Chinese Military Electromagnetic Spectrum Technology Determines the Future Development of Defeating the US at War

Chinese Military Electromagnetic Spectrum Technology Determines the Future Development of Defeating the US at War

For a long time, in order to solve the A2/AD dilemma and achieve a new offset strategy, the U.S. has launched combat operations such as open space/air-sea warfare, cyber-centric warfare, distributed killing, multi-domain warfare, and mixed warfare. With new ideas, we constantly seek military advantages such as missile offensive and defense, cyber-electromagnetics, and multi-domain space. Today, the electromagnetic spectrum war has become the new darling of leading a new round of military theory and technological innovation. Researching and analyzing the status quo and characteristics of the development of the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum combat has important practical significance for our military’s success in defeating the enemy in the information battlefield.

1  Development of Electromagnetic Spectrum Warfare

In 1956, Admiral Sergei Gorschkov, the former Soviet naval commander, pointed out: “Who controls the electromagnetic spectrum, who will win the next war.” Sixty years later, the electromagnetic spectrum has become one of the key battlefields of modern warfare. In order to compete for the advantages of the electromagnetic spectrum in the battlefield, the US military conducted in-depth explorations from combat theory to equipment technology and developed rapidly.

1.1 Evolution of theory

Electromagnetic spectrum control has a long history. In the early 1970s, Thomas H, chairman of the US Senate Association. Moorer said that the winner of World War III will be a party that can highly control and manage the electromagnetic spectrum. The United States “Old Ravens” Association first proposed the use of electromagnetic control (EMC) as the fourth component of the concept of electronic warfare. In 2009, Strategic Command launched the early concept of electromagnetic spectrum warfare (EMSW), and added tasks such as electromagnetic spectrum management (EMSM), electromagnetic spectrum control (EMSC), and electromagnetic battle control (EMBC) on the basis of electronic warfare [1]. In 2012, the Strategic Command established the Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Control Center (JEMSCC) to achieve full integration of electronic warfare and electromagnetic spectrum management, and each of the units also established corresponding organizational coordination agencies and detachments [2]. In the same year, the US Navy proposed the concept of Electromagnetic Maneuver Warfare (EMMW) [3], and in March 2015 released the “21st Century Maritime Force Cooperation Strategy,” which outlines the goals, components, technology projects, and implementation paths of the electromagnetic maneuver warfare [4]. In December 2015, Terry Halvorsen, chief information officer of the US Department of Defense, pointed out that the electromagnetic spectrum is expected to be considered as the sixth battlefield following land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace [5]; in the same month, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments Defining Electromagnetic Waves: Regaining U.S. Dominance in the Electromagnetic Spectrum Field[6] The report proposes the concept of “low-zero-power” electromagnetic spectrum warfare, expounding concept ideas, trend features, capabilities and technical requirements and current obstacles, and presenting views, concepts, Procurement, technical, verification, etc. At the end of November 2016, the 53rd International Conference of the “Old Ravens” Association of the United States took the theme “Global Vision of Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” as the theme to demonstrate the new concepts and technical achievements of electronic warfare, spectrum sensing and conflict resolution, and explored the electromagnetic spectrum operational environment. Policy regulations, equipment procurement, joint training and combat capabilities, etc. [7]. In January 2017, the new Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter signed the first “Electronic Warfare Strategy” document, officially establishing the electromagnetic spectrum as an independent operational domain and elaborating on how to conduct operations [8].

1.2 Policies and Orders

Strategic policies and military doctrines reflect the development of the US military’s combat theory. From 2006 to 2014, the US Department of Defense updated the “Electromagnetic Spectrum Strategy” to focus on advancing strategic objectives such as development of spectrum equipment, flexibility of spectrum operations, spectrum management, and improvement of policy response capabilities [9]; Strategic Command released in August 2010. Winning the 21st Century Economic and Security Advantage: Strategic Framework for Electromagnetic Spectrum Control, building an electromagnetic spectrum control system architecture from multiple perspectives including objectives, requirements, strategic development, etc. [10]; the Joint Venture Association has promulgated JP6-01 “Joint” in March 2012. “Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Action” joint publication [11], signed in December 2012 CJCSM3320.01C “Chairman’s Handbook of Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations in Electromagnetic Operation Environment” [12], issued CJCSI3320.01D “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum” in January 2013 Operational Instructions [13] and CJCSM 3320.04 “Electronic Warfare Supporting Combined Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” Manual [14]. In March 2015, the “Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Joint Concept” document [15] was signed, which systematically stated that the Joint Forces launched electromagnetic spectrum combat operations. Strategic vision, organizational structure and functions, command and management relationships, plan formulation and operational implementation, operational integration and action synergy, and gradually Tactical, technical, and program (TTP) refinement of control, interference cancellation, spectrum management, and electronic warfare reprogramming, etc.; US Army released TRADOC P525-7-16, “The US Army’s Future Modular Force Conceptual Capability in December 2007 Plan 2015-2024 – Electromagnetic Spectrum Operation Manual [16]. Field regulations FM6-02.70 “Army Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” [17] were issued in May 2010. Field Manual FM3-38 “Network Electromagnetic Actions” was issued in January 2014. [18] Published in December 2015, ATP6-02. 70 “Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Combat Operations Skills” [19], updated in February 2016 AR525-15 “Network Reconfiguration of Electromagnetic Action Software” provisions [20], US Air Force updated 2017 AFI10-703 “electronic warfare integrated reprogramming” instructions [21] Define the concept of electromagnetic spectrum operations under the guidance of joint directives, and elaborate on issues such as organization and responsibilities, operational architecture, plan development and coordination control, task list and decision process, action team and management tools, and DOTMLPF, and promote electromagnetics. The integration of spectrum operations, electronic warfare, and cyberspace warfare. In addition, Kevin D, head of the United States Joint Force Development Department. In October 2016, Scott signed the JDN3-16 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operation” bulletin[22], standardized terminology and operational framework standards, and made a procedural description of the functional roles, organization, planning, operational implementation, and evaluation. It was awarded the Joint Spectrum Interference Cancellation Program CJCSM3320.02D signed in January and March 2013 by the Joint Committee, CJCSI3320.02F Joint Spectrum Interference Cancellation, and CJCSI3320.02E-1 Joint Spectrum Interference in February 2014. The three major regulations [23][24][25] to eliminate the confidentiality of the program were the important operational support and became the latest guidance for the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum warfare.

1.3 Equipment and Technology

Military technology leads and supports advanced operational concepts. To transform the concept of electromagnetic spectrum warfare from concept to capability, the U.S. military is striving to develop technological innovation and equipment development, and to develop new systems featuring networking, dexterity, multifunction, miniaturization, and adaptability.

On the spectrum management and control system[19][26], the US Department of Defense has developed and deployed the Allied Nations Joint Spectrum Management Planning Tool (CJSMPT) and the Global Electromagnetic Spectrum Information System (GEMSIS) since 2005, followed by the Spectrum XXI and the Modified Spectrum XXIO, Spectrum. Perception Management and Planning System (SSC-SSMPS), Spectrum Situational Sensing System (S2AS), Maritime Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Action Project (AESOP), Joint Automatic Communication Electronic Action Instruction System (JACS), Host Country Global Online Spectrum Database, etc., with real-time spectrum Measurement and online analysis, spectrum planning and deduction and frequency allocation, electromagnetic interference analysis and conflict elimination, electromagnetic warfare environment modeling simulation, electromagnetic situation sharing and frequency efficiency evaluation, spectrum resource access and database functions and capabilities.

In combat equipment and technology projects [3][26][27], in 2011, the DARPA began to initiate behavioral learning adaptive electronic warfare (BLADE), adaptive radar confrontation (ARC), extreme radio frequency spectrum CommEx, Active Electronic Scan Array (AESA) technology, Near Zero-Power Radio Frequency and Sensor Operation (N-ZERO), under the conditions of the project, through the development of new technologies such as real-time evaluation of countermeasures, autonomous generation of measures, immediate feedback of effects, etc. Unknown waveform and behavioral electromagnetic spectrum threats Real-time tactical confrontation new capabilities; In 2010, the Air Force launched a Cognitive Jammer and HiPERDAC project based on Networked Software Defined Architecture (SDA) and passive RF PRIDE, SWEATER, and CHAMP (Eliminate High-Power Microwave Advanced Missiles) to develop active and passive target threat automatic recognition, real-time assessment and adaptive confrontation technologies and capabilities The US Navy conducts a maritime electronic warfare improvement (SEWIP-Block I/II/III) SLQ-32 shipboard electronic warfare system and ship signalling Equipment (SSEE), electromagnetic command and control (EMC2), integrated mast (InTop) shipborne antenna, next-generation jamming machine (NGJ) and other projects to improve real-time threat assessment and situational awareness, mission program modeling simulation, automatic distribution of electromagnetic spectrum , Combat Operations Analysis and other capabilities; the US Army launched the Electronic Warfare Planning and Management Tool (EWPMT) and Multi-Functional Electronic Warfare (MFEW), Defensive Electronic Assault (DEA) and Silencer Electronics scheduled for September 2016 Warfare and other systems enhance the electronic support for the perception of radio signals and the ability to send electronic signals that interfere with or deceive signals. Earlier this year, the Strategic Command Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC) initiated research on new technologies that provide improved electromagnetic battle management capabilities for electromagnetic spectrum situational awareness and command and control, and plans to implement real-time strategy-based spectrum control and advanced electromagnetic battle sequences (EOB) within five years. ) Characterization and action plan modeling, simulation, analysis, and other capabilities and achieve 7-8 level of technology maturity [28]. Driven by cognitive EW and artificial intelligence technologies, DARPA launched the Radio Frequency Machine Learning System (RFMLS) and Spectrum Joint Challenge Program on August 11, 2017 to develop automatic identification and characterization of target signals from a large number of complex spectrum signals. New technology [29].

2  Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Theory

The electromagnetic spectrum warfare is the latest theory of information warfare of the US military in the 21st century. As research and understanding continue to deepen, the U.S. military will gradually place new strategic ideas as tactics and tactical measures. In order to unify the battlefield electromagnetic spectrum utilization and control actions, the U.S. military issued a series of directives, regulations, regulations, and other documents to publish a summary of the JDN3-16 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operation” regulations, and standardized the operational concept, mission category, organization, and combat planning and implementation. Evaluation and so on.

2.1 Basic concepts

Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations (EMSO) is the conceptual starting point for the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum warfare theory. It is based on electronic warfare and spectrum management and is based on joint electromagnetic spectrum operations. The goal is to achieve electromagnetic spectrum advantages in electromagnetic operating environment (EMOE), involving spectrum management operations, joint electromagnetic spectrum operations (JEMSO) and joint electromagnetic spectrum. Management actions and other concepts. According to the US military regulations JP1-02 “Defense Ministry Military Terms Glossary” [30], JP6-01 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Action”, JDN3-16 “Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations” and ATP6-02.70 “Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Combat Operations Skills” , United electromagnetic spectrum operations are coordinated military operations carried out by two or more units for use, attacks, protection and management of operational electromagnetic environment. The electromagnetic spectrum management action refers to the interaction between the spectrum management, frequency allocation, host country coordination, policy compliance, and conflict resolution in the entire phase of military operations to jointly promote the planning, management, and implementation of operations within the electromagnetic operations environment. The relationship between various concepts and categories is shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 1 Diagram of related concepts of electromagnetic spectrum operations [19]

2.2 Task Domain Positioning

The U.S. military believes that the joint electromagnetic spectrum combat mission domain is composed of four-dimensional missions of electromagnetic spectrum utilization, management, attack, and protection. Among them, missions include signal intelligence gathering, distribution, and electronic warfare support. Management tasks include electromagnetic spectrum management and electromagnetic battle management. Missions have electronic attacks and navigation warfare, protection tasks have electronic protection and joint spectrum interference cancellation. The operational concept aims to operationally integrate the electromagnetic spectrum operations of the joint forces in the electromagnetic operating environment, establish key priorities, organize action coordination, and eliminate conflicts. Through the full integration of electromagnetic maneuvering schemes, strength and action to strengthen coordination and unification, the electromagnetic spectrum of the battlefield is realized. control. It plays a key role in the formation of joint operational capability in all operational areas, and has a profound impact on the joint forces’ command and control, intelligence, firepower strikes, adjustment and mobility, protection, and maintenance of operational capabilities.

2.3 Organizational Framework

The organization of the joint electromagnetic spectrum operations is responsible for the formulation and publication of policy directives and operational guidelines for commanders and commanders, and for combat planning, operational implementation, coordination of operations, and operational evaluation. The person in charge of electromagnetic spectrum control assigned by the Joint Force Commander shall assume the overall responsibility for the joint electromagnetic spectrum operations. The Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Unit (JEMSOC) is the chief staff of the Joint Force, and the person in charge of electromagnetic spectrum control assigns a supervisor to direct the command. Each service set up an electromagnetic spectrum operations division, each of which administers an electromagnetic spectrum operational unit, and assumes the functions of integrated network operations, electronic warfare, and spectrum management operations. They are the Army’s electronic warfare officer’s network of electromagnetic action units and the Navy’s maritime operations. The operational center electromagnetic spectrum operational unit, the Air Force air operations center electronic warfare coordination unit, the Marine Corps Combat Development and Integration Command’s cyberspace and electronic warfare coordination unit, and the Multinational Force Joint Staff Operations Department’s contracted electronic warfare coordination unit. The Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Organization of the Joint Force is shown in Figure 2. The joint electromagnetic spectrum combat unit architecture is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2 Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Organization

Figure 3 Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Unit Architecture

2.4 Combat Planning Process

Joint electromagnetic spectrum combat planning is jointly completed by all levels of joint electromagnetic spectrum combat units. During task analysis, the combat plan development team develops a staff assessment plan to determine the electromagnetic spectrum support degree in the formulation and analysis of the action plan as a strategic basis for achieving the advantages of the electromagnetic spectrum; after the action plan is selected, joint electromagnetics are developed. The spectrum operations appendix describes mission tasks, priorities, policy strategies, process steps, and implementation procedures for the entire operational phase, establishing coordination measures, specific procedures, and engagement rules for the use of electromagnetic battle management and control systems in the joint operations domain; The Ministry submits its own electromagnetic spectrum operations plan and integrates it into this appendix. During the planning and implementation of the plan, the Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Unit strengthens the electromagnetic spectrum operations plans of each division and participates in the development of various divisions, establishment of priorities, establishment of operational integration and operational coordination, and the creation of an electromagnetic spectrum control plan. Then, the updated electromagnetic spectrum control plan is adjusted to start the joint electromagnetic spectrum combat implementation cycle to generate an electromagnetic spectrum control sequence that guides the use of the electromagnetic spectrum of the joint force. The combat planning process is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Combat Plan Development Process

2.5 Operational methods

The joint electromagnetic spectrum operations implementation process is a continuous cycle of planning, implementation and evaluation. The united electromagnetic spectrum combat unit completes the formulation of the electromagnetic spectrum control plan and the electromagnetic spectrum control sequence, and establishes the combat cycle for combat operations. After the approval of the person in charge of electromagnetic spectrum control, it publishes and organizes the implementation to each branch’s combat unit and unit. The electromagnetic spectrum combat unit fully participates in the key combat flow of the joint force and adjusts the update plan and sequence in time according to the user needs of the subunits and the electromagnetic spectrum of the battlefield during the operation period to ensure that each electromagnetic spectrum control sequence is effectively generated and efficiently Released and executed. The basic processes are: Formulation and release of control plans, update of control plans for each division, preparation of operational plans, generation and distribution of control sequences, execution and adjustment of operational implementation plans and control sequences, and monitoring and guidance of operational processes. The operational implementation cycle is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operational Implementation Cycle

3  Electromagnetic Spectrum Combat Development Characteristics

New military capabilities cannot be separated from the new system. As an operational concept that responds to new military challenges in the era of information networks, big data, and artificial intelligence, electromagnetic spectrum warfare has become a new direction for the development of the combat effectiveness of the US military. In order to deepen understanding and be efficient and practical, the U.S. military has pushed the new concept to the battlefield from many dimensions, including the development of policy directives, organization and force adjustment, equipment systems and new technology research and development.

3.1 Reinforce basic concepts and theoretical understanding based on policy directives, promote operational concepts and implement operations

Thought leads action. The U.S. military is good at innovative operational concepts and the concept of electromagnetic spectrum warfare is no exception. The first is to focus on clarifying the concept core and uniting the concept. During the early years of the development of the electromagnetic spectrum warfare, new concepts for the new combat domain were always being demonstrated. The military led high-level forums such as the “Old Ravens” and other professional military and military forums to analyze the related theories involved in the concept, exchange technology development and application methods, and promote deeper understanding. At the same time, in the strategic documents and top-level regulations, the relevant old and new policies were gradually sorted out. The links and distinctions between concepts, and the analysis of their categories and task areas, are increasingly contributing to the clear definition of concepts and the formation of theoretical systems. The second is to use operations on the battlefield, and refine the rules step by step. The U.S. military has always attached importance to the concept of combat to the implementation of warfare and technical measures. It took only about three years from the conception of the electromagnetic spectrum to the entry directives and from the joint directive to the arms and military operational manuals and the TTP. The US Army even established a concept blueprint for the use of battlefields before the Joint Staff. Joint operational and operational guidance for systemic operations at the level of the joint level to the unit level.

