sequences, and monitoring and guidance of operational processes. The operational implementation cycle is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Implementation Cycle

3  Electromagnetic Spectrum Combat Development Characteristics

New military capabilities cannot be separated from the new system. As an operational concept that responds to new military challenges in the era of information networks, big data, and artificial intelligence, electromagnetic spectrum warfare has become a new direction for the development of the combat effectiveness of the US military. In order to deepen understanding and be efficient and practical, the U.S. military has pushed the new concept to the battlefield from many dimensions, including the development of policy directives, organization and force adjustment, equipment systems and new technology research and development.

3.1 Reinforce basic concepts and theoretical understanding based on policy directives, promote operational concepts and implement operations

Thought leads action. The U.S. military is good at innovative operational concepts and the concept of electromagnetic spectrum warfare is no exception. The first is to focus on clarifying the concept core and uniting the concept. During the early years of the development of the electromagnetic spectrum warfare, new concepts for the new combat domain were always being demonstrated. The military led high-level forums such as the “Old Ravens” and other professional military and military forums to analyze the related theories involved in the concept, exchange technology development and application methods, and promote deeper understanding. At the same time, in the strategic documents and top-level regulations, the relevant old and new policies were gradually sorted out. The links and distinctions between concepts, and the analysis of their categories and task areas, are increasingly contributing to the clear definition of concepts and the formation of theoretical systems. The second is to use operations on the battlefield, and refine the rules step by step. The U.S. military has always attached importance to the concept of combat to the implementation of warfare and technical measures. It took only about three years from the conception of the electromagnetic spectrum to the entry directives and from the joint directive to the arms and military operational manuals and the TTP. The US Army even established a concept blueprint for the use of battlefields before the Joint Staff. Joint operational and operational guidance for systemic operations at the level of the joint level to the unit level.

3.2 Establish an efficient and integrated force structure based on intrinsic power, and strive to use the full cycle of coordination and order in the battlefield

The troops are the carrier of operations. The U.S. military attaches great importance to the optimization and integration of new concept combat forces and existing capabilities. The first is to focus on the overall planning of the capability system. The trajectory of the capabilities of the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum warfare and cyberspace operations is similar. From the Joint Staff Headquarters, the Joint Forces Command to the military arms, set up combat seats and corresponding implementation teams, and establish a full-flow operation mechanism for operational planning, accusation, implementation, and evaluation to form an efficient and smooth capability integration system. The second is to emphasize the coordination and integration of existing institutions and new forces. Through the clarification of the responsibilities and interrelationships of institutions and forces involved in new capabilities in a timely manner, action-oriented operational procedures and implementation procedures are formulated, and even the relevant regulatory templates for coordination activities are promoted to facilitate the whole-system action coordination of electromagnetic spectrum operations and other mission domains. Orderly. The third is relying on actual drills to verify their capabilities in a timely manner. Based on the new concepts of combat and capability goals, the practice of offensive and defensive battles in the field of electromagnetic spectrum is rapidly promoted, and corrections are made during operational trials. The U.S. Army formed an independent electromagnetic spectrum warfare unit of the 1st battlefield network warfare group from February to May last year and plans to participate in an exercise organized by a regional battle commander at the end of the year [31]; the U.S. Air Force is in the “battle shield” exercise. In response to the “Spectrum Interference Elimination Project”, radar EW system evaluation [5] was implemented.

3.3 Promote the pre-research of the new concept equipment system with the support of scientific and technological strength, transform the high technology into the advantage of combat effectiveness

Strong army must have weapon. High-tech equipment is an important way to give birth to newcomer warfare capabilities. The first is to excavate new battlefield changes and assess new demands. The US Department of Defense’s “Electromagnetic Spectrum Strategy” in 2014 pointed out that it is necessary to quantify spectrum requirements and develop the equipment and technologies needed for the electromagnetic environment to enhance real-time spectrum operation and electromagnetic spectrum system real-time identification, prediction and interference cancellation capabilities [9]. From the bottom up to the top, the U.S. military has established a demand collection and integration mechanism for the deployment and deployment of equipment systems and applications. It collects and sorts regularly and conducts special investigations and demonstrations with the aid of the government audit department, Rand Corporation, and a special panel of institutes. The analysis results can be Directly providing decision support for the Ministry of Defense and the Joint Staff Association, it forms an unobstructed demand management evaluation system, and injects activators for the development of electromagnetic spectrum warfare equipment and the development of new combat capabilities. The second is to pay attention to the integration of pre-research technology to equipment system applications. The U.S. military equipment system development will be based on national defense information architecture standards. It will have system processes and capabilities such as simulation modeling, pre-research, technology integration, and application verification. It will focus on the simultaneous improvement of existing models and the development of new research and development of smart technology and equipment systems. “Determining Electromagnetic Waves” pointed out that the important features of the electromagnetic spectrum warfare in the new phase are passive sensor applications and the use of “low-zero-power” capabilities to counteract the enemy’s anti-electromagnetic confrontation, and intelligent technologies and equipment are the future dominant [6]. The pre-research and integration of electromagnetic spectrum warfare technology and equipment will also be able to achieve a more optimal way to upgrade military capabilities to technological capabilities, integrate cutting-edge technologies with mature methods, and integrate specialized systems into integrated platforms, thus achieving a seamless leap in combat effectiveness.

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

电磁频谱技术决定未来战争赢家 美军发展现状需警惕

 

長期以來,為破解反進入/區域拒止(A2 / AD)困局,達成新的抵消戰略,美軍先後推出空地/空海一體戰,網絡中心戰,分佈式殺傷,多域戰和混合戰爭等作戰新思想,不斷謀求導彈攻防,網絡電磁和多域空間等軍事優勢。如今,電磁頻譜戰成為引領新一輪軍事理論和技術創新的新寵。研究和剖析美軍電磁頻譜作戰發展現狀與特點,對於我軍在信息戰場禦敵制勝具有重要現實意義。

1電磁頻譜戰發展現狀

1956年,前蘇聯海軍司令Sergei Gorschkov上將指出:“誰控制了電磁頻譜,誰將贏得下一場戰爭”。六十年後,電磁頻譜成為現代戰爭的關鍵作戰域之一。為爭奪戰場電磁頻譜優勢,美軍從作戰理論到裝備技術進行深入探索,發展迅猛。

1.1理論發展沿革

電磁頻譜控制由來已久。上世紀70年代初,美參聯會主席Thomas H. Moorer稱,第三次世界大戰的勝利者將是能高度控制和管理電磁頻譜的一方。美國“老鴇鴉”協會最早提出將電磁控制(EMC)作為電子戰概念的第四組成部分。2009年,戰略司令部推出電磁頻譜戰(EMSW)早期概念,在電子戰基礎上增加電磁頻譜管理(EMSM),電磁頻譜控制(EMSC),電磁戰鬥控制(EMBC)等任務內容[1]。2012年,戰略司令部建立聯合電磁頻譜控制中心(JEMSCC),旨在實現電子戰和電磁頻譜管理全面集成,各部隊也分別建立相應的組織協調機構和分隊[2]。美海軍同年提出電磁機動戰(EMMW)概念[3],並在2015年3月發布“21世紀海上力量合作戰略”,概要闡述了電磁機動戰目標,構成,技術項目和實現路徑[4]。2015年12月,美國防部首席信息官TerryHalvorsen指出,電磁頻譜有望被視作繼,海,空,天,賽博空間之後第六作戰域[5];同月,戰略與預算評估中心在“決勝電磁波:重拾美國電磁頻譜領域主宰地位”[6]報告中提出“低 – 零功率“電磁頻譜戰概念,闡述了概念思想,趨勢特點,能力和技術需求及當前障礙並提出視圖,概念,採辦,技術,驗證等方面建議。2016年11月底,美國”老鴇鴉“協會第53屆國際研討會以“電磁頻譜作戰全球視野”為主題,展示電子戰,頻譜感知與衝突消除的新概念與技術成果,探討電磁頻譜作戰環境,政策條令,裝備採辦,聯合訓練與作戰能力等[ 7]。2017年1月新任國防部長Ashton Carter簽署首部“電子戰戰略”文件,正式確立電磁頻譜為獨立作戰域並闡述如何實施作戰[8]。

1.2政策與條令

戰略政策與軍事條令集中體現美軍作戰理論發展。美國防部2006年至2014年多版更新“電磁頻譜戰略”,聚焦推進頻譜裝備發展,頻譜行動靈活性,頻譜管理和政策響應能力提升等戰略目標[ 9];戰略司令部2010年8月發布“贏得21世紀經濟與安全優勢:電磁頻譜控制戰略框架”,從目標,需求,戰略開發等多角度構建電磁頻譜控制體系架構[10];參聯會先後於2012年3月頒布JP6-01“聯合電磁頻譜管理行動”聯合出版物[11],2012年12月簽頒CJCSM3320.01C“電磁作戰環境中聯合電磁頻譜管理行動”主席手冊[12], 2013年1月簽發CJCSI3320.01D“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”指示[13]和CJCSM3320.04“電子戰支援聯合電磁頻譜作戰”手冊[14],2015年3月簽署“電磁頻譜作戰聯合概念”文件[ 15,系統闡明聯合部隊開展電磁頻譜作戰行動的戰略願景,組織機構與職能,指揮與管理關係,計劃制定與作實施,作戰集成與行動協同等內容,並逐步向電磁控制,干擾消除,頻譜管理和電子戰重編程等操作層的戰術,技術與程序(TTP)細化;美陸軍於2007年12月發布TRADOC P525-7-16“美陸軍未來模塊化部隊概念能力計劃2015-2024–電磁頻譜作戰”手冊[16],2010年5月頒布野戰條令FM6-02.70“陸軍電磁頻譜作戰”[17],2014年1月頒布野戰手冊FM3-38“網絡電磁行動”[18],2015年12月發布出版物ATP6-02.70“電磁頻譜管理作戰行動技能”[19],2016年2月更新AR525-15“網絡電磁行動軟件重編程“規定[20],美空軍2017年更新AFI10-703”電子戰集成重編程“指示[21],在聯合條令指導下界定電磁頻譜作戰概念範疇,深度闡述機構與職責,作戰架構,計劃制定與協調控制,任務清單與決策流程,行動分隊與管理工具及DOTMLPF等問題,並促進電磁頻譜作戰,電子戰與網絡空間戰的融合。此外,美聯合部隊開發部主管Kevin D. Scott於2016年10月簽署JDN3-16“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”條令紀要[22],規範了術語和作戰框架標準,對職能角色,組織機構,計劃制定,作戰實施和評估作了程序性描述,它以參聯會2013年1月和3月簽頒的CJCSM3320.02D“聯合頻譜干擾消除程序”,CJCSI3320.02F“聯合頻譜干擾消除”和2014年2月的CJCSI3320.02E-1“聯合頻譜干擾消除程序保密增本”三大條令[23] [24] [25]為重要操作支撐,成為美軍電磁頻譜戰最新指導。

1.3裝備與技術

軍事技術引領和支撐先進作戰理念。為將電磁頻譜戰從概念轉化為能力,美軍極力開展技術創新和裝備研發,發展具有網絡化,靈巧化,多功能,小型化和自適應等特徵的新系統。

在頻譜管控系統上[19] [26],美國防部自2005年開發部署同盟國聯合頻譜管理規劃工具(CJSMPT)與全球電磁頻譜信息系統(GEMSIS),隨後的頻譜XXI與改進型頻譜XXIO,頻譜感知管理與規劃系統(SSC-SSMPS),頻譜態勢感知系統(S2AS),海上電磁頻譜作戰行動項目(伊索),聯合自動通信電子行動指令系統(JACS),東道國全球在線頻譜數據庫等,具備實時頻譜測量與在線分析,頻譜籌劃推演與頻率分配,電磁干擾分析與衝突消除,電磁作戰環境建模仿真,電磁態勢共享與用頻效能評估,頻譜資源接入與數據庫等功能與能力。

在作戰裝備與技術項目上[3] [26] [27],2011年,預先研究計劃局(DARPA)開始啟動行為學習自適應電子戰(刀片),自適應雷達對抗(ARC),極端射頻頻譜條件下通信(CommEx),主動電子掃描陣列(AESA)技術,近零功耗射頻和傳感器運行(N-ZERO)等項目,通過對抗行為實時評估,措施自主生成,效果即時反饋等新技術開發針對未知波形和行為的電磁頻譜威脅實時戰術對抗新能力; 2010年,空軍啟動基於網絡化軟件定義架構(SDA)的認知干擾機與大功率高效射頻數模轉換器(HiPERDAC)項目以及無源射頻識別環境(PRIDE),頻譜戰評估技術工程研究(衫),反電子高功率微波先進導彈(CHAMP)等項目,發展有源和無源目標威脅自動感知識別,實時評估和自適應對抗技術與能力;美海軍開展海上電子戰改進(SEWIP-塊1 / II / III)SLQ-32艦載電子戰系統,艦船信號探裝備(SSEE),電磁指揮與控制(EMC2),集成桅杆(InTop)艦載天線,下一代干擾機(NGJ)等項目,提升實時威脅評估與態勢感知,任務方案建模仿真,電磁頻譜自動分配,作戰行動分析等能力;美陸軍啟動計劃在2016年9月投入使用的電子戰規劃與管理工具(EWPMT)和多功能電子戰(MFEW),防禦性電子攻擊(DEA)和“消音器”電子戰等系統,增強射頻信號感知的電子支援和發送干擾或欺騙信號的電子攻擊能力。今年初,戰略司令部聯合電子戰中心(JEWC)啟動面向電磁頻譜態勢感知與指揮控制提供改進電磁戰鬥管理能力的新技術研究,計劃5年內實現基於策略的實時頻譜管控,先進電磁戰鬥序列(EOB)表徵和行動方案建模仿真分析等能力並達到7-8級技術成熟度[28]。在認知電子戰和人工智能技術推動下,DARPA在2017年8月11日又啟動了射頻機器學習系統(RFM LS)和頻譜聯合挑戰項目,開發從大量複雜頻譜信號中自動區分和表徵目標信號的新技術[29]。

2聯合電磁頻譜作戰理論

電磁頻譜戰是美軍21世紀信息作戰最新理論。隨著研究和認識的不斷深化,美軍逐步將新的戰略思想落地為戰法和戰術措施。為統一戰場電磁頻譜利用與控制行動,美軍綜合一系列指示,條令,規程等文件出版JDN3-16“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”條令紀要,規範了作戰概念,任務範疇,組織機構,作戰籌劃與實施及評估等。

2.1基本概念

電磁頻譜作戰(EMSO)是美軍電磁頻譜戰理論的概念基點。它以電子戰和頻譜管理為基礎,以聯合電磁頻譜作戰為實現方式,目標是在電磁作戰環境(EMOE)中達成電磁頻譜優勢,涉及頻譜管理行動,聯合電磁頻譜作戰(JEMSO)和聯合電磁頻譜管理行動等概念。根據美軍條令JP1-02“國防部軍事術語詞典”[30],JP6-01“聯合電磁頻譜管理行動”,JDN3 -16“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”和ATP6-02.70“電磁頻譜管理作戰行動技能”界定,聯合電磁頻譜作戰是由兩個或兩個以上部隊開展的用於利用,攻擊,防護和管理電磁作戰環境的協同軍事行動。電磁頻譜管理行動是指在軍事行動全階段共同促成計劃,管理和實施電磁作戰環境內作戰行動的頻譜管理,頻率分配,東道國協調,政策遵循,衝突消除等相互聯繫的功能。各概念間關係與範疇如圖1。

圖1電磁頻譜作戰相關概念關係圖[19]圖1電磁頻譜作戰相關概念關係圖[19]

2.2任務域定位

美軍認為,聯合電磁頻譜作戰任務域由電磁頻譜利用,管理,攻擊和防護四維度任務構成,其中,利用任務有信號情報蒐集分發和電子戰支援,管理任務有電磁頻譜管理和電磁戰鬥管理,攻擊任務有電子攻擊和導航戰,防護任務有電子防護和聯合頻譜干擾消除。該作戰概念旨在對電磁作戰環境中的聯合部隊電磁頻譜行動進行作戰集成,確立重點優先事項,組織行動協同和衝突消除,通過充分集成電磁機動方案,力量和行動強化協調統一,實現戰場電磁頻譜控制。它在各作戰域的聯合作戰行動能力形成中扮演著關鍵角色,對聯合部隊的指揮控制,情報,火力打擊,調整與機動,防護,行動能力維持等職能作用發揮產生深刻影響。

2.3組織機構框架

聯合電磁頻譜作戰的組織機構負責為指揮官和司令部制定和發布政策指示與行動指南,進行作戰計劃制定,作戰實施,行動協調和作戰評估。由聯合部隊指揮官指派電磁頻譜控制負責人承擔聯合電磁頻譜作戰總職責。聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元(JEMSOC)是聯合部隊的主要參謀部,由電磁頻譜控制負責人委派一名主管統一指揮。各軍種設立電磁頻譜作戰分部,各下轄一個電磁頻譜作戰分隊,承擔集成網電作戰,電子戰和頻譜管理行動的職能,分別為陸軍的電子戰軍官所轄網絡電磁行動分隊,海軍的海上作戰中心電磁頻譜作戰分隊,空軍的空中作戰中心電子戰協調單元,海軍陸戰隊的戰鬥開發與集成司令部下屬網絡空間與電子戰協調單元,多國部隊聯合參謀部作戰處所屬合同電子戰協調單元。聯合部隊所屬聯合電磁頻譜作戰組織機構如圖2,聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元架構如圖3。

圖2電磁頻譜作戰組織機構圖2電磁頻譜作戰組織機構

圖3聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元架構圖3聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元架構

2.4作戰籌劃流程

聯合電磁頻譜作戰籌劃工作由各級聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元共同完成。在任務分析時,作戰計劃制定隊伍制定一份參謀部評估方案,用於在制定和分析行動方案中確定電磁頻譜支持度,作為達成電磁頻譜優勢的戰略基礎;行動方案選定後,制定聯合電磁頻譜作戰附錄,描述作戰全階段的使命任務,優先事項,政策策略,流程步驟和實施程序,為在聯合作戰域使用電磁戰鬥管控系統建立協調措施,具體程序和交戰規則;同時,聯合部隊各分部報送各自電磁頻譜作戰計劃並集成到該附錄在計劃制定與行動實施期間,聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元加強各分部電磁頻譜作戰計劃並參與各分部需求制定,優先事項確立,作戰集成與行動協同,並生成一份電磁頻譜控制計劃。隨後,調整更新後的電磁頻譜控制計劃啟動聯合電磁頻譜作戰實施週期環,生成指導聯合部隊磁頻譜使用的電磁頻譜控制序列。作戰籌劃流程如圖4。

圖4聯合電磁頻譜作戰計劃制定流程圖4聯合電磁頻譜作戰計劃制定

2.5作戰實施方式

聯合電磁頻譜作戰實施過程是一個計劃,實施和評估的連續循環週期。聯合電磁頻譜作戰單元完成電磁頻譜控制計劃和電磁頻譜控制序列的制定,確立作戰行動的戰鬥週期,經電磁頻譜控制負責人批准,向各分部作戰單元和分隊發布並組織實施。電磁頻譜作戰單元全週期完整參與聯合部隊關鍵戰鬥流程,並根據作戰時段內各分部所屬分隊的用戶需求和戰場電磁頻譜態勢及時調整更新計劃與序列,確保每份電磁頻譜控制序列有效生成,高效下達和執行基本過程為:制定與發布控制計劃,更新各分部控制計劃,準備作戰計劃,生成和分發控制序列,執行和調整作戰實施計劃與控制序列,監測和指導作戰進程,作戰實施週期如圖5。

圖5聯合電磁頻譜作戰實施週期圖5聯合電磁頻譜作戰實施週期

3電磁頻譜作戰發展特點

軍事新能力離不開新體系支撐。作為應對信息網絡,大數據和人工智能時代軍事新挑戰的作戰理念,電磁頻譜戰一經提出就成為美軍戰鬥力發展新方向。為力求深化認識且高效實用,美軍從政策條令建設,組織機構與部隊調整,裝備系統與新技術研發等多個維度將新概念推向戰場。

3.1以政策條令為依據強化基本概念與理論認知,推動作戰理念向執行操作落地

思想引領行動。美軍擅長創新作戰理念,電磁頻譜戰概念也不例外。一是注重釐清概念核心,統一理念認知。電磁頻譜戰發展的早期數年,始終在論證面向新作戰域的新概念。軍方主導“老鴇鴉”等專業性軍地高層論壇,分析概念所涉及的相關理論,交流技術發展和應用方式,推動認識深化,同時,在戰略性文件和頂層條令中,逐步梳理相關聯新舊概念間的聯繫與區別,剖析其範疇與任務域,以此日益促成概念的清晰界定和理論體系成型。二是面向戰場運用操作,逐層細化條令。美軍歷來重視將作戰概念向執行層戰,技術措施細化落地。電磁頻譜戰從概念提出到進入條令和從聯合條令到軍兵種配套行動手冊及戰技術規程(TTP)僅用三年左右的時間,美陸軍甚至在聯合參謀部之前建立戰場運用概念藍圖,形成從聯合層面到分隊層面層層銜接,逐項落的系統性作戰運用與操作指南。

3.2以固有力量為基礎建立高效集成的部隊架構,力求戰場運用全週期協調有序

部隊是行動載體。美軍非常重視新概念作戰力量與現有能力的優化集成。一是注重能力體系整體規劃。美軍電磁頻譜戰與網絡空間作戰的能力發展軌跡相似。從聯合參謀部,聯合部隊司令部到軍兵種部隊,設置作戰席位和相應實施分隊,建立作戰計劃,指控,實施和評估的全流程運行機制,形成高效流暢的能力集成體系。二是重視現有機構與新力量協調互融。通過及時明確新能力所涉及機構與力量的職責和相互關係,制定面向作戰的行動流程和實施程序,甚至規定有關協調活動中的制式模板,促成電磁頻譜作戰與其他任務域的全體系全程行動協同有序。三是依托實戰演練及時驗證能力。基於作戰新概念和能力目標迅速推進電磁頻譜領域戰場攻防研練實踐,在作戰試驗中邊驗證邊修正。美陸軍在去年2至5月成立第1戰場網電戰小組的電磁頻譜戰獨立分並計劃年底參加某一地域戰鬥司令部組織的演習[31];美空軍在“戰鬥護盾”演習中為響應“頻譜干擾消除項目”實施了雷達電子戰系統測評[5]。

3.3以科技實力為支撐推進新概念裝備系統預研,將高新技術向戰鬥力優勢轉化

強軍必需利器。高新技術裝備是催生新生作戰能力的重要途徑。一是善於發掘戰場新變化並評估新需求。美國防部2014年“電磁頻譜戰略”指出,要量化頻譜需求,發展電磁環境所需裝備和技術,增強實時頻譜操作和電磁頻譜系統實時識別,預測及干擾消除等能力[9]。美軍由底至頂建立了面向裝備系統研建與作戰部署應用的需求採集與集成機構,在定期蒐集梳理的同時借助政府審計署,蘭德公司和院所專題小組進行專項調研論證,分析結果可直接為國防部和參聯會提供決策支持,形成了暢通有力的需求管理評估體系,為研建電磁頻譜戰裝備和開發新型戰鬥力注入激活劑。二是注重預研技術向裝備系統集成應用。美軍裝備系統研建都會基於國防信息體系結構標準展開,具備仿真建模,預先研究,技術集成,應用驗證等系統流程和完善能力,注重同步進行原有型號改進和新研智能技術裝備系統開發“決勝電磁波”指出,新階段電磁頻譜戰重要特徵是無源傳感器應用和採用“低 – 零功率”。能力對敵進行反電磁對抗,智能化技術和裝備是未來主導[6]。電磁頻譜戰技術裝備預研與集成也將能夠以更優方式實現軍事問題向技術能力升級,前沿技術與成熟方法互融,專用系統向綜合平台集成,進而完成戰鬥力優勢無縫躍升。

Original Source:

http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/jssd/2018-05-03/

Analysis on the Establishment of the Joint Operation Command System by the PLA 中國軍方聯合作戰指揮中心解放軍建構聯合作戰指揮體制評析國防

Analysis on the Establishment of the Joint Operation Command System by the PLA

中國軍方聯合作戰指揮中心解放軍建構聯合作戰指揮體制評析國防

1 六、解放軍建構聯合作戰指揮體制評析 國防大學政治系馬振坤教授 ■ 習近平在去(2015)年 11 月下旬召開中央軍委改革工作會議, 強調要組建戰區聯合作戰指揮機構和健全軍委聯合作戰指揮 機制,以強化軍隊聯合作戰能力。

■ 改革重點在建立一套能夠上下銜接、起承轉合之聯合作戰指 揮中樞機制,在中央軍委層級是將現有總參謀部改組成為直 屬中央軍委之聯合參謀部,對上能讓軍委主席有效行使最高 軍令指揮權;對下則能夠銜接整合各戰區聯合作戰指揮系統。

■ 解放軍在理順組織結構及權力運作模式後,將在組織編制、 軍種功能、武器裝備以及作戰指揮各個面向趨向成熟,可望 提升其作戰能力。

(一)前言 中共於去(2015)年 11 月下旬召開中央軍委改革工作會議,正式 揭開軍隊組織變革之序幕。中央軍委深化國防和軍隊改革領導小組組 長習近平在會中發表重要講話,直指解放軍「必須在 2020 年前在領 導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展、在優化規模 結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合發展等方面改革上取得重要成 果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現 代軍事力量體系,完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度」。

(二)解放軍作戰指揮體系的變革 在習近平揭櫫的軍隊改革具體內容上,他強調要組建戰區聯合作 戰指揮機構和健全軍委聯合作戰指揮機制。透過中央軍委組織職能調 整之頂層設計,習近平要建構「軍委→戰區→部隊」的作戰指揮體系 以強化軍隊聯合作戰能力。 解放軍原本並無聯合作戰指揮體制,其既有之作戰指揮體制係以 從事境內地面持久作戰為主之設計,具體表徵有二,一是解放軍並無 2 陸軍司令部,但海空軍及二炮部隊則自其組建時即成立軍種司令部; 二是中共將全中國大陸劃為七大軍區,作戰時以軍區為基礎轉換為戰 區,採取誘敵深入之戰略遂行地面持久消耗戰。 解放軍僅有海空二炮司令部卻無陸軍司令部並非獨特設計,而是 歷史發展的結果。中共自 1927 年創立紅軍成為其首支武裝力量,至 1949 年組建海軍和空軍之前,其軍隊皆以地面部隊為主,在國共內 戰期間,為方便作戰指揮,堅持以黨領軍以及強化後勤保障,中共在 軍事領導上,採取總部形式作為其軍隊領導管理和作戰指揮機構。而 中共在建政後仍然延續此總參謀部、總政治部、總後勤部之架構,作 為其軍隊領導體制,即便陸續組建海空軍及二炮部隊,並未改變此架 構,反而是將新組建的軍兵種納入此架構中,成為支援地面部隊作戰 的輔助性軍兵種。 因此中共傳統的四大總部領導機制,係以陸軍為主、海空軍及二 炮部隊為輔、適合從事傳統單一軍種地面作戰的軍隊領導機制。此機 制無法適應現代戰爭係屬遠程投射、立體攻防、不同軍兵種聯合作戰 之特性,共軍內部早有變更之議。尤其近年來中共與周邊國家在陸地 領土主權爭議逐漸經由雙邊協商談判獲得解決、陸地邊界之緊張情勢 明顯降低之際,在東海及南海之島礁領土主權及海域劃界爭端卻日形 嚴重。而對應此等緊張情勢者,是海空二炮等軍兵種而非陸軍,爭端 發生之東海、南海區域,亦非南京、廣州軍區戰備任務指向之處。 若依中央軍委賦予兩大軍區之任務,南京軍區是「主管江蘇、安 徽、浙江、江西、福建、上海五省一市軍事事務的大軍區,主要作戰 使命是保衛南京、上海、杭州、福州等東南沿海發達的特大城市和工 業區的安全」。依此內容視之,南京軍區主要作戰範圍並不包括東海 及釣魚臺。再依共軍廣州軍區之主要任務內容視之,該軍區是解放軍 「主管廣東、廣西、湖北、湖南、海南五省區軍事事務的大軍區,戰 時使命為保衛中國南部,尤其防止越南和東海沿海的攻擊,防衛廣 州、深圳等特大城市。此外,當需要時也負責增援香港和澳門」。同 樣地,廣州軍區防務亦不包括南海諸島礁。 3 除大軍區主要戰略方向係向陸而非向海,大軍區指揮職位的設計 上也是以陸軍為主,七大軍區司令員均由陸軍將領出任,各軍區海空 軍司令員在編制上僅為大軍區之副司令員,故軍區海空軍主要作戰任 務係以支援軍區地面部隊作戰為主,而非遂行境外海空域獨立作戰。 但依據中共公布之「2015 中國的軍事戰略報告書」,共軍要「加 快轉變戰鬥力生成模式,運用信息系統把各種作戰力量、作戰單元、 作戰要素融合集成為整體作戰能力,逐步構建作戰要素無縫鏈接、作 戰平台自主協同的一體化聯合作戰體系」,另要「按照權威、精幹、 靈便、高效的要求,建立健全軍委聯合作戰指揮機構和戰區聯合作戰 指揮體制」。顯見中共領導階層深知既有中央軍委與各總部、軍種司 令部間職能區分,以及大軍區制度等,皆無法因應未來戰爭聯合作戰 型態之需求,因而藉由中央軍委組織調整的時機,對於軍隊領導管理 體制和聯合作戰指揮體制進行一體化設計。 (三)現行聯合作戰指揮機構的組建 依據「意見」,為適應一體化聯合作戰指揮要求,應「建立健全 軍委、戰區兩級聯合作戰指揮體制,構建平戰一體、常態運行、專司 主營、精幹高效的戰略戰役指揮體系」,且要「重新調整劃設戰區」。 在軍隊作戰指揮體系上,則要「按照聯合作戰、聯合指揮的要求,調 整規範軍委聯指、各軍種、戰區聯指和戰區軍種的作戰指揮職能」, 部隊訓練則要求必須「與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,完善聯合訓練體 制」。 在具體組建聯合作戰指揮機構方面,在中央軍委層級是將現有總 參謀部改組成為直屬中央軍委之聯合參謀部,此新成立之「聯參」只 負責中央軍委之聯合作戰指揮事宜,與過去的「總參」總攬對軍隊的 作戰指揮權和領導管理權有很大的差異。更重要者,新的聯合參謀長 不再擁有過去總參謀長對軍隊之最高軍令權,此最高軍令權在中央軍 委職能調整之後,已回歸到中央軍委主席之手,以落實軍委主席負責 制之精神。此聯合參謀部只是一個直屬中央軍委常態存在之作戰指揮 4 機構,故聯合參謀長不論在平時或戰時,都扮演軍委主席在行使軍隊 作戰指揮最高軍令權之幕僚長,而不再是過去總參謀長名為幕僚長, 實際上卻擁有等同陸軍司令員之權力。 將總參謀部改編成為聯合參謀部在具體實踐上確實可行,因為目 前總參謀部除陸軍出身之總參謀長、副總參謀長外,海、空、二炮皆 有擔任副總參謀長,其實已具備聯合作戰指揮機制之雛型。此海空二 炮擔任副總參謀長之將領在原本制度運作下,即是未來接任海空二炮 司令員之必然人選,其在副總參謀長任內,可獲得與其它軍種副總參 謀長溝通協調之經驗,並可在此過程中了解其它軍種之特性以及在執 行作戰任務時必須考量之諸種條件。當此將領擔任軍種司令員後,在 落實中央軍委「一體化聯合作戰」政策要求下,自當能夠與其它軍種 溝通協調,降低軍種本位主義色彩。 海空二炮將領出任總參副總參謀長始於江澤民在 2004 年將中央 軍委主席職務交棒給胡錦濤時,同步將海空二炮司令員納入中央軍委 成員起。原本海空二炮司令員之級別等同大軍區正職,僅同陸軍之大 軍區司令員。江澤民將其納入中央軍委後,海空二炮司令員級別提 升,但是在司令員以下各階則無變動,尤其各大軍區空軍司令員以及 瀕海大軍區海軍司令員,在級別上仍屬大軍區副職,編制上為軍區副 司令員。為求幹部梯隊之完整性和連續性,並且符合不同軍兵種聯合 作戰之時代發展趨勢,乃在總參謀部原本由陸軍壟斷之副總參謀長職 務,分由陸、海、空軍和二炮之將領分別擔任,以連接海空二炮軍兵 種高階將領在成為軍兵種司令員之前最後階段職務歷練。 除副總參謀長層級外,總參謀部所屬各部例如情報部、作戰部 等,亦早已納入海空二炮各軍兵種幹部擔任高階參謀,各自負擔與本 身軍兵種相關之情報、作戰等參謀業務。換言之,總參謀部在過去十 年來即是以滿足不同軍兵種聯合作戰之需求作為主要發展方向,且實 際上已發展出成熟的聯合作戰指揮參謀機制。因此將總參謀部調整為 聯合參謀部,就實質運作面而言,並非是全盤的改變,反而是將實質 上已初步具備的聯合作戰機制加以制度化與正名化。 5 因此將總參謀部調整為聯合參謀部之重點並不在總參謀長、副總 參謀長等領導層級職務由不同軍種將領擔任,亦不是整合不同軍種作 戰參謀業務,而是建立一套能夠上下銜接、起承轉合之聯合作戰指揮 中樞機制。對上能夠落實中央軍委主席負責制之精神,讓中央軍委主 席得以透過聯合參謀部之機制,有效行使最高軍令指揮權;對下則能 夠銜接整合各戰區聯合作戰指揮系統,讓一體化聯合作戰指揮體制成 為一個「有機的整體」,在作戰指揮上不會出現「斷鏈」甚至「無鏈 結」的情況。 建立聯合作戰指揮機制在大軍區層級,即是取消現有的七大軍 區,另成立東西南北四大戰略方向之戰區,以及保障北京安全之中部 戰區。傳統上,大軍區是中共軍隊體制上的主要建制,自毛澤東時期 強調誘敵深入境內決戰的戰略思維下,大軍區制度即扮演最重要之分 區屯兵固守防衛角色。事實上,大軍區是真正掌握軍隊、集軍隊之軍 令軍政權於一身的體制,舉凡軍隊之建設、教育訓練、乃至作戰指揮 權,皆由大軍區司令員掌握。另外中共政權在國防動員體制和軍地制 度,也都依托在大軍區體制之下,與維護內部安全秩序相關之武警部 隊之建制與指揮,也都在大軍區管轄範圍內。 由於大軍區制度是以屯兵和境內決戰為前提,在體制運作上自然 以陸軍為主,海空軍及二炮僅扮演支援陸軍作戰的角色。隨著中共軍 事現代化成果日顯,海空二炮遠距投射力量不斷強化,共軍向海方向 的活動範圍不斷擴張,軍事戰略思維已改採邊境和境外作戰,不再以 誘敵深入境內決戰為主。而境外作戰自然以能夠從事遠距投射之海空 軍和二炮作戰力量為主,陸軍反而僅能扮演預備隊之角色。因此將以 陸軍為主之大軍區體制改為以不同軍兵種遂行聯合作戰為主之戰區 指揮體制,方能整合不同軍兵種之作戰力量,即時且有效發揮海空二 炮遠距投射火力之優勢。 另外,將大軍區改為戰區,亦可消除原本大軍區司令員壟斷軍隊 領導及指揮權,形同分地割據之軍閥的現象。戰區將僅負責聯合作戰 指揮,戰區司令員僅擁有對其戰區之聯合作戰指揮權,並不擁有對軍 隊之領導管理權。軍隊領導管理權由各軍種司令部掌握,如此可以將 6 軍令權和軍政權在戰區層級完全切割,就不會再出現軍區司令員形同 地方軍閥的權力膨脹問題。

(四)結語 習近平在此次中共中央軍委組織調整中,展現對軍隊完全的領導 權威。誠然外界多認為習近平通過這次軍改刻意打亂軍中既有的權力 結構,清洗原本在軍隊裡根深蒂固的江澤民派系將領,全面掌握軍 權。但是平心而論,從中央軍委公布的「意見」對中央軍委層級、軍 種司令部層級、以及戰區層級的組織調整內容看來,這次的變動若能 落實,的確可以讓解放軍的組織架構及權力運作機制脫胎換骨。解放 軍在理順組織結構及權力運作模式後,將在組織編制、軍種功能、武 器裝備以及作戰指揮各個面向趨向成熟,符合現代化軍隊的標準,而 這也將讓解放軍的作戰能力在可預見的未來呈現出跳躍式之進步。


 

English Translation

Analysis on the Establishment of the Joint Operation Command System by the PLA

China National Defense University

■ Xi Jinping held a meeting to reform the Central Military Commission in late November (2015).

Emphasizing the need to establish a joint combat command organization in the theater and a joint combat command of a sound military commission

Mechanism to strengthen the joint combat capabilities of the military.

■ The focus of the reform is to establish a set of joint operations that can be linked up and down.

The central mechanism, at the Central Military Commission level, is to reorganize the existing general staff into straight the Joint Chief of Staff of the Central Military Commission is able to effectively exercise the highest authority for the chairman of the Central Military Commission Military command structure; to the next can be integrated with all theater joint warfare command systems.

■ After the People’s Liberation Army clarifies its organizational structure and power operation mode, it will organize

The military services, weapons and equipment, as well as operational commanders, tend to be mature.

Improve its combat capabilities.

(I). Introduction

The Chinese Communist Party held a meeting to reform the Central Military Commission in late November (2015).

Reveal the prelude to the reform of the military organization. The Central Military Commission Deepens the Leading Group for National Defense and Army Reform

President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the conference, pointing to the People’s Liberation Army “must be in the lead by 2020

Led to breakthroughs in the reform of the management system and joint operations command system, and the optimization of scale major achievements have been made in reforming the structure, improving policies and systems, and promoting the integration of military and civilian development.

As a result, efforts will be made to build Chinese characteristics that can win informatized warfare and effectively fulfill its mission.

On behalf of the military strength system, improve the socialist military system with Chinese characteristics.”

(II) The reform of the PLA command system

In Xi Jinping’s disclosure of the specific contents of the military reform, he emphasized the need to establish a joint cooperation.

The joint command and command mechanism of the war command organization and the sound military commission. Through the Central Military Commission organizational functions

With the entire top-level design, Xi Jinping must build a combat command system of “military committee, theater, and troops”.

In order to strengthen the joint combat capabilities of the military.

The People’s Liberation Army originally did not have a joint operational command system. Its existing operational command system was engaged in the design of long-term operations on the ground in the Mainland, and there are two specific characterizations. One is that the PLA did not the Army Command, but the Hainan Air Force and the Second Artillery Corps established the Service Command since its establishment;

Second, the Chinese Communist Party has designated the entire Chinese mainland as the seven major military regions and converted to combat based on the military region.

District, adopting a strategy to lure the enemy into a long-lasting war of attrition.

The People’s Liberation Army’s only air and sea artillery headquarters but no army headquarters are not uniquely designed, but the result of historical development. The Chinese Communists founded the Red Army as its first armed force since 1927.

Prior to the formation of the Navy and the Air Force in 1949, its troops were mainly based on ground forces within the KMT.

During the war, in order to facilitate combat operations, adhere to the leadership of the party and strengthen logistics support, the Chinese Communist Party

In terms of military leadership, it takes the form of headquarters as its military leadership management and operational command organization. And after the establishment of the government, the Chinese Communist Party continued the structure of the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, and the General Logistics Department.

For its military leadership system, even if the navy, air force, and second artillery units were successively formed, they did not change this plane.

Instead, the newly-formed military units are included in this structure and become support for ground forces operations.

Combines & Auxiliary arms.

Therefore, the four traditional leadership mechanisms of the Chinese Communist Party are based on the Army, the Hainan Air Force and the Second Supplementary to the artillery force, it is suitable for the army leadership mechanism for traditional single-army ground operations. This machine system cannot adapt to modern warfare, long-range projection, three-dimensional offensive and defensive, joint operations of different types of arms

The characteristics of the Communist Army have long been changed. In particular, the CCP and its neighboring countries have been on land in recent years.

Territorial sovereignty disputes are gradually resolved through bilateral negotiation and tension on the land boundary.

At a time of marked decline, disputes over the territorial sovereignty and maritime delimitation of the islands and reefs in the East China Sea and the South China Sea were observed.

serious. The counterparts to these tense situations are the Hainan Second Artillery Corps and not the Army.

The East China Sea and South China Sea areas that occurred were also not directed by the combat readiness tasks of the Nanjing and Guangzhou military regions.

If the tasks assigned to the two military regions are assigned by the Central Military Commission, the Nanjing Military Region is “supervising Jiangsu and An.

Military areas of the five provinces and one city of Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and Shanghai

The mission is to defend the developed mega cities and workers in the southeast coasts of Nanjing, Shanghai, Hangzhou and Fuzhou.

Industry Zone Security”. According to this content, the main battle area of ​​the Nanjing Military Region does not include the East China Sea.

Diaoyutai. According to the main tasks of the Communist Army of the Guangzhou Military Region, the military region is the People’s Liberation Army.

“In charge of military affairs in the five provinces and regions of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan and Hainan

Mission to defend southern China, in particular to prevent attacks on the coasts of Vietnam and the East China Sea.

State, Shenzhen and other megacities. In addition, it is also responsible for the reinforcement of Hong Kong and Macao when necessary.” with

In the sample plot, the defense of the Guangzhou Military Region does not include the South China Sea Islands.

In addition to the major strategic directions of the military region, the design of command posts in the large military region is directed toward the land instead of to the sea.

The Army is also the main force, and the commanders of the seven military regions are all served by army generals.

The military commander is only the deputy commander of the military area in the preparation, so the main combat operations of the Hainan Air Force in the military region

The Department is mainly to support the ground forces of the military region, instead of independently operating in the offshore airspace.

However, according to the “2015 China Military Strategy Report” announced by the Chinese Communist Party, the Communists must “add

Rapidly change the combat power generation mode and use information systems to put various combat forces and units of combat

Combine operational elements into integrated combat capabilities, and gradually build combat elements to make seamless links.

The integrated joint combat system where the platform is autonomously coordinated with each other” must also be “according to authority, capable, and effortlessly and efficiently required to establish and improve joint operations of the Central Military Commission and joint operations in the theater

Command system.” It is evident that the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party is fully aware of the existence of both the Central Military Commission and headquarters and the Military Services Division.

The division of functions among different ministries, and the military area system, etc., cannot meet the requirements of future warfare joint operations.

The demand of the type, and therefore the time for the adjustment of the Central Military Commission, for the leadership of the military

The system and the joint operational command system are designed in an integrated manner.

(3) Establishment of the current joint operations command organization

According to “opinions,” it is necessary to “establish and improve the

The two-level joint combat command system of the Central Military Commission and the theater establishes an integrated peacetime operation, normal operation, and

Main, lean and effective strategic battle command system, and “re-adjust the planning of the theater.”

In the military operational command system, it is necessary to “adjust the requirements of joint operations and joint efforts to standardize the operational command functions of the Central Military Commission, the Military Services, the Joint League Forces, and the regional military services.”

The training of troops requires that “it must be adapted to the joint combat command system and improve the joint training body system”.

In the specific formation of a joint combat command organization, at the Central Military Commission level will be the existing total the Staff Department was reorganized into a joint staff department directly under the Central Military Commission. This newly established “joint participation” is only

Responsible for the Joint Combat Command of the Central Military Commission, and the “Gan Sen General” of the past there is a big difference between operational command and leadership. More importantly, the new Joint Chief of Staff

No longer has the highest military commander of the general staff in the past. The highest military authority is in the Central Army.

After the adjustment of the committee’s functions, it has returned to the chairman of the Central Military Commission to implement the responsibility of the chairman of the Central Military Commission.

The spirit of the system. This Joint Staff is just a direct command of the Central Military Commission.

Institutions, so the chief of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, both in peacetime and in wartime, plays the role of the chairman of the Central Military Commission in the exercise of the military.

The commander of the highest military command of the combat commander is no longer the chief of general staff of the past.

In fact, it has the same power as the army commander.

The restructuring of the General Staff Headquarters into the Joint Staff Department is indeed feasible in the specific practice because in addition to the chief of the general staff and deputy chief of the general staff of the former general staff of the former general staff, the sea, air, and the second gun are all

As the deputy chief of the general staff, in fact, he already has the prototype of joint operations command mechanism. This sea and air two the commander of the deputy chief of the general staff of the cannon, under the operation of the original system, is to take over the sea and air artillery.

The commander is an inevitably elected candidate who can be obtained as a deputy chief of the general staff and can be used as a deputy general secretary of other services.

Communicate the experience of communication and coordination, and understand the characteristics and the conditions that must be considered when performing combat missions. After this general served as commander of the military,

Implementing the Central Military Commission’s “integrated joint operations” policy requires that it be able to cooperate with other service communicate and coordinate, reducing the service-oriented nature.

The Hainan Second Artillery general served as deputy chief of general staff of the General Staff and began with Jiang Zemin in 2004.

When the chairman of the Central Military Commission delivered the post to Hu Jintao, he simultaneously incorporated the commander of the Hainan Second Artillery into the Central Military Commission.

Members from. The level of the original commander of the Haikong Second Artillery was equal to that of the Great Military Region, which was only equal to that of the Army.

Commander of the Military District. After Jiang Zemin incorporated it in the Central Military Commission, the commander of the Second Air and Sea Artillery ranks but there are no changes in the order of the commander, especially the commanders of the air forces of the major military regions.

The naval commander of the Bohai Sea Military Area Command is still a deputy chief of the military region at the rank, and the military commander is assigned to the military region.

Commander. In order to achieve the integrity and continuity of the cadre echelon, and to meet the requirements of different military units

The trend of development in the era of warfare is that of the deputy chief of the general staff who was originally monopolized by the Army in the General Staff Department.

The service is divided into the positions of generals of land, sea, air force, and second artillery to connect the Hainan Second Artillery Corps.

The high-ranking generals took the final stage of career training before becoming military commanders.

In addition to the rank of deputy chief of the general staff, all departments under the general staff department such as the intelligence department and the warfare department

And so on, they have long been included in the cadres of the sea, air, and the Second Artillery, serving as high-level staff, and their respective burdens.

Armed Forces related intelligence, operations and other staff officers. In other words, the General Staff in the past ten years and in recent years, it is to meet the needs of joint operations of different types of arms as the main direction of development.

At the same time, a mature joint combat command staff mechanism has been developed. So it must  adjust the General Staff to The Joint Staff, in terms of substantive operations, is not a complete change, but instead it will

The joint warfare mechanism that has been initially established has been institutionalized and renamed.

Therefore, the focus of adjusting the General Staff Department to the Joint Staff Department is not the chief of the general staff and vice president.

Chiefs of Staff such as the Chief of Staff are served by generals of different services and are not integrated into different military services.

Instead of consulting staff, establish a set of joint operations command that can be linked up and down, inherited from each other the central mechanism. In order to implement the spirit of the responsibility system of the chairman of the Central Military Commission, the Central Military Commission should be

Can effectively exercise the highest military command authority through the mechanism of the Joint Staff Headquarters; enough to integrate and integrate the joint operations command systems of all theaters and make the integrated joint operations commander

As an “organic whole,” there will be no “broken chain” or even “no chain” in combat command Results”.

The establishment of a joint combat command mechanism at the rank of the military region is to cancel the existing seven major military units.

District, the establishment of a four-strategic direction of the East, West, South and North, and the security of Beijing Theater. Traditionally, the large military area is the main organizational system of the Chinese Communist Army, since Mao Zedong’s time under the strategic thinking of emphasizing the lure of the enemy’s deep defensive battles in the country, the major military region system plays the most important role.

District soldiers stick to the defensive role. In fact, the military area is the army that truly controls the army and sets up the army.

The system of the military regime, which includes the construction of the army, education and training, and even combat command

The power is controlled by the commander of the military area. In addition, the Chinese Communist regime’s national defense mobilization system and military and land system

Degree, also relying on the system of the great military region, and related to the maintenance of the internal security order of the armed police department

The formation and command of the team are also within the jurisdiction of the military area.

Since the military region’s system is based on the premise of setting up troops and a decisive battle in the country, it is natural to operate the system.

Mainly based on the Army, the Hainan Air Force and the Second Artillery only played the role of supporting the Army. With the Chinese Communists the achievements of modernization have become increasingly apparent.

The scope of activities has continued to expand, and military strategic thinking has shifted to border and foreign operations.

Luring the enemy into the depths of the domestic decisive battle. However, it is natural for overseas operations to be able to engage in distant projections.

The Army and the Second Artillery are the main combat forces, but the Army can only play the role of reserve force. So will the army-based major military zone system was changed to a combat zone based on joint operations between different types of military units.

The command system can only integrate the combat forces of different military units, and immediately and efficiently this weapons combination has the advantage of projecting firepower from a distance.

In addition, changing the military area into a theater can also eliminate the original military commander’s monopoly of the military.

Leadership and command rights are similar to the phenomenon of the warlords split by land. The theater will only be responsible for joint operations commanding, the commander of the theater has only joint warfighting command over the theater and does not possess military command.

The leadership of the team. The leadership of the army is controlled by the various service commands so that the military commander and the military regime are completely cut at the theater level, and military commanders will no longer appear.

The issue of the expansion of power of local warlords.

(4) Conclusion

Xi Jinping demonstrated complete leadership over the army during the restructuring of the Central Military Commission of the CPC authority. It is true that the outside world thinks that Xi Jinping deliberately disrupted the existing power in the military through this military reform.

Structure, cleansing Jiang Zemin faction generals deeply rooted in the army and fully grasping the military right. But in all fairness, the “opinions” announced by the Central Military Commission of the Central Military Commission ranks and forces.

The level of organizational adjustment at the command level and the theater level suggests that if this change can implementation can indeed make the PLA’s organizational structure and power operation mechanism reborn.

People’s Liberation Army

After the military has straightened out the organizational structure and power operation mode, it will organize the organization, military services, and military operations.

Equipment and combat operations are oriented toward maturity and meet the standards of modern military forces.

This will also allow the PLA’s combat capabilities to show a leap forward in the foreseeable future.

.

Chairman Xi inspects the CMC’s joint operations command center and has aroused strong reaction in the entire army and the armed police force

Comprehensively improve the ability to prepare for fighting in the new era and provide strategic support for the realization of the Chinese dream

“To realize the party’s goal of strengthening the army in the new era and building the people’s army into a world-class army, we must grasp the key to fighting wars and defeating warlords. We have a major step forward in preparation for war.” On the 3rd, Chairman Xi Jinping inspected the Central Military Commission. The Operation Command Center led a group of CMC members to study the construction of the CMC Central Committee, and talked with the officers and men of the relevant task forces stationed at the Frontier Defense and Coastal Defence, inspected the Djibouti Security Base through the video, listened to the report of the PLA’s military preparation for war preparations, and delivered an important speech. It caused strong repercussions in the entire army and the armed police forces.

The officers and men all said that this inspection fully embodies President Xi’s high attention to the issue of military preparations for fighting warfare. This shows that the new military committee has implemented the spirit of the party’s Nineteenth Congress and promoted the work of the entire military to fight and win. A clear-cut attitude. They said that we must conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, adhere to the guidance of the military ideology of Xi Jinping, implement the military strategy under the new situation, strengthen the mission, strengthen reforms and innovations, intensify work implementation, and comprehensively improve preparations for fighting in the new era. The ability to provide strategic support for the realization of the “two hundred years” goal and the Chinese dream of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

Tighten the string of war preparations and strengthen war preparations.

On the morning of the 3rd, the coldness hit people outside the window, but the joint military command center of the Central Military Commission was warm and strong. President Xi once went to the Central Building of the Central Committee of the Central Committee of the Central Military Commission, and led a group of people in the Central Military Commission to study the construction of the Central Committee of the Central Military Commission.

 

“When Xi Chairman made an inspection, he delivered an important speech and profoundly clarified the strategic significance and practical requirements for comprehensively improving the ability to prepare for fighting in the new era.” Zhou Shangping, deputy director of the Joint Operations Department of the Central Military Commission of the Central Military Commission who inspected the entire process, said, “This is the leader of the party. The commander of our army piloted the People’s Army to implement the party’s strong military objectives in the new era, to build a world-class army, and to send political mobilization and epoch orders to the entire army.”

The military is preparing to fight. The fundamental focus of the people’s army in carrying out missions in the new era is combat effectiveness.

The officers and men of the various theaters, services, and agencies of the Central Military Commission said in their discussions that the officers and men of the entire army must only tighten the war preparedness string, strengthen war preparations for war preparations, and always focus on preparing for battles and continuously improve their ability to win. Situation, control crisis, curb war and win war.

“If you want peace, then you have to prepare for war.” The party’s 19th representative Wang Jinlong served as an instructor. A certain army brigade in the central theater “does a great deal”. In the war years, he played in the name of He Huwei. In the new era, the company has a long history. The brigade is responsible for the mission of the brigade for emergency combat readiness. It always maintains a state of readiness for action on the string. He believes that the state is uneasy and that it will be dangerous to forget. Things in the world are always the same. If you are not ready, the enemy will come. You are ready. The enemy does not dare to come. The dialectic of war and peace tells us that if we can fight, we will not be able to fight unless we are ready to fight.

“We must engrave the word ‘war’ in our hearts and continue to strengthen our sense of responsibility for ‘ready to go on the battlefield’. We will deeply engrave our duty to prepare for war and become a conscious action,” said Cui Jiabin, a brigade commander of the Army Aviation Corps. Once something can be quickly responded, resolutely fulfill the tasks entrusted by the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and President Xi, and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests.

Pay close attention to actual combat military training and improve the ability to win

Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, and national defense and army building have also entered a new era.

The officers and men believe that the new era requires that the military must have new capabilities, but to have new capabilities, it is necessary to take substantive training.

“When Xi inspected the Central Committee of the Central Military Commission, Xi pointed out that we must focus on deepening military training in actual combat, stick to how to train soldiers on how to train, and what to do if we need to fight, and inspire the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of the officers and men. The military has risen vigorously in the military training upsurge,” said Liu Rui, the 19th Party Congress representative and head of the Air Force’s aviation regiment. “I’m most impressed by this. The military is only holding on to actual combat military training and improving their ability to win. Only in this way can we shoulder the mission of the mission of the new era given by the party and the people.”

Liu Rui is the first air force of the Air Force to modify the H-6K air force and is an important force in the air force’s long-range offensive operations. At this time after the closing of the 19th National Party Congress, he not only preached the spirit of the Nineteenth Party Congress, but also spent all his time on the training ground. A few days ago, he organized and implemented the largest cross-regional mobile combat training in the team’s history. From dawn to late at night, from combat to ultra-low altitude, from land to sea, all the way to the road, across multiple strange areas. And several airports, lasting more than 9 hours, with a range of nearly 5,000 kilometers…

A synthetic brigade of “Huangcailing Mountain” of the 74th Army Group of the Southern Theater Army is currently training hard soldiers to welcome the coming year-end assessment of the group army. Instructor Chen Yuwen believes that President Xi inspects the Central Military Commission’s Central Committee, sets the baton ready for warfare from the level of the Central Military Commission, and pays close attention to actual combat military training from the level of the chairman of the Central Military Commission. Grassroots officers and soldiers have no reason not to do a good job. We must unify our thoughts and actions to the important instructions of President Xi to prepare for war, and strive to forge an elite force that can be called, come to war, and win in battle.

Adhere to problem-oriented and make preparations for work

The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is by no means an easy task. It can be achieved by banging and playing drums. The ambitious goal of building a world-class army is also facing severe challenges.

Li Keliang, political commissar of a central information and communications brigade in the Central Theater, believes that we must strictly follow the requirements of Chairman Xi’s important directives, stick to the problem-oriented approach, grasp the end, and promote implementation of the preparations for combating one practical problem. It is necessary to establish a strict responsibility system, strengthen supervision and accountability, and grasp first-level, first-level and first-level levels, and stringently prepare for war preparations.

“The battlefield is a real contest, and the fight is a hard-fought duel.” The party’s 19th representative and Navy carrier-based fighter pilot Cao Jianjian created 419 days after serious injuries and only after 70 days of go-around, the F-15 fighters succeeded in their operations. The ship’s miracle, “In the past few years, the entire army took the training winds to test the wind and declared war on the “peace and evil” in military training. During the exercises, they dared to expose problems and dare to dissect themselves. They introduced a series of hard measures and effective. Promote the building of the combat effectiveness of the troops.”

After seriously studying Xi’s speech, a brigade commander of the 80th Armed Forces believed that we must follow the example of President Xi’s entrustment to strengthen the sense of crisis, awareness of crisis, and awareness of snoring. We must focus all our efforts on fighting and focus on each other’s work. We must make preparations as soon as possible. Snoring ability to engage in.

Experts and scholars of the Academy of Military Sciences, National Defense University, and National University of Defense Technology, according to the future situation and task, believe that we must use the important instructions given by President Xi’s visit to the joint operations command center of the Central Military Commission as guidelines, and focus on innovating wars and combat planning, closely following the evolution of war formations and combat methods. , Adhering to the combat missions, operational opponents, and operational environment, Daxing’s research on warfare issues.

President Xi’s strong mission, clear preparations for fighting, and inspiring the majority of officers and soldiers of the entire army and armed police forces. The officers and men said that we must firmly establish the only basic standard of combat effectiveness. All our thoughts must be focused and focused on. All tasks should be used to fight hard, and we must successfully accomplish the mission of the new era entrusted by the party and the people!

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习主席视察军委联合作战指挥中心在全军和武警部队引起强烈反响

全面提高新时代备战打仗能力,为实现中国梦提供战略支

  实现党在新时代的强军目标、把人民军队全面建成世界一流军队,必须扭住能打仗、打胜仗这个关键,在备战打仗上有一个大的加强。”3日,习近平主席视察军委联合作战指挥中心,带领军委一班人研究军委联指中心建设情况,同驻守边防海防的有关任务部队官兵通话,通过视频察看了驻吉布提保障基地,听取了全军练兵备战工作汇报,并发表重要讲话,在全军和武警部队引起强烈反响。

  官兵们纷纷表示,这次视察充分体现了习主席对军队备战打仗问题的高度重视,表明了新一届军委贯彻落实党的十九大精神、推动全军各项工作向能打仗、打胜仗聚焦的鲜明态度。大家表示,一定要认真学习贯彻党的十九大精神,坚持以习近平强军思想为指导,贯彻新形势下军事战略方针,强化使命担当,强化改革创新,强化工作落实,全面提高新时代备战打仗能力,为实现两个一百年奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供战略支撑。

  时刻绷紧战备这根弦,强化备战打仗导向

 

  3日上午,窗外寒气袭人,但军委联合作战指挥中心却暖意浓浓。习主席一身戎装来到军委联指中心大楼,带领军委一班人研究军委联指中心建设情况。

  习主席视察时发表重要讲话,深刻阐明全面提高新时代备战打仗能力的战略意义和实践要求。亲历视察全过程的中央军委联合参谋部作战局副局长周尚平说,这是党的领袖、我军统帅领航人民军队为实现党在新时代的强军目标、全面建成世界一流军队,向全军官兵发出的政治动员和时代号令。

  军队是要准备打仗的,人民军队担负新时代使命任务的根本着力点在于战斗力。

  各战区、各军种、军委机关各部门的官兵们在学习讨论中认为,全军官兵只有时刻绷紧战备这根弦,强化备战打仗导向,始终聚焦备战打仗,不断提升打赢能力,才能有效塑造态势、管控危机、遏制战争、打赢战争。

  如果你想要和平,那就要做好打仗的准备。党的十九大代表王金龙担任指导员的中部战区陆军某旅大功三战争年代打出了赫赫威名,新时期,连队常年担负旅应急战备值班任务,始终保持箭在弦上、引而待发的战备状态。他认为,邦境不安,忘战必危。世界上的事情总是那样,你准备不好,敌人就来了;你准备好了,敌人反而不敢来。战争与和平的辩证法告诉我们,能战方能止战,准备打才可能不必打,越不能打越可能挨打。

  要把字刻在心头,持续强化时准备上战场责任意识,将练兵备战职责深深刻入脑海、成为自觉行动。陆军航空兵某旅旅长崔佳彬说,真正做到一旦有事能快速反应,坚决完成党中央、中央军委和习主席赋予的任务,坚决维护国家主权、安全、发展利益。

  狠抓实战化军事训练,提高打赢本领

  中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,国防和军队建设也进入了新时代。

  官兵们认为,新时代要求军队必须具备新的能力,而要具备新的能力,就必须大抓实战化训练。

  习主席在视察军委联指中心时指出,要着力深化实战化军事训练,坚持仗怎么打兵就怎么练,打仗需要什么就苦练什么,把官兵积极性、主动性、创造性充分激发出来,在全军兴起大抓军事训练热潮。党的十九大代表、空军航空兵某团团长刘锐说,这一点令我印象最为深刻,军队只有狠抓实战化军事训练,提高打赢本领,才能担负起党和人民赋予的新时代使命任务。

  刘锐所在团是空军首支改装轰—6K的航空兵部队,是空军远程进攻作战的重要力量。党的十九大闭幕之后的这一段时间,他除了宣讲党的十九大精神,其他所有时间都铆在训练场。几天前,组织实施了团队历史上最大规模的跨区域机动作战训练,从昼间到后半夜,从战斗起飞到超低空,从陆上到海上,一路走一路打,跨越多个陌生区域和多个机场,持续9个多小时,航程近5000公里……

  南部战区陆军第74团军某合成旅黄草岭功臣目前正在苦练精兵,迎接即将到来的集团军年终考核。指导员陈骁文认为,习主席视察军委联指中心,从军委这一层把备战打仗的指挥棒立起来,从军委主席这一级亮明狠抓实战化军事训练,提高打赢本领的鲜明态度,我们基层官兵没有理由不做好。我们一定要把思想和行动统一到习主席备战打仗的重要指示上来,努力锻造召之即来、来之能战、战之必胜的精兵劲旅。

  坚持问题导向,抓实备战工作

  中华民族伟大复兴绝不是轻轻松松、敲锣打鼓就能实现的,建设世界一流军队的宏伟目标同样面临十分严峻的挑战。

  中部战区某信息通信旅政委李克亮认为,我们要严格按照习主席重要指示要求,坚持问题导向,一抓到底,在解决一个一个实际问题中推动备战工作落实。要建立严格的责任制,强化督导问责,一级抓一级,一级带一级,把备战打仗工作严起来。

  战场是实打实的较量,打仗是硬碰硬的对决。党的十九大代表、海军舰载战斗机飞行员曹先创造了身负重伤419天后、术后复飞仅仅70天,驾驶歼—15战机成功着舰的奇迹,这几年,全军大抓训风演风考风,向军事训练中的和平积弊战,在演习中敢于暴露问题、敢于自我解剖,出台了一系列硬性措施,有效推进部队战斗力建设。

  第80团军某旅官兵在认真学习习主席的讲话后认为,我们一定要按照习主席嘱托,强化忧患意识、危机意识、打仗意识,全部心思向打仗聚焦,各项工作向打仗用劲,尽快把备战打仗能力搞上去。

  结合未来形势任务,军事科学院、国防大学、国防科技大学的专家学者认为,要以习主席视察军委联合作战指挥中心的重要指示为指引,着力创新战争和作战筹划,紧跟战争形态和作战方式演变,紧贴作战任务、作战对手、作战环境,大兴作战问题研究之风。

  习主席强烈的使命担当,鲜明的备战打仗态度,鼓舞着全军和武警部队的广大官兵。官兵们表示,一定要牢固树立战斗力这个唯一的根本的标准,全部心思向打仗聚焦,各项工作向打仗用劲,圆满完成党和人民赋予的新时代使命任务

Reference (1) Www.xinhuanet.com/2017-11/04/c_1121906230.htm

Reference (2) http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2017/1105/c1011-29627206.html

信息安全技術-個人信息安全規範 – China’s “Information Security Technology Personal Information Security Specification” in Four Aspects

信息安全技術-個人信息安全規範 –

China’s “Information Security Technology Personal Information Security Specification” in Four Aspects

On December 11th, 2017, there were two kinds of mobile phone APPs, Baidu and Baidu, which were owned by Baidu. They included “listening phone”, “reading short MMS”, “reading contacts”, etc. involving consumer personal information. In the case of security related rights and refusal to rectify the situation, the Jiangsu Provincial Consumer Protection Committee initiated a consumer civil public interest litigation concerning suspected illegal access to consumer personal information and related issues by Beijing Baidu.com, which was held on January 2 of this year in Nanjing. The Intermediate People’s Court has formally opened the case. On January 6th, with the fermentation of Alipay’s annual billing event, the State Administration of Cybernetics Network Security Coordination Bureau interviewed relevant persons in charge of Alipay (China) Network Technology Co., Ltd. and Sesame Credit Management Co., Ltd. and pointed out that Alipay, The way in which sesame credits collect personal information does not conform to the spirit of the National Standard for Information Security Technology and Personal Information Security. It violates the promise of the Personal Information Protection Initiative that it signed shortly and should strictly follow the Cyber ​​Security Law. The following is called the “net security law” requirements, strengthen the comprehensive investigation of the platform, carry out special rectification, and take effective measures to prevent similar incidents from happening again. Since the official implementation of the “Network Security Law”, the National People’s Congress, Industry and Information Technology, Internet Information, Internet Security, and Consumers’ Association systems have launched a series of special inspections and rectifications of personal information throughout the country. At the same time, they have also strengthened punishments for violations of laws and regulations. The public’s emphasis on the protection of personal information.