3.2 Establish an efficient and integrated force structure based on intrinsic power, and strive to use the full cycle of coordination and order in the battlefield

The troops are the carrier of operations. The U.S. military attaches great importance to the optimization and integration of new concept combat forces and existing capabilities. The first is to focus on the overall planning of the capability system. The trajectory of the capabilities of the US military’s electromagnetic spectrum warfare and cyberspace operations is similar. From the Joint Staff Headquarters, the Joint Forces Command to the military arms, set up combat seats and corresponding implementation teams, and establish a full-flow operation mechanism for operational planning, accusation, implementation, and evaluation to form an efficient and smooth capability integration system. The second is to emphasize the coordination and integration of existing institutions and new forces. Through the clarification of the responsibilities and interrelationships of institutions and forces involved in new capabilities in a timely manner, action-oriented operational procedures and implementation procedures are formulated, and even the relevant regulatory templates for coordination activities are promoted to facilitate the whole-system action coordination of electromagnetic spectrum operations and other mission domains. Orderly. The third is relying on actual drills to verify their capabilities in a timely manner. Based on the new concepts of combat and capability goals, the practice of offensive and defensive battles in the field of electromagnetic spectrum is rapidly promoted, and corrections are made during operational trials. The U.S. Army formed an independent electromagnetic spectrum warfare unit of the 1st battlefield network warfare group from February to May last year and plans to participate in an exercise organized by a regional battle commander at the end of the year [31]; the U.S. Air Force is in the “battle shield” exercise. In response to the “Spectrum Interference Elimination Project”, radar EW system evaluation [5] was implemented.

3.3 Promote the pre-research of the new concept equipment system with the support of scientific and technological strength, transform the high technology into the advantage of combat effectiveness

Strong army must have weapon. High-tech equipment is an important way to give birth to newcomer warfare capabilities. The first is to excavate new battlefield changes and assess new demands. The US Department of Defense’s “Electromagnetic Spectrum Strategy” in 2014 pointed out that it is necessary to quantify spectrum requirements and develop the equipment and technologies needed for the electromagnetic environment to enhance real-time spectrum operation and electromagnetic spectrum system real-time identification, prediction and interference cancellation capabilities [9]. From the bottom up to the top, the U.S. military has established a demand collection and integration mechanism for the deployment and deployment of equipment systems and applications. It collects and sorts regularly and conducts special investigations and demonstrations with the aid of the government audit department, Rand Corporation, and a special panel of institutes. The analysis results can be Directly providing decision support for the Ministry of Defense and the Joint Staff Association, it forms an unobstructed demand management evaluation system, and injects activators for the development of electromagnetic spectrum warfare equipment and the development of new combat capabilities. The second is to pay attention to the integration of pre-research technology to equipment system applications. The U.S. military equipment system development will be based on national defense information architecture standards. It will have system processes and capabilities such as simulation modeling, pre-research, technology integration, and application verification. It will focus on the simultaneous improvement of existing models and the development of new research and development of smart technology and equipment systems. “Determining Electromagnetic Waves” pointed out that the important features of the electromagnetic spectrum warfare in the new phase are passive sensor applications and the use of “low-zero-power” capabilities to counteract the enemy’s anti-electromagnetic confrontation, and intelligent technologies and equipment are the future dominant [6]. The pre-research and integration of electromagnetic spectrum warfare technology and equipment will also be able to achieve a more optimal way to upgrade military capabilities to technological capabilities, integrate cutting-edge technologies with mature methods, and integrate specialized systems into integrated platforms, thus achieving a seamless leap in combat effectiveness.


Original Mandarin Chinese:

电磁频谱技术决定未来战争赢家 美军发展现状需警惕


長期以來,為破解反進入/區域拒止(A2 / AD)困局,達成新的抵消戰略,美軍先後推出空地/空海一體戰,網絡中心戰,分佈式殺傷,多域戰和混合戰爭等作戰新思想,不斷謀求導彈攻防,網絡電磁和多域空間等軍事優勢。如今,電磁頻譜戰成為引領新一輪軍事理論和技術創新的新寵。研究和剖析美軍電磁頻譜作戰發展現狀與特點,對於我軍在信息戰場禦敵制勝具有重要現實意義。


1956年,前蘇聯海軍司令Sergei Gorschkov上將指出:“誰控制了電磁頻譜,誰將贏得下一場戰爭”。六十年後,電磁頻譜成為現代戰爭的關鍵作戰域之一。為爭奪戰場電磁頻譜優勢,美軍從作戰理論到裝備技術進行深入探索,發展迅猛。


電磁頻譜控制由來已久。上世紀70年代初,美參聯會主席Thomas H. Moorer稱,第三次世界大戰的勝利者將是能高度控制和管理電磁頻譜的一方。美國“老鴇鴉”協會最早提出將電磁控制(EMC)作為電子戰概念的第四組成部分。2009年,戰略司令部推出電磁頻譜戰(EMSW)早期概念,在電子戰基礎上增加電磁頻譜管理(EMSM),電磁頻譜控制(EMSC),電磁戰鬥控制(EMBC)等任務內容[1]。2012年,戰略司令部建立聯合電磁頻譜控制中心(JEMSCC),旨在實現電子戰和電磁頻譜管理全面集成,各部隊也分別建立相應的組織協調機構和分隊[2]。美海軍同年提出電磁機動戰(EMMW)概念[3],並在2015年3月發布“21世紀海上力量合作戰略”,概要闡述了電磁機動戰目標,構成,技術項目和實現路徑[4]。2015年12月,美國防部首席信息官TerryHalvorsen指出,電磁頻譜有望被視作繼,海,空,天,賽博空間之後第六作戰域[5];同月,戰略與預算評估中心在“決勝電磁波:重拾美國電磁頻譜領域主宰地位”[6]報告中提出“低 – 零功率“電磁頻譜戰概念,闡述了概念思想,趨勢特點,能力和技術需求及當前障礙並提出視圖,概念,採辦,技術,驗證等方面建議。2016年11月底,美國”老鴇鴉“協會第53屆國際研討會以“電磁頻譜作戰全球視野”為主題,展示電子戰,頻譜感知與衝突消除的新概念與技術成果,探討電磁頻譜作戰環境,政策條令,裝備採辦,聯合訓練與作戰能力等[ 7]。2017年1月新任國防部長Ashton Carter簽署首部“電子戰戰略”文件,正式確立電磁頻譜為獨立作戰域並闡述如何實施作戰[8]。


戰略政策與軍事條令集中體現美軍作戰理論發展。美國防部2006年至2014年多版更新“電磁頻譜戰略”,聚焦推進頻譜裝備發展,頻譜行動靈活性,頻譜管理和政策響應能力提升等戰略目標[ 9];戰略司令部2010年8月發布“贏得21世紀經濟與安全優勢:電磁頻譜控制戰略框架”,從目標,需求,戰略開發等多角度構建電磁頻譜控制體系架構[10];參聯會先後於2012年3月頒布JP6-01“聯合電磁頻譜管理行動”聯合出版物[11],2012年12月簽頒CJCSM3320.01C“電磁作戰環境中聯合電磁頻譜管理行動”主席手冊[12], 2013年1月簽發CJCSI3320.01D“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”指示[13]和CJCSM3320.04“電子戰支援聯合電磁頻譜作戰”手冊[14],2015年3月簽署“電磁頻譜作戰聯合概念”文件[ 15,系統闡明聯合部隊開展電磁頻譜作戰行動的戰略願景,組織機構與職能,指揮與管理關係,計劃制定與作實施,作戰集成與行動協同等內容,並逐步向電磁控制,干擾消除,頻譜管理和電子戰重編程等操作層的戰術,技術與程序(TTP)細化;美陸軍於2007年12月發布TRADOC P525-7-16“美陸軍未來模塊化部隊概念能力計劃2015-2024–電磁頻譜作戰”手冊[16],2010年5月頒布野戰條令FM6-02.70“陸軍電磁頻譜作戰”[17],2014年1月頒布野戰手冊FM3-38“網絡電磁行動”[18],2015年12月發布出版物ATP6-02.70“電磁頻譜管理作戰行動技能”[19],2016年2月更新AR525-15“網絡電磁行動軟件重編程“規定[20],美空軍2017年更新AFI10-703”電子戰集成重編程“指示[21],在聯合條令指導下界定電磁頻譜作戰概念範疇,深度闡述機構與職責,作戰架構,計劃制定與協調控制,任務清單與決策流程,行動分隊與管理工具及DOTMLPF等問題,並促進電磁頻譜作戰,電子戰與網絡空間戰的融合。此外,美聯合部隊開發部主管Kevin D. Scott於2016年10月簽署JDN3-16“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”條令紀要[22],規範了術語和作戰框架標準,對職能角色,組織機構,計劃制定,作戰實施和評估作了程序性描述,它以參聯會2013年1月和3月簽頒的CJCSM3320.02D“聯合頻譜干擾消除程序”,CJCSI3320.02F“聯合頻譜干擾消除”和2014年2月的CJCSI3320.02E-1“聯合頻譜干擾消除程序保密增本”三大條令[23] [24] [25]為重要操作支撐,成為美軍電磁頻譜戰最新指導。



在頻譜管控系統上[19] [26],美國防部自2005年開發部署同盟國聯合頻譜管理規劃工具(CJSMPT)與全球電磁頻譜信息系統(GEMSIS),隨後的頻譜XXI與改進型頻譜XXIO,頻譜感知管理與規劃系統(SSC-SSMPS),頻譜態勢感知系統(S2AS),海上電磁頻譜作戰行動項目(伊索),聯合自動通信電子行動指令系統(JACS),東道國全球在線頻譜數據庫等,具備實時頻譜測量與在線分析,頻譜籌劃推演與頻率分配,電磁干擾分析與衝突消除,電磁作戰環境建模仿真,電磁態勢共享與用頻效能評估,頻譜資源接入與數據庫等功能與能力。

在作戰裝備與技術項目上[3] [26] [27],2011年,預先研究計劃局(DARPA)開始啟動行為學習自適應電子戰(刀片),自適應雷達對抗(ARC),極端射頻頻譜條件下通信(CommEx),主動電子掃描陣列(AESA)技術,近零功耗射頻和傳感器運行(N-ZERO)等項目,通過對抗行為實時評估,措施自主生成,效果即時反饋等新技術開發針對未知波形和行為的電磁頻譜威脅實時戰術對抗新能力; 2010年,空軍啟動基於網絡化軟件定義架構(SDA)的認知干擾機與大功率高效射頻數模轉換器(HiPERDAC)項目以及無源射頻識別環境(PRIDE),頻譜戰評估技術工程研究(衫),反電子高功率微波先進導彈(CHAMP)等項目,發展有源和無源目標威脅自動感知識別,實時評估和自適應對抗技術與能力;美海軍開展海上電子戰改進(SEWIP-塊1 / II / III)SLQ-32艦載電子戰系統,艦船信號探裝備(SSEE),電磁指揮與控制(EMC2),集成桅杆(InTop)艦載天線,下一代干擾機(NGJ)等項目,提升實時威脅評估與態勢感知,任務方案建模仿真,電磁頻譜自動分配,作戰行動分析等能力;美陸軍啟動計劃在2016年9月投入使用的電子戰規劃與管理工具(EWPMT)和多功能電子戰(MFEW),防禦性電子攻擊(DEA)和“消音器”電子戰等系統,增強射頻信號感知的電子支援和發送干擾或欺騙信號的電子攻擊能力。今年初,戰略司令部聯合電子戰中心(JEWC)啟動面向電磁頻譜態勢感知與指揮控制提供改進電磁戰鬥管理能力的新技術研究,計劃5年內實現基於策略的實時頻譜管控,先進電磁戰鬥序列(EOB)表徵和行動方案建模仿真分析等能力並達到7-8級技術成熟度[28]。在認知電子戰和人工智能技術推動下,DARPA在2017年8月11日又啟動了射頻機器學習系統(RFM LS)和頻譜聯合挑戰項目,開發從大量複雜頻譜信號中自動區分和表徵目標信號的新技術[29]。




電磁頻譜作戰(EMSO)是美軍電磁頻譜戰理論的概念基點。它以電子戰和頻譜管理為基礎,以聯合電磁頻譜作戰為實現方式,目標是在電磁作戰環境(EMOE)中達成電磁頻譜優勢,涉及頻譜管理行動,聯合電磁頻譜作戰(JEMSO)和聯合電磁頻譜管理行動等概念。根據美軍條令JP1-02“國防部軍事術語詞典”[30],JP6-01“聯合電磁頻譜管理行動”,JDN3 -16“聯合電磁頻譜作戰”和ATP6-02.70“電磁頻譜管理作戰行動技能”界定,聯合電磁頻譜作戰是由兩個或兩個以上部隊開展的用於利用,攻擊,防護和管理電磁作戰環境的協同軍事行動。電磁頻譜管理行動是指在軍事行動全階段共同促成計劃,管理和實施電磁作戰環境內作戰行動的頻譜管理,頻率分配,東道國協調,政策遵循,衝突消除等相互聯繫的功能。各概念間關係與範疇如圖1。





















強軍必需利器。高新技術裝備是催生新生作戰能力的重要途徑。一是善於發掘戰場新變化並評估新需求。美國防部2014年“電磁頻譜戰略”指出,要量化頻譜需求,發展電磁環境所需裝備和技術,增強實時頻譜操作和電磁頻譜系統實時識別,預測及干擾消除等能力[9]。美軍由底至頂建立了面向裝備系統研建與作戰部署應用的需求採集與集成機構,在定期蒐集梳理的同時借助政府審計署,蘭德公司和院所專題小組進行專項調研論證,分析結果可直接為國防部和參聯會提供決策支持,形成了暢通有力的需求管理評估體系,為研建電磁頻譜戰裝備和開發新型戰鬥力注入激活劑。二是注重預研技術向裝備系統集成應用。美軍裝備系統研建都會基於國防信息體系結構標準展開,具備仿真建模,預先研究,技術集成,應用驗證等系統流程和完善能力,注重同步進行原有型號改進和新研智能技術裝備系統開發“決勝電磁波”指出,新階段電磁頻譜戰重要特徵是無源傳感器應用和採用“低 – 零功率”。能力對敵進行反電磁對抗,智能化技術和裝備是未來主導[6]。電磁頻譜戰技術裝備預研與集成也將能夠以更優方式實現軍事問題向技術能力升級,前沿技術與成熟方法互融,專用系統向綜合平台集成,進而完成戰鬥力優勢無縫躍升。

Original Source:

Analysis on the Establishment of the Joint Operation Command System by the PLA 中國軍方聯合作戰指揮中心解放軍建構聯合作戰指揮體制評析國防

Analysis on the Establishment of the Joint Operation Command System by the PLA


1 六、解放軍建構聯合作戰指揮體制評析 國防大學政治系馬振坤教授 ■ 習近平在去(2015)年 11 月下旬召開中央軍委改革工作會議, 強調要組建戰區聯合作戰指揮機構和健全軍委聯合作戰指揮 機制,以強化軍隊聯合作戰能力。

■ 改革重點在建立一套能夠上下銜接、起承轉合之聯合作戰指 揮中樞機制,在中央軍委層級是將現有總參謀部改組成為直 屬中央軍委之聯合參謀部,對上能讓軍委主席有效行使最高 軍令指揮權;對下則能夠銜接整合各戰區聯合作戰指揮系統。

■ 解放軍在理順組織結構及權力運作模式後,將在組織編制、 軍種功能、武器裝備以及作戰指揮各個面向趨向成熟,可望 提升其作戰能力。

(一)前言 中共於去(2015)年 11 月下旬召開中央軍委改革工作會議,正式 揭開軍隊組織變革之序幕。中央軍委深化國防和軍隊改革領導小組組 長習近平在會中發表重要講話,直指解放軍「必須在 2020 年前在領 導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展、在優化規模 結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合發展等方面改革上取得重要成 果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現 代軍事力量體系,完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度」。