  However, because of the principle, fuzziness and fragmentation of legal norms and local regulatory policies, many articles lack detailed rules for landing, which brings great confusion to many network operators’ personal information compliance work. On December 29 last year, the China National Standardization Administration officially issued the “Information Security Technology Personal Information Security Specification” (hereinafter referred to as the “Safety Code”). On January 24, the national standard full-text publication system officially announced the full text of the specification, and It will be implemented on May 1, 2018. The “Safety Code” clarifies the compliance requirements for the collection, preservation, use, and sharing of personal information in the form of national standards, and provides guidelines for network operators to formulate privacy policies and improve internal controls.

  ”Safety Regulations”

  Related legal concepts

  Based on the existing principles and provisions of the “Net Security Law”, the “Safety Regulations” specifies the specific definitions of relevant legal concepts in light of the specific issues that network operators are concerned about in practice.

  First, regarding personal sensitive information, the “Guide to the Protection of Personal Information in Information and Security Technology Public and Commercial Service Information Systems” implemented in 2013 defined personal sensitive information as personal information that would adversely affect the personal information subject after being exposed or modified. At the same time, it is recommended that the specific content of personal sensitive information in various industries be determined based on the willingness of the personal information subject to the service and their respective business characteristics. The “Safety Regulations” further emphasizes in the definition that the disclosure of personal sensitive information, illegal provision or misuse may endanger the safety of people and property, cause personal reputation, physical and mental health damage or discriminatory treatment and other serious consequences, and in Appendix B A specific example of personal sensitive information was drawn up, linking up with the data classification obligations stipulated in Article 21 of the “Network Security Law”.

  Secondly, regarding the collection of personal information, the “Safety Regulations” defines three types of “collection” as the provision of personal information subjects, automatic collection by network operators, and indirect acquisition from third parties. At the same time, exceptions are stipulated and individuals are acquired at terminals. Information not returned to the operator’s server does not belong to “collection.”

  Finally, with respect to the anonymization and de-identification of personal information, the “Safety Code” distinguishes the two. The anonymized information cannot be restored and is no longer part of personal information; de-identification processing guarantees Personal information can’t identify the main body of information without relying on additional information, but it still retains the granularity of the individual and uses pseudonyms, encryption, hash functions, etc. instead of the original personal information. In addition, on August 15 last year, the “Information Security Technology Personal Information De-identification Guide” was released for solicitation of public opinions. The contents involved the process of de-identification and technical applications. Currently, the network operators are implementing the personal information during the review stage. Marking work is worth learning from.

  Collection of personal information

  The “Safety Regulations” stipulates that the collection of personal information should comply with the requirements of legality and minimization. Among them, the requirements for authorization to obtain personal information indirectly and the explicit consent requirements for collecting personal sensitive information are worthy of attention.

  When obtaining personal information indirectly, the company as the recipient is obliged to require the provider to explain the source of the relevant personal information and confirm its legitimacy. At the same time, it should also understand the scope of the personal information subject’s authorization to the provider, including the purpose of use and the individual. Whether the information subject is authorized to consent to the transfer, sharing, public disclosure, etc. If the recipient handles personal information beyond the above-mentioned range, it shall also obtain the explicit consent of the personal information subject within a reasonable time limit. Establishing an authorization consent model for indirect collection of personal information is one of the highlights of the Personal Information Collection section of the “Safety Code”. This model reinforces the review obligation of information receivers and increases the corresponding compliance costs.

  In the collection of personal sensitive information, first of all, the “Safety Code” further requires the express consent of the personal information subject on the basis of the “Net Security Law” to be a voluntary, concrete, clear and clear wish given by the individual on the basis of full knowledge. Representation; Second, if the personal information controller collects personal sensitive information for the core business functions of its products or services, it shall explicitly inform the information subject of the core business functions it provides, the personal sensitive information it needs to collect, and the personal information subject. Three choices of rights; Finally, if personal information controllers collect personal sensitive information for other additional functions, they should clearly inform specific additional functions and the right to choose personal information, but refuse personal sensitive information required for additional functions. It does not mean that the core business functions have stopped providing.

  Sharing of personal information

  When entrusting a third party to process personal information, apart from the fact that the commissioning itself must not exceed the scope of the authorized consent of the personal information subject, the “Safety Code” also stipulates that the personal information controller should carry out personal information security impact assessment and take the responsibility of the contract. Obligation, auditing, etc. supervise the trustee and ensure accurate recording and preservation of the trustee’s handling of personal information.

  With respect to the sharing and transfer of personal information, the “Safety Code” also stipulates the obligations of the personal information controller on the security impact assessment. At the same time, the personal information controller shall notify the personal information subject of the purpose of sharing, transferring the personal information, and the type of the data receiver. In the case of personal sensitive information, the type of sensitive information, the identity of the recipient of the data, and the security capabilities should also be notified, and sharing or transfer may be made only after obtaining the explicit consent of the personal information subject. In addition, personal information controllers need to accurately record and preserve the sharing and transfer of personal information, and bear the legal responsibility for the harm caused by sharing and transferring personal information to the legitimate rights and interests of the information subject. Where changes in the controlling body occur due to mergers and acquisitions, restructuring, etc., they shall individually notify the subject of personal information.

  With regard to the cross-border transmission of personal information, the “Safety Code” requires that personal information controllers should conduct security assessments in accordance with the standards set by the Network Information Office and relevant departments. According to the “Personal Information and Important Data Outbound Security Assessment Methodology (Exposure Draft)” published in April last year, network operators should organize their own data outbound security assessment before leaving the country and be responsible for the results if they contain or accumulate 500,000. If the personal information above the person or the personal information provided by the key information infrastructure is provided to the outside, it shall also be reported to the industry supervisor or the supervisory authority for organizing the safety assessment. The Guidelines for Outbound Security Assessment of Information Security Technology Data (Draft for Solicitation of Comments) (hereinafter referred to as the “Evaluation Guide”) issued by the National Information Security Standardization Technical Committee on August 30 last year are also worthy of attention. The Assessment Guide clearly indicates the data. The use scope and exceptions of outbound security assessments are to refine the types of personal information and important data, increase the disclosure obligation of network operators for personal information, distinguish security self-assessment and assessment processes of competent authorities, and implement personal information for personal information controllers. Cross-border transmission provides a reference.

  Safety management requirements

  Since its implementation, NetEase has given network operators many security protection obligations. One of them is the development of internal security management systems and operational procedures to implement the network security protection responsibilities. Specifically, the “security regulations” include three. Aspects. First, the responsible departments and personnel should be clarified. According to the “Safety Regulations”, personal information controllers that meet certain conditions in terms of business, personnel scale, and personal information processing volume should establish full-time personal information protection managers and work agencies so that The specific implementation of personal information security work prevents personal information from being leaked, damaged or lost. Second, a personnel management and training system should be established. According to the “Safety Regulations”, personal information controllers should sign confidentiality agreements with employees engaged in personal information processing positions and conduct background checks to clarify the safety responsibilities of related positions and the occurrence of security incidents. Penalty mechanism, while conducting regular professional training and assessment, to ensure that relevant employees have the privacy policy and regulatory processes. Third, a personal information security impact assessment and audit system should be developed to assess potential risks and adverse impacts in the processing of personal information, form an assessment report for inspection by relevant parties, and establish an automated auditing system to monitor and record personal information processing activities. Handle the illegal use and abuse of personal information in the audit process in a timely manner.

  Conclusion

  The formal issuance of the “Safety Code” ended the situation in which there were many personal information protection principles and the lack of specific measures since the implementation of the “Net Security Law.” This answer the confusion of the Internet companies, and in the appendix, it is the subject of personal information. The agreed-upon functional interface and privacy policy templates have provided a complete compliance and risk control policy for the provision of network products and services. Although the “Safety Code” number is displayed as a national recommendation, in practice, the review of the privacy policy conducted by the four departments of the Network Information Office, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Ministry of Public Security last year was mainly based on the “Safety Regulations” solicitation opinion draft. When the Information Office interviewed Alipay about the annual billing event, it also emphasized the validity of the “Safety Regulations.” These events all reflected the importance of the “Safety Rules” for improving the personal information protection system. The majority of network operators should make efforts to collect, save, use, and share personal information, improve internal management and privacy policy formulation to cope with the rigorous regulatory situation.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

2017年12月11日,就百度旗下“手機百度”、“百度瀏覽器”等兩款手機APP存在“監聽電話”、“讀取短彩信”、“讀取聯繫人”等涉及消費者個人信息安全的相關權限且拒不整改的情形,江蘇省消費者權益保護委員會就北京百度網訊科技有限公司涉嫌違法獲取消費者個人信息及相關問題提起消費民事公益訴訟,今年1月2日,南京市中級人民法院已正式立案。 1月6日,隨著“支付寶年度賬單事件”的發酵,國家網信辦網絡安全協調局約談了支付寶(中國)網絡技術有限公司、芝麻信用管理有限公司的有關負責人並指出,支付寶、芝麻信用收集使用個人信息的方式,不符合《信息安全技術個人信息安全規範》國家標準的精神,違背了其前不久簽署的《個人信息保護倡議》的承諾,應嚴格按照《網絡安全法》(以下稱“《網安法》”)的要求,加強對平台的全面排查,進行專項整頓,切實採取有效措施,防止類似事件再次發生。自《網安法》正式實施以來,人大、工信、網信、網安以及消協系統,在全國各地掀起了一系列個人信息專項檢查、整治行動,處罰違法違規行為的同時,也加強了社會公眾對個人信息保護的重視程度。

然而,由於法律規範及各地監管政策的原則性、模糊化及碎片化,很多條文缺乏落地的細則,這就給很多網絡運營者個人信息合規工作帶來極大的困惑。去年12月29日,中國國家標準化管理委員會正式發布《信息安全技術個人信息安全規範》(以下稱“《安全規範》”),1月24日,國家標準全文公開系統正式對外公佈規範全文,並將於2018年5月1日起實施。 《安全規範》以國家標準的形式,明確了個人信息的收集、保存、使用、共享的合規要求,為網絡運營者制定隱私政策及完善內控提供了指引。

《安全規範》的具體規定

相關法律概念

《安全規範》在《網安法》已有的原則性規定的基礎上針對網絡運營者在實踐中關注的具體問題,明確了相關法律概念的具體定義。

首先,關於個人敏感信息,2013年實施的《信息安全技術公共及商用服務信息系統個人信息保護指南》將個人敏感信息定義為在遭受洩露或修改後會對個人信息主體造成不良影響的個人信息,同時建議各行業個人敏感信息的具體內容根據接受服務的個人信息主體意願和各自業務特點確定。 《安全規範》則在定義中進一步強調了個人敏感信息被洩露、非法提供或濫用可能危害人身、財產安全,致使個人名譽、身心健康受到損害或歧視性待遇等嚴重後果,並在附錄B中給出了個人敏感信息的具體示例,銜接了《網安法》第二十一條規定的數據分類義務。

其次,關於個人信息的收集,《安全規範》將個人信息主體主動提供、網絡運營者自動採集以及從第三方間接獲取等三種方式定義為“收集”,同時規定了例外情形,在終端獲取個人信息但不回傳至運營者服務器的,不屬於“收集”。

最後,關於個人信息的匿名化與去標識化,《安全規範》將兩者區別開來,經匿名化處理後的信息無法復原,也不再屬於個人信息之列;而去標識化處理則保證了個人信息在不借助額外信息的情況下,無法識別信息主體,但依舊保留了個人顆粒度,採用假名、加密、哈希函數等手段替代了原有個人信息的標識。此外,去年8月15日,《信息安全技術個人信息去標識化指南》徵求意見稿發布,內容涉及去標識化的過程及技術應用等,目前已在送審階段,網絡運營者在落實個人信息去標識化工作時值得借鑒。

個人信息的收集

《安全規範》規定個人信息收集應遵循合法性要求和最小化要求,其中,間接獲取個人信息的授權同意要求和收集個人敏感信息的明示同意要求值得關注。

在間接獲取個人信息時,作為接收方的企業有義務要求提供方對相關個人信息的來源進行說明並確認其合法性,同時還應當了解個人信息主體對於提供方的授權範圍,包括使用目的、個人信息主體是否授權同意轉讓、共享、公開披露等內容,若接收方處理個人信息超出上述範圍的,還應在合理期限內另行徵得個人信息主體的明示同意。確立間接收集個人信息的授權同意模式是《安全規範》有關個人信息收集部分的亮點之一,這一模式強化了信息接收方的審查義務,增加了相應的合規成本。

在收集個人敏感信息方面,首先,《安全規範》在《網安法》的基礎上進一步要求個人信息主體的明示同意是其在完全知情的基礎上自願給出的、具體的、清晰明確的願望表示;其次,若個人信息控制者收集個人敏感信息用於其產品或服務的核心業務功能,則應當明確告知信息主體其所提供的核心業務功能、所需收集的個人敏感信息和個人信息主體的選擇權三項內容;最後,若個人信息控制者收集個人敏感信息用於其他附加功能的,則應當明確告知具體的附加功能和個人信息主體的選擇權,但拒絕附加功能所需的個人敏感信息並不意味著核心業務功能的停止提供。

個人信息的分享

在委託第三方處理個人信息時,除委託行為本身不得超出個人信息主體授權同意的範圍之外,《安全規範》還明確規定,個人信息控制者應當開展個人信息安全影響評估,並採取合同約定責任義務、審計等方式對受託者進行監督,保證準確記錄和保存受託者處理個人信息的情況。

關於個人信息的共享與轉讓,《安全規範》同樣規定了個人信息控制者的安全影響評估義務,同時個人信息控制者應當向個人信息主體告知共享、轉讓個人信息的目的、數據接收方類型,涉及個人敏感信息的,還應當告知敏感信息的類型、數據接收方的身份和安全能力等,在事先徵得個人信息主體明示同意後方可共享或轉讓。此外,個人信息控制者需準確記錄和保存個人信息共享和轉讓情況,承擔因共享、轉讓個人信息對信息主體合法權益造成損害的法律責任。因併購、​​重組等發生控制主體變更的,應當單獨向個人信息主體告知有關情況。

關於個人信息的跨境傳輸,《安全規範》要求個人信息控制者應按照網信辦會同相關部門製定的標准進行安全評估。根據去年4月發布的《個人信息和重要數據出境安全評估辦法(徵求意見稿)》,網絡運營者在數據出境前應自行組織數據出境安全評估,並對結果負責,若含有或累計含有50萬人以上個人信息以及由關鍵信息基礎設施對外提供個人信息的,還應報請行業主管或監管部門組織安全評估。去年8月30日由全國信息安全標準化技術委員會公佈的《信息安全技術數據出境安全評估指南(徵求意見稿)》(以下稱“《評估指南》”)同樣值得關注,《評估指南》明示了數據出境安全評估的使用範圍及例外,細化個人信息及重要數據的類型,增加了網絡運營者個人信息出境的告知義務,區分安全自評估與主管部門評估流程,為個人信息控制者俱體落實個人信息跨境傳輸提供了參考依據。

安全管理要求

《網安法》自實施以來,賦予了網絡運營者諸多安全保護義務,其中之一便是製定內部安全管理制度和操作規程,落實網絡安全保護責任,具體到《安全規範》中,主要包括三個方面。第一,應當明確責任部門與人員,根據《安全規範》,在業務、人員規模、個人信息處理量等方面滿足特定條件的個人信息控制者,應設立專職的個人信息保護負責人和工作機構以便個人信息安全工作的具體實施,防止個人信息的洩露、損毀、丟失。第二,應當構建人員管理與培訓制度,根據《安全規範》,個人信息控制者應當與從事個人信息處理崗位的員工簽署保密協議並進行背景審查,明確相關崗位的安全職責和發生安全事件後的處罰機制,同時定期開展專業化培訓和考核,確保相關員工掌握隱私政策和規章流程。第三,應當開展個人信息安全影響評估與審計製度,評估個人信息處理過程中可能產生的風險與不利影響,形成評估報告以供相關方查閱,同時建立自動化審計系統,監測記錄個人信息處理活動,及時處理審計過程中個人信息違規使用、濫用等情況。

結語

《安全規範》的正式發布結束了《網安法》實施以來個人信息保護原則性規定較多而具體措施欠缺的局面,解答了廣大互聯網企業的困惑,其在附錄部分更是製作了個人信息主體授權同意的功能界面和隱私政策的模板,使得網絡產品和服務的提供有了完備的合規和風控政策。雖然《安全規範》編號顯示為國家推薦標準,但在實踐中,去年網信辦、工信部、公安部等四部門開展的隱私政策評審工作主要以《安全規範》徵求意見稿為依據,今年年初網信辦就年度賬單事件約談支付寶時,也再次強調了《安全規範》的準據效力,上述事件均從側面反映了《安全規範》對於完善個人信息保護製度的重要性。廣大網絡運營者應發力個人信息的收集、保存、使用、分享等多個方面,完善內部管理與隱私政策制定,以應對趨於嚴格的監管形勢。

Source:  http://new.qq.com/omn/20180201/20180201B07GLP.htm

Informationized Warfare : Chinese Military to Focus on Winning the Whole War via A New People’s War // 信息化作战政治工作:着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版

信息化作战政治工作:着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版

Informationized Warfare : Chinese Military to Focus on Winning the Whole War via A New People’s War

The military field is the most dynamic field. Innovation is the most important and the most conservative. Facing the transformation of war formation, combat methods, command mode, and winning mechanism under informatized conditions, the in-depth exploration of the mechanism of the informatized warfare political work is not only an important content and concrete embodiment of the theme of practicing political work, but also a focus on playing the role of lifeline. Reality needs and urgent tasks.

The Practical Challenges in the Political Work of Informatization Warfare

With the rapid development of information technology, modern warfare has accelerated to “information + intelligence”, and the battlefield environment, combat strength, and combat methods have undergone profound changes. Our military’s political work has embraced a broad arena of innovation and development, and has also encountered many new era issues.

The purpose of the strategic game is limited, and there are more political considerations. In today’s era, the multipolarization of the world, economic globalization, and the development of social informatization have made in-depth development. The international community has increasingly become the community in which you and I have you. Restricted by multiple factors such as international conventions, international public opinion, and moral norms, conflicts and confrontations that occur worldwide are tend to be decentralized and localized. Information-based warfare is no longer a “zero-sum” game in which you died in the past. The center of strategic guidance is to control the war situation and achieve political goals; it is no longer the same as the mechanized war that uses all the armed forces to accomplish one battle, fight or not, and when to fight. How to fight, to what extent, must be subordinated to serving political needs.

Deep application of information technology, the connotation of quality requirements is more extensive. The use and development of information technology does not and can not change people as the decisive factor of war, and the quality of the personnel involved in the war is increasing. The adversary’s high-tech weapons are even more advanced, and there will be “dead spots” on their own. How to accurately find their “Achilles’ heel” and strike the system’s vitals requires the commander to have superb strategic wisdom. The informationization of weapons and equipment is even higher, and it is impossible for them to spontaneously display their abilities. How to realize the integration of man-machine and the maximum effectiveness of the weapons in their hands requires the combatants to have excellent information literacy. High-intensity confrontation and high-intensity damage have brought great shocks to the mind and body of the combatants. How to deal with calmness and countermeasures, and the need for officers and soldiers to have a stable psychological quality.

The use of diversity in the strength of participating in the war is aggravating the task of concentrating on God. The “platform center” for future operations gives way to the “system center,” and integrated joint operations have become the basic form. Only when all combat elements, units, and systems are “finished by fists” can the system’s operational effectiveness be exerted. The “physical space” of land, sea, and air and the “intangible space” of the network’s electromagnetic cognition coexist and coexist, presenting a “multidimensional space + point battlefield” form. Only with the overall situation and linkage between the two cities, can localized advantage be the battlefield. It is difficult and difficult to coordinate the military, operational elements, and command levels. Only by enhancing the “adhesion” between combat modules can a comprehensive performance of 1+1>2 be achieved.

The belligerence of warring targets is even harder to achieve. Under the conditions of informatization, an important symbol of victory in war is to conquer the will of the opponent. This is not only a confrontational contest in the morale of the military, but also a struggle for the influence of political opinion and public opinion. No one, no sound, and intangible are becoming the main forms of informatized warfare. Unmanned combat forces gradually replace the living forces on the battlefield. Invisible weapons such as electromagnetic guns and laser bombs gradually replace traditional firearms that use chemical gunpowder energy as a damage mechanism. Far away from long-range strikes, they gradually replaced near-meeting fighters, and the two sides of the battle rarely saw face to face. It can be foreseen that in the future battles, public opinion contests, psychological confrontation, and jurisprudential competition will increasingly become the “second battlefields” in real terms, and both the importance and the difficulty will be increased.

Accurate and quick combat operations, follow-up service requirements are higher. Breakthroughs in major technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and quantum cryptography have enabled combat to evolve from a “technical decision tactic” to a “technical decision strategy.” Under the support of intelligence, reconnaissance, and communications, “one missile Destruction of a command building system breaks into reality; “attack window” or “engagement opportunity” sensitivity is measured in minutes and seconds. “1 minute decides the battle outcome, 1 hour decides the outcome of the battle, and 1 day determines the national destiny” . In the past, the tactics of “human sea tactics”, “melee night warfare” and “permanent warfare” that were often used in warfare were difficult to display, and the corresponding traditional methods of wartime political work were not improved. There is no way out.

The Inherent Requirements for the Implementation of Informationized Political Work Organization

Compared to mechanized warfare, informatized warfare, the most significant and most fundamental change in the win-win mechanism lies in the informatization of technological forms, the combat warfare systemization, and the convergence of information flow to dominate the energy flow of material flows. As an integral part of the military system, our military’s political work must adapt to the objective needs of the change in the winning mechanism of war, and carry out innovative changes from the concept of command, organizational form to operational mechanisms, methods and means, and promote the highly integrated traditional advantages and information technology, and use data. The chain reinforces the lifeline and strengthens vitality with information.

To adapt to the characteristics of information-based operations and political constraints and multi-party linkages, political work must take care of the overall situation and the control bureau in planning guidance. The political attributes of war fundamentally restrict the military objectives, the scale of forces, the choice of strategies, and the development of the war situation. Our military’s political work in wartime is the ideological work and organization work of the Party during its military operations. The fundamental task is to ensure the implementation of the strategic intentions of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission in combat operations. The first thing in organizing political work is to strengthen the political consciousness, overall awareness, command awareness of the officers and men, especially the commanders at all levels, and insist on the realization of the strategic intentions of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, and the Chairman Xi as the highest goals, and implement the Chairman of the Executive Committee. The command orders of the Central Military Commission and the Central Military Commission are fundamental requirements, and are resolutely obeying the strategic goals of serving the party and the country. They call the fight, stop, and stop. They do not blindly pursue pure military results, open a good game, control a good game, and collect a good game.

To adapt to the characteristics of confrontation and element integration in the informationized combat system, political work must be integrated into the system and implemented as one. Information warfare relies on information networks to integrate all types of combat elements, units, and systems, and its ability to form depends on the degree of coupling of the architecture. Only when the political work is integrated into the big system and combines, permeates, and penetrates into the entire process of warfare, can it play a better role. It is necessary to strengthen the “combination” of structural functions, adapt to the requirements of the flat modularization synthesis, and achieve convergence with the joint operations command organization; strengthen the “combination” of decision-making and commanding, and change the decision of relatively independent and self-contained systems in the past. Command mode, synchronized with the military command research, deployment and deployment; strengthen the organization’s implementation of the “melting”, close to combat tasks and processes, so that the task is released, the situation together feedback, plans to adjust together, performance one And assess it to ensure that it interacts and interacts with military operations and complements each other.

To adapt to the characteristics of information-based combat information leadership and network integration, political work must be based on networks and data support. The core of successful informatization operations is to seize the right to information. In the era of big data, we must explore the formation of a new model of “political work + information network” and strive to achieve a transformation from “under the net political work” to “online political work”, occupy the main position of the information network, and seize the commanding heights of the network political work; “Transformation to “Information and Political Work”, good at relying on information means to carry out political work, with the help of information network automatic retrieval, intelligent identification, auxiliary decision-making and other functions to quickly obtain, analyze and process ideological information; from “extensive political work” to “precise political work”, Emphasize the development and application of combat data in political work, dynamically update and improve the operational database, real-time understanding of the ideological and psychological responses of officers and men, supplementation of battle wounds, and implementation of battlefield disciplines, so as to provide a scientific and reliable reference for decision-making and commanding.

To adapt to the three-dimensional, intangible, and unbounded nature of information-based operations, political work must expand its scope and leverage efficiency in content and means. The warfare space for informatized warfare has changed from “three-dimensional” to “multi-dimension,” and the scope of the battlefield has expanded from the “physical domain” to the “cognitive domain.” It is necessary to intensify the idea of ​​big political work, and to establish an organic unified, full-dimensional global coverage of the dot and line surface. Political work network. It is necessary to form a joint force for the main body and open up the link of political work command, organization, and coordination at all levels and levels to achieve vertical penetration, horizontal interaction, and overall linkage; to form a joint force for all personnel, to exert the “adhesion” role of the joint command mechanism, and to launch action battles. The Party, cadres and other elements of intelligence, reconnaissance, early warning, and safeguarding work together to carry out ideological and political work; form a joint force between the military and the land, and link forces, families, and society through sound policy systems, clear responsibilities in the military, and perfect coordination mechanisms. Gather the positive energy of the same direction.

To adapt to the characteristics of instantaneous warfare and rapidity in informationized operations, political work must be changed from time to time in time and effect. The combat under mechanized conditions is “big eating,” and the battle in the information age is “fast eating.” Future operations, especially the sea-air battles, will have fast time-to-space transitions, rapid changes in offensive and defensive rhythms, and rapid development of the battlefield. The key to “winning and winning” lies in “first-in-class” and the opportunity to seize opportunities. It is necessary to fully pre-research the premise, analyze the complex and difficult situations that may occur in the trial and combat operations according to the overall operational objectives, study and formulate countermeasures for prevention and decisive treatment, optimize the work flow, use the command network platform function, and strengthen the up-and-down linking and left-right contact. Reducing the level and streamlining the texts and electricity; paying attention to the command of the front, the political cadres deep in the battle position, in-depth officers and soldiers, the integration of zero, see the pin, timely and effective disposal of critical situations, resolve contradictions.

Informationized Warfare Political Work Service to Guarantee the Fighting Force

By interpreting the winning mechanism of modern warfare, we can more clearly recognize that the excellent tradition of political work that our army has formed in the war years and the practice of building the military is still an important guarantee for winning the victory of informationized operations; at the same time, we must follow the characteristics of informationized warfare. We must seize the key factors that affect the ability to control the system’s operations, identify the path of action, and give meaning to the times, strengthen the unique political advantage of our party and our army, and increase the contribution rate to combat effectiveness.

Focus on the joint victory to enhance the leadership of the party committee. The leadership of party committees is not only a concrete embodiment of the party’s absolute leadership over the army in combat, but also an important guarantee for winning the battle. The key to adhering to and exerting this institutional advantage lies in transforming information into decision-making power, cohesion into systemic power, and innovating ways and means of improvement. To strengthen the authority of unified leadership, all major issues concerning the directionality and overall orientation of warfare must be collectively studied and decided by the party committee. In particular, the joint party committee should be given leadership over all actions and personnel in the war to ensure that the order of military order is unimpeded. Strengthen the scientific nature of the deliberative decision-making, pay attention to improving the party members’ information literacy, fully absorb the opinions and suggestions of the commanders and technical experts of the armed forces, and in particular, strengthen the dynamic control of military affairs, public opinion, and public opinion so as to ensure that the decision-making conforms to the combat operations and the actual conditions of the army. Strengthen the timeliness of implementation, the first time to organize the transmission of higher order instructions, follow up the implementation of the armed forces to implement the situation, in particular, according to operational needs to give front-line commanders the right to dispose, to ensure that in case of accidents can respond quickly and properly.