(二)解放軍作戰指揮體系的變革 在習近平揭櫫的軍隊改革具體內容上,他強調要組建戰區聯合作 戰指揮機構和健全軍委聯合作戰指揮機制。透過中央軍委組織職能調 整之頂層設計,習近平要建構「軍委→戰區→部隊」的作戰指揮體系 以強化軍隊聯合作戰能力。 解放軍原本並無聯合作戰指揮體制,其既有之作戰指揮體制係以 從事境內地面持久作戰為主之設計,具體表徵有二,一是解放軍並無 2 陸軍司令部,但海空軍及二炮部隊則自其組建時即成立軍種司令部; 二是中共將全中國大陸劃為七大軍區,作戰時以軍區為基礎轉換為戰 區,採取誘敵深入之戰略遂行地面持久消耗戰。 解放軍僅有海空二炮司令部卻無陸軍司令部並非獨特設計,而是 歷史發展的結果。中共自 1927 年創立紅軍成為其首支武裝力量,至 1949 年組建海軍和空軍之前,其軍隊皆以地面部隊為主,在國共內 戰期間,為方便作戰指揮,堅持以黨領軍以及強化後勤保障,中共在 軍事領導上,採取總部形式作為其軍隊領導管理和作戰指揮機構。而 中共在建政後仍然延續此總參謀部、總政治部、總後勤部之架構,作 為其軍隊領導體制,即便陸續組建海空軍及二炮部隊,並未改變此架 構,反而是將新組建的軍兵種納入此架構中,成為支援地面部隊作戰 的輔助性軍兵種。 因此中共傳統的四大總部領導機制,係以陸軍為主、海空軍及二 炮部隊為輔、適合從事傳統單一軍種地面作戰的軍隊領導機制。此機 制無法適應現代戰爭係屬遠程投射、立體攻防、不同軍兵種聯合作戰 之特性,共軍內部早有變更之議。尤其近年來中共與周邊國家在陸地 領土主權爭議逐漸經由雙邊協商談判獲得解決、陸地邊界之緊張情勢 明顯降低之際,在東海及南海之島礁領土主權及海域劃界爭端卻日形 嚴重。而對應此等緊張情勢者,是海空二炮等軍兵種而非陸軍,爭端 發生之東海、南海區域,亦非南京、廣州軍區戰備任務指向之處。 若依中央軍委賦予兩大軍區之任務,南京軍區是「主管江蘇、安 徽、浙江、江西、福建、上海五省一市軍事事務的大軍區,主要作戰 使命是保衛南京、上海、杭州、福州等東南沿海發達的特大城市和工 業區的安全」。依此內容視之,南京軍區主要作戰範圍並不包括東海 及釣魚臺。再依共軍廣州軍區之主要任務內容視之,該軍區是解放軍 「主管廣東、廣西、湖北、湖南、海南五省區軍事事務的大軍區,戰 時使命為保衛中國南部,尤其防止越南和東海沿海的攻擊,防衛廣 州、深圳等特大城市。此外,當需要時也負責增援香港和澳門」。同 樣地,廣州軍區防務亦不包括南海諸島礁。 3 除大軍區主要戰略方向係向陸而非向海,大軍區指揮職位的設計 上也是以陸軍為主,七大軍區司令員均由陸軍將領出任,各軍區海空 軍司令員在編制上僅為大軍區之副司令員,故軍區海空軍主要作戰任 務係以支援軍區地面部隊作戰為主,而非遂行境外海空域獨立作戰。 但依據中共公布之「2015 中國的軍事戰略報告書」,共軍要「加 快轉變戰鬥力生成模式,運用信息系統把各種作戰力量、作戰單元、 作戰要素融合集成為整體作戰能力,逐步構建作戰要素無縫鏈接、作 戰平台自主協同的一體化聯合作戰體系」,另要「按照權威、精幹、 靈便、高效的要求,建立健全軍委聯合作戰指揮機構和戰區聯合作戰 指揮體制」。顯見中共領導階層深知既有中央軍委與各總部、軍種司 令部間職能區分,以及大軍區制度等,皆無法因應未來戰爭聯合作戰 型態之需求,因而藉由中央軍委組織調整的時機,對於軍隊領導管理 體制和聯合作戰指揮體制進行一體化設計。 (三)現行聯合作戰指揮機構的組建 依據「意見」,為適應一體化聯合作戰指揮要求,應「建立健全 軍委、戰區兩級聯合作戰指揮體制,構建平戰一體、常態運行、專司 主營、精幹高效的戰略戰役指揮體系」,且要「重新調整劃設戰區」。 在軍隊作戰指揮體系上,則要「按照聯合作戰、聯合指揮的要求,調 整規範軍委聯指、各軍種、戰區聯指和戰區軍種的作戰指揮職能」, 部隊訓練則要求必須「與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,完善聯合訓練體 制」。 在具體組建聯合作戰指揮機構方面,在中央軍委層級是將現有總 參謀部改組成為直屬中央軍委之聯合參謀部,此新成立之「聯參」只 負責中央軍委之聯合作戰指揮事宜,與過去的「總參」總攬對軍隊的 作戰指揮權和領導管理權有很大的差異。更重要者,新的聯合參謀長 不再擁有過去總參謀長對軍隊之最高軍令權,此最高軍令權在中央軍 委職能調整之後,已回歸到中央軍委主席之手,以落實軍委主席負責 制之精神。此聯合參謀部只是一個直屬中央軍委常態存在之作戰指揮 4 機構,故聯合參謀長不論在平時或戰時,都扮演軍委主席在行使軍隊 作戰指揮最高軍令權之幕僚長,而不再是過去總參謀長名為幕僚長, 實際上卻擁有等同陸軍司令員之權力。 將總參謀部改編成為聯合參謀部在具體實踐上確實可行,因為目 前總參謀部除陸軍出身之總參謀長、副總參謀長外,海、空、二炮皆 有擔任副總參謀長,其實已具備聯合作戰指揮機制之雛型。此海空二 炮擔任副總參謀長之將領在原本制度運作下,即是未來接任海空二炮 司令員之必然人選,其在副總參謀長任內,可獲得與其它軍種副總參 謀長溝通協調之經驗,並可在此過程中了解其它軍種之特性以及在執 行作戰任務時必須考量之諸種條件。當此將領擔任軍種司令員後,在 落實中央軍委「一體化聯合作戰」政策要求下,自當能夠與其它軍種 溝通協調,降低軍種本位主義色彩。 海空二炮將領出任總參副總參謀長始於江澤民在 2004 年將中央 軍委主席職務交棒給胡錦濤時,同步將海空二炮司令員納入中央軍委 成員起。原本海空二炮司令員之級別等同大軍區正職,僅同陸軍之大 軍區司令員。江澤民將其納入中央軍委後,海空二炮司令員級別提 升,但是在司令員以下各階則無變動,尤其各大軍區空軍司令員以及 瀕海大軍區海軍司令員,在級別上仍屬大軍區副職,編制上為軍區副 司令員。為求幹部梯隊之完整性和連續性,並且符合不同軍兵種聯合 作戰之時代發展趨勢,乃在總參謀部原本由陸軍壟斷之副總參謀長職 務,分由陸、海、空軍和二炮之將領分別擔任,以連接海空二炮軍兵 種高階將領在成為軍兵種司令員之前最後階段職務歷練。 除副總參謀長層級外,總參謀部所屬各部例如情報部、作戰部 等,亦早已納入海空二炮各軍兵種幹部擔任高階參謀,各自負擔與本 身軍兵種相關之情報、作戰等參謀業務。換言之,總參謀部在過去十 年來即是以滿足不同軍兵種聯合作戰之需求作為主要發展方向,且實 際上已發展出成熟的聯合作戰指揮參謀機制。因此將總參謀部調整為 聯合參謀部,就實質運作面而言,並非是全盤的改變,反而是將實質 上已初步具備的聯合作戰機制加以制度化與正名化。 5 因此將總參謀部調整為聯合參謀部之重點並不在總參謀長、副總 參謀長等領導層級職務由不同軍種將領擔任,亦不是整合不同軍種作 戰參謀業務,而是建立一套能夠上下銜接、起承轉合之聯合作戰指揮 中樞機制。對上能夠落實中央軍委主席負責制之精神,讓中央軍委主 席得以透過聯合參謀部之機制,有效行使最高軍令指揮權;對下則能 夠銜接整合各戰區聯合作戰指揮系統,讓一體化聯合作戰指揮體制成 為一個「有機的整體」,在作戰指揮上不會出現「斷鏈」甚至「無鏈 結」的情況。 建立聯合作戰指揮機制在大軍區層級,即是取消現有的七大軍 區,另成立東西南北四大戰略方向之戰區,以及保障北京安全之中部 戰區。傳統上,大軍區是中共軍隊體制上的主要建制,自毛澤東時期 強調誘敵深入境內決戰的戰略思維下,大軍區制度即扮演最重要之分 區屯兵固守防衛角色。事實上,大軍區是真正掌握軍隊、集軍隊之軍 令軍政權於一身的體制,舉凡軍隊之建設、教育訓練、乃至作戰指揮 權,皆由大軍區司令員掌握。另外中共政權在國防動員體制和軍地制 度,也都依托在大軍區體制之下,與維護內部安全秩序相關之武警部 隊之建制與指揮,也都在大軍區管轄範圍內。 由於大軍區制度是以屯兵和境內決戰為前提,在體制運作上自然 以陸軍為主,海空軍及二炮僅扮演支援陸軍作戰的角色。隨著中共軍 事現代化成果日顯,海空二炮遠距投射力量不斷強化,共軍向海方向 的活動範圍不斷擴張,軍事戰略思維已改採邊境和境外作戰,不再以 誘敵深入境內決戰為主。而境外作戰自然以能夠從事遠距投射之海空 軍和二炮作戰力量為主,陸軍反而僅能扮演預備隊之角色。因此將以 陸軍為主之大軍區體制改為以不同軍兵種遂行聯合作戰為主之戰區 指揮體制,方能整合不同軍兵種之作戰力量,即時且有效發揮海空二 炮遠距投射火力之優勢。 另外,將大軍區改為戰區,亦可消除原本大軍區司令員壟斷軍隊 領導及指揮權,形同分地割據之軍閥的現象。戰區將僅負責聯合作戰 指揮,戰區司令員僅擁有對其戰區之聯合作戰指揮權,並不擁有對軍 隊之領導管理權。軍隊領導管理權由各軍種司令部掌握,如此可以將 6 軍令權和軍政權在戰區層級完全切割,就不會再出現軍區司令員形同 地方軍閥的權力膨脹問題。

(四)結語 習近平在此次中共中央軍委組織調整中,展現對軍隊完全的領導 權威。誠然外界多認為習近平通過這次軍改刻意打亂軍中既有的權力 結構,清洗原本在軍隊裡根深蒂固的江澤民派系將領,全面掌握軍 權。但是平心而論,從中央軍委公布的「意見」對中央軍委層級、軍 種司令部層級、以及戰區層級的組織調整內容看來,這次的變動若能 落實,的確可以讓解放軍的組織架構及權力運作機制脫胎換骨。解放 軍在理順組織結構及權力運作模式後,將在組織編制、軍種功能、武 器裝備以及作戰指揮各個面向趨向成熟,符合現代化軍隊的標準,而 這也將讓解放軍的作戰能力在可預見的未來呈現出跳躍式之進步。


English Translation

Analysis on the Establishment of the Joint Operation Command System by the PLA

China National Defense University

■ Xi Jinping held a meeting to reform the Central Military Commission in late November (2015).

Emphasizing the need to establish a joint combat command organization in the theater and a joint combat command of a sound military commission

Mechanism to strengthen the joint combat capabilities of the military.

■ The focus of the reform is to establish a set of joint operations that can be linked up and down.

The central mechanism, at the Central Military Commission level, is to reorganize the existing general staff into straight the Joint Chief of Staff of the Central Military Commission is able to effectively exercise the highest authority for the chairman of the Central Military Commission Military command structure; to the next can be integrated with all theater joint warfare command systems.

■ After the People’s Liberation Army clarifies its organizational structure and power operation mode, it will organize

The military services, weapons and equipment, as well as operational commanders, tend to be mature.

Improve its combat capabilities.

(I). Introduction

The Chinese Communist Party held a meeting to reform the Central Military Commission in late November (2015).

Reveal the prelude to the reform of the military organization. The Central Military Commission Deepens the Leading Group for National Defense and Army Reform

President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the conference, pointing to the People’s Liberation Army “must be in the lead by 2020

Led to breakthroughs in the reform of the management system and joint operations command system, and the optimization of scale major achievements have been made in reforming the structure, improving policies and systems, and promoting the integration of military and civilian development.

As a result, efforts will be made to build Chinese characteristics that can win informatized warfare and effectively fulfill its mission.

On behalf of the military strength system, improve the socialist military system with Chinese characteristics.”

(II) The reform of the PLA command system

In Xi Jinping’s disclosure of the specific contents of the military reform, he emphasized the need to establish a joint cooperation.

The joint command and command mechanism of the war command organization and the sound military commission. Through the Central Military Commission organizational functions

With the entire top-level design, Xi Jinping must build a combat command system of “military committee, theater, and troops”.

In order to strengthen the joint combat capabilities of the military.

The People’s Liberation Army originally did not have a joint operational command system. Its existing operational command system was engaged in the design of long-term operations on the ground in the Mainland, and there are two specific characterizations. One is that the PLA did not the Army Command, but the Hainan Air Force and the Second Artillery Corps established the Service Command since its establishment;

Second, the Chinese Communist Party has designated the entire Chinese mainland as the seven major military regions and converted to combat based on the military region.

District, adopting a strategy to lure the enemy into a long-lasting war of attrition.

The People’s Liberation Army’s only air and sea artillery headquarters but no army headquarters are not uniquely designed, but the result of historical development. The Chinese Communists founded the Red Army as its first armed force since 1927.

Prior to the formation of the Navy and the Air Force in 1949, its troops were mainly based on ground forces within the KMT.

During the war, in order to facilitate combat operations, adhere to the leadership of the party and strengthen logistics support, the Chinese Communist Party

In terms of military leadership, it takes the form of headquarters as its military leadership management and operational command organization. And after the establishment of the government, the Chinese Communist Party continued the structure of the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, and the General Logistics Department.

For its military leadership system, even if the navy, air force, and second artillery units were successively formed, they did not change this plane.

Instead, the newly-formed military units are included in this structure and become support for ground forces operations.

Combines & Auxiliary arms.

Therefore, the four traditional leadership mechanisms of the Chinese Communist Party are based on the Army, the Hainan Air Force and the Second Supplementary to the artillery force, it is suitable for the army leadership mechanism for traditional single-army ground operations. This machine system cannot adapt to modern warfare, long-range projection, three-dimensional offensive and defensive, joint operations of different types of arms

The characteristics of the Communist Army have long been changed. In particular, the CCP and its neighboring countries have been on land in recent years.

Territorial sovereignty disputes are gradually resolved through bilateral negotiation and tension on the land boundary.

At a time of marked decline, disputes over the territorial sovereignty and maritime delimitation of the islands and reefs in the East China Sea and the South China Sea were observed.

serious. The counterparts to these tense situations are the Hainan Second Artillery Corps and not the Army.

The East China Sea and South China Sea areas that occurred were also not directed by the combat readiness tasks of the Nanjing and Guangzhou military regions.

If the tasks assigned to the two military regions are assigned by the Central Military Commission, the Nanjing Military Region is “supervising Jiangsu and An.

Military areas of the five provinces and one city of Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian and Shanghai

The mission is to defend the developed mega cities and workers in the southeast coasts of Nanjing, Shanghai, Hangzhou and Fuzhou.

Industry Zone Security”. According to this content, the main battle area of ​​the Nanjing Military Region does not include the East China Sea.

Diaoyutai. According to the main tasks of the Communist Army of the Guangzhou Military Region, the military region is the People’s Liberation Army.

“In charge of military affairs in the five provinces and regions of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan and Hainan

Mission to defend southern China, in particular to prevent attacks on the coasts of Vietnam and the East China Sea.

State, Shenzhen and other megacities. In addition, it is also responsible for the reinforcement of Hong Kong and Macao when necessary.” with

In the sample plot, the defense of the Guangzhou Military Region does not include the South China Sea Islands.

In addition to the major strategic directions of the military region, the design of command posts in the large military region is directed toward the land instead of to the sea.

The Army is also the main force, and the commanders of the seven military regions are all served by army generals.

The military commander is only the deputy commander of the military area in the preparation, so the main combat operations of the Hainan Air Force in the military region

The Department is mainly to support the ground forces of the military region, instead of independently operating in the offshore airspace.

However, according to the “2015 China Military Strategy Report” announced by the Chinese Communist Party, the Communists must “add

Rapidly change the combat power generation mode and use information systems to put various combat forces and units of combat

Combine operational elements into integrated combat capabilities, and gradually build combat elements to make seamless links.

The integrated joint combat system where the platform is autonomously coordinated with each other” must also be “according to authority, capable, and effortlessly and efficiently required to establish and improve joint operations of the Central Military Commission and joint operations in the theater

Command system.” It is evident that the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party is fully aware of the existence of both the Central Military Commission and headquarters and the Military Services Division.

The division of functions among different ministries, and the military area system, etc., cannot meet the requirements of future warfare joint operations.

The demand of the type, and therefore the time for the adjustment of the Central Military Commission, for the leadership of the military

The system and the joint operational command system are designed in an integrated manner.

(3) Establishment of the current joint operations command organization

According to “opinions,” it is necessary to “establish and improve the

The two-level joint combat command system of the Central Military Commission and the theater establishes an integrated peacetime operation, normal operation, and

Main, lean and effective strategic battle command system, and “re-adjust the planning of the theater.”

In the military operational command system, it is necessary to “adjust the requirements of joint operations and joint efforts to standardize the operational command functions of the Central Military Commission, the Military Services, the Joint League Forces, and the regional military services.”

The training of troops requires that “it must be adapted to the joint combat command system and improve the joint training body system”.

In the specific formation of a joint combat command organization, at the Central Military Commission level will be the existing total the Staff Department was reorganized into a joint staff department directly under the Central Military Commission. This newly established “joint participation” is only

Responsible for the Joint Combat Command of the Central Military Commission, and the “Gan Sen General” of the past there is a big difference between operational command and leadership. More importantly, the new Joint Chief of Staff

No longer has the highest military commander of the general staff in the past. The highest military authority is in the Central Army.

After the adjustment of the committee’s functions, it has returned to the chairman of the Central Military Commission to implement the responsibility of the chairman of the Central Military Commission.

The spirit of the system. This Joint Staff is just a direct command of the Central Military Commission.

Institutions, so the chief of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, both in peacetime and in wartime, plays the role of the chairman of the Central Military Commission in the exercise of the military.

The commander of the highest military command of the combat commander is no longer the chief of general staff of the past.

In fact, it has the same power as the army commander.

The restructuring of the General Staff Headquarters into the Joint Staff Department is indeed feasible in the specific practice because in addition to the chief of the general staff and deputy chief of the general staff of the former general staff of the former general staff, the sea, air, and the second gun are all

As the deputy chief of the general staff, in fact, he already has the prototype of joint operations command mechanism. This sea and air two the commander of the deputy chief of the general staff of the cannon, under the operation of the original system, is to take over the sea and air artillery.

The commander is an inevitably elected candidate who can be obtained as a deputy chief of the general staff and can be used as a deputy general secretary of other services.

Communicate the experience of communication and coordination, and understand the characteristics and the conditions that must be considered when performing combat missions. After this general served as commander of the military,

Implementing the Central Military Commission’s “integrated joint operations” policy requires that it be able to cooperate with other service communicate and coordinate, reducing the service-oriented nature.

The Hainan Second Artillery general served as deputy chief of general staff of the General Staff and began with Jiang Zemin in 2004.

When the chairman of the Central Military Commission delivered the post to Hu Jintao, he simultaneously incorporated the commander of the Hainan Second Artillery into the Central Military Commission.

Members from. The level of the original commander of the Haikong Second Artillery was equal to that of the Great Military Region, which was only equal to that of the Army.

Commander of the Military District. After Jiang Zemin incorporated it in the Central Military Commission, the commander of the Second Air and Sea Artillery ranks but there are no changes in the order of the commander, especially the commanders of the air forces of the major military regions.

The naval commander of the Bohai Sea Military Area Command is still a deputy chief of the military region at the rank, and the military commander is assigned to the military region.

Commander. In order to achieve the integrity and continuity of the cadre echelon, and to meet the requirements of different military units

The trend of development in the era of warfare is that of the deputy chief of the general staff who was originally monopolized by the Army in the General Staff Department.

The service is divided into the positions of generals of land, sea, air force, and second artillery to connect the Hainan Second Artillery Corps.

The high-ranking generals took the final stage of career training before becoming military commanders.

In addition to the rank of deputy chief of the general staff, all departments under the general staff department such as the intelligence department and the warfare department

And so on, they have long been included in the cadres of the sea, air, and the Second Artillery, serving as high-level staff, and their respective burdens.

Armed Forces related intelligence, operations and other staff officers. In other words, the General Staff in the past ten years and in recent years, it is to meet the needs of joint operations of different types of arms as the main direction of development.

At the same time, a mature joint combat command staff mechanism has been developed. So it must  adjust the General Staff to The Joint Staff, in terms of substantive operations, is not a complete change, but instead it will

The joint warfare mechanism that has been initially established has been institutionalized and renamed.

Therefore, the focus of adjusting the General Staff Department to the Joint Staff Department is not the chief of the general staff and vice president.

Chiefs of Staff such as the Chief of Staff are served by generals of different services and are not integrated into different military services.

Instead of consulting staff, establish a set of joint operations command that can be linked up and down, inherited from each other the central mechanism. In order to implement the spirit of the responsibility system of the chairman of the Central Military Commission, the Central Military Commission should be

Can effectively exercise the highest military command authority through the mechanism of the Joint Staff Headquarters; enough to integrate and integrate the joint operations command systems of all theaters and make the integrated joint operations commander

As an “organic whole,” there will be no “broken chain” or even “no chain” in combat command Results”.

The establishment of a joint combat command mechanism at the rank of the military region is to cancel the existing seven major military units.

District, the establishment of a four-strategic direction of the East, West, South and North, and the security of Beijing Theater. Traditionally, the large military area is the main organizational system of the Chinese Communist Army, since Mao Zedong’s time under the strategic thinking of emphasizing the lure of the enemy’s deep defensive battles in the country, the major military region system plays the most important role.

District soldiers stick to the defensive role. In fact, the military area is the army that truly controls the army and sets up the army.

The system of the military regime, which includes the construction of the army, education and training, and even combat command

The power is controlled by the commander of the military area. In addition, the Chinese Communist regime’s national defense mobilization system and military and land system

Degree, also relying on the system of the great military region, and related to the maintenance of the internal security order of the armed police department

The formation and command of the team are also within the jurisdiction of the military area.

Since the military region’s system is based on the premise of setting up troops and a decisive battle in the country, it is natural to operate the system.

Mainly based on the Army, the Hainan Air Force and the Second Artillery only played the role of supporting the Army. With the Chinese Communists the achievements of modernization have become increasingly apparent.

The scope of activities has continued to expand, and military strategic thinking has shifted to border and foreign operations.

Luring the enemy into the depths of the domestic decisive battle. However, it is natural for overseas operations to be able to engage in distant projections.

The Army and the Second Artillery are the main combat forces, but the Army can only play the role of reserve force. So will the army-based major military zone system was changed to a combat zone based on joint operations between different types of military units.

The command system can only integrate the combat forces of different military units, and immediately and efficiently this weapons combination has the advantage of projecting firepower from a distance.

In addition, changing the military area into a theater can also eliminate the original military commander’s monopoly of the military.

Leadership and command rights are similar to the phenomenon of the warlords split by land. The theater will only be responsible for joint operations commanding, the commander of the theater has only joint warfighting command over the theater and does not possess military command.

The leadership of the team. The leadership of the army is controlled by the various service commands so that the military commander and the military regime are completely cut at the theater level, and military commanders will no longer appear.

The issue of the expansion of power of local warlords.

(4) Conclusion

Xi Jinping demonstrated complete leadership over the army during the restructuring of the Central Military Commission of the CPC authority. It is true that the outside world thinks that Xi Jinping deliberately disrupted the existing power in the military through this military reform.

Structure, cleansing Jiang Zemin faction generals deeply rooted in the army and fully grasping the military right. But in all fairness, the “opinions” announced by the Central Military Commission of the Central Military Commission ranks and forces.

The level of organizational adjustment at the command level and the theater level suggests that if this change can implementation can indeed make the PLA’s organizational structure and power operation mechanism reborn.

People’s Liberation Army

After the military has straightened out the organizational structure and power operation mode, it will organize the organization, military services, and military operations.

Equipment and combat operations are oriented toward maturity and meet the standards of modern military forces.

This will also allow the PLA’s combat capabilities to show a leap forward in the foreseeable future.


Chairman Xi inspects the CMC’s joint operations command center and has aroused strong reaction in the entire army and the armed police force

Comprehensively improve the ability to prepare for fighting in the new era and provide strategic support for the realization of the Chinese dream

“To realize the party’s goal of strengthening the army in the new era and building the people’s army into a world-class army, we must grasp the key to fighting wars and defeating warlords. We have a major step forward in preparation for war.” On the 3rd, Chairman Xi Jinping inspected the Central Military Commission. The Operation Command Center led a group of CMC members to study the construction of the CMC Central Committee, and talked with the officers and men of the relevant task forces stationed at the Frontier Defense and Coastal Defence, inspected the Djibouti Security Base through the video, listened to the report of the PLA’s military preparation for war preparations, and delivered an important speech. It caused strong repercussions in the entire army and the armed police forces.

The officers and men all said that this inspection fully embodies President Xi’s high attention to the issue of military preparations for fighting warfare. This shows that the new military committee has implemented the spirit of the party’s Nineteenth Congress and promoted the work of the entire military to fight and win. A clear-cut attitude. They said that we must conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, adhere to the guidance of the military ideology of Xi Jinping, implement the military strategy under the new situation, strengthen the mission, strengthen reforms and innovations, intensify work implementation, and comprehensively improve preparations for fighting in the new era. The ability to provide strategic support for the realization of the “two hundred years” goal and the Chinese dream of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

Tighten the string of war preparations and strengthen war preparations.

On the morning of the 3rd, the coldness hit people outside the window, but the joint military command center of the Central Military Commission was warm and strong. President Xi once went to the Central Building of the Central Committee of the Central Committee of the Central Military Commission, and led a group of people in the Central Military Commission to study the construction of the Central Committee of the Central Military Commission.


“When Xi Chairman made an inspection, he delivered an important speech and profoundly clarified the strategic significance and practical requirements for comprehensively improving the ability to prepare for fighting in the new era.” Zhou Shangping, deputy director of the Joint Operations Department of the Central Military Commission of the Central Military Commission who inspected the entire process, said, “This is the leader of the party. The commander of our army piloted the People’s Army to implement the party’s strong military objectives in the new era, to build a world-class army, and to send political mobilization and epoch orders to the entire army.”

The military is preparing to fight. The fundamental focus of the people’s army in carrying out missions in the new era is combat effectiveness.

The officers and men of the various theaters, services, and agencies of the Central Military Commission said in their discussions that the officers and men of the entire army must only tighten the war preparedness string, strengthen war preparations for war preparations, and always focus on preparing for battles and continuously improve their ability to win. Situation, control crisis, curb war and win war.

“If you want peace, then you have to prepare for war.” The party’s 19th representative Wang Jinlong served as an instructor. A certain army brigade in the central theater “does a great deal”. In the war years, he played in the name of He Huwei. In the new era, the company has a long history. The brigade is responsible for the mission of the brigade for emergency combat readiness. It always maintains a state of readiness for action on the string. He believes that the state is uneasy and that it will be dangerous to forget. Things in the world are always the same. If you are not ready, the enemy will come. You are ready. The enemy does not dare to come. The dialectic of war and peace tells us that if we can fight, we will not be able to fight unless we are ready to fight.

“We must engrave the word ‘war’ in our hearts and continue to strengthen our sense of responsibility for ‘ready to go on the battlefield’. We will deeply engrave our duty to prepare for war and become a conscious action,” said Cui Jiabin, a brigade commander of the Army Aviation Corps. Once something can be quickly responded, resolutely fulfill the tasks entrusted by the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and President Xi, and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests.

Pay close attention to actual combat military training and improve the ability to win

Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, and national defense and army building have also entered a new era.

The officers and men believe that the new era requires that the military must have new capabilities, but to have new capabilities, it is necessary to take substantive training.

“When Xi inspected the Central Committee of the Central Military Commission, Xi pointed out that we must focus on deepening military training in actual combat, stick to how to train soldiers on how to train, and what to do if we need to fight, and inspire the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of the officers and men. The military has risen vigorously in the military training upsurge,” said Liu Rui, the 19th Party Congress representative and head of the Air Force’s aviation regiment. “I’m most impressed by this. The military is only holding on to actual combat military training and improving their ability to win. Only in this way can we shoulder the mission of the mission of the new era given by the party and the people.”

Liu Rui is the first air force of the Air Force to modify the H-6K air force and is an important force in the air force’s long-range offensive operations. At this time after the closing of the 19th National Party Congress, he not only preached the spirit of the Nineteenth Party Congress, but also spent all his time on the training ground. A few days ago, he organized and implemented the largest cross-regional mobile combat training in the team’s history. From dawn to late at night, from combat to ultra-low altitude, from land to sea, all the way to the road, across multiple strange areas. And several airports, lasting more than 9 hours, with a range of nearly 5,000 kilometers…

A synthetic brigade of “Huangcailing Mountain” of the 74th Army Group of the Southern Theater Army is currently training hard soldiers to welcome the coming year-end assessment of the group army. Instructor Chen Yuwen believes that President Xi inspects the Central Military Commission’s Central Committee, sets the baton ready for warfare from the level of the Central Military Commission, and pays close attention to actual combat military training from the level of the chairman of the Central Military Commission. Grassroots officers and soldiers have no reason not to do a good job. We must unify our thoughts and actions to the important instructions of President Xi to prepare for war, and strive to forge an elite force that can be called, come to war, and win in battle.

Adhere to problem-oriented and make preparations for work

The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is by no means an easy task. It can be achieved by banging and playing drums. The ambitious goal of building a world-class army is also facing severe challenges.

Li Keliang, political commissar of a central information and communications brigade in the Central Theater, believes that we must strictly follow the requirements of Chairman Xi’s important directives, stick to the problem-oriented approach, grasp the end, and promote implementation of the preparations for combating one practical problem. It is necessary to establish a strict responsibility system, strengthen supervision and accountability, and grasp first-level, first-level and first-level levels, and stringently prepare for war preparations.

“The battlefield is a real contest, and the fight is a hard-fought duel.” The party’s 19th representative and Navy carrier-based fighter pilot Cao Jianjian created 419 days after serious injuries and only after 70 days of go-around, the F-15 fighters succeeded in their operations. The ship’s miracle, “In the past few years, the entire army took the training winds to test the wind and declared war on the “peace and evil” in military training. During the exercises, they dared to expose problems and dare to dissect themselves. They introduced a series of hard measures and effective. Promote the building of the combat effectiveness of the troops.”

After seriously studying Xi’s speech, a brigade commander of the 80th Armed Forces believed that we must follow the example of President Xi’s entrustment to strengthen the sense of crisis, awareness of crisis, and awareness of snoring. We must focus all our efforts on fighting and focus on each other’s work. We must make preparations as soon as possible. Snoring ability to engage in.

Experts and scholars of the Academy of Military Sciences, National Defense University, and National University of Defense Technology, according to the future situation and task, believe that we must use the important instructions given by President Xi’s visit to the joint operations command center of the Central Military Commission as guidelines, and focus on innovating wars and combat planning, closely following the evolution of war formations and combat methods. , Adhering to the combat missions, operational opponents, and operational environment, Daxing’s research on warfare issues.

President Xi’s strong mission, clear preparations for fighting, and inspiring the majority of officers and soldiers of the entire army and armed police forces. The officers and men said that we must firmly establish the only basic standard of combat effectiveness. All our thoughts must be focused and focused on. All tasks should be used to fight hard, and we must successfully accomplish the mission of the new era entrusted by the party and the people!


Original Mandarin Chinese:


























Reference (1)

Reference (2)

信息安全技術-個人信息安全規範 – China’s “Information Security Technology Personal Information Security Specification” in Four Aspects

信息安全技術-個人信息安全規範 –

China’s “Information Security Technology Personal Information Security Specification” in Four Aspects

On December 11th, 2017, there were two kinds of mobile phone APPs, Baidu and Baidu, which were owned by Baidu. They included “listening phone”, “reading short MMS”, “reading contacts”, etc. involving consumer personal information. In the case of security related rights and refusal to rectify the situation, the Jiangsu Provincial Consumer Protection Committee initiated a consumer civil public interest litigation concerning suspected illegal access to consumer personal information and related issues by Beijing, which was held on January 2 of this year in Nanjing. The Intermediate People’s Court has formally opened the case. On January 6th, with the fermentation of Alipay’s annual billing event, the State Administration of Cybernetics Network Security Coordination Bureau interviewed relevant persons in charge of Alipay (China) Network Technology Co., Ltd. and Sesame Credit Management Co., Ltd. and pointed out that Alipay, The way in which sesame credits collect personal information does not conform to the spirit of the National Standard for Information Security Technology and Personal Information Security. It violates the promise of the Personal Information Protection Initiative that it signed shortly and should strictly follow the Cyber ​​Security Law. The following is called the “net security law” requirements, strengthen the comprehensive investigation of the platform, carry out special rectification, and take effective measures to prevent similar incidents from happening again. Since the official implementation of the “Network Security Law”, the National People’s Congress, Industry and Information Technology, Internet Information, Internet Security, and Consumers’ Association systems have launched a series of special inspections and rectifications of personal information throughout the country. At the same time, they have also strengthened punishments for violations of laws and regulations. The public’s emphasis on the protection of personal information.

  However, because of the principle, fuzziness and fragmentation of legal norms and local regulatory policies, many articles lack detailed rules for landing, which brings great confusion to many network operators’ personal information compliance work. On December 29 last year, the China National Standardization Administration officially issued the “Information Security Technology Personal Information Security Specification” (hereinafter referred to as the “Safety Code”). On January 24, the national standard full-text publication system officially announced the full text of the specification, and It will be implemented on May 1, 2018. The “Safety Code” clarifies the compliance requirements for the collection, preservation, use, and sharing of personal information in the form of national standards, and provides guidelines for network operators to formulate privacy policies and improve internal controls.

  ”Safety Regulations”

  Related legal concepts

  Based on the existing principles and provisions of the “Net Security Law”, the “Safety Regulations” specifies the specific definitions of relevant legal concepts in light of the specific issues that network operators are concerned about in practice.

  First, regarding personal sensitive information, the “Guide to the Protection of Personal Information in Information and Security Technology Public and Commercial Service Information Systems” implemented in 2013 defined personal sensitive information as personal information that would adversely affect the personal information subject after being exposed or modified. At the same time, it is recommended that the specific content of personal sensitive information in various industries be determined based on the willingness of the personal information subject to the service and their respective business characteristics. The “Safety Regulations” further emphasizes in the definition that the disclosure of personal sensitive information, illegal provision or misuse may endanger the safety of people and property, cause personal reputation, physical and mental health damage or discriminatory treatment and other serious consequences, and in Appendix B A specific example of personal sensitive information was drawn up, linking up with the data classification obligations stipulated in Article 21 of the “Network Security Law”.

  Secondly, regarding the collection of personal information, the “Safety Regulations” defines three types of “collection” as the provision of personal information subjects, automatic collection by network operators, and indirect acquisition from third parties. At the same time, exceptions are stipulated and individuals are acquired at terminals. Information not returned to the operator’s server does not belong to “collection.”

  Finally, with respect to the anonymization and de-identification of personal information, the “Safety Code” distinguishes the two. The anonymized information cannot be restored and is no longer part of personal information; de-identification processing guarantees Personal information can’t identify the main body of information without relying on additional information, but it still retains the granularity of the individual and uses pseudonyms, encryption, hash functions, etc. instead of the original personal information. In addition, on August 15 last year, the “Information Security Technology Personal Information De-identification Guide” was released for solicitation of public opinions. The contents involved the process of de-identification and technical applications. Currently, the network operators are implementing the personal information during the review stage. Marking work is worth learning from.

  Collection of personal information

  The “Safety Regulations” stipulates that the collection of personal information should comply with the requirements of legality and minimization. Among them, the requirements for authorization to obtain personal information indirectly and the explicit consent requirements for collecting personal sensitive information are worthy of attention.

  When obtaining personal information indirectly, the company as the recipient is obliged to require the provider to explain the source of the relevant personal information and confirm its legitimacy. At the same time, it should also understand the scope of the personal information subject’s authorization to the provider, including the purpose of use and the individual. Whether the information subject is authorized to consent to the transfer, sharing, public disclosure, etc. If the recipient handles personal information beyond the above-mentioned range, it shall also obtain the explicit consent of the personal information subject within a reasonable time limit. Establishing an authorization consent model for indirect collection of personal information is one of the highlights of the Personal Information Collection section of the “Safety Code”. This model reinforces the review obligation of information receivers and increases the corresponding compliance costs.

  In the collection of personal sensitive information, first of all, the “Safety Code” further requires the express consent of the personal information subject on the basis of the “Net Security Law” to be a voluntary, concrete, clear and clear wish given by the individual on the basis of full knowledge. Representation; Second, if the personal information controller collects personal sensitive information for the core business functions of its products or services, it shall explicitly inform the information subject of the core business functions it provides, the personal sensitive information it needs to collect, and the personal information subject. Three choices of rights; Finally, if personal information controllers collect personal sensitive information for other additional functions, they should clearly inform specific additional functions and the right to choose personal information, but refuse personal sensitive information required for additional functions. It does not mean that the core business functions have stopped providing.