Focus on the will to win the battle to improve the effectiveness of the incentive. “One is not afraid of suffering and the other is not afraid of death” is the revolutionary background and spiritual business card of our military. To win informatized warfare, we must reflect on the mental and physical characteristics and realistic thinking of the new generation of officers and men and work hard to build an inseparable “spiritual Great Wall.” Concerning the quality of connotation, we adhere to the unity and unity of unconsolidated operations, focusing on strengthening the education of revolutionary heroism and inspiring the bloody nature of the “one man, one shot, and fighting in the end.” They also pay attention to guiding officers and men to strengthen their awareness of intellect, scientific attitudes, and collaborative concepts. The wisdom and enthusiasm to play the maximum effectiveness of system operations. In terms of behavioral norms, we insist on unification of education counseling and discipline, not only focusing on well-targeted education and ideological work on one person but one thing, but also on strict battlefield rules and regulations to ensure that all parties, regardless of adversity or adversity, can be loyal and dedicated. Policy-oriented, adhere to the unity of spiritual rewards and material comfort, not only focus on activities such as the creation of meritorious service, fire line into the party and other activities, stimulate the sense of responsibility of defending national interests, but also pay attention to solve the actual problems of officers and soldiers to lift the worries of the future.

Focus on intelligence to improve the accuracy of manpower deployment. Adhere to the individual allocation and group deployment, commanding key and technical experts, both internal potential and leveraging local complementary, so that ahead of the pre-positioning, positioning positioning, rapid supplementation, in order to win the battle to provide a strong support of personnel. Focusing on the needs of the system’s operational capability, in accordance with the principle of matching people’s positions, we attach importance to the backbone of operational forces and front-line military cadres, and also attach importance to the essential elements of safeguard elements and reserve force cadres to ensure that each combat system, operational unit, and operational element are fully occupied. member. Focusing on the needs of key combat elements, we will continue to focus on focusing on key forces. In particular, we must match the combatants and technical backbones of some key and critical positions and use the best steel in cutting edge. Focusing on the needs of combat support, we will use well-reserved talents around the joint deployment of forces, and focus on the integration of military and civilian security personnel as needed. We will use local intelligence to effectively leverage local high-end talents to achieve the integration of wartime military and human resources.

Focus on moral accomplishment and make a good political attack. Public opinion warfare The psychological warfare legal war runs through every aspect of strategy, battle, and battle, permeates all aspects of politics, economy, and diplomacy, and becomes a special combat style for the confrontation of the informatized war system. In the future operations, we must carry forward the good traditions of our military’s essay attacking and fighting against the armed forces. We must emphasize both the will to convey and the moral interpretation in terms of content. We must focus on both the heavy blows and the people’s hearts to fight for the target. We must take the initiative and make heavy moves in the tactics. In order to fully publicize the just legitimacy of our military operations, we should create a world-famous international and domestic public opinion situation, use war laws and international laws to guide the international public opinion and public opinion, actively seize public opinion, morality, and legal system, ensure the military There is no point in political victory.

Focus on the overall victory to build an upgraded version of the People’s War. The people’s war has always been an important magic weapon for our army to defeat the enemy. Under the new situation, we should focus on the characteristics of the intensification of large-scale informatization and warfare, and based on all-dimensional support, we must do a good job of mobilizing for participation in the war. Change from spontaneous support to legal support, coordinate local party committees and governments, supervise agencies at all levels, social organizations, economic entities, and citizens, fulfill their obligation to participate in warfare in accordance with the law, and do a good job of recruiting people, collecting materials, and expropriation of equipment and facilities. . From direct support to forward network transformation, China will have hundreds of millions of Internet users, mobile Internet users, and Weibo users. We will organize the masses to carry out economic warfare and cultural warfare in information warfare, and invite relevant experts to conduct long-distance consultations on technical support. . From material support to advance science and technology support, and around combat support requirements such as operational reconnaissance and early warning, command communications, and meteorological and hydrological resources, mobilize all kinds of scientific and technological forces to cooperate with information operations, assist in the maintenance of weapons and equipment, and military installations, and lay a strong science and technology potential in the private sector. Turn into war power. (General Political Department Organization Department)

Original Mandarin Chinese:

军事领域是最具活力的领域,最需创新,最忌保守。面对信息化条件下战争形态、作战方式、指挥模式和制胜机理的嬗变,深入探究信息化作战政治工作作用机理,既是践行政治工作时代主题的重要内容和具体体现,也是聚焦打仗发挥生命线作用的现实需要和紧迫任务。

  信息化作战政治工作面临的现实挑战

随着信息技术迅猛发展,现代战争加速向“信息化+智能化”演进,战场环境、作战力量和作战方式发生深刻变化。我军政治工作既迎来创新发展的广阔舞台,也遇到许多新的时代课题。

战略博弈目的有限,政治考量因素更多。当今时代,世界多极化、经济全球化、社会信息化深入发展,国际社会日益成为你中有我、我中有你的命运共同体。受国际公约、国际舆论、道德准则等多重因素制约,世界范围内发生的冲突与对抗趋于分散化、局部化。信息化战争不再是过去你死我活的“零和”博弈,战略指导的重心在于控制战局、达成政治目的;不再像机械化战争那样动用全部武装力量毕其功于一役,打还是不打、什么时候打、怎么打、打到什么程度,都要服从服务于政治需要。

信息技术深度应用,素质需求内涵更广。信息技术的运用和发展,没有也不可能改变人是战争的决定性因素,而对参战人员的素质需求越来越高。对手的高新武器再先进,自身也会存在“死穴”,如何准确找到其“阿喀琉斯之踵”、击其体系要害,需要指挥员具有高超的谋略智慧。武器装备信息化程度再高,也不可能自发其能、自显其威,如何实现人机一体、发挥手中武器的最大效能,需要战斗员具有过硬的信息素养。高强度对抗、高烈度毁伤,给参战人员身心带来巨大震撼,如何做到冷静应战、不自乱阵脚,需要官兵具有稳定的心理素质。

参战力量运用多元,凝神聚力任务更重。未来作战“平台中心”让位于“体系中心”,一体化联合作战成为基本形式。只有把各作战要素、单元和系统“攥指成拳”,才能发挥体系作战效能。陆海空天“有形空间”与网络电磁认知“无形空间”交织并存,呈现出“多维空间+点战场”形态,只有整体布势、联通联动,才能化局部优势为战场胜势。参战军种、作战要素、指挥层级之间协同要求高、难度大,只有增强作战模块之间的“粘合度”,才能实现1+1>2的综合效能。

交战对象隐身遁形,攻心夺志致效更难。信息化条件下,战争制胜的重要标志就是征服对方意志,不仅是军心士气的对抗较量,还体现在对政情民意和社会舆论的影响争取。无人、无声、无形正在成为信息化战争的主要形态,无人化作战力量逐步取代战场上的有生力量,电磁炮、激光炸弹等隐形兵器逐步取代以化学火药能为毁伤机理的传统火器,超视距远程打击逐步取代近战搏击,作战双方几乎见不到面。可以预见,未来作战中舆论较量、心理对抗、法理争夺日益成为名副其实的“第二战场”,重要性与艰难度都空前加大。

作战行动精准快捷,跟进服务要求更高。大数据、云计算、物联网、量子密码等重大技术的突破,使作战由“技术决定战术”发展为“技术决定战略”;在情报、侦察、通信等各要素的支撑下,“1枚导弹摧毁1栋指挥大楼”式体系破击成为现实;“攻击窗口”或“交战机会”时敏性以分秒计算,“1分钟决定战斗结局,1小时决定战局胜负,1天决定国家命运”。过去战争中经常运用的“人海战术”“近战夜战”“持久作战”等战法难以施展,相应形成的战时政治工作传统做法不加以改进,未来作战中就可能陷入融不进、跟不上、够不着的困境。

信息化作战政治工作组织实施的内在要求

信息化战争相对机械化战争,制胜机理最显著最本质的变化在于技术形态信息化、作战对抗体系化,信息流聚合主导物质流能量流。我军政治工作作为军事系统的有机组成部分,必须适应战争制胜机理变化的客观需要,从指挥观念、组织形式到运行机制、方法手段等进行创新变革,推动传统优势与信息技术高度融合,用数据链加固生命线,以信息力强化生命力。

适应信息化作战政治制约、多方联动的特点,政治工作在筹划指导上必须关照全局、把向控局。战争的政治属性,从根本上制约着军事目的、力量规模、策略选择和战局发展。我军战时政治工作是党在军队作战期间的思想工作和组织工作,根本任务是保证党中央、中央军委战略意图在作战行动中的贯彻落实。组织开展政治工作第一位的是,强化官兵尤其是各级指挥员的政治意识、全局意识、号令意识,坚持把实现党中央、中央军委和习主席战略意图作为最高目的,把贯彻执行习主席和军委命令指示作为根本要求,坚决服从服务于党和国家战略目标,叫打就打、叫停就停,不盲目追求单纯军事效果,开好局、控好局、收好局。

适应信息化作战体系对抗、要素集成的特点,政治工作在组织指挥上必须融入体系、一体实施。信息化作战依托信息网络融合各类作战要素、单元和系统,其能力的形成依靠于体系结构的耦合度。政治工作只有融入大体系,结合、贯穿、渗透到作战各领域全过程,才能更好地发挥作用。要强化结构功能上的“融”,适应扁平化模块化合成化要求,做到与联合作战指挥机构相契合相衔接;强化决策指挥上的“融”,改变以往相对独立、自成体系的决策指挥模式,做到与军事指挥同步研究、部署和展开;强化组织实施上的“融”,紧贴作战任务和进程,做到任务一并下达、情况一并反馈、计划一并调整、绩效一并评估,保证与军事行动交融交互、相辅相成。

适应信息化作战信息主导、网聚效能的特点,政治工作在运行方式上必须基于网络、数据支撑。信息化作战制胜的核心在于夺取制信息权。在大数据时代,必须探索形成“政治工作+信息网络”的新模式,努力实现由“网下政工”向“网上政工”转变,占领信息网络主阵地,抢占网络政治工作制高点;由“传统政工”向“信息政工”转变,善于依托信息手段开展政治工作,借助信息网络自动检索、智能识别、辅助决策等功能快速获取、分析和处理思想信息;由“粗放政工”向“精确政工”转变,重视政治工作作战数据开发运用,动态更新完善作战数据库,实时掌握官兵思想心理反应、战伤战损补充、战场纪律执行等情况,为决策指挥提供科学可靠参考。

适应信息化作战全维立体、无疆无界的特点,政治工作在内容手段上必须拓展领域、借力增效。信息化战争作战空间由“三维立体”向“多维一体”转变,战场范围由“物理领域”向“认知领域”延伸,需要强化大政工理念,构建点线面有机统一、全维全域覆盖的政治工作网络。要形成主体合力,打通各层级各部位政治工作指挥、组织、协调等环节链路,实现纵向贯通、横向交互、整体联动;形成全员合力,发挥联合指挥机制“粘合”作用,发动作战、情报、侦察、预警、保障等各要素党员干部,齐心协力开展思想政治工作;形成军地合力,通过健全政策制度、明确军地职责、完善协调机制等方式,把部队、家庭、社会衔接起来,汇聚同心同向的强大正能量。

适应信息化作战瞬时交战、以快制快的特点,政治工作在时机时效上必须因时而动、以变应变。机械化条件下的作战是“大吃小”,信息化时代的作战则是“快吃慢”。未来作战特别是海空交战,时空转换快,攻防节奏变化快,战场态势发展快,“胜一筹”关键在于“先一筹”,把握良机重在抢占先机。应当充分预研预置,根据总体作战目标,分析研判作战中可能发生的复杂困难情况,研究制定预防和果断处置的对策措施;优化工作流程,利用指挥网络平台功能,加强上下贯通、左右联系,减少层级、精简文电;注重靠前指挥,政治干部深入战位、深入官兵,化整为零、见缝插针,及时有效地处置危急情况、化解矛盾问题。

信息化作战政治工作服务保证战斗力的实现途径

透析现代战争制胜机理,可以更加清晰地认识到,我军在战争年代和建军实践中形成的政治工作优良传统,仍然是赢得信息化作战胜利的重要保证;同时要遵循信息化作战的特点规律,抓住影响制约体系作战能力的关键因素,找准作用路径、赋予时代内涵,强固我党我军特有政治优势,提高对战斗力的贡献率。

着眼联合制胜增强党委领导驾驭力。党委领导作战,既是党对军队绝对领导在作战中的具体体现,也是夺取作战胜利的重要保证。坚持和发挥这一制度优势,关键是围绕信息力转化为决策力、内聚力转化为体系力,创新改进方式方法。强化统一领导的权威性,凡属有关作战方向性、全局性的重大问题,必须由党委集体研究决定,尤其要赋予联合党委对作战中一切行动和人员的领导权,确保政令军令畅通。强化议事决策的科学性,注重提高党委成员信息化素养,充分吸纳部队指挥员和技术专家的意见建议,尤其要加强对军情、民意和社会舆论的动态掌握,确保决策符合作战行动和部队实际。强化贯彻执行的时效性,第一时间组织传达上级命令指示,跟进掌握部队贯彻落实情况,尤其要根据作战需要赋予一线指挥员临机处置权,确保遇有意外情况能够快速反应、妥善应对。

着眼意志制胜提高战斗激励实效性。“一不怕苦、二不怕死”,是我军的革命底色和精神名片。打赢信息化战争,必须针对新一代官兵身心特征和现实思想反映,着力构筑牢不可摧的“精神长城”。内涵特质上,坚持孤胆作战与团结协作相统一,既注重加强革命英雄主义教育,激发“一人一枪、战斗到底”的军人血性,又注重引导官兵强化智谋意识、科学态度、协同观念,靠集智聚力发挥体系作战的最大效能。行为规范上,坚持教育疏导与纪律约束相统一,既注重搞好针对性教育和一人一事的思想工作,又注重严明战场法纪,确保无论顺境还是逆境都能忠贞不渝、献身使命。政策导向上,坚持精神奖励与物质抚慰相统一,既注重通过开展立功创模、火线入党等活动,激发捍卫国家利益的责任感荣誉感,又注重关心解决官兵实际问题,解除后顾之忧。

着眼智力制胜提升人力配置精确度。坚持个体配置与群体调配相适、指挥骨干与技术专家并重、内部挖潜与借力地方互补,做到超前预置、定岗定位、快速补充,为赢得作战胜利提供强有力的人才支持。紧盯体系作战能力需求,按照人岗相宜的原则,既重视作战部队、一线部队干部骨干配备,也重视保障要素、后备力量干部骨干配备,确保每个作战系统、作战单元、作战要素齐装满员。紧盯关键作战要素需求,坚持重点力量重点配备,尤其要把一些关键要害岗位的战斗员、技术骨干配强,把好钢用在刀刃上。紧盯伴随作战保障需求,围绕力量联动编配使用好预备役人才,着眼军地联保按需引进综合保障人才,立足智力联用有效借力地方高端人才,实现战时军地人才资源一体共享。

着眼道义制胜打好政治攻势主动仗。舆论战心理战法律战,贯穿于战略、战役和战斗各个层面,渗透到政治、经济、外交各个方面,成为信息化战争体系对抗的一种特殊作战样式。未来作战中,要发扬我军文攻武战的好传统,内容上既重意志传达又重道义阐释,对象上既重兵心打击又重民心争取,战法上既重主动出招又重见招拆招,全面宣传我军事行动的正义性合法性,营造师出有名的国际与国内舆论态势,巧用战争法、国际法,引导国际民心和舆论走向,积极抢占舆论、道义和法理制高点,确保军事上打得赢、政治上不失分。

着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版。人民战争始终是我军克敌制胜的重要法宝。新形势下,应着眼信息化战争大体系大纵深大消耗的特点要求,立足全维支援抓好参战支前动员。由自发支前向依法支前转变,协调地方党委政府,督导各级机关、社会组织、经济主体和公民,依照法律规定履行参战支前义务,做好人员征召、物资征集、装备设施征用等工作。由直接支前向网络支前转变,发挥我国拥有几亿网民、手机网民和微博用户的庞大资源,组织人民群众开展信息战中的经济战文化战,邀请有关专家对技术保障进行远程难题会诊。由物质支前向科技支前转变,围绕作战侦察预警、指挥通信、气象水文等战斗力保障需求,动员各种科技力量配合信息作战、协助维修武器装备和军事设施,把蕴藏在民间的强大科技潜力转化为战争实力。(总政治部组织部)

Original Post Here:

http://military.people.com.cn/n/2015/1113/

Strategic Thinking on Ensuring Ideological & Political Security of Chinese Army // 中國軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

Strategic Thinking on Ensuring Ideological & Political Security of Chinese Army //

中國軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

 

Network era, the information exchange to break the official and civil, military and local boundaries, our army should continue to play the advantages of mobilization, open our army ideological work a new situation. The people are the most extensive and powerful forces involved in the ideological struggle. Our army strives for the dominance of the online ideological struggle. It can not rely solely on the power of propagating and defending the departments. We must also make the people’s faction and stir up the people’s war of online ideological struggle. Our army should play a good mobilization advantage, attract the participation of the masses, and guide the direction of public opinion.

The United States “how to influence China’s national strategy and military strategy,” the report said, “the Internet is our main battle with the Chinese Communist Party.” Western military power has long been the online public opinion struggle into the military strategy, is committed to creating a new network of combat forces.

Military Army: Strategic Thinking on Ensuring the Ideological and Political Security of Our Army

The United States since 2003 in the war in Iraq for the first time to implement the strategic psychological warfare, have made a network war theory update and actual inspection of the record; recently, the US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced the Department of Defense new network action strategy report, For example, the United States and Russia have been able to use the information warfare forces to form a “civil army”, demonize the “invading country” regime, from the “invading country” internal disintegration of its national will, To achieve their own strategic objectives. At present, the United States with the Internet technology and cultural hegemony to develop Internet rules, selling political system and cultural ideas, leading the direction of ideological struggle; our military in the key information infrastructure construction, network impact in a weak, facing control, Shaped, interpreted, tagged dilemma, cyberspace security coping overall is still hovering at the tactical level non-strategic level. In the era of media, cyberspace has become the second “living space” of mankind. Our army should be in danger and know ourselves, and attach great importance to the study of cyber ideology struggle strategy and compete for the initiative of online ideological struggle.

1, take the initiative to force the Sword, to seize the high ground of ideological struggle

 

The Internet is the main battlefield of ideological struggle. The main battlefield failed to master the initiative, decided in the field of ideology in the passive situation. In recent years, including the United States, including Google, Apple, “the eight King Kong” all-round penetration into the network space in China through the opening of the “back door” for the US government to provide information, and pervasive way to push me Western values; , Support the “elite” voice, so that with the help of the Internet openly for the Western head; continuous technological innovation, by virtue of “shadow Internet” and other means to circumvent me

Network control system to support Hong Kong “accounted for” and other subversive separatist activities; leading issues set for China’s military development has been intensive throw “China’s military threat theory”, “China’s spy activities,” “Sino-US military conflict theory” and “South China Sea navigation freedom” and other issues, from the academic, public opinion on me completely suppressed.

In contrast to our military, there are still used in the theoretical study of fried rice, in the propaganda work instilled the preaching, stereotyped in the discourse system, often in the subject matter when the aphasia, weak and weak in the supervision of the phenomenon, not only cause my mainstream ideology Spread the dilemma, but also for the hostile forces to attack my ideological position left a gap. Network ideological struggle, such as against the current sailing,

In the face of the aggressive challenges of the United States and the West, the attack is more advantageous than the defense. Our army must recognize the seriousness of the threat of online ideology and face the above-mentioned deficiencies. Through the all-round change of the thinking idea and working mode, initiative.

The first stage to try to reverse our army passively cope with the situation, lay the online ideological struggle “fighter war”. China is currently the most important strategic opponents of cyber space in the United States, the United States will undoubtedly be its core technology, hegemony and other positions to prevent clinging, want to catch up with its core technology in the short term is not feasible. Our army should not only have the courage to fight the Sword, but also learn to “dance with the wolf”, on the one hand should focus on the matter, in the face of Western issues when the attack in a timely manner to respond, one said, change the traditional conservative ideology work concept, , To avoid the main network-like attitude, or another way to transfer is not conducive to our military wave of public opinion, beware of the Chinese story was misinterpreted, misreading; on the other hand can identify the opponent’s weaknesses, pain hard, propaganda interpretation of the Western scandal, Democratic system malpractice, judging the plight of capitalist development. Learn from the opponents of the struggle, give full play to the role of capitalist countries, in the foreign media, business operations, cooperation and cultural exchanges in the promotion.

The second stage is based on my main counterattack, lay the ideological struggle of the Internet “position war.” The use of the first stage of the development of technology development opportunities, and vigorously promote technological innovation, can bypass the United States and other Western countries accounted for overwhelming advantages of the technical barriers to achieve such as quantum communications technology monopoly, relying on the new platform to implement the ideological strategy to counter; To maintain national ideological security from the traditional security field to the field of cyberspace extension, and actively establish a network space cooperation with other countries, based on Chinese cultural traditions, value system and military practice, to build beyond the West, in line with China’s actual discourse system for the international community Innovative discourse, for our army modernization, national defense policy and the military system name.

2, to support the legislation, to the superiority of the people to achieve the mainstream ideology of soft conquest

 

Hard power is the fundamental support of soft power, Western ideology has been able to prevail in the world, the key lies in the capitalist countries generally developed economy, people’s living standards are higher, and the key to the upsurge in the Soviet Union is the national economy almost collapse, political Cleaning loss of people, social contradictions continue to intensify. Revolutionary war years, our army suffered inside and outside the attack, but resist the West “peaceful evolution”, the fundamental reason is that when our ideological work to do the “inner saints outside the king.” Reflection of the current, part of the unit and the individual army is not strict, improper words and deeds, misconduct, weakened the army combat effectiveness, discredited the image of the army, for those who have ulterior motives attacked my system, leaving the relationship between the party and the party left a mess, as hostile forces To achieve its political purpose to provide a convenient space.

In addition, the value orientation and behavior of the composition of the officers and men are undergoing profound changes. Once the loss of their trust is caused by the corruption of the military, it is easy to cause the ideal and the landslide, which opens the gap for the infiltration of the West. For a period of time, our army dealing with the behavior of anomorphosis often lost in the wide, lost in the soft, especially Guo Boxiong, Xu Caihou case hit the officers and men “three view”, while the United States to intensify the push of the bourgeoisie to build the military concept, To carry out the deterrence, attack our army unique advantages, which makes our ideological work into a double dilemma. Network era information cohabitation, the face of hostile forces deliberately slander more need “their own hard”.

Our army should play a good way to put forward the traditional advantages of truth, first put the facts, and then tell the truth, to an open and inclusive attitude to the Internet users to monitor the military and the Internet to achieve good interaction, and as a driving force to improve the style Adhere to the line of words and deeds; adhere to the network space management and the reality of space norms both hands, the military’s own problems, neither whitewash short and not allowed to make rumors, eliminate negative thoughts, the root causes of public opinion, to our military good image against Western attack penetration, Enhance the mainstream ideology of inspiration.

3, to network network, to enhance our ideological struggle of the network thinking

 

The development of the Internet has spawned all-round changes in social structure, way of thinking and behavior. In the face of online ideological struggle, our army must accurately grasp the changes in the mechanism of competition. The network originated in the West, grew up in the West, the West not only has a comparative advantage in technology, but also highly compatible with the Internet culture, cloud computing, large data, artificial intelligence and other technologies are the first breakthrough in the West, the network center war and other Internet operations concept by the US military The first proposed, the Internet “rules of conduct” is also dominated by the West, the United States is the world’s major sources of information. And our army in the online ideological struggle is still at a disadvantage, such as can not keep up with the Internet age changes, will fall into a completely passive situation.

At present, our army has a strong desire and motive to make a good “network gateway”, and the problem of planning breakthroughs in online ideological struggle is basically clear, but it still lacks the organic integration of “Internet + ideological struggle” and can not really grasp the struggle The right to speak. In the face of the grim situation of online ideological struggle, our army needs an Internet “brainstorming”, and comprehensively enhance the ability of online ideological security. To break the core technology monopoly as the main focus, breaking the United States to contain my “life door”, the construction of its own information transmission system and network security protection system, and strive to lead the innovation and technology around the world, lay the ideological “backhand” But also the Internet communication requires creative thinking, the first machine awareness, platform operation and action ability, but also to promote the development of the Internet, but also to promote the development of the Internet, The barracks should follow the trend, as soon as possible to develop a variety of network broadcast and other media, try to mainstream cultural communication embedded in creative industries.

4, close the rule of law cage, remove the online ideological position “noise”

 

The development of new media technology to open the “everyone has a microphone,” the law of the times of transmission changes, public opinion, more difficult to control, thinking more and more intense competition, but according to the law of the network network did not follow the footsteps.

The current urgent problem is: the phenomenon of my ideological security is widespread, part of the hostile forces openly clamoring, the Western hostile forces not only in my territory to cultivate “well known” “big V”, the purchase of network water army, organization of cults, Extreme forces and other extreme anti-communist elements into the network of public opinion, resulting in a variety of hazards to national and military security information is full of network information platform.

At present, the army information construction in full swing, our army for the new media management legislation process is lagging behind, the network regulation system is not perfect, the lack of norms of online ideological struggle, part of the behavior of the ideological security is illegal, how to deal with the language is not detailed.

On the one hand, the normal ideological control is often misinterpreted as restricting freedom of speech. Once used by hostile forces, it may cause the military officers and soldiers to fluctuate, leading to further deterioration of the situation. On the other hand, due to the lack of relevant norms, Or even often for a small number of wrong acts “pay”, resulting in ideological murmur is not cleared, over time, the ideological institutions of the credibility of a serious decline in the military and the state may also fall into the “Tacitus trap.”

Online ideological struggle from the value of the political system of confrontation, but may be expressed as “to ideology” of public opinion and popular culture. Information in the cyberspace “fission” propagation. The process does not rule out the ulterior motives of the individual groups add oil and vinegar, fueled. Therefore, to win the ideological struggle on the Internet, our army should maintain the ideological security issues in accordance with the law into a strategic position, consolidate the military environment, improve domestic legislation, and resolutely combat the behavior of moral hazard, and create a good online public opinion ecology.

First, the height of the overall national security to promote the legislative amendment, focusing on the norms of cultural transmission in the field of “rent-seeking” phenomenon, management loopholes, powers and responsibilities unclear, poor supervision and other issues to ensure that the work of law, There must be law.

Second, according to the law, the frequent dissemination of bad information on the implementation of accurate monitoring of the site, according to the law should be ordered to rectify the deadline for the threat of ideological security, the negative information according to the law to remove. Third, strict enforcement of law enforcement, illegal research, to endanger our ideological and ideological security of the implementation of full-time monitoring, the spread of negative public opinion of the organization, individuals and the performance of poor supervision departments, resolutely according to law, Outside the earth, the formation of the rule of law deterrence.

5, pay attention to the integration of military and civilian, launched the ideological struggle of the people of the war

 

Historically, our army in combat and the implementation of military missions before the fighting to mobilize, to boost morale to stimulate morale, while fighting for a wide range of mass support. Whether it is mobilization speech, news propaganda or brief loud fighting slogans, lively forms of literature and art, have played an indelible role, so that our army justice, civilization, the image of mighty people, for our army to integrate military resources, The people’s war laid a good foundation.

Network era, the information exchange to break the official and civil, military and local boundaries, our army should continue to play the advantages of mobilization, open our army ideological work a new situation. The people are the most extensive and powerful forces involved in the ideological struggle. Our army strives for the dominance of the online ideological struggle. It can not rely solely on the power of propagating and defending the departments. We must also make the people’s faction and stir up the people’s war of online ideological struggle. Our army should play a good mobilization advantage, attract the participation of the masses, and guide the direction of public opinion.

At the same time, we should use a good network platform, the use of good hidden in the people of the huge energy, the patriotic enthusiasm of the Internet users to the positive grooming, the formation of the mainstream ideology of the sea, so that our army fortress indestructible, so that hostile forces abroad quit. The integration of military and civilian people can effectively break the problem of insufficient strength of our army in the ideological struggle of the Internet. First of all, lack of platform construction led to the voice of our army can not pass, the situation can not open. In recent years, our army in the dissemination of platform construction is still inadequate. Our military is currently more influential several news sites updated slowly, the news content is still biased towards the traditional propaganda, preaching, the emerging military-related information is also due to the existence of the above problems, so that “lack of capacity” and our army in New media, the use of new platforms often “half a beat”.

We should strengthen cooperation and cooperation with local government media and private media. At the same time, from the media University, well-known enterprises, network celebrities invited experienced people, regular exchange training, absorption of media construction advanced experience, accelerate the improvement of network-related military guidance platform, to create a group of audiences wide visible High-quality brand media. Second, the network crisis on the lack of capacity led to our army often aphasia. At present, the construction of our military space space is limited, staffing is insufficient, leading to information monitoring, filtering capacity is limited, the negative information of the army once fermented for public opinion, relying on the existing technical means and human resources will be difficult to effectively deal with, will make me The military is caught in the unfavorable situation of online ideological struggle.