  Sharing of personal information

  When entrusting a third party to process personal information, apart from the fact that the commissioning itself must not exceed the scope of the authorized consent of the personal information subject, the “Safety Code” also stipulates that the personal information controller should carry out personal information security impact assessment and take the responsibility of the contract. Obligation, auditing, etc. supervise the trustee and ensure accurate recording and preservation of the trustee’s handling of personal information.

  With respect to the sharing and transfer of personal information, the “Safety Code” also stipulates the obligations of the personal information controller on the security impact assessment. At the same time, the personal information controller shall notify the personal information subject of the purpose of sharing, transferring the personal information, and the type of the data receiver. In the case of personal sensitive information, the type of sensitive information, the identity of the recipient of the data, and the security capabilities should also be notified, and sharing or transfer may be made only after obtaining the explicit consent of the personal information subject. In addition, personal information controllers need to accurately record and preserve the sharing and transfer of personal information, and bear the legal responsibility for the harm caused by sharing and transferring personal information to the legitimate rights and interests of the information subject. Where changes in the controlling body occur due to mergers and acquisitions, restructuring, etc., they shall individually notify the subject of personal information.

  With regard to the cross-border transmission of personal information, the “Safety Code” requires that personal information controllers should conduct security assessments in accordance with the standards set by the Network Information Office and relevant departments. According to the “Personal Information and Important Data Outbound Security Assessment Methodology (Exposure Draft)” published in April last year, network operators should organize their own data outbound security assessment before leaving the country and be responsible for the results if they contain or accumulate 500,000. If the personal information above the person or the personal information provided by the key information infrastructure is provided to the outside, it shall also be reported to the industry supervisor or the supervisory authority for organizing the safety assessment. The Guidelines for Outbound Security Assessment of Information Security Technology Data (Draft for Solicitation of Comments) (hereinafter referred to as the “Evaluation Guide”) issued by the National Information Security Standardization Technical Committee on August 30 last year are also worthy of attention. The Assessment Guide clearly indicates the data. The use scope and exceptions of outbound security assessments are to refine the types of personal information and important data, increase the disclosure obligation of network operators for personal information, distinguish security self-assessment and assessment processes of competent authorities, and implement personal information for personal information controllers. Cross-border transmission provides a reference.

  Safety management requirements

  Since its implementation, NetEase has given network operators many security protection obligations. One of them is the development of internal security management systems and operational procedures to implement the network security protection responsibilities. Specifically, the “security regulations” include three. Aspects. First, the responsible departments and personnel should be clarified. According to the “Safety Regulations”, personal information controllers that meet certain conditions in terms of business, personnel scale, and personal information processing volume should establish full-time personal information protection managers and work agencies so that The specific implementation of personal information security work prevents personal information from being leaked, damaged or lost. Second, a personnel management and training system should be established. According to the “Safety Regulations”, personal information controllers should sign confidentiality agreements with employees engaged in personal information processing positions and conduct background checks to clarify the safety responsibilities of related positions and the occurrence of security incidents. Penalty mechanism, while conducting regular professional training and assessment, to ensure that relevant employees have the privacy policy and regulatory processes. Third, a personal information security impact assessment and audit system should be developed to assess potential risks and adverse impacts in the processing of personal information, form an assessment report for inspection by relevant parties, and establish an automated auditing system to monitor and record personal information processing activities. Handle the illegal use and abuse of personal information in the audit process in a timely manner.


  The formal issuance of the “Safety Code” ended the situation in which there were many personal information protection principles and the lack of specific measures since the implementation of the “Net Security Law.” This answer the confusion of the Internet companies, and in the appendix, it is the subject of personal information. The agreed-upon functional interface and privacy policy templates have provided a complete compliance and risk control policy for the provision of network products and services. Although the “Safety Code” number is displayed as a national recommendation, in practice, the review of the privacy policy conducted by the four departments of the Network Information Office, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Ministry of Public Security last year was mainly based on the “Safety Regulations” solicitation opinion draft. When the Information Office interviewed Alipay about the annual billing event, it also emphasized the validity of the “Safety Regulations.” These events all reflected the importance of the “Safety Rules” for improving the personal information protection system. The majority of network operators should make efforts to collect, save, use, and share personal information, improve internal management and privacy policy formulation to cope with the rigorous regulatory situation.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

2017年12月11日,就百度旗下“手機百度”、“百度瀏覽器”等兩款手機APP存在“監聽電話”、“讀取短彩信”、“讀取聯繫人”等涉及消費者個人信息安全的相關權限且拒不整改的情形,江蘇省消費者權益保護委員會就北京百度網訊科技有限公司涉嫌違法獲取消費者個人信息及相關問題提起消費民事公益訴訟,今年1月2日,南京市中級人民法院已正式立案。 1月6日,隨著“支付寶年度賬單事件”的發酵,國家網信辦網絡安全協調局約談了支付寶(中國)網絡技術有限公司、芝麻信用管理有限公司的有關負責人並指出,支付寶、芝麻信用收集使用個人信息的方式,不符合《信息安全技術個人信息安全規範》國家標準的精神,違背了其前不久簽署的《個人信息保護倡議》的承諾,應嚴格按照《網絡安全法》(以下稱“《網安法》”)的要求,加強對平台的全面排查,進行專項整頓,切實採取有效措施,防止類似事件再次發生。自《網安法》正式實施以來,人大、工信、網信、網安以及消協系統,在全國各地掀起了一系列個人信息專項檢查、整治行動,處罰違法違規行為的同時,也加強了社會公眾對個人信息保護的重視程度。

然而,由於法律規範及各地監管政策的原則性、模糊化及碎片化,很多條文缺乏落地的細則,這就給很多網絡運營者個人信息合規工作帶來極大的困惑。去年12月29日,中國國家標準化管理委員會正式發布《信息安全技術個人信息安全規範》(以下稱“《安全規範》”),1月24日,國家標準全文公開系統正式對外公佈規範全文,並將於2018年5月1日起實施。 《安全規範》以國家標準的形式,明確了個人信息的收集、保存、使用、共享的合規要求,為網絡運營者制定隱私政策及完善內控提供了指引。




首先,關於個人敏感信息,2013年實施的《信息安全技術公共及商用服務信息系統個人信息保護指南》將個人敏感信息定義為在遭受洩露或修改後會對個人信息主體造成不良影響的個人信息,同時建議各行業個人敏感信息的具體內容根據接受服務的個人信息主體意願和各自業務特點確定。 《安全規範》則在定義中進一步強調了個人敏感信息被洩露、非法提供或濫用可能危害人身、財產安全,致使個人名譽、身心健康受到損害或歧視性待遇等嚴重後果,並在附錄B中給出了個人敏感信息的具體示例,銜接了《網安法》第二十一條規定的數據分類義務。
















Informationized Warfare : Chinese Military to Focus on Winning the Whole War via A New People’s War // 信息化作战政治工作:着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版


Informationized Warfare : Chinese Military to Focus on Winning the Whole War via A New People’s War

The military field is the most dynamic field. Innovation is the most important and the most conservative. Facing the transformation of war formation, combat methods, command mode, and winning mechanism under informatized conditions, the in-depth exploration of the mechanism of the informatized warfare political work is not only an important content and concrete embodiment of the theme of practicing political work, but also a focus on playing the role of lifeline. Reality needs and urgent tasks.

The Practical Challenges in the Political Work of Informatization Warfare

With the rapid development of information technology, modern warfare has accelerated to “information + intelligence”, and the battlefield environment, combat strength, and combat methods have undergone profound changes. Our military’s political work has embraced a broad arena of innovation and development, and has also encountered many new era issues.

The purpose of the strategic game is limited, and there are more political considerations. In today’s era, the multipolarization of the world, economic globalization, and the development of social informatization have made in-depth development. The international community has increasingly become the community in which you and I have you. Restricted by multiple factors such as international conventions, international public opinion, and moral norms, conflicts and confrontations that occur worldwide are tend to be decentralized and localized. Information-based warfare is no longer a “zero-sum” game in which you died in the past. The center of strategic guidance is to control the war situation and achieve political goals; it is no longer the same as the mechanized war that uses all the armed forces to accomplish one battle, fight or not, and when to fight. How to fight, to what extent, must be subordinated to serving political needs.

Deep application of information technology, the connotation of quality requirements is more extensive. The use and development of information technology does not and can not change people as the decisive factor of war, and the quality of the personnel involved in the war is increasing. The adversary’s high-tech weapons are even more advanced, and there will be “dead spots” on their own. How to accurately find their “Achilles’ heel” and strike the system’s vitals requires the commander to have superb strategic wisdom. The informationization of weapons and equipment is even higher, and it is impossible for them to spontaneously display their abilities. How to realize the integration of man-machine and the maximum effectiveness of the weapons in their hands requires the combatants to have excellent information literacy. High-intensity confrontation and high-intensity damage have brought great shocks to the mind and body of the combatants. How to deal with calmness and countermeasures, and the need for officers and soldiers to have a stable psychological quality.

The use of diversity in the strength of participating in the war is aggravating the task of concentrating on God. The “platform center” for future operations gives way to the “system center,” and integrated joint operations have become the basic form. Only when all combat elements, units, and systems are “finished by fists” can the system’s operational effectiveness be exerted. The “physical space” of land, sea, and air and the “intangible space” of the network’s electromagnetic cognition coexist and coexist, presenting a “multidimensional space + point battlefield” form. Only with the overall situation and linkage between the two cities, can localized advantage be the battlefield. It is difficult and difficult to coordinate the military, operational elements, and command levels. Only by enhancing the “adhesion” between combat modules can a comprehensive performance of 1+1>2 be achieved.

The belligerence of warring targets is even harder to achieve. Under the conditions of informatization, an important symbol of victory in war is to conquer the will of the opponent. This is not only a confrontational contest in the morale of the military, but also a struggle for the influence of political opinion and public opinion. No one, no sound, and intangible are becoming the main forms of informatized warfare. Unmanned combat forces gradually replace the living forces on the battlefield. Invisible weapons such as electromagnetic guns and laser bombs gradually replace traditional firearms that use chemical gunpowder energy as a damage mechanism. Far away from long-range strikes, they gradually replaced near-meeting fighters, and the two sides of the battle rarely saw face to face. It can be foreseen that in the future battles, public opinion contests, psychological confrontation, and jurisprudential competition will increasingly become the “second battlefields” in real terms, and both the importance and the difficulty will be increased.

Accurate and quick combat operations, follow-up service requirements are higher. Breakthroughs in major technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and quantum cryptography have enabled combat to evolve from a “technical decision tactic” to a “technical decision strategy.” Under the support of intelligence, reconnaissance, and communications, “one missile Destruction of a command building system breaks into reality; “attack window” or “engagement opportunity” sensitivity is measured in minutes and seconds. “1 minute decides the battle outcome, 1 hour decides the outcome of the battle, and 1 day determines the national destiny” . In the past, the tactics of “human sea tactics”, “melee night warfare” and “permanent warfare” that were often used in warfare were difficult to display, and the corresponding traditional methods of wartime political work were not improved. There is no way out.

The Inherent Requirements for the Implementation of Informationized Political Work Organization

Compared to mechanized warfare, informatized warfare, the most significant and most fundamental change in the win-win mechanism lies in the informatization of technological forms, the combat warfare systemization, and the convergence of information flow to dominate the energy flow of material flows. As an integral part of the military system, our military’s political work must adapt to the objective needs of the change in the winning mechanism of war, and carry out innovative changes from the concept of command, organizational form to operational mechanisms, methods and means, and promote the highly integrated traditional advantages and information technology, and use data. The chain reinforces the lifeline and strengthens vitality with information.

To adapt to the characteristics of information-based operations and political constraints and multi-party linkages, political work must take care of the overall situation and the control bureau in planning guidance. The political attributes of war fundamentally restrict the military objectives, the scale of forces, the choice of strategies, and the development of the war situation. Our military’s political work in wartime is the ideological work and organization work of the Party during its military operations. The fundamental task is to ensure the implementation of the strategic intentions of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission in combat operations. The first thing in organizing political work is to strengthen the political consciousness, overall awareness, command awareness of the officers and men, especially the commanders at all levels, and insist on the realization of the strategic intentions of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, and the Chairman Xi as the highest goals, and implement the Chairman of the Executive Committee. The command orders of the Central Military Commission and the Central Military Commission are fundamental requirements, and are resolutely obeying the strategic goals of serving the party and the country. They call the fight, stop, and stop. They do not blindly pursue pure military results, open a good game, control a good game, and collect a good game.

To adapt to the characteristics of confrontation and element integration in the informationized combat system, political work must be integrated into the system and implemented as one. Information warfare relies on information networks to integrate all types of combat elements, units, and systems, and its ability to form depends on the degree of coupling of the architecture. Only when the political work is integrated into the big system and combines, permeates, and penetrates into the entire process of warfare, can it play a better role. It is necessary to strengthen the “combination” of structural functions, adapt to the requirements of the flat modularization synthesis, and achieve convergence with the joint operations command organization; strengthen the “combination” of decision-making and commanding, and change the decision of relatively independent and self-contained systems in the past. Command mode, synchronized with the military command research, deployment and deployment; strengthen the organization’s implementation of the “melting”, close to combat tasks and processes, so that the task is released, the situation together feedback, plans to adjust together, performance one And assess it to ensure that it interacts and interacts with military operations and complements each other.

To adapt to the characteristics of information-based combat information leadership and network integration, political work must be based on networks and data support. The core of successful informatization operations is to seize the right to information. In the era of big data, we must explore the formation of a new model of “political work + information network” and strive to achieve a transformation from “under the net political work” to “online political work”, occupy the main position of the information network, and seize the commanding heights of the network political work; “Transformation to “Information and Political Work”, good at relying on information means to carry out political work, with the help of information network automatic retrieval, intelligent identification, auxiliary decision-making and other functions to quickly obtain, analyze and process ideological information; from “extensive political work” to “precise political work”, Emphasize the development and application of combat data in political work, dynamically update and improve the operational database, real-time understanding of the ideological and psychological responses of officers and men, supplementation of battle wounds, and implementation of battlefield disciplines, so as to provide a scientific and reliable reference for decision-making and commanding.

To adapt to the three-dimensional, intangible, and unbounded nature of information-based operations, political work must expand its scope and leverage efficiency in content and means. The warfare space for informatized warfare has changed from “three-dimensional” to “multi-dimension,” and the scope of the battlefield has expanded from the “physical domain” to the “cognitive domain.” It is necessary to intensify the idea of ​​big political work, and to establish an organic unified, full-dimensional global coverage of the dot and line surface. Political work network. It is necessary to form a joint force for the main body and open up the link of political work command, organization, and coordination at all levels and levels to achieve vertical penetration, horizontal interaction, and overall linkage; to form a joint force for all personnel, to exert the “adhesion” role of the joint command mechanism, and to launch action battles. The Party, cadres and other elements of intelligence, reconnaissance, early warning, and safeguarding work together to carry out ideological and political work; form a joint force between the military and the land, and link forces, families, and society through sound policy systems, clear responsibilities in the military, and perfect coordination mechanisms. Gather the positive energy of the same direction.

To adapt to the characteristics of instantaneous warfare and rapidity in informationized operations, political work must be changed from time to time in time and effect. The combat under mechanized conditions is “big eating,” and the battle in the information age is “fast eating.” Future operations, especially the sea-air battles, will have fast time-to-space transitions, rapid changes in offensive and defensive rhythms, and rapid development of the battlefield. The key to “winning and winning” lies in “first-in-class” and the opportunity to seize opportunities. It is necessary to fully pre-research the premise, analyze the complex and difficult situations that may occur in the trial and combat operations according to the overall operational objectives, study and formulate countermeasures for prevention and decisive treatment, optimize the work flow, use the command network platform function, and strengthen the up-and-down linking and left-right contact. Reducing the level and streamlining the texts and electricity; paying attention to the command of the front, the political cadres deep in the battle position, in-depth officers and soldiers, the integration of zero, see the pin, timely and effective disposal of critical situations, resolve contradictions.

Informationized Warfare Political Work Service to Guarantee the Fighting Force

By interpreting the winning mechanism of modern warfare, we can more clearly recognize that the excellent tradition of political work that our army has formed in the war years and the practice of building the military is still an important guarantee for winning the victory of informationized operations; at the same time, we must follow the characteristics of informationized warfare. We must seize the key factors that affect the ability to control the system’s operations, identify the path of action, and give meaning to the times, strengthen the unique political advantage of our party and our army, and increase the contribution rate to combat effectiveness.

Focus on the joint victory to enhance the leadership of the party committee. The leadership of party committees is not only a concrete embodiment of the party’s absolute leadership over the army in combat, but also an important guarantee for winning the battle. The key to adhering to and exerting this institutional advantage lies in transforming information into decision-making power, cohesion into systemic power, and innovating ways and means of improvement. To strengthen the authority of unified leadership, all major issues concerning the directionality and overall orientation of warfare must be collectively studied and decided by the party committee. In particular, the joint party committee should be given leadership over all actions and personnel in the war to ensure that the order of military order is unimpeded. Strengthen the scientific nature of the deliberative decision-making, pay attention to improving the party members’ information literacy, fully absorb the opinions and suggestions of the commanders and technical experts of the armed forces, and in particular, strengthen the dynamic control of military affairs, public opinion, and public opinion so as to ensure that the decision-making conforms to the combat operations and the actual conditions of the army. Strengthen the timeliness of implementation, the first time to organize the transmission of higher order instructions, follow up the implementation of the armed forces to implement the situation, in particular, according to operational needs to give front-line commanders the right to dispose, to ensure that in case of accidents can respond quickly and properly.

Focus on the will to win the battle to improve the effectiveness of the incentive. “One is not afraid of suffering and the other is not afraid of death” is the revolutionary background and spiritual business card of our military. To win informatized warfare, we must reflect on the mental and physical characteristics and realistic thinking of the new generation of officers and men and work hard to build an inseparable “spiritual Great Wall.” Concerning the quality of connotation, we adhere to the unity and unity of unconsolidated operations, focusing on strengthening the education of revolutionary heroism and inspiring the bloody nature of the “one man, one shot, and fighting in the end.” They also pay attention to guiding officers and men to strengthen their awareness of intellect, scientific attitudes, and collaborative concepts. The wisdom and enthusiasm to play the maximum effectiveness of system operations. In terms of behavioral norms, we insist on unification of education counseling and discipline, not only focusing on well-targeted education and ideological work on one person but one thing, but also on strict battlefield rules and regulations to ensure that all parties, regardless of adversity or adversity, can be loyal and dedicated. Policy-oriented, adhere to the unity of spiritual rewards and material comfort, not only focus on activities such as the creation of meritorious service, fire line into the party and other activities, stimulate the sense of responsibility of defending national interests, but also pay attention to solve the actual problems of officers and soldiers to lift the worries of the future.

Focus on intelligence to improve the accuracy of manpower deployment. Adhere to the individual allocation and group deployment, commanding key and technical experts, both internal potential and leveraging local complementary, so that ahead of the pre-positioning, positioning positioning, rapid supplementation, in order to win the battle to provide a strong support of personnel. Focusing on the needs of the system’s operational capability, in accordance with the principle of matching people’s positions, we attach importance to the backbone of operational forces and front-line military cadres, and also attach importance to the essential elements of safeguard elements and reserve force cadres to ensure that each combat system, operational unit, and operational element are fully occupied. member. Focusing on the needs of key combat elements, we will continue to focus on focusing on key forces. In particular, we must match the combatants and technical backbones of some key and critical positions and use the best steel in cutting edge. Focusing on the needs of combat support, we will use well-reserved talents around the joint deployment of forces, and focus on the integration of military and civilian security personnel as needed. We will use local intelligence to effectively leverage local high-end talents to achieve the integration of wartime military and human resources.

Focus on moral accomplishment and make a good political attack. Public opinion warfare The psychological warfare legal war runs through every aspect of strategy, battle, and battle, permeates all aspects of politics, economy, and diplomacy, and becomes a special combat style for the confrontation of the informatized war system. In the future operations, we must carry forward the good traditions of our military’s essay attacking and fighting against the armed forces. We must emphasize both the will to convey and the moral interpretation in terms of content. We must focus on both the heavy blows and the people’s hearts to fight for the target. We must take the initiative and make heavy moves in the tactics. In order to fully publicize the just legitimacy of our military operations, we should create a world-famous international and domestic public opinion situation, use war laws and international laws to guide the international public opinion and public opinion, actively seize public opinion, morality, and legal system, ensure the military There is no point in political victory.

Focus on the overall victory to build an upgraded version of the People’s War. The people’s war has always been an important magic weapon for our army to defeat the enemy. Under the new situation, we should focus on the characteristics of the intensification of large-scale informatization and warfare, and based on all-dimensional support, we must do a good job of mobilizing for participation in the war. Change from spontaneous support to legal support, coordinate local party committees and governments, supervise agencies at all levels, social organizations, economic entities, and citizens, fulfill their obligation to participate in warfare in accordance with the law, and do a good job of recruiting people, collecting materials, and expropriation of equipment and facilities. . From direct support to forward network transformation, China will have hundreds of millions of Internet users, mobile Internet users, and Weibo users. We will organize the masses to carry out economic warfare and cultural warfare in information warfare, and invite relevant experts to conduct long-distance consultations on technical support. . From material support to advance science and technology support, and around combat support requirements such as operational reconnaissance and early warning, command communications, and meteorological and hydrological resources, mobilize all kinds of scientific and technological forces to cooperate with information operations, assist in the maintenance of weapons and equipment, and military installations, and lay a strong science and technology potential in the private sector. Turn into war power. (General Political Department Organization Department)

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Strategic Thinking on Ensuring Ideological & Political Security of Chinese Army // 中國軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

Strategic Thinking on Ensuring Ideological & Political Security of Chinese Army //



Network era, the information exchange to break the official and civil, military and local boundaries, our army should continue to play the advantages of mobilization, open our army ideological work a new situation. The people are the most extensive and powerful forces involved in the ideological struggle. Our army strives for the dominance of the online ideological struggle. It can not rely solely on the power of propagating and defending the departments. We must also make the people’s faction and stir up the people’s war of online ideological struggle. Our army should play a good mobilization advantage, attract the participation of the masses, and guide the direction of public opinion.

The United States “how to influence China’s national strategy and military strategy,” the report said, “the Internet is our main battle with the Chinese Communist Party.” Western military power has long been the online public opinion struggle into the military strategy, is committed to creating a new network of combat forces.

Military Army: Strategic Thinking on Ensuring the Ideological and Political Security of Our Army

The United States since 2003 in the war in Iraq for the first time to implement the strategic psychological warfare, have made a network war theory update and actual inspection of the record; recently, the US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced the Department of Defense new network action strategy report, For example, the United States and Russia have been able to use the information warfare forces to form a “civil army”, demonize the “invading country” regime, from the “invading country” internal disintegration of its national will, To achieve their own strategic objectives. At present, the United States with the Internet technology and cultural hegemony to develop Internet rules, selling political system and cultural ideas, leading the direction of ideological struggle; our military in the key information infrastructure construction, network impact in a weak, facing control, Shaped, interpreted, tagged dilemma, cyberspace security coping overall is still hovering at the tactical level non-strategic level. In the era of media, cyberspace has become the second “living space” of mankind. Our army should be in danger and know ourselves, and attach great importance to the study of cyber ideology struggle strategy and compete for the initiative of online ideological struggle.

1, take the initiative to force the Sword, to seize the high ground of ideological struggle


The Internet is the main battlefield of ideological struggle. The main battlefield failed to master the initiative, decided in the field of ideology in the passive situation. In recent years, including the United States, including Google, Apple, “the eight King Kong” all-round penetration into the network space in China through the opening of the “back door” for the US government to provide information, and pervasive way to push me Western values; , Support the “elite” voice, so that with the help of the Internet openly for the Western head; continuous technological innovation, by virtue of “shadow Internet” and other means to circumvent me

Network control system to support Hong Kong “accounted for” and other subversive separatist activities; leading issues set for China’s military development has been intensive throw “China’s military threat theory”, “China’s spy activities,” “Sino-US military conflict theory” and “South China Sea navigation freedom” and other issues, from the academic, public opinion on me completely suppressed.

In contrast to our military, there are still used in the theoretical study of fried rice, in the propaganda work instilled the preaching, stereotyped in the discourse system, often in the subject matter when the aphasia, weak and weak in the supervision of the phenomenon, not only cause my mainstream ideology Spread the dilemma, but also for the hostile forces to attack my ideological position left a gap. Network ideological struggle, such as against the current sailing,

In the face of the aggressive challenges of the United States and the West, the attack is more advantageous than the defense. Our army must recognize the seriousness of the threat of online ideology and face the above-mentioned deficiencies. Through the all-round change of the thinking idea and working mode, initiative.

The first stage to try to reverse our army passively cope with the situation, lay the online ideological struggle “fighter war”. China is currently the most important strategic opponents of cyber space in the United States, the United States will undoubtedly be its core technology, hegemony and other positions to prevent clinging, want to catch up with its core technology in the short term is not feasible. Our army should not only have the courage to fight the Sword, but also learn to “dance with the wolf”, on the one hand should focus on the matter, in the face of Western issues when the attack in a timely manner to respond, one said, change the traditional conservative ideology work concept, , To avoid the main network-like attitude, or another way to transfer is not conducive to our military wave of public opinion, beware of the Chinese story was misinterpreted, misreading; on the other hand can identify the opponent’s weaknesses, pain hard, propaganda interpretation of the Western scandal, Democratic system malpractice, judging the plight of capitalist development. Learn from the opponents of the struggle, give full play to the role of capitalist countries, in the foreign media, business operations, cooperation and cultural exchanges in the promotion.

The second stage is based on my main counterattack, lay the ideological struggle of the Internet “position war.” The use of the first stage of the development of technology development opportunities, and vigorously promote technological innovation, can bypass the United States and other Western countries accounted for overwhelming advantages of the technical barriers to achieve such as quantum communications technology monopoly, relying on the new platform to implement the ideological strategy to counter; To maintain national ideological security from the traditional security field to the field of cyberspace extension, and actively establish a network space cooperation with other countries, based on Chinese cultural traditions, value system and military practice, to build beyond the West, in line with China’s actual discourse system for the international community Innovative discourse, for our army modernization, national defense policy and the military system name.

2, to support the legislation, to the superiority of the people to achieve the mainstream ideology of soft conquest


Hard power is the fundamental support of soft power, Western ideology has been able to prevail in the world, the key lies in the capitalist countries generally developed economy, people’s living standards are higher, and the key to the upsurge in the Soviet Union is the national economy almost collapse, political Cleaning loss of people, social contradictions continue to intensify. Revolutionary war years, our army suffered inside and outside the attack, but resist the West “peaceful evolution”, the fundamental reason is that when our ideological work to do the “inner saints outside the king.” Reflection of the current, part of the unit and the individual army is not strict, improper words and deeds, misconduct, weakened the army combat effectiveness, discredited the image of the army, for those who have ulterior motives attacked my system, leaving the relationship between the party and the party left a mess, as hostile forces To achieve its political purpose to provide a convenient space.

In addition, the value orientation and behavior of the composition of the officers and men are undergoing profound changes. Once the loss of their trust is caused by the corruption of the military, it is easy to cause the ideal and the landslide, which opens the gap for the infiltration of the West. For a period of time, our army dealing with the behavior of anomorphosis often lost in the wide, lost in the soft, especially Guo Boxiong, Xu Caihou case hit the officers and men “three view”, while the United States to intensify the push of the bourgeoisie to build the military concept, To carry out the deterrence, attack our army unique advantages, which makes our ideological work into a double dilemma. Network era information cohabitation, the face of hostile forces deliberately slander more need “their own hard”.

Our army should play a good way to put forward the traditional advantages of truth, first put the facts, and then tell the truth, to an open and inclusive attitude to the Internet users to monitor the military and the Internet to achieve good interaction, and as a driving force to improve the style Adhere to the line of words and deeds; adhere to the network space management and the reality of space norms both hands, the military’s own problems, neither whitewash short and not allowed to make rumors, eliminate negative thoughts, the root causes of public opinion, to our military good image against Western attack penetration, Enhance the mainstream ideology of inspiration.

3, to network network, to enhance our ideological struggle of the network thinking


The development of the Internet has spawned all-round changes in social structure, way of thinking and behavior. In the face of online ideological struggle, our army must accurately grasp the changes in the mechanism of competition. The network originated in the West, grew up in the West, the West not only has a comparative advantage in technology, but also highly compatible with the Internet culture, cloud computing, large data, artificial intelligence and other technologies are the first breakthrough in the West, the network center war and other Internet operations concept by the US military The first proposed, the Internet “rules of conduct” is also dominated by the West, the United States is the world’s major sources of information. And our army in the online ideological struggle is still at a disadvantage, such as can not keep up with the Internet age changes, will fall into a completely passive situation.

At present, our army has a strong desire and motive to make a good “network gateway”, and the problem of planning breakthroughs in online ideological struggle is basically clear, but it still lacks the organic integration of “Internet + ideological struggle” and can not really grasp the struggle The right to speak. In the face of the grim situation of online ideological struggle, our army needs an Internet “brainstorming”, and comprehensively enhance the ability of online ideological security. To break the core technology monopoly as the main focus, breaking the United States to contain my “life door”, the construction of its own information transmission system and network security protection system, and strive to lead the innovation and technology around the world, lay the ideological “backhand” But also the Internet communication requires creative thinking, the first machine awareness, platform operation and action ability, but also to promote the development of the Internet, but also to promote the development of the Internet, The barracks should follow the trend, as soon as possible to develop a variety of network broadcast and other media, try to mainstream cultural communication embedded in creative industries.

4, close the rule of law cage, remove the online ideological position “noise”


The development of new media technology to open the “everyone has a microphone,” the law of the times of transmission changes, public opinion, more difficult to control, thinking more and more intense competition, but according to the law of the network network did not follow the footsteps.

The current urgent problem is: the phenomenon of my ideological security is widespread, part of the hostile forces openly clamoring, the Western hostile forces not only in my territory to cultivate “well known” “big V”, the purchase of network water army, organization of cults, Extreme forces and other extreme anti-communist elements into the network of public opinion, resulting in a variety of hazards to national and military security information is full of network information platform.

At present, the army information construction in full swing, our army for the new media management legislation process is lagging behind, the network regulation system is not perfect, the lack of norms of online ideological struggle, part of the behavior of the ideological security is illegal, how to deal with the language is not detailed.

On the one hand, the normal ideological control is often misinterpreted as restricting freedom of speech. Once used by hostile forces, it may cause the military officers and soldiers to fluctuate, leading to further deterioration of the situation. On the other hand, due to the lack of relevant norms, Or even often for a small number of wrong acts “pay”, resulting in ideological murmur is not cleared, over time, the ideological institutions of the credibility of a serious decline in the military and the state may also fall into the “Tacitus trap.”

Online ideological struggle from the value of the political system of confrontation, but may be expressed as “to ideology” of public opinion and popular culture. Information in the cyberspace “fission” propagation. The process does not rule out the ulterior motives of the individual groups add oil and vinegar, fueled. Therefore, to win the ideological struggle on the Internet, our army should maintain the ideological security issues in accordance with the law into a strategic position, consolidate the military environment, improve domestic legislation, and resolutely combat the behavior of moral hazard, and create a good online public opinion ecology.

First, the height of the overall national security to promote the legislative amendment, focusing on the norms of cultural transmission in the field of “rent-seeking” phenomenon, management loopholes, powers and responsibilities unclear, poor supervision and other issues to ensure that the work of law, There must be law.

Second, according to the law, the frequent dissemination of bad information on the implementation of accurate monitoring of the site, according to the law should be ordered to rectify the deadline for the threat of ideological security, the negative information according to the law to remove. Third, strict enforcement of law enforcement, illegal research, to endanger our ideological and ideological security of the implementation of full-time monitoring, the spread of negative public opinion of the organization, individuals and the performance of poor supervision departments, resolutely according to law, Outside the earth, the formation of the rule of law deterrence.

5, pay attention to the integration of military and civilian, launched the ideological struggle of the people of the war


Historically, our army in combat and the implementation of military missions before the fighting to mobilize, to boost morale to stimulate morale, while fighting for a wide range of mass support. Whether it is mobilization speech, news propaganda or brief loud fighting slogans, lively forms of literature and art, have played an indelible role, so that our army justice, civilization, the image of mighty people, for our army to integrate military resources, The people’s war laid a good foundation.

Network era, the information exchange to break the official and civil, military and local boundaries, our army should continue to play the advantages of mobilization, open our army ideological work a new situation. The people are the most extensive and powerful forces involved in the ideological struggle. Our army strives for the dominance of the online ideological struggle. It can not rely solely on the power of propagating and defending the departments. We must also make the people’s faction and stir up the people’s war of online ideological struggle. Our army should play a good mobilization advantage, attract the participation of the masses, and guide the direction of public opinion.

At the same time, we should use a good network platform, the use of good hidden in the people of the huge energy, the patriotic enthusiasm of the Internet users to the positive grooming, the formation of the mainstream ideology of the sea, so that our army fortress indestructible, so that hostile forces abroad quit. The integration of military and civilian people can effectively break the problem of insufficient strength of our army in the ideological struggle of the Internet. First of all, lack of platform construction led to the voice of our army can not pass, the situation can not open. In recent years, our army in the dissemination of platform construction is still inadequate. Our military is currently more influential several news sites updated slowly, the news content is still biased towards the traditional propaganda, preaching, the emerging military-related information is also due to the existence of the above problems, so that “lack of capacity” and our army in New media, the use of new platforms often “half a beat”.

We should strengthen cooperation and cooperation with local government media and private media. At the same time, from the media University, well-known enterprises, network celebrities invited experienced people, regular exchange training, absorption of media construction advanced experience, accelerate the improvement of network-related military guidance platform, to create a group of audiences wide visible High-quality brand media. Second, the network crisis on the lack of capacity led to our army often aphasia. At present, the construction of our military space space is limited, staffing is insufficient, leading to information monitoring, filtering capacity is limited, the negative information of the army once fermented for public opinion, relying on the existing technical means and human resources will be difficult to effectively deal with, will make me The military is caught in the unfavorable situation of online ideological struggle.

Therefore, our military should strengthen cooperation with local functional departments to strengthen military and field network engineers to develop information monitoring software and filtering system, so that malicious spread of the rhetoric difficult to spread. At the same time, a wide range of local talent for the use of our military, while absorbing veterans into the local ideological work team, jointly cultivate a group of political excellent, new thinking, technical fine, skilled public opinion analysis, public opinion, network supervision Authoritarian network administrator team, the formation of the people’s war indestructible trend.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡時代,信息交互打破了官方和民間、軍隊和地方的界限 ,我軍應繼續發揮動員優勢,打開我軍意識形態工作新局面。人民群眾是參與意識形態鬥爭最廣泛、最強勁的力量,我軍爭取網上意識形態鬥爭主導權,不能只依靠宣傳保衛部門的力量,還必須做好軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭。我軍要發揮好動員優勢,吸引群眾參與,引導輿論走​​向。






互聯網是意識形態鬥爭主戰場。主戰場上未能掌握主導權,決定了我國在意識形態領域處於被動接招的態勢。近年來,包含谷歌、蘋果在內的美“八大金剛”全方位滲透到我國網絡空間,通過開“後門”為美國政府提供情報,並無孔不入地向我推送西方價值理念;培養“第五縱隊” 、扶植“精英”發聲,使之借助互聯網影響力公然為西方張目;持續技術創新,憑藉“影子互聯網”等手段規避我



































Author: 作者:王明哲 軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究中心

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) // 中華人民共和國2017年上半年互聯網安全報告

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) //


1 Internet security situation is grim, to develop network security is imperative

At the same time, the Internet security has become more and more important. In 2014, the central network security and information leading group was formally established, Xi Jinping personally as head of the country and the government’s attention to the degree of network security is evident. In the central network security and information leading group at the first meeting, Xi Jinping first proposed “network power” strategy, “no network security is no national security”, network security is a relationship between national security and sovereignty, social stability, national culture The important issue of inheritance and development. Its importance, with the pace of global information to accelerate and become more and more significant. “Home is the door”, security issues without delay.