Therefore, our military should strengthen cooperation with local functional departments to strengthen military and field network engineers to develop information monitoring software and filtering system, so that malicious spread of the rhetoric difficult to spread. At the same time, a wide range of local talent for the use of our military, while absorbing veterans into the local ideological work team, jointly cultivate a group of political excellent, new thinking, technical fine, skilled public opinion analysis, public opinion, network supervision Authoritarian network administrator team, the formation of the people’s war indestructible trend.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡時代,信息交互打破了官方和民間、軍隊和地方的界限 ,我軍應繼續發揮動員優勢,打開我軍意識形態工作新局面。人民群眾是參與意識形態鬥爭最廣泛、最強勁的力量,我軍爭取網上意識形態鬥爭主導權,不能只依靠宣傳保衛部門的力量,還必須做好軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭。我軍要發揮好動員優勢,吸引群眾參與,引導輿論走​​向。
美國《如何影響中國的國家戰略和軍事戰略》報告稱,“互聯網是我們與中共交鋒的主戰場”。西方軍事強國早已將網上輿論鬥爭納入軍事戰略,致力於打造網絡新型作戰力量。

軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

美國自2003年在伊拉克戰爭中首度實施戰略心理戰始,相繼取得了網絡戰理論更新和實戰檢驗的豐碩戰績;近期,美國國防部長阿什頓·卡特公佈了國防部新版網絡行動戰略報告,首次將威懾作為網絡戰略的關鍵部分;在混合戰爭中,美俄軍隊已能熟練運用信息戰力量組建“公民大軍”,妖魔化“侵略國”政權,從“侵略國”內部瓦解其國家意志,實現自身戰略目的。當前,美西方借助網絡技術和文化霸權制定國際互聯網規則,兜售政治制度和文化理念,主導意識形態鬥爭的方向;我軍則在關鍵信息基礎設施建設,網絡影響方面處於弱勢,面臨被把控、被塑造、被闡釋、被標籤化的困境,網絡空間安全應對總體仍盤旋於戰術層面非戰略層面。全媒體時代,網絡空間已成為人類“第二生存空間”,我軍須居安思危、知己知彼,高度重視研究網上意識形態鬥爭應對策略,爭奪網上意識形態鬥爭主動權。

 

1、主動爭鋒亮劍,搶占網上意識形態鬥爭制高點

 

互聯網是意識形態鬥爭主戰場。主戰場上未能掌握主導權,決定了我國在意識形態領域處於被動接招的態勢。近年來,包含谷歌、蘋果在內的美“八大金剛”全方位滲透到我國網絡空間,通過開“後門”為美國政府提供情報,並無孔不入地向我推送西方價值理念;培養“第五縱隊” 、扶植“精英”發聲,使之借助互聯網影響力公然為西方張目;持續技術創新,憑藉“影子互聯網”等手段規避我

網絡防控體系,支持香港“佔中”等顛覆分裂政權活動;主導議題設置,針對中國軍力發展先後密集拋出“中國軍事威脅論”“中國諜報活動猖獗論”“中美軍事衝突論”以及“南海航行自由”等議題,從學術上,輿論上全面對我壓制。

反觀我軍,仍存在在理論研究上習慣炒冷飯、在宣傳工作中灌輸說教、在話語體系上刻板陳舊、在議題應對時屢屢失語、在監管打擊時疲軟乏力等現象,不僅造成我主流意識形態的傳播困境,也為敵對勢力攻擊我意識形態陣地留下缺口。網絡意識形態鬥爭如逆水行舟,不進則退。

面對美西方咄咄逼人的挑戰,進攻比防禦更具優勢,我軍必須認清網上意識形態威脅的嚴峻性,正視上述不足,通過思維理念和工作方式的全方位變革,贏得網絡先機,爭取戰略主動。

第一階段要竭力扭轉我軍被動應付局面,打好網上意識形態鬥爭“殲擊戰”。中國是目前美國在網絡空間最主要的戰略對手,美無疑會對其核心技術、霸權地位等嚴防死守,想要短期內赶超其核心技術並不可行。我軍不僅要勇於爭鋒亮劍,也要學會“與狼共舞”,一方面應著力於就事論事,面對西方議題攻擊時及時回應、有一說一,改變傳統保守的意識形態工作理念,扭轉以遮掩、迴避為主的涉網態度,或另闢蹊徑轉移不利於我軍的輿論潮,謹防中國故事被曲解、誤讀;另一方面可找准對手弱點、打痛打狠,宣傳解讀西方醜聞,揭​​露西方式民主制度弊端,評判資本主義發展困境。借鑒對手鬥爭手法,充分發揮資本主義國家的作用,在境外媒體、商業運作、合作交流中進行文化推廣。

第二階段是以我為主展開反擊,打好網上意識形態鬥爭“陣地戰”。利用第一階段製造的技術發展機遇期,大力推動技術創新,可繞過美國等西方國家佔壓倒性優勢的技術關卡,實現諸如量子通信領域的技術壟斷,依托新平台實施意識形態戰略反擊;把維護國家意識形態安全由傳統安全領域向網絡空間領域延伸,積極與他國建立網絡空間合作關係,立足中國文化傳統、價值體系和軍事實踐,構建超越西方、符合我國實際的話語體系,為國際社會提供創新性話語,為我軍現代化建設、國防政策和各項軍事制度正名。

 

2、力行支撐立言,以人民軍隊優越性實現主流意識形態軟征服

 

硬實力是軟實力的根本支撐,西方意識形態之所以能在全球佔據上風,關鍵在於資本主義國家經濟普遍發達、人民生活水平較高,而蘇東劇變的關鍵則在於國民經濟幾近崩潰、政治清洗喪失民心、社會矛盾不斷激化。革命戰爭年代,我軍遭遇內外夾擊,卻抵禦了西方“和平演變”,根本原因就在於當年我軍的意識形態工作做到了“內聖外王”。反思當前,部分單位和個人治軍不嚴、言行不當、行為不端,削弱了軍隊戰鬥力,抹黑了軍隊形象,為別有用心之人抨擊我制度、離間黨群關係留下了把柄口實,為敵對勢力實現其兵不血刃的政治目的提供了便利空間。

此外,官兵成分結構價值取向和行為方式正在發生深刻改變,一旦因軍內風氣敗壞導致他們信任的喪失,便容易造成理想信念滑坡,等於為西方滲透打開了缺口。相當一段時期內,我軍處置行為失範事件時往往失之於寬、失之於軟,尤其是郭伯雄、徐才厚案件重創官兵“三觀”,同時美西方加緊推送資產階級建軍理念、展示軍事實力進行震懾、攻擊我軍特有優勢,這使我軍意識形態工作陷入雙重困境。網絡時代信息魚龍混雜,面對敵對勢力的蓄意詆毀更需要“自身硬”。

我軍應發揮好擅長擺事實講道理的傳統優勢,先擺好事實,再講清道理,以開放、包容的態度正視網民對軍隊的監督實現與網民的良好性互動,並以此為動力改進作風、規範言行;堅持網絡空間治理與現實空間規範兩手抓,對軍隊自身問題,既不粉飾護短又不允許造謠抹黑,消除負面思潮、輿論產生的根源,以我軍良好的形象抵制西方攻擊滲透,增強主流意識形態感召力。

 

3、以網治網,提升我軍意識形態鬥爭的網絡思維

 

互聯網的發展催生了社會結構、思維方式、行為方式的全方位改變,面對網上意識形態鬥爭,我軍必須準確把握人心爭奪機理的變化。網絡發源於西方、成長於西方,西方不僅在技術上有比較優勢,而且與互聯網文化高度契合,雲計算、大數據、人工智能等技術都由西方率先突破,網絡中心戰等互聯網作戰概念由美軍率先提出,互聯網“行為規則”也由西方主導,美國是全球主要信息源。而我軍在網上意識形態鬥爭中仍處於劣勢,如不能跟上網絡時代變化,將會陷入徹底被動的局面。

當前,我軍對過好“網絡關”的願望和動機日趨強烈,籌劃網上意識形態鬥爭須重點突破的問題也基本清晰,但仍缺乏“互聯網+意識形態鬥爭”的有機融合,難以真正掌握鬥爭話語權、主動權。面對網上意識形態鬥爭的嚴峻態勢,我軍需要一場互聯網“頭腦風暴”,全面提升網上意識形態安全應對能力。要以打破核心技術壟斷為主要著力點,突破美國遏制我的“命門”,建設自有信息傳輸系統和網絡安全防護系統等,爭取以創新技術領跑全球,打好意識形態“反手仗”,以創新驅動取代亦步亦趨,以技高一籌破除西方霸權;要增強我軍網上意識形態工作創意思維,我軍一向強調穩紮穩打、步步為營,然而互聯網傳播要求創意思維、先機意識、平台運作和行動能力,軍營應緊跟潮流,盡快發展網絡直播等多種傳播媒介,嘗試將主流文化傳播嵌入創意產業。

 

4、關緊法治籠子,清除網上意識形態陣地“雜音”

 

新媒體技術的發展開啟了“人人都有麥克風”的時代傳播規律發生變化,輿情監管難度加大,思維爭鋒愈加激烈,但依法管網治網的腳步卻未跟緊。

當前一個緊迫的問題就是:危害我意識形態安全的現象普遍存在,部分敵對勢力公然叫囂,西方敵對勢力不僅在我境內大力栽培“公知”“大V”,收買網絡水軍,組織邪教、民運宗教極端勢力等極端反共分子進入網絡輿論場,致使各種危害國家和軍隊安全的信息大量充斥於網絡信息平台。

當前,軍隊信息化建設如火如荼,我軍針對新媒體管理的立法進程卻相對滯後,涉網法規制度不健全,網上意識形態鬥爭缺乏規範,對部分危害意識形態安全的行為是否違法、如何處理語焉不詳。

一方面,正常的意識形態管控往往被曲解為限制言論自由,一旦為敵對勢力所利用則可能引起我軍官兵思想波動,導致事態進一步惡化;另一方面,由於缺乏相關規範,對涉事個人群體的處理往往不了了之,甚至經常為少數錯誤行徑“買單”,致使意識形態雜音得不到清除,久而久之,意識形態工作機構公信力嚴重下降,軍隊和國家也可能陷入“塔西佗陷阱”。

網上意識形態鬥爭起於價值理念、政治制度的對抗,卻可能表現為“去意識形態化”的公共輿情和大眾文化。信息在網絡空間內“裂變式”傳播。過程中不排除別有用心的個人群體添油加醋、推波助瀾。因此,打贏網上意識形態鬥爭,我軍應把依法維護意識形態安全問題擺到戰略位置,整肅涉軍網絡環境,完善國內立法,堅決打擊危害意識形態安全的行為,創造良好網上輿論生態。

一是站在總體國家安全的高度推動立法修法,重點規範文化傳播領域目前存在的“尋租”現象、管理漏洞、權責分割不清、監管不力等問題,確保各項工作有法可依、有法必依。

二是依法監管,對經常散播不良信息的網站實施精準監測,依法責令限時整改,對於涉嫌威脅意識形態安全的負面信息依法屏蔽刪除。三是執法從嚴、違法必究,對危害我軍意識形態安全的信息實行全維全時監測,對惡意散佈負面輿論的組織、個人和履行監管職責不力的部門,堅決依法處理,不留法外之地,形成法治震懾。

 

5、注重軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭

 

歷史上,我軍在作戰和執行軍事任務前都要進行戰鬥動員,以鼓舞士氣激發鬥志,同時爭取廣泛的群眾支持。不論是動員講話、新聞宣傳還是簡短響亮的戰斗口號、生動活潑的文藝形式,都發揮了不可磨滅的作用,使我軍正義、文明、威武的形象深入人心,為我軍整合軍地資源、發動人民戰爭奠定了良好基礎。

網絡時代,信息交互打破了官方和民間、軍隊和地方的界限,我軍應繼續發揮動員優勢,打開我軍意識形態工作新局面。人民群眾是參與意識形態鬥爭最廣泛、最強勁的力量,我軍爭取網上意識形態鬥爭主導權,不能只依靠宣傳保衛部門的力量,還必須做好軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭。我軍要發揮好動員優勢,吸引群眾參與,引導輿論走​​向。

同時,要運用好網絡平台,運用好潛藏於民的巨大能量,把網民愛國熱情向正面疏導,在民間形成主流意識形態汪洋大海,使我軍內部堡壘堅不可摧,使境外敵對勢力知難而退。軍民融合還能有效破解我軍在網上意識形態鬥爭中力量陣地不足的問題。首先,平台建設不足導致我軍聲音傳不出、局面打不開。近年來,我軍在傳播平台建設上仍存在不足。我軍目前較有影響力的幾家新聞網站更新緩慢,新聞內容依然偏向傳統的宣傳、說教,新興的涉軍微信公眾號也因存在上述問題,以致“吸粉”能力不足,並且我軍在新媒體、新平台的使用方面常常“慢半拍”。

應加強與地方官媒、民營媒體的交流合作,合作建設。同時,從傳媒大學、知名企業、網絡名人中邀請經驗豐富的人士,定期組織交流培訓,吸收媒介建設先進經驗,加速改進網絡涉軍輿論引導平台,爭取打造一批受眾廣泛可看性強、可信度高的品牌媒體。其次,網絡危機對能力不足導致我軍屢屢失語。目前,我軍網絡空間力量建設有限、人員配備不足,導致信息監測、過濾能力受限,涉軍負面信息一旦發酵為輿情,單靠現有的技術手段和人力資源將難以有效處理,將使我軍陷入網上意識形態鬥爭的不利境地。

因此,我軍應加強與地方職能部門合作,加強軍地網絡工程師合作研發信息監測軟件和過濾系統,使惡意散佈的不實言論難以擴散。同時,一面廣泛吸收地方人才為我軍所用,一面吸納退役軍人進入地方意識形態工作隊伍,聯合培養一批政治過硬、思維過新、技術過精,能熟練進行輿情分析、輿論引導、網絡監管的專製網絡管理員隊伍,形成人民戰爭堅不可摧之勢。

Author: 作者:王明哲 軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究中心

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) // 中華人民共和國2017年上半年互聯網安全報告

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) //

中華人民共和國2017年上半年互聯網安全報告

1 Internet security situation is grim, to develop network security is imperative

At the same time, the Internet security has become more and more important. In 2014, the central network security and information leading group was formally established, Xi Jinping personally as head of the country and the government’s attention to the degree of network security is evident. In the central network security and information leading group at the first meeting, Xi Jinping first proposed “network power” strategy, “no network security is no national security”, network security is a relationship between national security and sovereignty, social stability, national culture The important issue of inheritance and development. Its importance, with the pace of global information to accelerate and become more and more significant. “Home is the door”, security issues without delay.

In China, the network has entered the tens of thousands of households, the number of Internet users in the world, China has become a network power. The Internet has been deeply involved in all aspects of people’s lives. According to a survey on the information of the public, students and white-collar groups of Internet usage has been close to 100%, more than Jiucheng college students and white-collar groups the most important information access channel for the Internet. Internet users on the Internet to conduct the main news, learning, real-time communication, social networking and all kinds of leisure and entertainment. In the era of universal networking, Internet users how to ensure network security? How does an enterprise network effectively defend against cyber attacks? These have become important issues that countries, governments and the security industry are facing and need to address as soon as possible.

From the domestic “dark cloud Ⅲ” virus, to sweeping the global “WannaCry” extortion virus, and then to “Petya” malignant devastating virus, all that the current network security situation is grim, corporate security vulnerable, vigorously develop the network Security is imperative.

2 to strengthen the network security construction, lack of talent need to improve the current situation

Although China has become a big country network, but there is distance from the network power. Trojans and botnets, mobile Internet malicious programs, denial of service attacks, security vulnerabilities, phishing, web tampering and other network security incidents have occurred, the basic network equipment, domain name systems, industrial Internet and other basic infrastructure and critical infrastructure is still facing Greater security risks, strengthen the network security construction is imminent.

At the same time, the shortage of network security personnel in China is in urgent need of improvement. As a network power, China in addition to research and development of computer equipment to enhance the speed of network transmission, but also should step up the cultivation of computer information security personnel, so that China from the network power into a network power, which is to enhance China’s information security important basis.

Network security has risen to the national strategy, the state is also vigorously invested to promote the construction of network security. But do a good job of network security is not an organization, a department of things, but the need for the participation of the whole society. From the city of Wuhan issued “on the support of national network security personnel and innovation base development policy measures” invested 4.5 billion construction funds, to June 1, 2017 formally implemented the “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law”, are for network security Healthy, steady development and make efforts. We also call for the social responsibility as a safe enterprise, institutions, individuals actively into the network security building, for the country, the national network security protection contribute a force.

3 Tencent to promote the establishment of China’s first strongest Internet security matrix

Tencent security has 17 years of capacity accumulation and 800 million users of large data operating experience, is China’s leading Internet security products, security services provider. In the spirit of “open, joint, shared” concept, will accumulate years of ability and data sharing to partners, is committed to the Internet security and open platform construction, enhance the security of the Internet security industry chain, enhance user safety awareness, and jointly promote China’s Internet security Environmental construction.

At present, Tencent has promoted the establishment of China’s first Internet security matrix, covering the basic security of the laboratory matrix, security product matrix, security, large data platform matrix, and Internet security open platform matrix, committed to China’s Internet security new ecological construction, open core competencies And data for China’s Internet security and ecological construction unremitting efforts.

First, the overall status of network security scan

1.1 affect the world’s six major network security incidents, the cumulative impact of the world

1.1.1 WikiLeaks CIA top secret file leak event

March 7, 2017, WiKiLeaks announced thousands of documents and revealed the CIA on the hacker hacking technology, Mobile phones and smart TVs, but also can invade attacks on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, and even control smart cars to launch assassination activities. Outside the name of the leak event named Vault 7, Vault 7 published confidential documents recorded by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) conducted by the global hacker attacks.

Vault7 contains 8761 confidential documents and documents, which documents the CIA for Android and Apple smart phones developed by the intrusion crack technology details, some of which can also get the complete control of the target device. WikiLeaks founder A Sangqi said the document shows the “CIA network attack the overall ability”, and WikiLeaks in the release of these documents claimed that “CIA network armory has been out of control.”

1.1.2 Shadow Broker Public NSA (US National Security Agency) Hacker Arsenal

On April 14, 2017, Shadow Brokers published a large number of very destructive hacking tools used by the Equation Group in the NSA (National Security Agency) on steemit.com, including You can remotely break the global about 70% of the Windows machine vulnerability exploit tools. Anyone can use NSA’s hacker weapons to attack someone else’s computer. Among them, there are ten tools most likely to affect Windows personal users, including eternal blue, eternal king, eternal romance, eternal collaboration, emerald fiber, eccentric hamster, Eskimo volume, elegant scholar, eclipse wings and respect review. Hackers do not need any operation, as long as the network can invade the computer, like shock waves, Sasser and other famous worms can instantly blood wash the Internet.

1.1.3 “WannaCry” extortion virus broke out in the world on May 12th

May 12, 2017, “WannaCry” (want to cry) bitbell blackmail virus in the global outbreak, the event affected more than 150 countries and regions, more than 10 million organizations and institutions and more than 30 million Internet users, the total loss Up to more than 500 billion yuan. Including hospitals, educational institutions and government departments, without exception, suffered an attack. Blackmail virus worms in conjunction with the way the spread of the attack is a large-scale outbreak of the important reasons.

User’s most obvious symptoms after poisoning is the computer desktop background is modified, many files are encrypted lock, the virus pops up prompted the user to the relevant bit coin address transfer $ 300 in order to unlock the file. At present, security companies have found ways to restore encrypted files.

1.1.4 FireBall Fireball virus infected more than 250 million computers

June 1, 2017, foreign security agency Check Point reported that the outbreak of a “FireBall” virus abroad, and claimed that more than 250 million computers worldwide are infected, the most affected countries are India (10.1%) and Brazil (9.6%). The United States has 5.5 million computers in the move, accounting for 2.2%. In the infected business network, India and Brazil accounted for 43% and 38% respectively, compared with 10.7% in the US.

This malware will force the browser home page to its own website and search engine, and redirect the search results to Google or Yahoo. These forged search engines track user data and secretly collect user information. The author of this virus for the production of China’s Rafotech company, the company’s Web site has been unable to visit.

1.1.5 “dark cloud” series virus upgrade to “dark cloud III” again struck

June 9, 2017, Tencent computer housekeeper detected, as early as 2015 was first discovered and intercepted killing the “dark cloud” virus resurgence, upgrade to “dark cloud Ⅲ”, through the download station large-scale transmission, at the same time through Infected disk MBR boot boot, the number of infected users has reached millions.

After the upgrade of the “dark cloud Ⅲ” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates, and its function is currently downloaded to promote malicious Trojans, lock the browser home page, tampering to promote navigation page id. Once the user in the move, the computer will become a “broiler” to form a “botnet”, and the use of DDoS attacks built on a cloud service provider platform chess class site, resulting in the site access becomes abnormal card slow.

1.1.6 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

June 27, 2017, a new round of extortion virus “Petya” attacked a number of countries in Europe, including Ukraine, Russia, India, Spain, France, Britain, Denmark and other countries have been attacked, the governments of these countries, Banks, enterprises, power systems, communications systems and airports are affected by different procedures.

This virus is more destructive than “WannaCry”, the virus on the computer’s hard disk MFT encryption, and modify the MBR, so that the operating system can not enter. According to the relevant analysis, said the information on the boot interface even if the information provided to the hackers is no way to decrypt, therefore, had to doubt the “Petya” the real purpose of the virus. “Petya” is more like a purposeful attack, the target can not repair the devastating attack, rather than extortion for the purpose.

1.2 “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law” formally implemented

June 1, China’s first comprehensive standard of cyberspace security management of the basic law – “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law,” the formal implementation of a total of seven chapters seventy-nine, the content is very rich, with six outstanding highlights. One is clear the principle of cyberspace sovereignty; the second is clear the network products and service providers of security obligations; third is clear the network operator’s security obligations; four is to further improve the personal information protection rules; five is the establishment of the key Information infrastructure security protection system; six is ​​to establish a key information infrastructure important data cross-border transmission rules.

At the same time the new law also pointed out that should take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. The implementation of the new law marks the network security of China from the law, cyber space management, network information dissemination order norms, cybercrime punishment and so forth will open a new page, to protect China’s network security, safeguarding the overall security of the country has far-reaching and significant The meaning of.

1.3 The size of Internet users in China is equivalent to the total population of Europe, the safety gap of up to 95%

1.3.1 Chinese Internet users reached 731 million, equivalent to the total population of Europe

As of December 2016, the scale of Internet users in China reached 731 million, the penetration rate reached 53.2%, more than the global average of 3.1 percentage points, more than the Asian average of 7.6 percentage points. A total of 42.99 million new Internet users, the growth rate of 6.2%. The size of Chinese Internet users has been equivalent to the total population of Europe.

1.3.2 mobile users continue to grow, the proportion of mobile phone users accounted for 95.1%

As of December 2016, China’s mobile phone users reached 695 million scale, the growth rate of more than 10% for three consecutive years. Desktop computers, notebook computers are using the decline in the number of mobile phones continue to squeeze the use of other personal Internet devices.

1.3.3 security talent gap is huge, up to 95%

Although the number of Internet users in China has been ranked first in the world, but China’s information security industry in the very few people, security personnel and its lack. According to relevant information, in recent years, China’s education and training of information security professionals only 3 million people, and the total demand for network security personnel is more than 700,000 people, the gap up to 95%. 710 million Internet users in China network security issues, has become the industry and the country to solve the problem.

Beijing Institute of Electronic Science and Technology, vice president of the Ministry of Education of Higher Education Information Teaching Committee of the Secretary-General Fenghua pointed out that the current important information systems and information infrastructure in China need all kinds of network information security personnel will be 15,000 per year The rate of increase, by 2020 the relevant talent needs will grow to 1.4 million. But at present, only 126 colleges and universities in China have set up 143 network security related professionals, accounting for only 10% of the 1200 science and engineering institutions.

Analysis on the situation of network virus threat in the first half of 2017

2.1 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory PC-side virus interception over 1 billion, the chain by 30%

2.1.1 Trojan horse intercepts an average of nearly 170 million times per month

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory statistics show that PC-side total has blocked the virus 1 billion times, the overall number of viruses compared to the second half of 2016 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to intercept the number of viruses increased by 30% Interception Trojan virus nearly 170 million times. April, June to intercept the peak of the virus, interceptions are 180 million times.

2017 Q2 quarter compared to 2016 Q2 quarter, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory virus blocking an increase of 23.7%. From 2014 to 2017 Q2 season, the amount of virus blocking the number of malicious programs increased year by year.

2.1.2 PC users in Guangdong, the highest number of poisoning, poisoning peak for the morning 9-11 points

2.1.2.1 found a total of 230 million times in the first half of the user machine Trojan virus 

The first half of 2017 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory found a total of 230 million times the user machine Trojan virus, compared to the second half of 2016 down 0.5%, an average of 38.8 million poisoning machines per month for virus killing. 2017 Q2 quarter compared to Q1 quarter, a slight increase in the number of poisoning machines.

In the second quarter of 2017, the number of users in the second quarter of 2016 increased by 3% compared with the same period in the second quarter of 2016. From 2015 to 2017 Q2 season, the number of poisoning machine growth trend is obvious, was increasing year by year state.

2.1.2.2 PC end user poisoning peak for the morning 9:00 to 11:00

According to statistics, the peak time of daily poisoning for the morning 10 am – 11 am, in line with business and ordinary users 9 am – 11 am to open the computer processing work of the law. This time the user poisoning virus type is more use of e-mail, sharing, etc. spread Office document macro virus, indicating that the office security situation is still grim.

2.1.2.3 PC end poisoning user provinces up to Guangdong, which ranks first in Shenzhen

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to monitor the number of poisoning PC statistics, from the urban distribution point of view, the Internet is more developed city users poisoning situation is heavy, the country ranked the first city to intercept the virus in Shenzhen City, accounting for 3.76% , The second for the Chengdu City, accounting for 3.57% of all interceptions, the third for the Guangzhou City, accounting for 3.39% of all interceptions.

From the provincial geographical distribution, the largest number of PC poisoning in Guangdong Province, accounting for 13.29% of the total intercept, the second in Jiangsu Province, accounting for 7.75% of all interceptions, the third in Shandong Province, accounting for all Intercept the amount of 7.12%.

2.1.3 The largest virus category accounted for 53.8% of the Trojan virus, blackmail virus added 13.39%

2.1.3.1 PC-side of the first major virus is still Trojans, PE-infected virus type, but the spread of large

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory 2017 Q2 season to obtain the virus sample analysis, from the virus type, Trojans accounted for 53.80% of the total number, is still the first major virus. Adware class (adware, forced installation, user privacy, spam, etc.) for the second largest virus category, accounting for 39.02% of the total number. Backdoor category for the third largest virus category, accounting for 5.13% of the total number. Compared to the 2017 Q1 quarter, the virus type did not change much.

The number of virus samples from the top of the division, ranked first and second is still the Trojans and Adware class, but ranked third in the PE infection, accounting for 25.07% of the total number.

There are not many types of infectious samples, which is difficult to produce infectious virus, hackers and other programmers need to master the technology, high cost, long development time and other factors. At the same time, the transmission of infectious virus is very large, the survival time is relatively long, therefore, less species of PE infection type in the sample transmission level accounted for a certain proportion, which is due to infection with a wide range of viruses, Fast propagation characteristics.

2.1.3.2 extortion virus sample number Q2 added 13.39%, the first is not WannaCry

The extortion of the virus is the purpose of extortion money for the purpose of making the Trojan horse infected computer user system specified data files are malicious encryption, resulting in user data loss. At present, most of the domestic extortion of the virus by the need to pay the rupiah to be able to decrypt. As the bit currency completely anonymous circulation, the current technical means can not track behind the extortion behind the virus operator, which also makes the extortion virus from 2013 after the explosive growth.

The amount of extortion

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to detect the extortion virus, 2017 in the first half of the total has been found in the number of extortion virus samples in about 300 million, the average monthly detection of the number of extortion virus nearly 500,000, Q2 quarterly extortion virus samples The number increased by 13.39% over Q1 quarter. May, June to intercept the peak of the virus, respectively, 57 million, 530,000.

Extortion virus type

According to the relevant data analysis shows that the May 12 outbreak of the WannaCry extortion virus is the most active in this quarter, the greatest impact on the virus. The virus and other viruses in the way of transmission is significantly different, due to the use of the windows system vulnerabilities, making the virus can spread around the world, as the quarter of the hot safety events. On June 27, a new type of extortion virus called Petya began spreading around the world, and its extortion was similar to WannaCry, but more destructive, directly encrypting the MFT of the user’s hard drive and modifying the MBR, causing the user to fail to windows system.

Although the impact of the virus is large, but from the sample size point of view, the largest or with the spread of infection PolyRansom virus. This virus will be infected, encrypted users of the file to extortion, but because there is no use like WannaCry virus key encryption, but the use of a simple encryption algorithm, and the algorithm is reversible, anti-virus software can help users to restore files, So although the number of samples in the first, but the impact is not great. This type of extortion virus accounted for 78.84% of all extortion virus, we can see the spread of infectious virus strong.

From the sample size point of view, in addition to infectious extortion virus, the first is Blocker, accounting for 36.82% of all extortion virus, the second category is Zerber, accounting for 23.63% of all extortion virus, the third category Is the most affected this quarter, WannaCry extortion virus, accounting for all extortion virus 12.06%. WannaCry virus volume quickly rose to the third position, because the means of communication using the spread of vulnerability.

The current extortion virus mainly uses the following kinds of transmission:

Document infection spread

File infection is the use of infectious virus transmission characteristics, such as PolyRansom virus is the use of infectious virus characteristics, encrypted users all the documents and then pop-up information. Because the PE class file is infected with the ability to infect other files, so if the file is carried by the user (U disk, network upload, etc.) to run on other computers, it will make the computer’s files are all infected with encryption.

Site hanging horse spread

Web site is through the site or the site server to obtain some or all of the authority, in the web page file to insert a malicious code, these malicious code, including IE and other browser vulnerabilities use code. When a user accesses a linked page, a malicious code is executed if the system does not update the exploit patch used in the malicious code.

The virus can also use known software vulnerabilities to attack, such as the use of Flash, PDF software vulnerabilities, to the site with malicious code to add the file, the user with a loopholes in the software to open the file will be executed after the malicious code, download virus.

Using system vulnerabilities

May outbreak of WannaCry is the use of Windows system vulnerabilities to spread, the use of system vulnerabilities is characterized by passive poisoning, that is, users do not have to visit a malicious site, not open the unknown file will be poisoned. This virus will scan with the network vulnerabilities in other PC host, as long as the host is not marked with a patch, it will be attacked.

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind you, timely updates third-party software patches, timely update the operating system patches to prevent known vulnerabilities attack.

Mail attachment spread

The extortion virus that spreads through e-mail attachments usually disguises documents that users need to view, such as credit card spending lists, product orders, and so on. The attachment will hide the malicious code, when the user opens the malicious code will begin to perform, release the virus. This type of camouflage virus is usually sent to enterprises, universities, hospitals and other units, these units in the computer usually save the more important documents, once malicious encryption, the possibility of payment of ransom far more than ordinary individual users.

Network share file spread

Some small-scale spread of extortion virus will be spread through the way the file spread, the virus will upload the virus to the network sharing space, cloud disk, QQ group, BBS forums and other places to share the way to send a specific crowd to trick the download and install The

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind users to download the software go to the official formal channel download and install, do not download the unknown program, such as the need to use the unknown source of the program can be installed in advance Tencent computer housekeeper for security scanning.

2.2 mobile side killing a total of 693 million Android virus, mobile phone users over 100 million

2.2.1 mobile side of the virus package growth trend slowed down, but the total is still 899 million

In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper intercepted Android new virus package totaled 8990000, compared with 2016 in the first half of a small decline, but the total is still very large.

2.2.2 Guangdong mobile users poisoning the most, the number of mobile phone users decreased by 45.67%

2.2.2.1 Tencent mobile phone housekeeper in the first half were killing Android virus 693 million times

In the case of a large number of virus infection users in the case, the first half of 2017 Tencent mobile phone housekeeper killing the virus has reached 693 million times, an increase of 124.24%, the total number of more than double the first half of 2016 more than doubled. Malicious programs and Trojans to reduce the cost of production, virus transmission channel diversification is an important factor in this phenomenon.

In addition to June, the first half of 2017 killing more than 100 million times a month, of which the number of mosquitoes in January up to 136 million times, almost the first half of 2014, 140 million in the killing of the same level.

2.2.2.2 2017 in the first half of the number of mobile phone users over 100 million 

In the first half of 2017, the number of virus infected users was 109 million, down 45.67% year on year, compared with 2015, the first half of 2016 compared to all declined.

January 2017 single month infected users reached 21.66 million, the highest for the first half, then the number of infected users began to slow down.

2.2.2.3 the number of mobile users poisoning Guangdong ranks first

In the infected mobile phone users geographical distribution, Guangdong ranked first, accounting for up to 11.41%.

2.2.3 hooliganism and resources accounted for more than 80%, two-dimensional code is most easy to poison

2.2.3.1 mobile-side virus in the hooliganism and tariff consumption accounted for more than 80%

In the first half of 2017, the proportion of mobile phone viruses, rogue behavior and tariff consumption accounted for the highest, to 44.59% and 44.44% ratio of one or two. Ranked third of the same access to privacy accounted for 5.85%, lodging fraud, malicious deductions, remote control, system damage and malicious spread accounted for 1.94%, 1.55%, 0.80%, 0.74% and 0.08%.

Hooliganism refers to the malicious behavior of a virus that has a rogue attribute. Such as the recent WannaCry virus and once again concerned about the mobile phone lock screen Serbia virus with rogue behavior. This type of virus through the forum paste it and other means to spread, the drug will usually use plug-in, free, brush drill, red envelopes and other words on the Trojan virus packaging, induction users download and install. After the installation of the virus will be forced to lock the phone screen, forcing the victim had to contact the drug maker in order to make the equipment back to normal.

Whether the computer or mobile phone, with rogue behavior of the extortion virus to the user losses are difficult to estimate, if accidentally poisoning, not only will cause property damage, will also lead to loss of important information, so users should be careful to guard.