In China, the network has entered the tens of thousands of households, the number of Internet users in the world, China has become a network power. The Internet has been deeply involved in all aspects of people’s lives. According to a survey on the information of the public, students and white-collar groups of Internet usage has been close to 100%, more than Jiucheng college students and white-collar groups the most important information access channel for the Internet. Internet users on the Internet to conduct the main news, learning, real-time communication, social networking and all kinds of leisure and entertainment. In the era of universal networking, Internet users how to ensure network security? How does an enterprise network effectively defend against cyber attacks? These have become important issues that countries, governments and the security industry are facing and need to address as soon as possible.

From the domestic “dark cloud Ⅲ” virus, to sweeping the global “WannaCry” extortion virus, and then to “Petya” malignant devastating virus, all that the current network security situation is grim, corporate security vulnerable, vigorously develop the network Security is imperative.

2 to strengthen the network security construction, lack of talent need to improve the current situation

Although China has become a big country network, but there is distance from the network power. Trojans and botnets, mobile Internet malicious programs, denial of service attacks, security vulnerabilities, phishing, web tampering and other network security incidents have occurred, the basic network equipment, domain name systems, industrial Internet and other basic infrastructure and critical infrastructure is still facing Greater security risks, strengthen the network security construction is imminent.

At the same time, the shortage of network security personnel in China is in urgent need of improvement. As a network power, China in addition to research and development of computer equipment to enhance the speed of network transmission, but also should step up the cultivation of computer information security personnel, so that China from the network power into a network power, which is to enhance China’s information security important basis.

Network security has risen to the national strategy, the state is also vigorously invested to promote the construction of network security. But do a good job of network security is not an organization, a department of things, but the need for the participation of the whole society. From the city of Wuhan issued “on the support of national network security personnel and innovation base development policy measures” invested 4.5 billion construction funds, to June 1, 2017 formally implemented the “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law”, are for network security Healthy, steady development and make efforts. We also call for the social responsibility as a safe enterprise, institutions, individuals actively into the network security building, for the country, the national network security protection contribute a force.

3 Tencent to promote the establishment of China’s first strongest Internet security matrix

Tencent security has 17 years of capacity accumulation and 800 million users of large data operating experience, is China’s leading Internet security products, security services provider. In the spirit of “open, joint, shared” concept, will accumulate years of ability and data sharing to partners, is committed to the Internet security and open platform construction, enhance the security of the Internet security industry chain, enhance user safety awareness, and jointly promote China’s Internet security Environmental construction.

At present, Tencent has promoted the establishment of China’s first Internet security matrix, covering the basic security of the laboratory matrix, security product matrix, security, large data platform matrix, and Internet security open platform matrix, committed to China’s Internet security new ecological construction, open core competencies And data for China’s Internet security and ecological construction unremitting efforts.

First, the overall status of network security scan

1.1 affect the world’s six major network security incidents, the cumulative impact of the world

1.1.1 WikiLeaks CIA top secret file leak event

March 7, 2017, WiKiLeaks announced thousands of documents and revealed the CIA on the hacker hacking technology, Mobile phones and smart TVs, but also can invade attacks on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, and even control smart cars to launch assassination activities. Outside the name of the leak event named Vault 7, Vault 7 published confidential documents recorded by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) conducted by the global hacker attacks.

Vault7 contains 8761 confidential documents and documents, which documents the CIA for Android and Apple smart phones developed by the intrusion crack technology details, some of which can also get the complete control of the target device. WikiLeaks founder A Sangqi said the document shows the “CIA network attack the overall ability”, and WikiLeaks in the release of these documents claimed that “CIA network armory has been out of control.”

1.1.2 Shadow Broker Public NSA (US National Security Agency) Hacker Arsenal

On April 14, 2017, Shadow Brokers published a large number of very destructive hacking tools used by the Equation Group in the NSA (National Security Agency) on, including You can remotely break the global about 70% of the Windows machine vulnerability exploit tools. Anyone can use NSA’s hacker weapons to attack someone else’s computer. Among them, there are ten tools most likely to affect Windows personal users, including eternal blue, eternal king, eternal romance, eternal collaboration, emerald fiber, eccentric hamster, Eskimo volume, elegant scholar, eclipse wings and respect review. Hackers do not need any operation, as long as the network can invade the computer, like shock waves, Sasser and other famous worms can instantly blood wash the Internet.

1.1.3 “WannaCry” extortion virus broke out in the world on May 12th

May 12, 2017, “WannaCry” (want to cry) bitbell blackmail virus in the global outbreak, the event affected more than 150 countries and regions, more than 10 million organizations and institutions and more than 30 million Internet users, the total loss Up to more than 500 billion yuan. Including hospitals, educational institutions and government departments, without exception, suffered an attack. Blackmail virus worms in conjunction with the way the spread of the attack is a large-scale outbreak of the important reasons.

User’s most obvious symptoms after poisoning is the computer desktop background is modified, many files are encrypted lock, the virus pops up prompted the user to the relevant bit coin address transfer $ 300 in order to unlock the file. At present, security companies have found ways to restore encrypted files.

1.1.4 FireBall Fireball virus infected more than 250 million computers

June 1, 2017, foreign security agency Check Point reported that the outbreak of a “FireBall” virus abroad, and claimed that more than 250 million computers worldwide are infected, the most affected countries are India (10.1%) and Brazil (9.6%). The United States has 5.5 million computers in the move, accounting for 2.2%. In the infected business network, India and Brazil accounted for 43% and 38% respectively, compared with 10.7% in the US.

This malware will force the browser home page to its own website and search engine, and redirect the search results to Google or Yahoo. These forged search engines track user data and secretly collect user information. The author of this virus for the production of China’s Rafotech company, the company’s Web site has been unable to visit.

1.1.5 “dark cloud” series virus upgrade to “dark cloud III” again struck

June 9, 2017, Tencent computer housekeeper detected, as early as 2015 was first discovered and intercepted killing the “dark cloud” virus resurgence, upgrade to “dark cloud Ⅲ”, through the download station large-scale transmission, at the same time through Infected disk MBR boot boot, the number of infected users has reached millions.

After the upgrade of the “dark cloud Ⅲ” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates, and its function is currently downloaded to promote malicious Trojans, lock the browser home page, tampering to promote navigation page id. Once the user in the move, the computer will become a “broiler” to form a “botnet”, and the use of DDoS attacks built on a cloud service provider platform chess class site, resulting in the site access becomes abnormal card slow.

1.1.6 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

June 27, 2017, a new round of extortion virus “Petya” attacked a number of countries in Europe, including Ukraine, Russia, India, Spain, France, Britain, Denmark and other countries have been attacked, the governments of these countries, Banks, enterprises, power systems, communications systems and airports are affected by different procedures.

This virus is more destructive than “WannaCry”, the virus on the computer’s hard disk MFT encryption, and modify the MBR, so that the operating system can not enter. According to the relevant analysis, said the information on the boot interface even if the information provided to the hackers is no way to decrypt, therefore, had to doubt the “Petya” the real purpose of the virus. “Petya” is more like a purposeful attack, the target can not repair the devastating attack, rather than extortion for the purpose.

1.2 “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law” formally implemented

June 1, China’s first comprehensive standard of cyberspace security management of the basic law – “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law,” the formal implementation of a total of seven chapters seventy-nine, the content is very rich, with six outstanding highlights. One is clear the principle of cyberspace sovereignty; the second is clear the network products and service providers of security obligations; third is clear the network operator’s security obligations; four is to further improve the personal information protection rules; five is the establishment of the key Information infrastructure security protection system; six is ​​to establish a key information infrastructure important data cross-border transmission rules.

At the same time the new law also pointed out that should take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. The implementation of the new law marks the network security of China from the law, cyber space management, network information dissemination order norms, cybercrime punishment and so forth will open a new page, to protect China’s network security, safeguarding the overall security of the country has far-reaching and significant The meaning of.

1.3 The size of Internet users in China is equivalent to the total population of Europe, the safety gap of up to 95%

1.3.1 Chinese Internet users reached 731 million, equivalent to the total population of Europe

As of December 2016, the scale of Internet users in China reached 731 million, the penetration rate reached 53.2%, more than the global average of 3.1 percentage points, more than the Asian average of 7.6 percentage points. A total of 42.99 million new Internet users, the growth rate of 6.2%. The size of Chinese Internet users has been equivalent to the total population of Europe.

1.3.2 mobile users continue to grow, the proportion of mobile phone users accounted for 95.1%

As of December 2016, China’s mobile phone users reached 695 million scale, the growth rate of more than 10% for three consecutive years. Desktop computers, notebook computers are using the decline in the number of mobile phones continue to squeeze the use of other personal Internet devices.

1.3.3 security talent gap is huge, up to 95%

Although the number of Internet users in China has been ranked first in the world, but China’s information security industry in the very few people, security personnel and its lack. According to relevant information, in recent years, China’s education and training of information security professionals only 3 million people, and the total demand for network security personnel is more than 700,000 people, the gap up to 95%. 710 million Internet users in China network security issues, has become the industry and the country to solve the problem.

Beijing Institute of Electronic Science and Technology, vice president of the Ministry of Education of Higher Education Information Teaching Committee of the Secretary-General Fenghua pointed out that the current important information systems and information infrastructure in China need all kinds of network information security personnel will be 15,000 per year The rate of increase, by 2020 the relevant talent needs will grow to 1.4 million. But at present, only 126 colleges and universities in China have set up 143 network security related professionals, accounting for only 10% of the 1200 science and engineering institutions.

Analysis on the situation of network virus threat in the first half of 2017

2.1 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory PC-side virus interception over 1 billion, the chain by 30%

2.1.1 Trojan horse intercepts an average of nearly 170 million times per month

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory statistics show that PC-side total has blocked the virus 1 billion times, the overall number of viruses compared to the second half of 2016 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to intercept the number of viruses increased by 30% Interception Trojan virus nearly 170 million times. April, June to intercept the peak of the virus, interceptions are 180 million times.

2017 Q2 quarter compared to 2016 Q2 quarter, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory virus blocking an increase of 23.7%. From 2014 to 2017 Q2 season, the amount of virus blocking the number of malicious programs increased year by year.

2.1.2 PC users in Guangdong, the highest number of poisoning, poisoning peak for the morning 9-11 points found a total of 230 million times in the first half of the user machine Trojan virus 

The first half of 2017 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory found a total of 230 million times the user machine Trojan virus, compared to the second half of 2016 down 0.5%, an average of 38.8 million poisoning machines per month for virus killing. 2017 Q2 quarter compared to Q1 quarter, a slight increase in the number of poisoning machines.

In the second quarter of 2017, the number of users in the second quarter of 2016 increased by 3% compared with the same period in the second quarter of 2016. From 2015 to 2017 Q2 season, the number of poisoning machine growth trend is obvious, was increasing year by year state. PC end user poisoning peak for the morning 9:00 to 11:00

According to statistics, the peak time of daily poisoning for the morning 10 am – 11 am, in line with business and ordinary users 9 am – 11 am to open the computer processing work of the law. This time the user poisoning virus type is more use of e-mail, sharing, etc. spread Office document macro virus, indicating that the office security situation is still grim. PC end poisoning user provinces up to Guangdong, which ranks first in Shenzhen

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to monitor the number of poisoning PC statistics, from the urban distribution point of view, the Internet is more developed city users poisoning situation is heavy, the country ranked the first city to intercept the virus in Shenzhen City, accounting for 3.76% , The second for the Chengdu City, accounting for 3.57% of all interceptions, the third for the Guangzhou City, accounting for 3.39% of all interceptions.

From the provincial geographical distribution, the largest number of PC poisoning in Guangdong Province, accounting for 13.29% of the total intercept, the second in Jiangsu Province, accounting for 7.75% of all interceptions, the third in Shandong Province, accounting for all Intercept the amount of 7.12%.

2.1.3 The largest virus category accounted for 53.8% of the Trojan virus, blackmail virus added 13.39% PC-side of the first major virus is still Trojans, PE-infected virus type, but the spread of large

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory 2017 Q2 season to obtain the virus sample analysis, from the virus type, Trojans accounted for 53.80% of the total number, is still the first major virus. Adware class (adware, forced installation, user privacy, spam, etc.) for the second largest virus category, accounting for 39.02% of the total number. Backdoor category for the third largest virus category, accounting for 5.13% of the total number. Compared to the 2017 Q1 quarter, the virus type did not change much.

The number of virus samples from the top of the division, ranked first and second is still the Trojans and Adware class, but ranked third in the PE infection, accounting for 25.07% of the total number.

There are not many types of infectious samples, which is difficult to produce infectious virus, hackers and other programmers need to master the technology, high cost, long development time and other factors. At the same time, the transmission of infectious virus is very large, the survival time is relatively long, therefore, less species of PE infection type in the sample transmission level accounted for a certain proportion, which is due to infection with a wide range of viruses, Fast propagation characteristics. extortion virus sample number Q2 added 13.39%, the first is not WannaCry

The extortion of the virus is the purpose of extortion money for the purpose of making the Trojan horse infected computer user system specified data files are malicious encryption, resulting in user data loss. At present, most of the domestic extortion of the virus by the need to pay the rupiah to be able to decrypt. As the bit currency completely anonymous circulation, the current technical means can not track behind the extortion behind the virus operator, which also makes the extortion virus from 2013 after the explosive growth.

The amount of extortion

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to detect the extortion virus, 2017 in the first half of the total has been found in the number of extortion virus samples in about 300 million, the average monthly detection of the number of extortion virus nearly 500,000, Q2 quarterly extortion virus samples The number increased by 13.39% over Q1 quarter. May, June to intercept the peak of the virus, respectively, 57 million, 530,000.

Extortion virus type

According to the relevant data analysis shows that the May 12 outbreak of the WannaCry extortion virus is the most active in this quarter, the greatest impact on the virus. The virus and other viruses in the way of transmission is significantly different, due to the use of the windows system vulnerabilities, making the virus can spread around the world, as the quarter of the hot safety events. On June 27, a new type of extortion virus called Petya began spreading around the world, and its extortion was similar to WannaCry, but more destructive, directly encrypting the MFT of the user’s hard drive and modifying the MBR, causing the user to fail to windows system.

Although the impact of the virus is large, but from the sample size point of view, the largest or with the spread of infection PolyRansom virus. This virus will be infected, encrypted users of the file to extortion, but because there is no use like WannaCry virus key encryption, but the use of a simple encryption algorithm, and the algorithm is reversible, anti-virus software can help users to restore files, So although the number of samples in the first, but the impact is not great. This type of extortion virus accounted for 78.84% of all extortion virus, we can see the spread of infectious virus strong.

From the sample size point of view, in addition to infectious extortion virus, the first is Blocker, accounting for 36.82% of all extortion virus, the second category is Zerber, accounting for 23.63% of all extortion virus, the third category Is the most affected this quarter, WannaCry extortion virus, accounting for all extortion virus 12.06%. WannaCry virus volume quickly rose to the third position, because the means of communication using the spread of vulnerability.

The current extortion virus mainly uses the following kinds of transmission:

Document infection spread

File infection is the use of infectious virus transmission characteristics, such as PolyRansom virus is the use of infectious virus characteristics, encrypted users all the documents and then pop-up information. Because the PE class file is infected with the ability to infect other files, so if the file is carried by the user (U disk, network upload, etc.) to run on other computers, it will make the computer’s files are all infected with encryption.

Site hanging horse spread

Web site is through the site or the site server to obtain some or all of the authority, in the web page file to insert a malicious code, these malicious code, including IE and other browser vulnerabilities use code. When a user accesses a linked page, a malicious code is executed if the system does not update the exploit patch used in the malicious code.

The virus can also use known software vulnerabilities to attack, such as the use of Flash, PDF software vulnerabilities, to the site with malicious code to add the file, the user with a loopholes in the software to open the file will be executed after the malicious code, download virus.

Using system vulnerabilities

May outbreak of WannaCry is the use of Windows system vulnerabilities to spread, the use of system vulnerabilities is characterized by passive poisoning, that is, users do not have to visit a malicious site, not open the unknown file will be poisoned. This virus will scan with the network vulnerabilities in other PC host, as long as the host is not marked with a patch, it will be attacked.

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind you, timely updates third-party software patches, timely update the operating system patches to prevent known vulnerabilities attack.

Mail attachment spread

The extortion virus that spreads through e-mail attachments usually disguises documents that users need to view, such as credit card spending lists, product orders, and so on. The attachment will hide the malicious code, when the user opens the malicious code will begin to perform, release the virus. This type of camouflage virus is usually sent to enterprises, universities, hospitals and other units, these units in the computer usually save the more important documents, once malicious encryption, the possibility of payment of ransom far more than ordinary individual users.

Network share file spread

Some small-scale spread of extortion virus will be spread through the way the file spread, the virus will upload the virus to the network sharing space, cloud disk, QQ group, BBS forums and other places to share the way to send a specific crowd to trick the download and install The

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind users to download the software go to the official formal channel download and install, do not download the unknown program, such as the need to use the unknown source of the program can be installed in advance Tencent computer housekeeper for security scanning.