Tariff is also a common type of mobile phone virus, such a virus usually in the user without the knowledge or unauthorized circumstances, by sending text messages, frequent connections to the network, etc., resulting in user tariff losses. Part of the malicious promotion of the virus to help third-party advertisers to increase traffic for the purpose of the user to download and install the virus, access to mobile portal privileges, the implementation of the download malicious advertising software. These software will continue to push a variety of pop advertising, affecting the user’s mobile phone experience, and even those who will disclose user privacy information, stolen online banking accounts, resulting in serious personal and property safety.

Infected with the world’s ultra-36 million Andrews device malicious ad click software “Judy” is a tariff consumption of mobile phone viruses. The malware is hidden in a Korean tour. After completing the download and install, the infected device will send the information to the target page and automatically download the malicious code in the background and access the advertising link, theft of user traffic, to the user Consumption.

2.2.3.2 two-dimensional code, software bundles are the main source of mobile virus source

Mobile virus channel sources are mainly seven categories, namely, two-dimensional code, software bundles, electronic market, network disk communication, mobile phone resource station, ROM built-in and mobile forum. The diversification and diversification of the entrance of the virus channel also further increases the risk and risk of the user’s exposure.

In the first half of 2017, two-dimensional code became the source of mainstream virus channels, accounting for up to 20.80%. Two-dimensional code in the various areas of the popularity of more and more users to develop a habit of sweeping the random, the drug maker also increased for the two-dimensional code channel virus package delivery ratio. Part of the virus is embedded in the two-dimensional code, as long as swept away will automatically download the malicious virus, ranging from mobile phone poisoning, while the personal privacy information is caused by leakage, resulting in property losses.

Third, anti-harassment fraud effect is remarkable, but the user loss situation is grim

3.1 the first half of the number of spam messages over 566 million, illegal loans over 50%

3.1.1 In the first half of 2017, the total number of spam messages continued to grow close to 600 million

Low spread costs and the existence of a huge chain of interests, resulting in spam messages have been difficult to be effectively remediation, the number of users is also increasing the number of reports. In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper received a total of 586 million copies of spam messages reported by users, an increase of 40.69%, more than 2 times in the first half of 2014.

3.1.2 users to report spam messages up to the provinces of Guangdong, the largest city for Shenzhen

In the geographical distribution of spam messages, the top three provinces that reported spam messages were Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong, accounting for 12.91%, 6.98% and 5.70% respectively. In addition, Henan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hebei, Beijing, Hunan and Shanghai also ranked the top ten. These provinces or municipalities are generally distributed in the eastern coastal and central regions, and densely populated and economically developed are their greatest common ground, which creates favorable conditions for fraudulent bulk spam messages and profiteering.

City, the first half of 2017 users in Shenzhen reported a total of 23.34 million spam messages (accounting for 3.98%), Chengdu, Guangzhou and Suzhou, two to four, the number of spam messages are 10 million level.

3.1.3 2017 first half of the common types of fraud SMS

Although the overall amount of fraud SMS reported a downward trend, but its means of diversification and secrecy makes the dangers of fraud has always been high. According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper to monitor the 28.57 million fraud messages show that illegal loans, online shopping, viral Web site, malicious Web site and pseudo-base station is the highest proportion of several fraudulent SMS type.

One of the illegal loan fraud messages a dominant, accounting for more than 50%. In the modern “room full of things” and rely on home buyers to seek a sense of security in the context of the community, the loan to buy a house has become a major social needs. Liar also keep up with this social pain points, a large number of illegal loans to send text messages, to profit.

3.2 harassing telephone users labeled up to 235 million times, down 27.12%

3.2.1 2017 users in the first half of the total number of harassment calls 235 million times down 27.12%

After the first half of 2015, after the explosive growth in the first half of 2015, the number of harassing telephone marks began to decline year by year in the first half of 2016, and the total number of harassing telephone marks in the first half of 2017 was 235 million, down from the first half of 2016 %.

3.2.2 In the first half of 2017, more than 50% of harassing calls were sounded

User-tagged harassing phone types are divided into five categories. Among them, the sound ranked first, accounting for more than 50%. This kind of harassing phone will not cause serious harm to the user, but will still affect the use of mobile phones, interference users. Phishing calls accounted for 15.14%, ranked second, in addition to advertising sales, real estate intermediary and insurance management also occupy a certain percentage.

3.2.3 harassing telephone calls for the highest proportion of verification code

According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper users take the initiative to report the harassment of telephone malicious clues show that asking for verification code, fake leadership, transfer, online shopping and offense is the most common keywords. Which requires the highest proportion of verification code, nearly 24.74% of the harassing phone, the liar will be through various means to ask for verification code, and verification code as an important private information, once leaked, it is easy to cause property damage.

3.2.4 fraud telephone mark down 59.68% year on year, Beijing up

In the user has been marked 235 million harassing phone, scams like telephone ratio is far less than loud, but its substantial harm caused by the largest. Based on Tencent mobile phone housekeeper user fraud phone tag data show that in the first half of 2017 defraud telephone mark down 59.68%, a total of 35.59 million.

These frauds are targeted at the target area is more clear to the eastern coastal economically developed areas and inland central provinces. On the urban side, Beijing is the largest number of cities with the largest number of fraudulent calls, up to 1.826 million. Shenzhen and Guangzhou, respectively, to 141.8 million and 1.257 million mark the number followed. Shanghai, Xi’an, Changsha, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Chongqing and Wuhan are ranked fourth to ten.

3.3 malicious Web site to intercept up to 47.8 billion, pornographic fraud head of the site

3.3.1 The number of malicious web sites detected in the first half of 2017 exceeded 1.83 billion

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security in the PC and mobile side detected a total of more than 183 million malicious web site, the overall trend of rising volatility. Which in June detected 35.75 million malicious Web site, the highest for the first half, the lowest in April, the number of 25.53 million detection.

3.3.2 Pornography The website is still the main means of committing malicious web sites

In the effective detection of malicious Web site at the same time, the first half of 2017 Tencent security in the PC and mobile side to intercept malicious sites up to 47.8 billion times, equivalent to 265 million times a day intercept. This huge data also further illustrates the grim situation of Internet security.

In Tencent’s securely intercepted malicious Web site, pornographic websites, gambling sites, information scams, malicious files, fake ads and phishing scams are the most widely distributed six categories of malicious Web sites. Which accounted for half of the site of pornography, accounting for 51.98%, pornographic fraud sites will be embedded fraudulent advertising or trick users to pay online. Malicious Web site will also be embedded in the fraud message to spread, to increase the confusion, so users see the text in the URL, should consciously raise vigilance, remember not to click.

3.4 iOS harassment and fraud phone calls fell by about 35%, calendar ads into new harassment

3.4.1 iOS harassment calls and phishing calls appear more substantial decline

In September 2016, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper and Apple introduced a new version of iOS10, the first increase in interception harassment and fraud phone features, effectively alleviate the troubled iPhone users troubled phone problems. Data show that the first half of 2017 iOS users were marked a total of 14.492 million harassing telephone, fraud, telephone 2.196 million times.

From the overall trend point of view, the first half of the iOS harassment phone signs showed a downward trend in the number of signs in January the highest number of 3.195 million times, only 2.0 million in April, the first half of the lowest peak. In contrast, the overall trend of fraudulent phone is more stable. From the above data can be seen, the first half of 2017 harassing telephone and phishing calls have emerged a more substantial decline, which is inseparable from the relevant departments, mobile operators and mobile phone users to work together.

3-4 calendar ads into the third largest harassment of Apple phones

Spam, harassing the phone, calendar advertising has become the main source of iPhone users harassment. Among them, the calendar advertising harassment problem is increasingly serious. 61.1% of users have experienced calendar ads, including gambling ads, real estate advertising, taxi software advertising top three.

3.5 Tencent Kirin system to combat pseudo-base station protection 150 million people

3.5.1 Tencent Kirin system to intercept 230 million fraud messages to protect 150 million people

In the first half of 2017, Tencent Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system for the national users to intercept 230 million pseudo-base station fraud messages, the total impact of the number of 150 million people.

3.5.2 pseudo-base station regional characteristics: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hubei and Hubei provinces up

From the geographical point of view, Tencent Kirin for Sichuan, Shaanxi, Beijing, Hubei, Hunan users to intercept the largest number of fraudulent SMS, the five provincial administrative departments to intercept the number of fraud messages more than 50% of the total.

From the city point of view, the number of intercepting the number of fraud messages Top 10 cities such as Beijing, Chengdu, Xi’an, etc. are almost capital cities or economically developed cities, due to densely populated, urban residents income is higher, by pseudo-base station fraud gang included in the key attack Object.

3.5.3 pseudo-base station crime time characteristics: the most frequent working hours

From the time of committing the crime point of view, pseudo-base station fraud messages sent between 9 am to 19 pm, which in 10 am to 12 pm, 15 pm to 18 pm for the two peaks. It is easy to see that the peak of fraudulent SMS coincides with the daily working hours.

3.5.4 Content characteristics: Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Mobile most “lying gun”

Pseudo-base station SMS type, the points exchange, account abnormalities and bank credit card mention category accounted for close to 90%. These three categories often associated with operators, banks, often points to clear, credit card to mention the amount, account real name, abnormal and other reasons to fraud.

Tencent Kirin intercepted pseudo-base station counterfeit port, counterfeit industrial and commercial bank fraud SMS up to (up to 52%), Top 5 counterfeit port in addition to middle peasants construction of four major banks, as well as operators China Mobile. It is not difficult to see that these “lying gun” business because the user community is huge, business mode, short message is particularly important, so become a pseudo-base station fraud group to simulate the main object to send.

Fake base station SMS reach the user’s operator distribution, China Mobile accounted for 74%, followed by China Telecom (16%), China Unicom (10%).

Fourth, the first half of 2017 safety personnel development progress and results

4.1 “Network Security Law” to promote the comprehensive training of talent

June 1, 2017 from the implementation of the “Internet Security Law” for the first time in the form of legal provisions of the network space security field of personnel requirements, not only reflects the country’s attention to the network of talent, but also for the State Council and the local network The rules of safety personnel training provide the highest level of legal basis.

“Network Security Law” provides that: state support enterprises and institutions of higher learning, vocational schools and other education and training institutions to carry out network security-related education and training, to take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. Network security personnel not only include technical talent, but also management talent. The current network security is not only the technical contest, it is the idea, the rules of the contest, familiar with international rules, power relations network security personnel in the future of cyberspace competition can play a greater role. Therefore, the training of network security personnel not only to cultivate traditional talents, but also based on the domestic, look at the world, cultivate a comprehensive understanding of network diplomacy talent.

At the same time, the provisions of the provisions of the “network of security personnel exchanges”, reflects the training mechanism for China’s open innovation and innovative ideas. Talent training is inseparable from the advanced countries of academic research and technical exchanges, the business organizations should attract foreign high-end technical personnel, while speeding up the training of our top talent.

4.2 security personnel training “Tencent mode”: to create talent closed-loop

As an advocate of Internet security open platform, Tencent has been “network security” as an important part of the enterprise design and strategic project. In the process of continuous attention and support of safe personnel selection and training, Tencent has gradually recruited a set of safety personnel selection system in the aspects of campus recruitment, social recruitment, promotion of internal talents, salary and welfare, etc .; at the same time, Security events and promote personnel training program, Tencent has gradually formed a mature, perfect, and for social reference to the safety of personnel training system.

Tencent in 2017, the parties launched the Tencent Information Security Competition (TCTF), through the internationalization of the system to explore talent, through high-quality counseling mechanism and professional mentor team training personnel and through the construction of enterprises and universities bridge transport personnel. At the same time, Tencent through the creation of “Hundred Talents Program” to build the Internet security personnel training closed-loop, through the TCTF contest layers of competition examinations, selected the most potential of 100 security personnel, and through continuous follow-up training to build the Internet security complex, Leading talent.

Tencent hopes to TCTF as a professional security personnel training platform between enterprises and universities to build a bridge between the formation of selection, training, transportation in one of the closed-loop talent for the Chinese new forces to provide a multi-dimensional growth environment, and further promote the development of China’s network security The

4.3 Tencent security joint laboratory set up the first anniversary: ​​escort six key areas of the Internet

July 2016, Tencent security integration of its laboratory resources, the establishment of the first domestic Internet laboratory matrix – Tencent security joint laboratory, which covers Cohen Laboratory, basaltic laboratory, Zhan Lu laboratory, cloud tripod laboratory, Anti-virus laboratory, anti-fraud laboratory, mobile security laboratory, including seven laboratories. Laboratory focus on security technology research and security attack and defense system structures, security and security coverage covers the connection, systems, applications, information, equipment and cloud, touch the six key areas of the Internet.

2016, Tencent security joint laboratory for Google, Microsoft, Apple, adobe and other international manufacturers to dig a total of 269 loopholes, ranking first in the country. In addition, by virtue of “the world’s first long-range non-physical contact with the invasion of Tesla car” research results, Tencent security joint laboratory Cohen laboratory selected “Tesla security researcher Hall of Fame”, and Tesla CEO Maske’s personal thanks The

In the field of anti-fraud in the country concerned, the anti-fraud laboratory in Tencent Security Joint Laboratory has formed a set of new standards for anti-fraud evaluation based on AI innovation + ability and openness in the field of anti-fraud research. Stop mode. In the AI ​​innovation and the ability to open the two-wheel drive, the laboratory has launched Hawkeye anti-telephone fraud system, Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system, God anti-phishing system, God investigation funds flow control system, God sheep intelligence analysis platform Five systems, and through the Tencent cloud SaaS services open to the need for government units, enterprises, etc., to help users prevent Internet fraud.

Five, safe hot event inventory

5.1 outbreak of Serbian virus and virus outbreak

5.1.1 WannaCry extortion virus broke out globally on 12 May

Event Background:

On May 12th, WannaCry (wanna cry) bitbell blackmail virus broke out on a global scale. According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory security researchers found that the extortion event compared with the past, the biggest difference is that the extortion virus combined with the way worms to spread. Due to the leak in the NSA file, WannaCry spread vulnerability code is called “EternalBlue”, so some reports that the attack is “eternal blue”.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

The outbreak of blackmail virus in the past two years is largely related to the increasing perfection of encryption algorithms. The continuous updating of cryptography and algorithms ensures the security of data transmission and preservation in our daily network. Unfortunately, the author of the extortion virus also used this feature, so that although we know the Trojan algorithm, but do not know the author to use the key, there is no way to restore the file is maliciously encrypted.

Encryption algorithms are usually divided into symmetric encryption algorithm and asymmetric encryption algorithm two categories. These two types of algorithms are used in the blackmail virus.

The encryption and decryption of the symmetric encryption algorithm uses exactly the same key, which is characterized by a faster operation, but when using such an algorithm alone, the key must be exchanged with the server using a method that is recorded in the process And the risk of leakage. The symmetric encryption algorithms commonly used for blackmail viruses include AES and RC4.

Asymmetric encryption algorithm is also known as public key encryption algorithm, which can use the public key to encrypt the information, and only the owner of the private key can be decrypted, so as long as the public key and save the private key, you can guarantee The encrypted data is not cracked. The asymmetric encryption algorithm is usually slower than symmetric encryption. The asymmetric encryption algorithms commonly used by blackmail viruses include RSA algorithms and ECC algorithms.

Usually, the blackmail virus will combine these two categories of encryption algorithms, both can quickly complete the entire computer a large number of documents encryption, but also to ensure that the author’s private key is not leaked.

5.1.2 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

Event Background: 

June 27 A new round of extortion virus Petya attacked several European countries. This virus is more damaging than WannaCry. The virus encrypts the computer’s hard disk MFT and modifies the MBR so that the operating system can not enter. Compared to the previous, Petya more like a purpose of the attack, rather than a simple extortion. Tencent Hubble analysis system has been able to identify the virus and determine the high risk, the use of Tencent computer housekeeper can kill the virus.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

Petya Serbia virus virus poisoning will scan the network after the machine, through the eternal blue loopholes since the spread, to achieve the purpose of rapid propagation. Foreign security researchers believe that Petya extortion virus variants will be spread through the mailbox attachment, using the vulnerability to carry the DOC document to attack. After poisoning, the virus will modify the system MBR boot sector, when the computer restart, the virus code in the Windows operating system before taking over the computer, the implementation of encryption and other malicious operations. After the computer restarts, it will display a disguised interface, this interface is actually a virus display, the interface is suspected of being a disk scan, in fact, the disk data encryption operation.

5.1.3 Laurent virus Tencent security response program

For the outbreak of extortion virus, Tencent security emergency response program, for the advance prevention, in the virus cleanup and after the file recovery three cases, to the majority of users to deal with recommendations:

Pre-prevention

1. Use the computer housekeeper’s extortion virus immune tools, automated installation system patches and port shielding, or manually download and install.

2. Back up the data, install the security software, turn on the protection.

a) the relevant important documents using offline backup (that is, the use of U disk, etc.), such as backup;

b) the use of some computers with the system restore function, without attack before setting the system restore point, after the attack can restore the system, defense file encryption;

c) install Tencent computer housekeeper, open real-time protection, to avoid attack;

d) the use of computer housekeeper’s document guardian of the file backup, protection.

3. To establish an inactivated domain name for immunization.

According to the existing sample analysis, there is a trigger mechanism for extortion software, if you can successfully access the specified link, the computer will be in the extortion of the virus directly after the exit, it will not file encryption.

a) Ordinary users can be connected to the site, to ensure access to the site, you can avoid the attack to avoid being encrypted (only known to extortion virus);

b) enterprise users can build Web Server through the intranet, and then through the way DNS DNS domain name resolution to Web Server IP way to achieve immunity; through the domain name of the visit can also monitor the situation of intranet virus infection.

Things in the virus clean up

1. Unplug the cable and other ways to isolate the computer has been attacked to avoid infection with other machines.

2. Use the computer steward’s antivirus function to directly check out the blackmail software, scan clean up directly (isolated machines can be downloaded through the U disk, etc. to install the offline package).

3. Back up the relevant data directly after the system reload.

After the file is restored

1. Blackmail software with the ability to restore part of the encrypted file, you can directly through the extrapolated software to restore part of the file; or directly click on the blackmail interface, “Decrypt” pop-up recovery window to restore the list of files.

2. You can use third-party data recovery tool to try data recovery, cloud users can contact Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory to help deal with.

5.2 DDOS attacks continue, dark clouds variants frequently struck

Event Background:

June 9, a 2017 years since the largest DDoS network attack activities swept the country, Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory released traceability analysis report, through the attack source machine analysis, engineers found in the machine dark cloud Ⅲ variants. Through the flow, memory DUMP data and other content analysis, Tencent cloud tripod laboratory to determine the large-scale DDoS attacks by the “dark cloud” hacker gang initiated. After the upgrade, “Dark Cloud III” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

“Dark cloud” series Trojan from the beginning of 2015 by Tencent anti-virus laboratory for the first time to capture and killing, has been more than two years. In the past two years, the Trojan constantly updated iteration, continue to fight against the upgrade.

From the beginning of April this year, the Trojans comeback again, the outbreak of the outbreak of the dark horse than the previous version of the more obvious promotion features, so we named it dark clouds Ⅲ. Dark clouds Ⅲ compared with the previous version has the following characteristics and differences:

First, more subtle, dark cloud Ⅲ is still no file without a registry, compared with the dark cloud II, cancel the number of kernel hooks, cancel the object hijacking, become more hidden, even professionals, it is difficult to find traces The

Second, the compatibility, because the Trojan mainly through the hook disk drive StartIO to achieve the protection and protection of the virus MBR, such a hook is located in the bottom of the kernel, different types of brand hard drive need hook point is not the same, this version of the Trojan increased More judgment code, able to infect the vast majority of the market and hard disk.

Third, targeted against security software, security vendors, “first aid kit” type of tool to do a special confrontation, through the device name of the way to try to prevent the pit of some tools to load the run.

5.3 in the first half of the focus of fraud cases inventory

5.3.1 Xu Yuyu telegraphic case

August 2016, just by the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Xu Yuyu, received a fraudulent phone, the other scholarship in the name of cheating Xu Yuyu University of the cost of 9900 yuan. After the report of Xu Yuyu emotional abnormalities, leading to sudden cardiac death, unfortunately died, triggering social concern about the unprecedented fraud. The case was publicly declared on July 19, 2017, the principal Chen Wenhui was sentenced to life imprisonment, confiscation of all personal property. The other six defendants were sentenced to 15 to 3 years imprisonment and fined. This verdict, to the community to pass the court in accordance with the law severely punished the telecommunications network fraud crime clear attitude.

Proposed: Xu Yuyu tragedy enough to cause public vigilance. Internet era, each person’s information flow are online through different channels of circulation, to the lawless elements can take advantage of the machine. Faced with such an environment, we should be on the strange phone and SMS alert. Even if the other can speak personal accurate information, can not be trusted, any event needs to be verified by reliable channels to protect their own security.

5.3.2 Henan large telecommunications fraud: lied to sell college entrance examination answers cheat nearly 100 million students

June 2017, Henan HebiCity police cracked the big telecommunications fraud, arrested two suspects, seized more than 70 copies of bank cards. These suspects under the guise of selling college entrance examination questions answer the way, through the network of college entrance examination candidates to implement fraud. According to the police preliminary investigation, fraud victims accumulated more than 3,500 people, involving more than 3 million yuan.

Prevention recommendations: the annual admission of college entrance examination, college entrance examination fraud is a high period of time. Candidates and parents need to beware of all the so-called “internal indicators”, false check the site, false search results such as college entrance examination in the name of all kinds of fraud means, do not have luck, deceived.

5.3.3 Wuhan female teachers suffered a series of telecommunications fraud 7 months to cheat 2.53 million

Wuhan, a secondary school teacher Chen, master’s degree, 2017 May to the police alarm fraud. It is understood that in November 2016, Chen received a strange call, said its social security card was stolen brush, and directly to the phone to the “Hunan Provincial Public Security Department.” Answer the phone “police” said Ms. Chen involved a fraudulent money laundering case, as “washing charges”, Ms. Chen half a year to the other side of the transfer of 2.53 million, the debt owed more than 300 million. The case is still in the investigation.

Precautionary advice: people need to be alert to unfamiliar calls and text messages. When receiving a suspected fraud or SMS, pay attention to verify the identity of the other party, especially the other party to the designated account remittance, do not easily remittance, should be the first time to inform the family to discuss or consult the public security organs; The public security department can not provide a security account, but will not guide you transfer, set a password.

Six, security experts advice

In the computer use, set the security factor high password. Using a password that is not easily guessed by violent attacks is an effective way to improve your security. Violent attack is an attacker using an automated system to guess the password. Avoid using words that can be found in the dictionary, do not use pure digital passwords; use special characters and spaces, and use uppercase and lowercase letters. This password is harder to crack than use your mother’s name or birthday as a password. In addition, the password length for each additional one, the combination of the composition of the password characters will increase in multiple, so the long password will be more secure.

Regularly upgrade the software, update the security patch. In many cases, it is important to patch the system before installing and deploying the production application software. The final security patch must be installed on the PC’s system. If not for a long time without a security upgrade, may lead to the computer is very easy to become an unethical hacker attack target. Therefore, do not install the software on a computer that does not have a security patch update for a long time.

Protect your data by backing up important documents. Back up your data, which is one of the important ways you can protect yourself from minimizing the loss in the face of a disaster. If the amount of data is huge, the data can be saved to the hard disk. But more convenient way, you can use Tencent computer steward class of security software, at any time to automatically restore the data to the local, you can also store to the cloud, maximize the data to ensure security.

Do not easily trust the external network, open network risk is huge. In an open wireless network, such as in a wireless network with a coffee shop, the network risk will multiply, this concept is very important. This does not mean that in some untrusted external network can not use the wireless network, but to always keep the security and caution of security. The key is that the user must be through their own systems to ensure safety, do not believe that the external network and its own private network as safe.

Improve the unfamiliar telephone, SMS alertness, do not believe in which the content. Fraudulent forms of SMS diversification, a variety of new SMS Trojans flooding through the temptation of the SMS comes with the virus link to pay the class, privacy stealth virus rapid growth. For the “college entrance examination”, “school notice”, “test report card”, “household registration management”, “mobile phone real name system”, “video video” and “traffic violation” and other text messages embedded in the URL link should be vigilant, Do not click anywhere. For unfamiliar calls, SMS should be vigilant and wary, do not believe what the other side of the content, if necessary, to verify their identity information.

Protect personal privacy information, do not easily disclose personal information to others. Personal account, password, ID card information and other key personal privacy information, it is absolutely free to any unfamiliar SMS, the phone revealed. Receive a strange message, the phone asked personal privacy, be sure to be vigilant. When publishing a message on a social platform, beware of important privacy information in the form of photos, screenshots, etc. Do not arbitrarily discard tickets, tickets or courier documents containing personal information to prevent personal information from being stolen.

Mobile phone users should develop good habits to use security software to protect the safety of mobile phones. Mobile phone users can download and install such as Tencent mobile phone housekeeper a class of mobile phone security software, regular mobile phone physical examination and virus killing, and timely update the virus database. For the latest popular and difficult to remove the virus or vulnerability, you can download the killing tool in time to kill or repair. At the same time open Tencent mobile phone housekeeper harassment intercept function, which can effectively intercept fraud phone, SMS, enhance mobile phone security.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

1 互联网安全形势严峻,大力发展网络安全防护势在必行

在互联网高速发展,已经成为社会发展动力的同时,互联网安全也变得越来越重要。2014年,中央网络安全与信息化领导小组正式成立,习近平亲自担任组长,国家和政府对网络安全的重视程度可见一斑。在中央网络安全和信息化领导小组第一次会议上,习近平首次提出“网络强国”战略,“没有网络安全就没有国家安全”,网络安全是一个关系国家安全和主权、社会的稳定、民族文化的继承和发扬的重要问题。其重要性,正随着全球信息化步伐的加快而变到越来越显著。“家门就是国门”,安全问题刻不容缓。

在中国,网络已走入千家万户,网民数量世界第一,我国已成为网络大国。互联网已经深度介入民众生活的方方面面。根据一份关于民众信息的调查报告显示,大学生和白领群体的互联网使用率已经接近100%,九成以上大学生和白领群体最主要的信息获取渠道为互联网。网民在互联网上进行的行为主要有获取新闻资讯、学习工作、即时沟通、网络社交及各类休闲娱乐。在全民联网的时代,网民的网络安全如何保证?企业网络在面对网络攻击时如何进行有效的防御?这些都已经成为国家、政府和安全行业正在面临和需要尽快解决的重要问题。

从国内的“暗云Ⅲ”病毒,到席卷全球的“WannaCry”敲诈勒索病毒,再到“Petya”恶性破坏性病毒,无一不说明目前的网络安全形势严峻,企业安全防护脆弱,大力发展网络安全防护势在必行。

2大力加强网络安全建设,人才匮乏现状急需改善

我国虽然已成网络大国,但离网络强国还有距离。木马和僵尸网络、移动互联网恶意程序、拒绝服务攻击、安全漏洞、网页钓鱼、网页篡改等网络安全事件多有发生,基础网络设备、域名系统、工业互联网等我国基础网络和关键基础设施依然面临着较大的安全风险,加强网络安全建设迫在眉睫。

同时,我国网络安全人才匮乏的现状急需改善。作为一个网络大国,中国除研究开发计算机设备,提升网络传输速度以外,还应加紧计算机信息安全人才的培育工作,让中国从网络大国变为网络强国,这是提升我国信息安全保障的重要基础。

网络安全已经上升至国家战略,国家也在大力投入、推动网络安全建设。但做好网络安全工作不是某个机构、某个部门的事,而是需要全社会的参与。从武汉市地方出台《关于支持国家网络安全人才与创新基地发展的政策措施》投入45亿建设资金,到2017年6月1日正式施行的《中华人民共和国网络安全法》,都是为了网络安全健康、稳健的发展而做出的努力。我们也呼吁作为有社会责任的安全企业、机构、个人积极投入到网络安全建设中来,为国家、国民的网络安全防护贡献一份力量。

3腾讯推动建立中国首个最强互联网安全矩阵

腾讯安全拥有17年能力积累及8亿用户海量大数据运营经验,是中国最为领先的互联网安全产品、安全服务提供者。本着“开放、联合、共享”的理念,将多年积累的能力和数据共享给合作伙伴,致力于互联网安全开放平台建设,提升互联网安全产业链安全能力,提升用户安全意识,共同推进中国互联网安全环境的建设。

目前,腾讯已推动建立中国首个互联网安全矩阵,涵盖基础安全的实验室矩阵、安全产品矩阵、安全大数据平台矩阵,以及互联网安全开放平台矩阵,致力于中国互联网安全新生态建设,开放核心能力和数据,为中国互联网安全生态建设不懈努力。

一、网络安全整体现状扫描

1.1 影响全球的六大网络安全事件,累计影响遍及全球

1.1.1维基解密CIA绝密文件泄露事件

2017年3月7日,维基解密(WiKiLeaks)公布了数千份文档并揭秘了美国中央情报局关于黑客入侵技术的最高机密,根据泄密文档中记录的内容,该组织不仅能够入侵iPhone手机、Android手机和智能电视,而且还可以入侵攻击Windows、Mac和Linux操作系统,甚至可以控制智能汽车发起暗杀活动。外界将此次泄漏事件取名为Vault 7,Vault 7公布的机密文件记录的是美国中央情报局(CIA)所进行的全球性黑客攻击活动。

Vault7包含8761份机密文档及文件,这些文件记录了CIA针对Android以及苹果智能手机所研发的入侵破解技术细节,其中有些技术还可以拿到目标设备的完整控制权。维基解密创始人阿桑奇表示,文件显示出“CIA网络攻击的整体能力”,而维基解密在发布这些文件时声称“CIA的网络军械库已失控”。

1.1.2影子经纪人公开NSA(美国国家安全局)黑客武器库

2017年4月14日,影子经纪人(Shadow Brokers)在steemit.com上公开了一大批NSA(美国国家安全局)“方程式组织” (Equation Group)使用的极具破坏力的黑客工具,其中包括可以远程攻破全球约70%Windows机器的漏洞利用工具。任何人都可以使用NSA的黑客武器攻击别人电脑。其中,有十款工具最容易影响Windows个人用户,包括永恒之蓝、永恒王者、永恒浪漫、永恒协作、翡翠纤维、古怪地鼠、爱斯基摩卷、文雅学者、日食之翼和尊重审查。黑客无需任何操作,只要联网就可以入侵电脑,就像冲击波、震荡波等著名蠕虫一样可以瞬间血洗互联网。

1.1.3 “WannaCry”敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发

2017年5月12日,“WannaCry”(想哭)比特币勒索病毒在全球范围内爆发,本次事件波及150多个国家和地区、10多万的组织和机构以及30多万网民,损失总计高达500多亿人民币。包括医院、教育机构以及政府部门,都无一例外的遭受到了攻击。勒索病毒结合蠕虫的方式进行传播,是此次攻击事件大规模爆发的重要原因。

用户中毒后最明显的症状就是电脑桌面背景被修改,许多文件被加密锁死,病毒弹出提示,要求用户向相关比特币地址转账300美元以便解锁文件。目前安全公司已经找到恢复加密文件的相关办法。

1.1.4 FireBall火球病毒感染超过2.5亿电脑

2017年6月1日,国外安全机构Check Point发报告称在国外爆发了“FireBall”病毒,并声称全球有超过2.5亿台电脑受到感染,其中受影响最大的国家分别是印度(10.1%)和巴西(9.6%)。美国有550万台电脑中招,占2.2%。受感染的企业网络中,印度和巴西分别占到43%和38%,美国则为10.7%。

此恶意软件强行将浏览器主页改为自家网站和搜索引擎,并将搜索结果重定向到谷歌或雅虎。这些伪造的搜索引擎跟踪用户数据,暗中搜集用户信息。而制作此病毒的作者为中国的Rafotech公司,目前该公司网站已无法访问。

1.1.5“暗云”系列病毒升级为“暗云III”再度来袭

2017年6月9日,腾讯电脑管家检测到,早在2015年就被首次发现并拦截查杀的“暗云”病毒死灰复燃,升级为“暗云Ⅲ”,通过下载站大规模传播,同时通过感染磁盘MBR实现开机启动,感染用户数量已达数百万。

升级过后的“暗云Ⅲ”将主要代码存储在云端,可实时动态更新,其功能目前主要有下载推广恶意木马、锁定浏览器主页、篡改推广导航页id等。用户一旦中招,电脑便会沦为“肉鸡”形成“僵尸网络”,并利用DDoS攻击影响搭建在某云服务商平台上的棋牌类网站,导致该网站访问变得异常卡慢。

1.1.6新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”来袭,更具破坏性

2017年6月27日,新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”袭击了欧洲多个国家,包括乌克兰、俄罗斯、印度、西班牙、法国、英国、丹麦等国在内都遭受了攻击,这些国家的政府、银行、企业、电力系统、通讯系统及机场等都受到了不同程序的影响。

此病毒相比“WannaCry”更具破坏性,病毒对电脑的硬盘MFT进行了加密,并修改了MBR,让操作系统无法进入。而根据相关的分析表示,开机界面上留下来的信息即使提供给黑客也是没有办法进行解密的,因此,不得不怀疑此次“Petya”病毒的真正目的。“Petya”更像是在做有目的性的攻击,对目标进行无法修复的破坏性攻击,而并非以敲诈勒索为目的。

1.2《中华人民共和国网络安全法》正式施行

6月1日,我国第一部全面规范网络空间安全管理的基础性法律——《中华人民共和国网络安全法》正式施行,共有七章七十九条,内容十分丰富,具有六大突出亮点。一是明确了网络空间主权的原则;二是明确了网络产品和服务提供者的安全义务;三是明确了网络运营者的安全义务;四是进一步完善了个人信息保护规则;五是建立了关键信息基础设施安全保护制度;六是确立了关键信息基础设施重要数据跨境传输的规则。

同时新法还指出应采取多种方式培养网络安全人才,促进网络安全人才交流。新法的施行标志着我国网络安全从此有法可依,网络空间治理、网络信息传播秩序规范、网络犯罪惩治等即将翻开崭新的一页,对保障我国网络安全、维护国家总体安全具有深远而重大的意义。

1.3中国网民规模相当于欧洲人口总量,安全人才缺口高达95%

1.3.1中国网民规模达7.31亿,相当于欧洲人口总量

截至2016年12月,我国网民规模达7.31亿,普及率达到53.2%,超过全球平均水平3.1个百分点,超过亚洲平均水平7.6个百分点。全年共计新增网民4299万人,增长率为6.2%。中国网民规模已经相当于欧洲人口总量。

1.3.2移动端网民规模持续增长,手机网民占比达95.1%

截至2016年12月,我国手机网民规模达6.95亿,增长率连续三年超过10%。台式电脑、笔记本电脑的使用率均出现下降,手机不断挤占其他个人上网设备的使用。

1.3.3安全人才缺口巨大,高达95%

虽然我国网民数量已居全球首位,但我国从事信息安全行业的人非常少,安全人才及其匮乏。据相关资料显示,近年我国高校教育培养的信息安全专业人才仅3万余人,而网络安全人才总需求量则超过70万人,缺口高达95%。7.1亿中国网民的网络安全问题,已成为行业乃至国家亟待解决的问题。

北京电子科技学院副院长、教育部高等学校信息安全专业教学指导委员会秘书长封化民指出,当前中国重要行业信息系统和信息基础设施需要各类网络信息安全人才还将以每年1.5万人的速度递增,到2020年相关人才需求将增长到140万。但是目前,我国只有126所高校设立了143个网络安全相关专业,仅占1200所理工院校的10%。

二、2017上半年网络病毒威胁形势分析

2.1腾讯安全反病毒实验室PC端病毒拦截超10亿,环比增30%

2.1.1 木马病毒拦截量平均每月近1.7亿次

2017年上半年腾讯安全反病毒实验室统计数据显示,PC端总计已拦截病毒10亿次,病毒总体数量相比2016年下半年腾讯安全反病毒实验室拦截的病毒数增长30%;平均每月拦截木马病毒近1.7亿次。4月、6月为拦截病毒的高峰,拦截量均为1.8亿次。

2017年Q2季度相较于2016年Q2季度,腾讯安全反病毒实验室病毒拦截量同比增长了23.7%。从2014年到2017年Q2季度病毒拦截量来看,恶意程序数量逐年攀升。

2.1.2 PC端广东用户中毒最多,中毒高峰期为上午9-11点

2.1.2.1 上半年共发现2.3亿次用户机器中木马病毒 

2017年上半年腾讯安全反病毒实验室共发现2.3亿次用户机器中木马病毒,相比2016年下半年下降0.5%,平均每月为3,880万中毒机器进行病毒查杀。2017年Q2季度相比Q1季度中毒机器数略有增长。

2017年Q2季度相较于2016年Q2季度报毒用户量同比增长3%。从2015年到2017年Q2季度中毒机器数增长趋势明显,呈逐年递增状态。

2.1.2.2 PC端用户中毒高峰期为上午9点到11点

根据统计,每天中毒高峰时间为上午10点-上午11点,符合企业及普通用户上午9点-上午11点开启电脑处理工作的规律。这段时间用户中毒的病毒类型较多为利用邮件、共享等方式传播的Office文档类宏病毒,说明企业办公安全防护形势依旧严峻。

2.1.2.3 PC端中毒用户省份最多为广东,其中深圳市居首

根据腾讯安全反病毒实验室监测到的中毒PC数量统计,从城市分布来看,互联网较为发达的城市用户中毒情况较重,全国拦截病毒排名第一城市为深圳市,占全部拦截量的3.76%,第二名为成都市,占全部拦截量的3.57%,第三名为广州市,占全部拦截量的3.39%。

从省级地域分布来看,全国PC中毒数量最多的是广东省,占全部拦截量的13.29%,第二名为江苏省,占全部拦截量的7.75%,第三名为山东省,占全部拦截量的7.12%。

2.1.3第一大病毒种类为占比53.8%的木马病毒,勒索病毒新增13.39%

2.1.3.1 PC端第一大种类病毒依然是木马,PE感染型病毒种类少但传播性大

根据腾讯安全反病毒实验室2017年Q2季度获取到的病毒样本分析,从病毒种类上,木马类占总体数量的53.80%,依然是第一大种类病毒。Adware类(广告软件、强制安装、收集用户隐私、弹垃圾信息等)为第二大病毒类,占总体数量的39.02%。后门类为第三大病毒类,占总体数量的5.13%。相比2017年Q1季度,病毒种类并没有太大变化。

从病毒样本的数量上来划分,排在第一位和第二位的仍然是木马类和Adware类,但排在第三位的变成了PE感染型,占总体数量的25.07%。

感染型样本的种类并不多,这与感染型病毒制作难度大、黑客等编程人员需要掌握的技术多、成本高、开发时间久等因素有关。同时,感染型病毒的传播性很大,存活时间相对也比较久,因此,种类少的PE感染型种类在样本传播量级上占了一定的比例,这也是由于感染型病毒具有大范围感染、快速传播的特性。

2.1.3.2敲诈勒索病毒样本数量Q2新增13.39%,第一并不是WannaCry

敲诈勒索病毒是以敲诈勒索钱财为目的,使得感染该木马的计算机用户系统中的指定数据文件被恶意加密,造成用户数据丢失。目前,由国外传进国内的敲诈勒索病毒大多需要支付比特币赎金才能进行解密。由于比特币完全匿名流通,目前技术手段无法追踪敲诈勒索病毒背后的幕后操纵者,这也使得敲诈勒索病毒从2013年后呈现爆发式增长。

敲诈勒索病毒查杀量

根据腾讯安全反病毒实验室检测到的敲诈勒索病毒显示,2017上半年总计已发现敲诈勒索病毒样本数量在300万左右,平均每月检测到敲诈勒索病毒数量近50万个,Q2季度勒索病毒样本数量较Q1季度新增13.39%。5月、6月为拦截病毒的高峰,分别为57万个、53万个。

敲诈勒索病毒种类

根据相关数据分析显示,5月12日爆发的WannaCry敲诈勒索病毒是本季度最活跃、影响最大的病毒。该病毒与其他病毒在传播方式上有显著差异,由于使用了windows系统漏洞,使得该病毒能够在全球范围内传播,成为本季度的热点安全事件。在6月27号一种名为Petya的新型勒索病毒开始在世界各地传播,其敲诈手段与WannaCry相似,但更具有破坏性,直接加密了用户硬盘的MFT并修改了MBR,导致用户无法进入到windows系统。

以上病毒影响虽大,但从样本量上来看,最大的还是带有感染传播方式的PolyRansom病毒。此病毒会感染、加密用户的文件进行敲诈,但由于并没有使用像WannaCry病毒之类的密钥加密方式,而是使用了简单的加密算法,并且算法可逆,杀毒软件可以帮助用户正常恢复文件,因此虽然在样本量上排名第一,但影响并不是很大。此类敲诈病毒占了所有敲诈类病毒的78.84%,由此可见感染型病毒的传播能力之强。

从样本量上来看,除感染型敲诈病毒外,排在第一的是Blocker,占全部敲诈类病毒的36.82%,第二大类是Zerber,占全部敲诈类病毒的23.63%,第三大类才是本季度影响最大的WannaCry敲诈病毒,占全部敲诈类病毒的12.06%。WannaCry病毒量之所以快速上升到了第三的位置,是因为传播手段使用了漏洞传播。

目前的敲诈勒索病毒主要采用以下几种传播方式:

文件感染传播

文件感染传播是利用感染型病毒的特点进行传播,如PolyRansom病毒就是利用感染型病毒的特点,加密用户所有文档后再弹出勒索信息。由于PE类文件被感染后具有了感染其他文件的能力,因此如果此文件被用户携带(U盘、网络上传等)到其他电脑上后运行,就会使得该电脑的文件也被全部感染加密。

网站挂马传播

网站挂马通过是在获取网站或者网站服务器的部分或全部权限后,在网页文件中插入一段恶意代码,这些恶意代码主要包括IE等浏览器漏洞利用代码。用户访问被挂马的页面时,如果系统没有更新恶意代码中利用的漏洞补丁,则会执行恶意代码。

该类病毒也可以利用已知的软件漏洞进行攻击,例如利用Flash、PDF软件漏洞,向网站中加入带有恶意代码的文件,用户使用带有漏洞的软件打开文件后便会执行恶意代码,下载病毒。

利用系统漏洞传播

5月爆发的WannaCry就是利用Windows系统漏洞进行传播,利用系统漏洞传播的特点是被动式中毒,即用户没有去访问恶意站点,没有打开未知文件也会中毒。此种病毒会扫描同网络中存在漏洞的其他PC主机,只要主机没有打上补丁,就会被攻击。

腾讯反病毒实验室提醒大家,及时更新第三方软件补丁,及时更新操作系统补丁,以防被已知漏洞攻击。

邮件附件传播

通过邮件附件进行传播的敲诈勒索病毒通常会伪装成用户需要查看的文档,如信用卡消费清单、产品订单等。附件中会隐藏恶意代码,当用户打开后恶意代码便会开始执行,释放病毒。这类伪装病毒通常会批量发送给企业、高校、医院机构等单位,这些单位中的电脑中通常保存较重要的文件,一旦被恶意加密,支付赎金的可能性远远超过普通个人用户。

网络共享文件传播

一些小范围传播的敲诈勒索病毒会通过共享文件的方式进行传播,病毒作者会将病毒上传到网络共享空间、云盘、QQ群、BBS论坛等地方,以分享的方式发送给特定人群诱骗下载安装。

腾讯反病毒实验室提醒用户,下载软件请到官方正规渠道下载安装,切勿下载未知程序,如需要使用未知来源的程序,可提前安装腾讯电脑管家进行安全扫描。

2.2 移动端共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次,手机染毒用户数超1亿

2.2.1移动端病毒包增长趋势减缓,但总数仍有899万

2017年上半年腾讯手机管家截获Android新增病毒包总数达899万,相较2016年上半年有小幅度下降,但总数仍十分巨大。

2.2.2 移动端广东用户中毒最多,染毒手机用户数同比减少45.67%

2.2.2.1上半年腾讯手机管家共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次

在病毒感染用户数大幅下降的情况下,2017年上半年腾讯手机管家查杀病毒次数却达到6.93亿次,同比增长124.24%,总数是2016年上半年的一倍有余。恶意程序和木马病毒的制作成本降低、病毒传播渠道多样化是造成这一现象的重要因素。

除6月以外,2017年上半年每月查杀病毒次数均超过1亿次,其中1月份查杀次数更高达1.36亿次,几乎与2014年上半年1.4亿的查杀次数持平。

2.2.2.2 2017年上半年染毒手机用户数超1亿 

2017年上半年病毒感染用户数为1.09亿,同比减少45.67%,与2015年、2016年上半年相比皆有所下降。

2017年1月单月感染用户数达到2166万,为上半年最高纪录,此后感染用户数开始缓慢下降。

2.2.2.3 移动端中毒用户数量广东居首

在感染手机病毒的用户地域分布方面,广东排名第一,占比高达11.41%。

2.2.3流氓行为和资源占比超80%,二维码最易中毒

2.2.3.1移动端病毒中流氓行为和资费消耗占比超80%

2017年上半年手机病毒类型比例中,流氓行为和资费消耗占比最高,以44.59%和44.44%的比例分列一、二位。排名第三的隐私获取同样占据了5.85%,诱骗欺诈、恶意扣费、远程控制、系统破坏和恶意传播占比分别为1.94%、1.55%、0.80%、0.74%和0.08%。

流氓行为是指病毒私自执行具有流氓属性的恶意行为。如近期因WannaCry病毒而再次引起关注的手机锁屏勒索病毒就带有流氓行为。这类病毒主要通过论坛贴吧等途径进行扩散,制毒者通常会利用外挂、免费、刷钻、红包等字眼对木马病毒进行包装,诱导用户下载安装。病毒完成安装后就会强制锁定手机屏幕,迫使受害者不得不联系制毒者付款,才能使设备恢复正常。

不管是电脑还是手机,带有流氓行为的勒索病毒给用户带来的损失都是难以估量的,如果不慎中毒,不仅会造成财产损失,还将导致重要资料丢失,因此用户应谨慎防范。

资费消耗也是常见的手机病毒类型,此类病毒通常在用户不知情或未授权的情况下,通过发送短信、频繁连接网络等方式,导致用户资费损失。部分恶意推广病毒以帮助第三方广告商提高点击量为目的,通过诱导用户下载安装病毒,获取手机Root权限,执行下载恶意广告软件。这些软件会不断推送各种弹窗广告,影响用户手机体验,更甚者还会泄露用户隐私信息、盗走网银账户等,造成严重的人身及财产安全。

感染了全球超3600万安卓设备的恶意广告点击软件“Judy”就属于资费消耗类手机病毒。该恶意软件暗藏于一款韩国手游中,在完成下载安装后,会将感染设备的信息发送到目标页面,并在后台自动下载恶意代码并访问广告链接,盗刷用户流量,给用户造成资费消耗。

2.2.3.2 二维码、软件捆绑是移动病毒主要渠道来源

手机病毒渠道来源主要有七大类,分别是二维码、软件捆绑、电子市场、网盘传播、手机资源站、ROM内置和手机论坛。病毒渠道入口的分散化与多元化,也进一步增加了用户染毒的几率与风险。

2017年上半年,二维码成为了主流病毒渠道来源,占比高达20.80%。二维码在各大领域的普及让越来越多的用户养成了随手扫码的习惯,制毒者也因此加大针对二维码渠道的病毒包投放比例。部分被嵌入病毒的二维码,只要一扫就会自动下载恶意病毒,轻则造成手机中毒,重则导致个人隐私信息泄露,造成财产损失等。

三、反骚扰诈骗效果显著,但用户损失形势严峻

3.1上半年垃圾短信数超5.86亿条,非法贷款类超50%

3.1.1 2017年上半年垃圾短信持续增长 总数接近6亿

较低的传播成本及其背后存在的巨大利益链,导致垃圾短信一直难以得到有效整治,用户举报数也是有增无减。2017年上半年,腾讯手机管家共收到用户举报垃圾短信数5.86亿条,同比增长40.69%,是2014年上半年的2倍有余。

3.1.2用户举报垃圾短信最多的省份为广东,最多的城市为深圳

在垃圾短信的地域省份分布方面,用户举报垃圾短信最多的前三省份分别为广东、江苏和山东,占比分别为12.91%、6.98%和5.70%。此外河南、浙江、四川、河北、北京、湖南和上海同样位列前十。这些省份或直辖市普遍分布在东部沿海和中部地区,人口密集和经济发达是它们最大的共同点,这也为诈骗分子批量发送垃圾短信并牟取利益创造了有利条件。

城市方面,2017年上半年深圳用户共举报垃圾短信2334万条(占比3.98%),成都、广州和苏州分列二至四位,垃圾短信举报数均为千万级别。

3.1.3 2017年上半年常见的诈骗短信类型

虽然诈骗短信举报量整体呈现下降趋势,但其手段的多样化和隐秘性却让诈骗短信的危害性始终高居不下。据腾讯手机管家监测到的2857万条诈骗短信显示,非法贷款、网购、病毒网址、恶意网址和伪基站是占比最高的几大诈骗短信类型。

其中非法贷款类诈骗短信一家独大,占比超过50%。在现代人“有房万事足”和依靠买房寻求安全感的社会大背景下,贷款买房成为了一大社会需求。骗子也紧跟这一社会痛点,大量发送非法贷款短信,借此牟利。

3.2骚扰电话用户标记量达2.35亿次,同比下降27.12%

3.2.1 2017年上半年用户共标记骚扰电话2.35亿次 同比下降27.12%

在经历了2015年上半年的爆发式增长后,2016年上半年开始,骚扰电话标记数呈现逐年下降趋势,2017年上半年骚扰电话标记总数为2.35亿次,相较2016年上半年同比下降27.12%。

3.2.2 2017年上半年骚扰电话超过50%为响一声

用户标记的骚扰电话类型主要分为5大类。其中,响一声排名第一,占比超过50%。这类骚扰电话虽然不会对用户造成实质性危害,但仍会影响手机使用,干扰用户。诈骗电话占比15.14%,排名第二,此外广告推销、房产中介和保险理财等也占据了一定比例。

3.2.3 骚扰电话中索要验证码占比最高

据腾讯手机管家用户主动上报的骚扰电话恶意线索情况显示,索要验证码、假冒领导、转账、网购和犯法是最常见的关键词。其中索要验证码占比最高,将近24.74%的骚扰电话中,骗子会通过各种手段索要验证码,而验证码作为重要的隐私信息,一旦泄露,很容易会造成财产损失。

3.2.4 诈骗电话标记数同比下降59.68%,北京最多

在用户已标记的2.35亿次骚扰电话中,诈骗类电话占比虽远不及响一声多,但其造成的实质性危害却最大。基于腾讯手机管家用户诈骗电话标记相关数据显示,2017年上半年诈骗电话标记数同比下降59.68%,总数为3559万。

这些诈骗电话针对的目标地域较为明确,以东部沿海经济发达地区与内陆中心省份为主。城市方面,北京是诈骗电话标记数最多的城市,总数达182.6万。深圳和广州分别以141.8万和125.7万的标记数紧随其后。上海、西安、长沙、成都、杭州、重庆和武汉则分列第四至十位。

3.3 恶意网址拦截次数高达478亿,色情欺诈网站居首

3.3.1 2017年上半年检出恶意网址数量超1.83亿

2017年上半年,腾讯安全在PC和移动端共计检测出恶意网址数量超过1.83亿,整体呈现波动上升趋势。其中6月份检测出3575万个恶意网址,为上半年最高纪录,4月份则最低,检测数量为2553万。

3.3.2色情欺诈网站仍是恶意网址主要作案手段

在有效检测恶意网址的同时,2017年上半年腾讯安全在PC和移动端共拦截恶意网址高达478亿次,相当于每天拦截2.65亿次。这一庞大数据也进一步说明了互联网安全的严峻形势。

在腾讯安全拦截的恶意网址中,色情欺诈网站、博彩网站、信息诈骗、恶意文件、虚假广告和钓鱼欺诈网站是传播最广泛的六大类恶意网址。其中色情欺诈网站占据半壁江山,占比为51.98%,色情欺诈网站会内嵌欺诈广告或诱骗用户进行在线支付。恶意网址也会内嵌在诈骗短信中进行传播,以增加迷惑性,因此用户在看到短信中的网址时,应自觉提高警惕性,切记不要随便点击。

3.4 iOS骚扰及诈骗电话降幅约35%,日历广告成新的骚扰

3.4.1 iOS骚扰电话和诈骗电话出现较大幅度下降

2016年9月,腾讯手机管家携手苹果公司推出iOS10全新版本,首次增加拦截骚扰和诈骗电话功能,有效缓解了iOS用户倍受困扰的骚扰电话难题。数据显示,2017年上半年iOS用户共标记骚扰电话1449.2万次,诈骗电话219.6万次。

从整体趋势上看,上半年iOS骚扰电话标记数呈现波动下降趋势,1月标记数最高,为319.5万次,4月则只有202万次,为上半年最低峰。相较而言,诈骗电话整体趋势则更加稳定。从以上各项数据可以看出,2017年上半年骚扰电话和诈骗电话都出现了较大幅度的下降,这离不开相关部门、手机运营商和手机用户的共同努力。

3.4.2日历广告成苹果手机的第三大骚扰

垃圾信息、骚扰电话、日历广告逐渐成为iPhone用户的主要骚扰源头。其中,日历广告骚扰问题日益严重。61.1%的用户遭遇过日历广告,其中博彩广告、房地产广告、打车软件广告居前三。

3.5 腾讯麒麟系统打击伪基站保护1.5亿人次

3.5.1腾讯麒麟系统共拦截2.3亿条诈骗短信,保护1.5亿人次

2017年上半年度,腾讯麒麟伪基站实时定位系统为全国用户拦截2.3亿条伪基站诈骗短信,总计影响人数达1.5亿人次。

3.5.2伪基站地域特征:川陕京鄂湘五省最多

从地域上看,腾讯麒麟为四川、陕西、北京、湖北、湖南用户拦截的诈骗短信数量最多,这5个省级行政区拦截的诈骗短信数量超过全国总量50%以上。

从城市来看,拦截诈骗短信数量Top 10的城市如北京、成都、西安等几乎均为省会城市或经济较发达城市,由于人口密集、城市居民收入较高,被伪基站诈骗团伙列入重点攻击对象。

3.5.3 伪基站作案时间特征:工作时间最频繁

从作案时间来看,伪基站诈骗短信发送之间集中在上午9时至下午19时,其中又以上午10时至12时、下午15时至18时为两个高峰。不难看出,诈骗短信高峰期与每日工作时段相合。

3.5.4内容特征:工商银行、中国移动最“躺枪”

伪基站短信类型中,积分兑换、账户异常和银行信用卡提额类则占比接近90%。这三类常与运营商、银行有关,常以积分到期清零、信用卡提额、账户实名、异常等理由进行诈骗。

腾讯麒麟拦截的伪基站仿冒端口中,仿冒工商银行的诈骗短信最多(高达52%),Top 5仿冒端口除中农工建四大银行,还有运营商中国移动。不难看出,这些“躺枪”的企业是因为用户群体巨大,业务模式中短信息又尤为重要,所以成为伪基站诈骗团伙主要模拟的发送对象。

伪基站短信触达用户的运营商分布中,中国移动占比74%,位居其后是中国电信(16%)、中国联通(10%)。

四、2017年上半年安全人才建设进展及成果

4.1《网络安全法》促进对人才的综合性培养

2017年6月1日起施行的《网络安全法》首次以法律条款的形式对网络空间安全领域的人才问题进行规定,不仅体现出国家对网络人才的重视,更是为国务院以及各地方出台网络安全人才培养的细则提供了最高位阶的法律依据。

《网络安全法》规定:国家支持企业和高等学校、职业学校等教育培训机构开展网络安全相关教育与培训,采取多种方式培养网络安全人才,促进网络安全人才交流。网络安全人才不仅包括技术人才,也包括管理人才。当前网络安全不仅是技术的较量,更是理念、规则的较量,熟悉国际规则、大国关系的网络安全人才在未来的网络空间竞争中能够发挥更大的作用。因此,网络安全人才的培养不仅要培养传统型人才,更要立足国内,放眼全球,培养懂得网络外交的综合性人才。

同时,条款中规定的“网络安全人才的交流”,体现了我国对于人才培养机制的开放创新理念。人才的培养离不开与先进国家的学术研讨和技术交流,各企业机构应当吸引国外的高端技术人才,同时加快我国顶尖人才的培养。

4.2 安全人才培养“腾讯模式”:打造人才闭环

作为互联网安全开放平台的倡导者,腾讯一直将“网络安全”当作企业顶层设计的重要组成部分和战略性工程。在持续关注和支持安全人才选拔和培养的过程中,腾讯目前已经逐渐在校园招聘、社会招聘、内部人才的培训晋升、薪酬福利等方面摸索出一套安全人才选拔制度;同时,通过持续打造顶级安全赛事和推动人才培养计划,腾讯已经逐渐形成一套成熟、完善,并可供社会借鉴的安全人才培养体系。

腾讯在2017年联合各方发起了腾讯信息安全争霸赛(TCTF),通过国际化的赛制发掘人才、通过优质辅导机制和专业的导师队伍培养人才以及通过搭建企业与高校的桥梁输送人才。同时,腾讯通过打造“百人计划”,构建互联网安全人才培养的闭环,通过TCTF大赛的层层比赛考试,选拔出最具潜力的百名安全人才,并通过后续持续培养,打造互联网安全领域复合型、领军型人才。

腾讯希望以TCTF作为专业安全人才培养平台在企业与高校间搭建起桥梁,形成集选拔、培养、输送于一体的人才闭环,为中国安全新生力量提供多维的成长环境,进一步推动我国网络安全事业发展。

4.3腾讯安全联合实验室成立一周年:护航六大互联网关键领域

2016年7月,腾讯安全整合旗下实验室资源,成立国内首个互联网实验室矩阵——腾讯安全联合实验室,旗下涵盖包括科恩实验室、玄武实验室、湛泸实验室、云鼎实验室、反病毒实验室、反诈骗实验室、移动安全实验室在内的七大实验室。实验室专注安全技术研究及安全攻防体系搭建,安全防范和保障范围覆盖了连接、系统、应用、信息、设备及云,触达六大互联网关键领域。

2016年,腾讯安全联合实验室为谷歌、微软、苹果、adobe等国际厂商共计挖掘269个漏洞,位居国内第一。另外,凭借“全球首次远程无物理接触方式入侵特斯拉汽车”研究成果,腾讯安全联合实验室科恩实验室入选“特斯拉安全研究员名人堂”,并获特斯拉CEO马斯克的亲笔致谢。

在举国关注的反诈骗领域,腾讯安全联合实验室中的反诈骗实验室基于多年来在反诈骗领域的深耕研究,已经形成一整套基于AI创新+能力开放的反欺诈评价新标准,形成有效的止损模式。在AI创新和能力开放的双轮驱动下,实验室目前已推出鹰眼反电话诈骗系统、麒麟伪基站实时定位系统、神荼反钓鱼系统、神侦资金流查控系统、神羊情报分析平台五大系统,并通过腾讯云的SaaS服务开放给有需要的政府单位、企业等,帮助用户防范互联网诈骗。

五、安全热点事件盘点

5.1 勒索病毒集中爆发及病毒详解

5.1.1 WannaCry敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发

事件背景:

5月12日,WannaCry(想哭)比特币勒索病毒让在全球范围内爆发。据腾讯安全反病毒实验室安全研究人员分析发现,此次勒索事件与以往相比最大的区别在于,勒索病毒结合了蠕虫的方式进行传播。由于在NSA泄漏的文件中,WannaCry传播方式的漏洞利用代码被称为“EternalBlue”,所以也有的报道称此次攻击为“永恒之蓝”。

病毒详解:

勒索病毒近两年的爆发,很大程度上与加密算法的日益完善有关。密码学及算法的不断更新保证了我们日常网络中数据传输和保存的安全性。遗憾的是,勒索病毒的作者也利用了这个特性,使得我们虽然知道了木马的算法,但由于不知道作者使用的密钥,也就没有办法恢复被恶意加密的文件。

加密算法通常分为对称加密算法和非对称加密算法两大类。这两类算法在勒索病毒中都被使用过。

对称加密算法的加密和解密使用的是完全相同的密钥,特点是运算速度较快,但是单独使用此类算法时,密钥必须使用某种方法与服务器进行交换,在这个过程中存在被记录和泄漏的风险。勒索病毒常用的对称加密算法包括AES算法和RC4算法。

非对称加密算法也被称为公钥加密算法,它可以使用公开的密钥对信息进行加密,而只有私钥的所有者才可以解密,因此只要分发公钥并保存好私钥,就可以保证加密后的数据不被破解。与对称加密相比,非对称加密算法的运算速度通常较慢。勒索病毒常用的非对称加密算法包括RSA算法和ECC算法。

通常,勒索病毒会将这两大类加密算法结合起来使用,既可以迅速完成对整个电脑大量文件的加密,又能保证作者手中的私钥不被泄漏。

5.1.2 新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”来袭,更具破坏性

事件背景: 

6月27日新一轮勒索病毒Petya袭击了欧洲多个国家。此病毒相比WannaCry更具破坏性。病毒对电脑的硬盘MFT进行了加密,并修改了MBR,让操作系统无法进入。相比此前,Petya更像是有目的性的攻击,而并非简单的敲诈勒索。腾讯哈勃分析系统已经能够识别此病毒并判定为高度风险,利用腾讯电脑管家可查杀该病毒。

病毒详解:

Petya勒索病毒变种中毒后会扫描内网的机器,通过永恒之蓝漏洞自传播,达到快速传播的目的。有国外安全研究人员认为,Petya勒索病毒变种会通过邮箱附件传播,利用携带漏洞的DOC文档进行攻击。中毒后,病毒会修改系统的MBR引导扇区,当电脑重启时,病毒代码会在Windows操作系统之前接管电脑,执行加密等恶意操作。电脑重启后,会显示一个伪装的界面,此界面实际上是病毒显示的,界面上假称正在进行磁盘扫描,实际上正在对磁盘数据进行加密操作。

5.1.3勒索病毒腾讯安全应对方案

针对勒索病毒集中爆发,腾讯安全紧急发布应对方案,针对事前防范、事中病毒清理和事后文件恢复三种情形,向广大用户提出处理建议:

事前预防

1.利用电脑管家的勒索病毒免疫工具,自动化安装系统补丁和端口屏蔽,或手动下载、安装。

2.备份数据,安装安全软件,开启防护。

a)对相关重要文件采用离线备份(即使用U盘等方式)等方式进行备份;

b)利用部分电脑带有的系统还原功能,在未遭受攻击之前设置系统还原点,遭受攻击之后可以还原系统,防御文件加密;

c)安装腾讯电脑管家,开启实时防护,避免遭受攻击;

d)采用电脑管家的文档守护者进行文件的备份、防护。

3.建立灭活域名实现免疫。

根据对已有样本分析,勒索软件存在触发机制,如果可以成功访问指定链接,电脑便会在中了勒索病毒后直接退出,便不会进行文件加密。

a)普通用户在可以联网状态下,保证对该网址的可访问,则可以避免在遭受攻击后避免被加密(仅限于已知勒索病毒);

b)企业用户可以通过在内网搭建Web Server,然后通过内网DNS的方式将域名解析到Web Server IP的方式来实现免疫;通过该域名的访问情况也可以监控内网病毒感染的情况。

事中病毒清理

1.拔掉网线等方式隔离已遭受攻击电脑,避免感染其他机器。

2.利用电脑管家的杀毒功能直接查杀勒索软件,直接进行扫描清理(已隔离的机器可以通过U盘等方式下载离线包安装)。

3.备份相关数据后直接进行系统重装。

事后文件恢复

1.勒索软件带有恢复部分加密文件的功能,可以直接通过勒索软件恢复部分文件;或直接点击勒索软件界面上的”Decrypt”可弹出恢复窗口,恢复列表中文件。

2.可以使用第三方数据恢复工具尝试数据恢复,云上用户可直接联系腾讯安全云鼎实验室协助处理。

5.2 DDOS攻击不断,暗云变种频繁来袭

事件背景:

6月9日,一场2017年以来最大规模的DDoS网络攻击活动席卷全国,腾讯安全云鼎实验室发布溯源分析报告,通过对攻击源机器进行分析,工程师在机器中发现暗云Ⅲ的变种。通过对流量、内存DUMP数据等内容进行分析,腾讯云鼎实验室确定本次超大规模DDoS攻击由“暗云”黑客团伙发起。升级过后的“暗云III”将主要代码存储在云端,可实时动态更新。

病毒详解:

“暗云”系列木马自2015年初被腾讯反病毒实验室首次捕获并查杀,至今已有两年多。在这两年多时间里,该木马不断更新迭代,持续对抗升级。

从今年4月开始,该木马卷土重来,再次爆发,本次爆发的暗云木马相比之前的版本有比较明显的晋级特征,因此我们将其命名为暗云Ⅲ。暗云Ⅲ与之前版本相比有以下特点和区别:

第一、更加隐蔽,暗云Ⅲ依旧是无文件无注册表,与暗云Ⅱ相比,取消了多个内核钩子,取消了对象劫持,变得更加隐蔽,即使专业人员,也难以发现其踪迹。

第二、兼容性,由于该木马主要通过挂钩磁盘驱动器的StartIO来实现隐藏和保护病毒MBR,此类钩子位于内核很底层,不同类型、品牌的硬盘所需要的 hook点不一样,此版本木马增加了更多判断代码,能够感染市面上的绝大多数系统和硬盘。

第三、针对性对抗安全软件,对安全厂商的“急救箱”类工具做专门对抗,通过设备名占坑的方式试图阻止某些工具的加载运行。

5.3上半年重点诈骗类案件盘点

5.3.1 8.19徐玉玉电信诈骗案宣判

2016年8月,刚刚被南京邮电大学的徐玉玉,接到了一通诈骗电话,对方以奖学金的名义,骗走徐玉玉上大学的费用9900元。报案后的徐玉玉情绪异常,导致心源性猝死,不幸离世,引发社会对电信诈骗的空前关注。此案于2017年7月19日公开宣判,主犯陈文辉被判处无期徒刑,没收个人全部财产。其他六名被告人被判15年到3年不等的有期徒刑并处罚金。这一判决,向社会传递了法院依法从严惩处电信网络诈骗犯罪的鲜明态度。

防范建议:徐玉玉的惨剧足够引起公众的警惕。互联网时代,每个人的信息流转都在线上通过不同的渠道流转,给了不法分子可乘之机。面对如此环境,我们更应该对陌生电话和短信保持警觉。哪怕对方能说出个人精确的信息,都不能亲信,任何事件都需要经由可靠渠道多方验证,以保护自身安全。

5.3.2河南特大电信诈骗案:谎称卖高考答案骗近百考生300万元

2017年6月,河南鹤壁市警方破获了这起特大电信诈骗案,抓获犯罪嫌疑人两人,缴获作案用银行卡70余张。这些犯罪嫌疑人假借售卖高考试题答案的方式,通过网络对高考考生实施诈骗。据警方初步调查,诈骗受害人累计超过3500余人,涉案金额超过300万元。

防范建议:每年高考录取期间,都是高考诈骗案件高发的时间段。考生和家长需要谨防一切所谓“内部指标”、虚假查分网址、虚假查询录取结果等以高考招生为名的各种诈骗手段,切勿抱有侥幸心理,上当受骗。

5.3.3武汉女教师遭遇连环电信诈骗 7个月被骗253万

武汉某中学教师陈女士,名校硕士学历,2017年5月向警方报警遭遇诈骗。据了解,2016年11月,陈老师接到一陌生来电,称其社保卡被盗刷,并直接将电话转至“湖南省公安厅”。接电话的“民警“称陈女士牵涉到一桩诈骗洗钱案,为“洗刷罪名”,陈女士半年时间累计向对方转账253万,为此欠下债务达300多万。目前案件仍在侦办中。

防范建议:民众需要警惕陌生电话和短信。当接到疑似诈骗电话或短信时,要注意核实对方身份,尤其是对方要求向指定账户汇款时,不要轻易汇款,应第一时间告知家属商量解决或咨询公安机关;。公安部门不可能提供安全账户,更不会指导您转账、设密码。

六、安全防范专家建议

在电脑使用中,设置安全系数高的密码。使用不会被暴力攻击轻易猜到的密码,是提高安全性的有效办法。暴力攻击是攻击者使用自动化系统来猜测密码。避免使用从字典中能找到的单词,不要使用纯数字密码;使用包含特殊字符和空格,同时使用大小写字母,这种密码破解起来比使用母亲的名字或生日作为密码要困难的多。另外,密码长度每增加一位,密码字符构成的组合就会成倍数增加,因此长密码会更加安全。

定期升级软件,更新安全补丁。很多情况下,在安装部署生产性应用软件之前,对系统进行补丁测试工作是至关重要的,最终安全补丁必须安装到个人电脑的系统中。如果很长时间没有进行安全升级,可能会导致计算机非常容易成为不道德黑客的攻击目标。因此,不要把软件安装在长期没有进行安全补丁更新的计算机上。

通过备份重要文档,保护你的数据安全。备份你的数据,这是你可以保护自己在面对灾难的时候把损失降到最低的重要方法之一。如果数据量巨大,日常可以将数据保存至硬盘上。但更便捷的方式,可以利用腾讯电脑管家一类的安全防护软件,随时将数据自动化备份至本地,也可以存储至云端,最大化保证了数据安全。

不要轻易信任外部网络,开放性网络风险巨大。在一个开放的无线网络中,例如在具有无线网络的咖啡店中,网络风险会成倍增长,这个理念是非常重要的。这并非意味着在一些非信任的外部网络中不能使用无线网络,而是要时刻保持对用网安全的谨慎和警惕。关键是,用户必须通过自己的系统来确保安全,不要相信外部网络和自己的私有网络一样安全。

提高对陌生电话、短信的警惕性,勿轻信其中内容。诈骗短信形式多样化,各种新型短信木马泛滥使得通过诱惑性的短信自带病毒链接的支付类、隐私窃取类病毒迅速增长。对于“高考查分”、“开学通知”、“考试成绩单”、“户籍管理”、“手机实名制”、“录像视频”和“交通违章”等短信中内嵌的网址链接,应时刻提高警惕,切勿随意点击。对于陌生电话、短信应该提高警惕性和戒心,不要轻信对方所说的任何内容,必要时要对其身份信息进行核实。

保护个人隐私信息,不轻易向他人透露个人信息。个人账号、密码、身份证信息等属于关键个人隐私信息,因此绝对不能随意在任何陌生短信、电话进行透露。收到陌生短信、电话询问个人隐私时,请务必提高警惕。在社交平台发布消息时,谨防通过照片、截图等形式泄露重要隐私信息。不随意丢弃含有个人信息的机票、车票或快递单据,以防个人信息被窃取。

手机用户应养成使用安全软件来保护手机安全的良好习惯。手机用户可下载安装如腾讯手机管家一类的手机安全软件,定期给手机进行体检和病毒查杀,并及时更新病毒库。针对最新流行且难以清除的病毒或者漏洞,可下载专杀工具及时查杀或修复。同时开启腾讯手机管家骚扰拦截功能,可有效拦截诈骗电话、短信,提升手机安全。

Referring URL:

https://guanjia.qq.com/news/n1/2039.html

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures : China. DPRK, Russia, US // 中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures :China. DPRK, Russia, US //

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

China ‘s Armed Forces Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Overview of China ‘s Armed Forces

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

 

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

 

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Description: blue font for the deputy military units. Xinjiang Military Region is the only deputy deputy military district, under the Lanzhou Military Region.

American military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

US military command system description
  

The president of the United States is the commander in chief of the armed forces and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The president, through the Ministry of Defense leadership and command of the army, emergency can be leapfrog command. The strategic nuclear forces are controlled by the president at all times.
  

The National Security Council is the supreme defense decision-making advisory body. Its legal members include the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Defense Minister. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military adviser to the National Security Council. The Director of the CIA is the National Security Council’s statutory intelligence adviser. The daily work of the National Security Council is the responsibility of the President’s National Security Adviser (Consultant).
  

The Ministry of Defense is the supreme military organ that leads and directs the US Armed Forces, is responsible for the defense policy, the formulation and implementation of the plan, and the management of the defense affairs, and through the joint meeting of the Chief of Staff to carry out operational command. It consists of the Ministry of Defense headquarters system, the military system and operational command system composed of three parts.
  

Department of Defense Department of the system is mainly responsible for the policy, finance, military and other military affairs, as well as the coordination between the military. Under the policy, procurement and technical, personnel and combat readiness, auditing and finance, directing communication control and intelligence, legislation, logistics affairs, intelligence supervision, administration, public affairs, supervision, combat test and evaluation departments, respectively, by the Deputy Defense Minister , Assistant defense minister, director, director or department head and other supervisors.
  

The military system consists of the Ministry of War, the Air Force Department and the Department of the Navy three military (military department). The military departments are responsible for the administration of the service, education and training, weapons and equipment development and procurement and logistical support and other duties, and the responsibility to warfare to the joint operations headquarters to provide combat troops and the corresponding service and logistical support, but no combat Command. The military minister is a civilian officer, under which he is the chief of staff (Navy for the combat minister). The chief of staff (naval combat minister) is the highest military officer of the service.
  

The operational command system refers to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Command and Special Command affiliated to it. The Joint Chiefs of Staff is both the President, the Minister of Defense, the Military Advisory Body of the National Security Council, and the Military Commander of the President and the Minister of Defense to issue operational orders to the Joint Command and Special Command. In a sense, the Department of Defense is the military and government departments of the President, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the President’s military order.

The former Soviet Union military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Russian military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

North Korea ‘s Military Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中国武装力量指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

中国武装力量总览

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

说明:兰色字体为副大军区单位。新疆军区是唯一一个副大军区编制,隶属兰州军区。

美国军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

美国军事指挥系统说明
  

美国总统是武装部队总司令,全军最高统帅。总统通过国防部领导和指挥全军,紧急情况下可越级指挥。战略核力量不论何时都由总统指挥控制。
  

国家安全委员会是最高防务决策咨询机构。其法定成员包括总统、副总统、国务卿、国防部长。参谋长联席会议主席是国家安全委员会法定军事顾问,中央情报局局长是国家安全委员会法定情报顾问。国家安全委员会日常工作由总统国家安全事务助理(顾问)负责。
  

国防部是总统领导与指挥美国武装力量的最高军事机关,负责防务政策、计划的制定和实施,以及国防事务管理,并通过参谋长联席会议对全军实施作战指挥。它由国防部本部系统、军事部系统和作战指挥系统三部分组成。
  

国防部本部系统主要负责政策、财政、军务等全军性事务,以及各军事部间的协调。下设政策、采购与技术、人事与战备、审计与财务、指挥通信控制与情报、立法、后勤事务、情报监督、行政管理、公共事务、监察、作战试验与评估等部门,分别由副国防部长、助理国防部长、主任、局长或部门长等主管。
  

军事部系统包括陆军部、空军部和海军部3个军事部(军种部)。各军事部负责本军种的行政管理、教育训练、武器装备研制和采购及后勤保障等事务,并有责任在战时向各联合作战司令部提供作战部队及相应的勤务和后勤支援,但无作战指挥权。军事部长为文官,在其下设军种参谋长(海军为作战部长)。军种参谋长(海军作战部长)是本军种最高军事长官。
  

作战指挥系统指参谋长联席会议及隶属于它的各联合司令部、特种司令部。参谋长联席会议既是总统、国防部长、国家安全委员会的军事咨询机构,也是总统和国防部长向联合司令部和特种司令部发布作战命令的军事指挥机关。从某种意义上讲,国防部是总统的军政部门,而参谋长联席会议是总统的军令部门。

前苏联军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

俄罗斯军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

朝鲜军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy // 中共優先發展網絡戰略力量

Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy

中共優先發展網絡戰略力量

Cyberspace has become the national comprehensive security of the door. Network warfare reality, the network battlefield globalization, network confrontation normalization, network attack heart white hot, the network to build the army of the general trend, no one can block. Give priority to the development of network strategy, and actively seize the commanding heights of network strategy, for my army building is of great significance.

  The main features of network strategy

Network strategic strength refers to the ability to achieve the desired results through cyberspace. From the current development and possible future trends, mainly with the following characteristics.

Composed of multiple. In recent years, the major network events in the world have shown that the strategic power of the military network is the main force of cyberspace competition. The strategic power of the government departments and the private sector is an important part of the cyberspace competition. The “cyber warrior” An important addition.

Strong professionalism. Network strategy strength has a strong latent and difficult to predict, and the speed of light, instantaneous effect, monitoring and early warning is difficult; once the action is effective, damage effect superimposed amplification or non-linear step, with a typical “butterfly effect.” In 2010, the “shock net” virus attacked the centrifuges of the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant and the Natanz uranium enrichment plant, resulting in nearly a thousand centrifuge scrapped, forcing Iran’s nuclear capacity building to delay 2 to 3 years, opened the network attack soft means Destroy the country’s hard facilities.

Destructive. The strategic power of the network is no less than the weapons of mass destruction. Russia and Georgia in 2008, “the five-day war”, the Russian military to Georgia’s television media, government websites and transportation systems as the goal, to carry out a comprehensive “bee group” type network paralysis attacks, leading to grid government agencies operating chaos, Logistics and communication system collapse, much-needed war materials can not be delivered in a timely manner, the potential of the war has been seriously weakened, a direct impact on the grid of social order, operational command and troop scheduling. The Russian military doctrine has identified cybercrime as a weapon of mass destruction and has retained the right to use weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons to counterattack.

Advanced technology and phase. Network strategy strength development speed, replacement fast, technical materialization for the equipment cycle is short. At present, the speed of the microprocessor doubles every 18 months, the backbone bandwidth doubled every six months, a variety of new electronic information equipment after another, all kinds of application software dizzying. Cyber ​​space confrontation is the field of information in the field of offensive and defensive struggle, the use of network strategy forces in the confrontation of the phase with grams, constantly renovated. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology makes the software of the anti-wall software upgrade continuously. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology is the development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology. , Can be described as “a foot high, magic high ten feet.”

  The Developing Trend of Network Strategic

From the subordinate force to the development of key forces. In the past, the network strategic power is mainly for other forces to provide information security, in a subordinate position; with the development of network information technology, network system control of other rights, network strategic forces from the subordinate status to the dominant position to accelerate into the maintenance of national The key to safety. There is no network security there is no sovereign security, “no net” to become a new law of war, the world’s major countries around the network space development rights, dominance and control of a new round of competition, especially the United States and Russia adhere to the practice In the use and continue to develop.

From the maintenance of force to the development of specialized forces. In the past, the network strategy is mainly to maintain the network information system and all kinds of network transmission system, network attack and defense attributes are not clear. At present, all areas of the network space in depth, the world’s major countries are hard to build cyberspace offensive and defensive capabilities, the main military power of the network strategy has become a network of reconnaissance, network attacks, network defense and other clear division of labor, professional regular military forces. The United States has so far built the world’s most complete and powerful network of the army, and held a series of “network storm” series of exercises. The new “cyberspace strategy” in the United States, the first public to cyberspace combat as one of the tactical options for future military conflict, clearly proposed to improve the US military in the cyberspace of deterrence and offensive capability. In order to adapt to the new strategy, the US Department of Defense proposed 2018 to build a offensive and defensive, flexible form, with full combat capability of the network forces construction goals.

From the military to the integration of military and civilian development. The development of the strategic power of the military network started relatively late compared with the civil field, and because of the confidentiality of military confrontation and the specificity of the operational objectives, it is often developed independently. With the development of network technology, the military’s own network strategic strength is difficult to meet the needs of diversified tasks, we must learn from local folk technical means, integrate local network resources, realize the integration of military and civilian development. Network space capacity building on the talent, intelligence, experience and other software environment is extremely high, coupled with the local convergence of a wealth of network resources, military and civilian forces to promote the development of cyberspace capabilities become the strong tone of the times.

From a single model to the “network integration” development. At present, the network includes both the computer IP system network and the non-computer IP system network including a large number of complex early warning detection network, satellite communication network and tactical data link. The traditional single network confrontation model is difficult to meet the challenge of cyberspace. With the development of information technology, especially the Internet of Things technology, the relationship between the network and the power of the battlefield network more and more closely, which for the “network integration” in the technical means to provide the possibility. The use of electronic warfare and network warfare means, for different systems around the open bow, broken chain broken network, to achieve complementary advantages, system damage, as the latest guidance on the construction of network space. Data show that the US military typical network of integrated attack equipment “Shu special” system has been from the “Shu-1” to the current development of “Shu-5”. According to reports, “Shute” system through the enemy radar antenna, microwave relay station, network processing nodes to invade the enemy air defense network system, real-time monitoring of enemy radar detection results, even as a system administrator to take over the enemy network, Control of the sensor.

From non-state actors to state actors. At present, the network attack has developed from a single hacker behavior for the national, political, military confrontation, the attack object has been developed from the personal website to the country, the army’s important information system, attack “unit” has grown from stand-alone to tens of thousands Hundreds of thousands of terminals, and can instantly release the amazing attack energy. Although many of the intentions of malicious acts of non-State actors are non-state, the consequences are national, whether they are espionage, political opinions, or personal discontent, or terrorist activities , Have a direct impact on social stability, disrupt the economic order, endanger the stability of state power. Once the relevant reaction is made, the subject of the act must be the state and the army, and not the non-state actors themselves.

  The Construction of Network Strategic Strength

Strengthen strategic planning. Cyberspace competition is the first strategic battle of the contest. From the national level, the network strategy of the power of the main function is to reduce the risk of cyberspace, maintaining the normal operation of the country. We must understand the extreme importance and realistic urgency of cyberspace security from the perspective of national security, raise the focus of cyberspace capacity building to the strategic level, and try to solve the problem of how to make good use of cyberspace while trying to reduce the national cyberspace security Risk, so that cyberspace security has become an important support for national prosperity and security. From the military level, the network strategy is mainly to seize the system of network power. We must expand the military vision, the cyberspace as an important area of ​​action, to seize the system as the core, change the military ideas and ideas, adjust the structure and composition of armed forces, the development of weapons and equipment and take a new tactics.

Speed ​​up the construction of the power system. Maintain cyberspace security in the final analysis depends on the strength. We must base ourselves on the characteristics and laws of cyberspace capacity building, focus on the core elements of network capability system and the overall layout of network strategy strength, and systematically design the system structure which conforms to the law and characteristics of cyberspace confrontation in our country, and perfect the system of leadership and command Functional tasks, straighten out the relationship between command and management. We should take the network strategic power as an important new combat force, from the organization construction, personnel training, equipment development, elements of training and other aspects, to take extraordinary measures to give priority construction, focus on protection. To normalize the national network of offensive and defensive exercises, test theory, tactics, equipment and technology effectiveness, and comprehensively enhance the comprehensive prevention of cyberspace capabilities.

Promote technological innovation. The essence of cyberspace confrontation is the competition of core technology, and it is necessary to accelerate the independent innovation of network information technology. We should focus on improving the capability of independent innovation as a strategic basis, relying on the national innovation system as the basic support, concentrating on breaking the frontier technology of network development and the key core technology with international competitiveness, ahead of deployment and focusing on the development of information technology and information industry. To speed up the process of localization of key core technologies, strengthen the construction of safety testing and active early warning means, and gradually improve the equipment system of cyberspace in China, and comprehensively improve our network space capability. To follow the basic laws of cyberspace confrontation, in accordance with the “asymmetric checks and balances” strategy, increase the quantum technology, Internet of things and cloud computing and other new technology research and development efforts to create unique combat capability, master the initiative of cyberspace security development The

Promote the integration of military and civilian development. The integration of military and spatial ability of military and civilian development is not only the overall situation of national security and development strategy, but also the objective fact that cyberspace security can not be avoided by the overall planning of national defense and economic and social development. We must actively promote the deep integration of military and civilian development, to promote China’s network space capacity supporting the construction. It is necessary to formulate top-level planning in the form of policies and regulations, clarify the objectives and tasks, methods, organizational division and basic requirements of the deepening development of cyberspace in the form of policies and regulations, and make the integration of military and civilian development into law enforcement and organizational behavior; To establish a sound military coordination, demand docking, resource sharing mechanism, through a unified leadership management organization and coordination of military needs and major work, to achieve risk sharing, resource sharing, and common development of the new situation. We should pay attention to the distinction between the boundaries of military and civilian integration, clear the concept of development-oriented people and the main idea of ​​the army-based, and actively explore the military and the people, the advantages of complementary channels.

 

Original Communist Mandarin Chinese 🙂

網絡空間成為國家綜合安全的命門。網絡戰爭現實化、網絡戰場全球化、網絡對抗常態化、網絡攻心白熱化、網絡建軍正規化的大勢,無人可擋。優先發展網絡戰略力量,積極搶占網絡戰略制高點,對於我軍隊建設具有重要意義。

網絡戰略力量的主要特點

網絡戰略力量,是指通過網絡空間來實現預期結果的能力。從當前發展及未來可能的走勢看,主要有以下特點。

組成多元。近年來發生在全球範圍內的重大網絡事件表明,軍隊網絡戰略力量是網絡空間競爭的主力軍,政府部門、私營機構網絡戰略力量是網絡空間競爭的重要部分,民間“網絡戰士”是網絡空間競爭的重要補充。

專業性強。網絡戰略力量具有極強的潛伏性和難預測性,且以光速進行、瞬時產生效果,監測預警難度大;一旦行動奏效,損害效果疊加放大或非線性階躍,具有典型的“蝴蝶效應”。 2010年,“震網”病毒攻擊了伊朗布什爾核電站和納坦茲鈾濃縮廠的離心機,造成近千台離心機報廢,迫使伊朗核能力建設延遲2至3年,開啟了網絡攻擊軟手段摧毀國家硬設施的先河。

破壞性大。網絡戰略力量破壞力不亞於大規模殺傷性武器。 2008年俄國與格魯吉亞“五日戰爭”中,俄軍以格方的電視媒體、政府網站和交通系統等為目標,開展全面的“蜂群”式網絡阻癱攻擊,導致格政府機構運作混亂,物流和通信系統崩潰,急需的戰爭物資無法及時投送,戰爭潛力受到嚴重削弱,直接影響了格的社會秩序、作戰指揮和部隊調度。俄羅斯軍事學說已將網絡攻擊手段定性為大規模毀滅性武器,並保留了運用大規模毀滅性武器或核武器反擊的權利。

技術先進且相生相剋。網絡戰略力量發展速度快、更新換代快,技術物化為裝備的周期短。當前,微處理器的速度每18個月翻一番,主幹網帶寬每6個月增加一倍,各種新型電子信息設備層出不窮,各種應用軟件目不暇接。網絡空間對抗是信息領域的攻防鬥爭,網絡戰略力量使用的手段在對抗中相生相剋、不斷翻新。常規通信受干擾催生了跳、擴頻通信體制,跳、擴頻通信的出現又催生了頻率跟踪干擾、相關信號干擾等新型電子乾擾手段;防火牆、信息監控技術的發展,使翻牆軟件不斷升級,可謂“道高一尺,魔高一丈”。

網絡戰略力量的發展趨勢

由從屬性力量向關鍵性力量發展。以往網絡戰略力量主要是為其他力量提供信息保障,處於從屬地位;隨著網絡信息技術的發展,製網權統攬其他制權,網絡戰略力量由從屬地位向主導地位加速轉進,成為維護國家安全的關鍵。沒有網絡安全就沒有主權安全,“無網不勝”成為戰爭的新定律,世界各主要國家圍繞網絡空間的發展權、主導權和控制權展開了新一輪的角逐,特別是美俄堅持在實踐中運用並不斷發展。

由維護型力量向專業化力量發展。以往網絡戰略力量主要是維護網絡化信息系統和各類網絡傳輸系統,網絡攻擊和防禦屬性均不鮮明。當下各領域對網絡空間深度依賴,世界主要國家無不竭力打造網絡空間攻防能力,主要軍事強國的網絡戰略力量業已成為集網絡偵察、網絡攻擊、網絡防禦等分工明確、專業化的正規軍事力量。美國迄今已建成全球編制最齊全、力量最龐大的網軍,並多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列演習。美國新版《網絡空間戰略》,首次公開把網絡空間作戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,明確提出要提高美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻能力。為適應新戰略,美國防部提出2018年建成一支攻防兼備、形式靈活,具備全面作戰能力的網絡部隊的建設目標。

由軍地自主向軍民融合發展。軍隊網絡戰略力量的發展相對於民用領域起步較晚,且由於軍事對抗的保密性和作戰目標的特定性,往往自主發展。隨著網絡技術的發展,軍隊自身的網絡戰略力量難滿足多樣化任務的需要,必須學習借鑒地方民間技術手段,整合地方網絡資源,實現軍民融合發展。網絡空間能力建設對人才、智力、經驗等軟件環境要求極高,加上地方匯聚了豐富的網絡資源,軍民聯手推進網絡空間能力發展成為時代的強音。

由單一模式向“網電一體”發展。現階段,網絡既包括計算機IP體製網絡,更包含大量複雜的預警探測網、衛星通信網、戰術數據鍊等非計算機IP體製網絡,傳統的單一網絡對抗模式難以應對網絡空間的挑戰。隨著信息技術特別是物聯網技術的發展,戰場網中網與電的關係越來越緊密,這為“網電一體”在技術手段上提供了可能。綜合運用電子戰與網絡戰手段,針對不同體制的網絡左右開弓、斷鍊破網,實現優勢互補、體系破擊,成為網絡空間能力建設的最新指導。有資料顯示,美軍典型網電一體攻擊裝備“舒特”系統已從“舒特-1”發展到目前的“舒特-5”。據報導,“舒特”系統可通過敵方雷達天線、微波中繼站、網絡處理節點入侵敵方防空網絡系統,能夠實時監視敵方雷達的探測結果,甚至以系統管理員身份接管敵方網絡,實現對傳感器的控制。

由非國家行為體向國家行為體發展。目前,網絡攻擊已從單個的黑客行為發展為國家、政治、軍事上的對抗行為,攻擊對像已從個人網站發展到國家、軍隊的重要信息系統,攻擊“單元”已從單機發展到數万乃至數十萬台終端,且能在瞬時釋放驚人的攻擊能量。儘管非國家行為體的惡意網絡行為目的許多是非國家的,但由此所造成的後果卻是國家的,無論是進行間諜活動,還是發表政治主張,或是發洩個人不滿情緒,或是進行恐怖活動,都直接影響社會穩定、擾亂經濟秩序、危及國家政權穩固。一旦因之作出相關反應,其行為主體一定是國家和軍隊,而不再是非國家行為體本身。

網絡戰略力量的建設指向

加強戰略統籌謀劃。網絡空間競爭首先是戰略運籌的較量。從國家層面看,網絡戰略力量的職能主要是降低網絡空間的風險,維護國家正常運轉。必須從國家安全的視角認清網絡空間安全的極端重要性和現實緊迫性,將網絡空間能力建設的著眼點上升到戰略層面,在著力解決如何利用好網絡空間的同時,努力降低國家網絡空間安全風險,使網絡空間安全成為國家繁榮與安全的重要支撐。從軍隊層面看,網絡戰略力量主要是奪取製網權。必須拓展軍事視野,把網絡空間作為製權行動的一個重要領域,以奪取製網權為核心,變革軍事思想和觀念,調整武裝力量結構與構成,發展武器裝備並採取新的戰法。

加快力量體系構建。維護網絡空間安全說到底要靠實力。必須立足於網絡空間能力建設的特點、規律,圍繞我國網絡能力體系核心要素和網絡戰略力量建設總體佈局,以系統思維設計符合我國網絡空間對抗規律和特點的體系架構,健全領導指揮體制機制,明確職能任務,理順指揮管理關係。要把網絡戰略力量作為重要的新型作戰力量突出出來,從組織建設、人才培養、裝備發展、要素演訓等各方面,採取超常舉措,給予重點建設、重點保障。要常態化開展國家級網絡攻防演練,檢驗理論、戰法、裝備及技術的有效性,全面提升網絡空間綜合防範能力。

推進技術自主創新。網絡空間對抗的實質是核心技術的比拼,必須加快推進網絡信息技術自主創新。要把提高自主創新能力作為戰略基點,以國家創新體係為基本依托,集中力量突破網絡發展的前沿技術和具有國際競爭力的關鍵核心技術,超前部署和重點發展信息技術和信息產業。要加速關鍵核心技術的國產化進程,加強安全測試和主動預警手段的建設,逐步完善我國網絡空間的裝備體系,全面提高我國網絡空間能力。要遵循網絡空間對抗的基本規律,按照“非對稱制衡”方略,加大對量子科技、物聯網和雲計算等新技術的研發力度,以獨創技術塑造實戰能力,掌握網絡空間安全發展的主動權。

推動軍民融合發展。網絡空間能力的軍民融合式發展,既是站在國家安全與發展的戰略全局,對國防和經濟社會發展統籌謀劃,也是網絡空間安全不能迴避的客觀事實。必須積極推動軍民深度融合發展,全力推進我國網絡空間能力配套建設。要綜合軍民需求制定頂層規劃,以政策法規的形式明確網絡空間軍民融合深度發展的目標任務、方法路徑、組織分工和基本要求等關係全局的重大問題,變軍民融合發展為執法行為、組織行為;要建立健全軍地協調、需求對接、資源共享機制,通過統一的領導管理機構組織協調軍地的各類需求和重大工作,達成風險共擔、資源共享、共同發展的新局面。要注重軍民融合的界限區分,明確以民為主的發展理念和以軍為主的作戰理念,積極探索軍民一體、優勢互補的可行性渠道。

Referring URL:

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2016/1226/c40531-28977153.html

Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Reasearch