2.2 mobile side killing a total of 693 million Android virus, mobile phone users over 100 million

2.2.1 mobile side of the virus package growth trend slowed down, but the total is still 899 million

In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper intercepted Android new virus package totaled 8990000, compared with 2016 in the first half of a small decline, but the total is still very large.

2.2.2 Guangdong mobile users poisoning the most, the number of mobile phone users decreased by 45.67% Tencent mobile phone housekeeper in the first half were killing Android virus 693 million times

In the case of a large number of virus infection users in the case, the first half of 2017 Tencent mobile phone housekeeper killing the virus has reached 693 million times, an increase of 124.24%, the total number of more than double the first half of 2016 more than doubled. Malicious programs and Trojans to reduce the cost of production, virus transmission channel diversification is an important factor in this phenomenon.

In addition to June, the first half of 2017 killing more than 100 million times a month, of which the number of mosquitoes in January up to 136 million times, almost the first half of 2014, 140 million in the killing of the same level. 2017 in the first half of the number of mobile phone users over 100 million 

In the first half of 2017, the number of virus infected users was 109 million, down 45.67% year on year, compared with 2015, the first half of 2016 compared to all declined.

January 2017 single month infected users reached 21.66 million, the highest for the first half, then the number of infected users began to slow down. the number of mobile users poisoning Guangdong ranks first

In the infected mobile phone users geographical distribution, Guangdong ranked first, accounting for up to 11.41%.

2.2.3 hooliganism and resources accounted for more than 80%, two-dimensional code is most easy to poison mobile-side virus in the hooliganism and tariff consumption accounted for more than 80%

In the first half of 2017, the proportion of mobile phone viruses, rogue behavior and tariff consumption accounted for the highest, to 44.59% and 44.44% ratio of one or two. Ranked third of the same access to privacy accounted for 5.85%, lodging fraud, malicious deductions, remote control, system damage and malicious spread accounted for 1.94%, 1.55%, 0.80%, 0.74% and 0.08%.

Hooliganism refers to the malicious behavior of a virus that has a rogue attribute. Such as the recent WannaCry virus and once again concerned about the mobile phone lock screen Serbia virus with rogue behavior. This type of virus through the forum paste it and other means to spread, the drug will usually use plug-in, free, brush drill, red envelopes and other words on the Trojan virus packaging, induction users download and install. After the installation of the virus will be forced to lock the phone screen, forcing the victim had to contact the drug maker in order to make the equipment back to normal.

Whether the computer or mobile phone, with rogue behavior of the extortion virus to the user losses are difficult to estimate, if accidentally poisoning, not only will cause property damage, will also lead to loss of important information, so users should be careful to guard.

Tariff is also a common type of mobile phone virus, such a virus usually in the user without the knowledge or unauthorized circumstances, by sending text messages, frequent connections to the network, etc., resulting in user tariff losses. Part of the malicious promotion of the virus to help third-party advertisers to increase traffic for the purpose of the user to download and install the virus, access to mobile portal privileges, the implementation of the download malicious advertising software. These software will continue to push a variety of pop advertising, affecting the user’s mobile phone experience, and even those who will disclose user privacy information, stolen online banking accounts, resulting in serious personal and property safety.

Infected with the world’s ultra-36 million Andrews device malicious ad click software “Judy” is a tariff consumption of mobile phone viruses. The malware is hidden in a Korean tour. After completing the download and install, the infected device will send the information to the target page and automatically download the malicious code in the background and access the advertising link, theft of user traffic, to the user Consumption. two-dimensional code, software bundles are the main source of mobile virus source

Mobile virus channel sources are mainly seven categories, namely, two-dimensional code, software bundles, electronic market, network disk communication, mobile phone resource station, ROM built-in and mobile forum. The diversification and diversification of the entrance of the virus channel also further increases the risk and risk of the user’s exposure.

In the first half of 2017, two-dimensional code became the source of mainstream virus channels, accounting for up to 20.80%. Two-dimensional code in the various areas of the popularity of more and more users to develop a habit of sweeping the random, the drug maker also increased for the two-dimensional code channel virus package delivery ratio. Part of the virus is embedded in the two-dimensional code, as long as swept away will automatically download the malicious virus, ranging from mobile phone poisoning, while the personal privacy information is caused by leakage, resulting in property losses.

Third, anti-harassment fraud effect is remarkable, but the user loss situation is grim

3.1 the first half of the number of spam messages over 566 million, illegal loans over 50%

3.1.1 In the first half of 2017, the total number of spam messages continued to grow close to 600 million

Low spread costs and the existence of a huge chain of interests, resulting in spam messages have been difficult to be effectively remediation, the number of users is also increasing the number of reports. In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper received a total of 586 million copies of spam messages reported by users, an increase of 40.69%, more than 2 times in the first half of 2014.

3.1.2 users to report spam messages up to the provinces of Guangdong, the largest city for Shenzhen

In the geographical distribution of spam messages, the top three provinces that reported spam messages were Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong, accounting for 12.91%, 6.98% and 5.70% respectively. In addition, Henan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hebei, Beijing, Hunan and Shanghai also ranked the top ten. These provinces or municipalities are generally distributed in the eastern coastal and central regions, and densely populated and economically developed are their greatest common ground, which creates favorable conditions for fraudulent bulk spam messages and profiteering.

City, the first half of 2017 users in Shenzhen reported a total of 23.34 million spam messages (accounting for 3.98%), Chengdu, Guangzhou and Suzhou, two to four, the number of spam messages are 10 million level.

3.1.3 2017 first half of the common types of fraud SMS

Although the overall amount of fraud SMS reported a downward trend, but its means of diversification and secrecy makes the dangers of fraud has always been high. According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper to monitor the 28.57 million fraud messages show that illegal loans, online shopping, viral Web site, malicious Web site and pseudo-base station is the highest proportion of several fraudulent SMS type.

One of the illegal loan fraud messages a dominant, accounting for more than 50%. In the modern “room full of things” and rely on home buyers to seek a sense of security in the context of the community, the loan to buy a house has become a major social needs. Liar also keep up with this social pain points, a large number of illegal loans to send text messages, to profit.

3.2 harassing telephone users labeled up to 235 million times, down 27.12%

3.2.1 2017 users in the first half of the total number of harassment calls 235 million times down 27.12%

After the first half of 2015, after the explosive growth in the first half of 2015, the number of harassing telephone marks began to decline year by year in the first half of 2016, and the total number of harassing telephone marks in the first half of 2017 was 235 million, down from the first half of 2016 %.

3.2.2 In the first half of 2017, more than 50% of harassing calls were sounded

User-tagged harassing phone types are divided into five categories. Among them, the sound ranked first, accounting for more than 50%. This kind of harassing phone will not cause serious harm to the user, but will still affect the use of mobile phones, interference users. Phishing calls accounted for 15.14%, ranked second, in addition to advertising sales, real estate intermediary and insurance management also occupy a certain percentage.

3.2.3 harassing telephone calls for the highest proportion of verification code

According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper users take the initiative to report the harassment of telephone malicious clues show that asking for verification code, fake leadership, transfer, online shopping and offense is the most common keywords. Which requires the highest proportion of verification code, nearly 24.74% of the harassing phone, the liar will be through various means to ask for verification code, and verification code as an important private information, once leaked, it is easy to cause property damage.

3.2.4 fraud telephone mark down 59.68% year on year, Beijing up

In the user has been marked 235 million harassing phone, scams like telephone ratio is far less than loud, but its substantial harm caused by the largest. Based on Tencent mobile phone housekeeper user fraud phone tag data show that in the first half of 2017 defraud telephone mark down 59.68%, a total of 35.59 million.

These frauds are targeted at the target area is more clear to the eastern coastal economically developed areas and inland central provinces. On the urban side, Beijing is the largest number of cities with the largest number of fraudulent calls, up to 1.826 million. Shenzhen and Guangzhou, respectively, to 141.8 million and 1.257 million mark the number followed. Shanghai, Xi’an, Changsha, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Chongqing and Wuhan are ranked fourth to ten.

3.3 malicious Web site to intercept up to 47.8 billion, pornographic fraud head of the site

3.3.1 The number of malicious web sites detected in the first half of 2017 exceeded 1.83 billion

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security in the PC and mobile side detected a total of more than 183 million malicious web site, the overall trend of rising volatility. Which in June detected 35.75 million malicious Web site, the highest for the first half, the lowest in April, the number of 25.53 million detection.

3.3.2 Pornography The website is still the main means of committing malicious web sites

In the effective detection of malicious Web site at the same time, the first half of 2017 Tencent security in the PC and mobile side to intercept malicious sites up to 47.8 billion times, equivalent to 265 million times a day intercept. This huge data also further illustrates the grim situation of Internet security.

In Tencent’s securely intercepted malicious Web site, pornographic websites, gambling sites, information scams, malicious files, fake ads and phishing scams are the most widely distributed six categories of malicious Web sites. Which accounted for half of the site of pornography, accounting for 51.98%, pornographic fraud sites will be embedded fraudulent advertising or trick users to pay online. Malicious Web site will also be embedded in the fraud message to spread, to increase the confusion, so users see the text in the URL, should consciously raise vigilance, remember not to click.

3.4 iOS harassment and fraud phone calls fell by about 35%, calendar ads into new harassment

3.4.1 iOS harassment calls and phishing calls appear more substantial decline

In September 2016, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper and Apple introduced a new version of iOS10, the first increase in interception harassment and fraud phone features, effectively alleviate the troubled iPhone users troubled phone problems. Data show that the first half of 2017 iOS users were marked a total of 14.492 million harassing telephone, fraud, telephone 2.196 million times.

From the overall trend point of view, the first half of the iOS harassment phone signs showed a downward trend in the number of signs in January the highest number of 3.195 million times, only 2.0 million in April, the first half of the lowest peak. In contrast, the overall trend of fraudulent phone is more stable. From the above data can be seen, the first half of 2017 harassing telephone and phishing calls have emerged a more substantial decline, which is inseparable from the relevant departments, mobile operators and mobile phone users to work together.

3-4 calendar ads into the third largest harassment of Apple phones

Spam, harassing the phone, calendar advertising has become the main source of iPhone users harassment. Among them, the calendar advertising harassment problem is increasingly serious. 61.1% of users have experienced calendar ads, including gambling ads, real estate advertising, taxi software advertising top three.

3.5 Tencent Kirin system to combat pseudo-base station protection 150 million people

3.5.1 Tencent Kirin system to intercept 230 million fraud messages to protect 150 million people

In the first half of 2017, Tencent Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system for the national users to intercept 230 million pseudo-base station fraud messages, the total impact of the number of 150 million people.

3.5.2 pseudo-base station regional characteristics: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hubei and Hubei provinces up

From the geographical point of view, Tencent Kirin for Sichuan, Shaanxi, Beijing, Hubei, Hunan users to intercept the largest number of fraudulent SMS, the five provincial administrative departments to intercept the number of fraud messages more than 50% of the total.

From the city point of view, the number of intercepting the number of fraud messages Top 10 cities such as Beijing, Chengdu, Xi’an, etc. are almost capital cities or economically developed cities, due to densely populated, urban residents income is higher, by pseudo-base station fraud gang included in the key attack Object.

3.5.3 pseudo-base station crime time characteristics: the most frequent working hours

From the time of committing the crime point of view, pseudo-base station fraud messages sent between 9 am to 19 pm, which in 10 am to 12 pm, 15 pm to 18 pm for the two peaks. It is easy to see that the peak of fraudulent SMS coincides with the daily working hours.

3.5.4 Content characteristics: Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Mobile most “lying gun”

Pseudo-base station SMS type, the points exchange, account abnormalities and bank credit card mention category accounted for close to 90%. These three categories often associated with operators, banks, often points to clear, credit card to mention the amount, account real name, abnormal and other reasons to fraud.

Tencent Kirin intercepted pseudo-base station counterfeit port, counterfeit industrial and commercial bank fraud SMS up to (up to 52%), Top 5 counterfeit port in addition to middle peasants construction of four major banks, as well as operators China Mobile. It is not difficult to see that these “lying gun” business because the user community is huge, business mode, short message is particularly important, so become a pseudo-base station fraud group to simulate the main object to send.

Fake base station SMS reach the user’s operator distribution, China Mobile accounted for 74%, followed by China Telecom (16%), China Unicom (10%).

Fourth, the first half of 2017 safety personnel development progress and results

4.1 “Network Security Law” to promote the comprehensive training of talent

June 1, 2017 from the implementation of the “Internet Security Law” for the first time in the form of legal provisions of the network space security field of personnel requirements, not only reflects the country’s attention to the network of talent, but also for the State Council and the local network The rules of safety personnel training provide the highest level of legal basis.

“Network Security Law” provides that: state support enterprises and institutions of higher learning, vocational schools and other education and training institutions to carry out network security-related education and training, to take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. Network security personnel not only include technical talent, but also management talent. The current network security is not only the technical contest, it is the idea, the rules of the contest, familiar with international rules, power relations network security personnel in the future of cyberspace competition can play a greater role. Therefore, the training of network security personnel not only to cultivate traditional talents, but also based on the domestic, look at the world, cultivate a comprehensive understanding of network diplomacy talent.

At the same time, the provisions of the provisions of the “network of security personnel exchanges”, reflects the training mechanism for China’s open innovation and innovative ideas. Talent training is inseparable from the advanced countries of academic research and technical exchanges, the business organizations should attract foreign high-end technical personnel, while speeding up the training of our top talent.

4.2 security personnel training “Tencent mode”: to create talent closed-loop

As an advocate of Internet security open platform, Tencent has been “network security” as an important part of the enterprise design and strategic project. In the process of continuous attention and support of safe personnel selection and training, Tencent has gradually recruited a set of safety personnel selection system in the aspects of campus recruitment, social recruitment, promotion of internal talents, salary and welfare, etc .; at the same time, Security events and promote personnel training program, Tencent has gradually formed a mature, perfect, and for social reference to the safety of personnel training system.

Tencent in 2017, the parties launched the Tencent Information Security Competition (TCTF), through the internationalization of the system to explore talent, through high-quality counseling mechanism and professional mentor team training personnel and through the construction of enterprises and universities bridge transport personnel. At the same time, Tencent through the creation of “Hundred Talents Program” to build the Internet security personnel training closed-loop, through the TCTF contest layers of competition examinations, selected the most potential of 100 security personnel, and through continuous follow-up training to build the Internet security complex, Leading talent.

Tencent hopes to TCTF as a professional security personnel training platform between enterprises and universities to build a bridge between the formation of selection, training, transportation in one of the closed-loop talent for the Chinese new forces to provide a multi-dimensional growth environment, and further promote the development of China’s network security The

4.3 Tencent security joint laboratory set up the first anniversary: ​​escort six key areas of the Internet

July 2016, Tencent security integration of its laboratory resources, the establishment of the first domestic Internet laboratory matrix – Tencent security joint laboratory, which covers Cohen Laboratory, basaltic laboratory, Zhan Lu laboratory, cloud tripod laboratory, Anti-virus laboratory, anti-fraud laboratory, mobile security laboratory, including seven laboratories. Laboratory focus on security technology research and security attack and defense system structures, security and security coverage covers the connection, systems, applications, information, equipment and cloud, touch the six key areas of the Internet.

2016, Tencent security joint laboratory for Google, Microsoft, Apple, adobe and other international manufacturers to dig a total of 269 loopholes, ranking first in the country. In addition, by virtue of “the world’s first long-range non-physical contact with the invasion of Tesla car” research results, Tencent security joint laboratory Cohen laboratory selected “Tesla security researcher Hall of Fame”, and Tesla CEO Maske’s personal thanks The

In the field of anti-fraud in the country concerned, the anti-fraud laboratory in Tencent Security Joint Laboratory has formed a set of new standards for anti-fraud evaluation based on AI innovation + ability and openness in the field of anti-fraud research. Stop mode. In the AI ​​innovation and the ability to open the two-wheel drive, the laboratory has launched Hawkeye anti-telephone fraud system, Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system, God anti-phishing system, God investigation funds flow control system, God sheep intelligence analysis platform Five systems, and through the Tencent cloud SaaS services open to the need for government units, enterprises, etc., to help users prevent Internet fraud.

Five, safe hot event inventory

5.1 outbreak of Serbian virus and virus outbreak

5.1.1 WannaCry extortion virus broke out globally on 12 May

Event Background:

On May 12th, WannaCry (wanna cry) bitbell blackmail virus broke out on a global scale. According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory security researchers found that the extortion event compared with the past, the biggest difference is that the extortion virus combined with the way worms to spread. Due to the leak in the NSA file, WannaCry spread vulnerability code is called “EternalBlue”, so some reports that the attack is “eternal blue”.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

The outbreak of blackmail virus in the past two years is largely related to the increasing perfection of encryption algorithms. The continuous updating of cryptography and algorithms ensures the security of data transmission and preservation in our daily network. Unfortunately, the author of the extortion virus also used this feature, so that although we know the Trojan algorithm, but do not know the author to use the key, there is no way to restore the file is maliciously encrypted.

Encryption algorithms are usually divided into symmetric encryption algorithm and asymmetric encryption algorithm two categories. These two types of algorithms are used in the blackmail virus.

The encryption and decryption of the symmetric encryption algorithm uses exactly the same key, which is characterized by a faster operation, but when using such an algorithm alone, the key must be exchanged with the server using a method that is recorded in the process And the risk of leakage. The symmetric encryption algorithms commonly used for blackmail viruses include AES and RC4.

Asymmetric encryption algorithm is also known as public key encryption algorithm, which can use the public key to encrypt the information, and only the owner of the private key can be decrypted, so as long as the public key and save the private key, you can guarantee The encrypted data is not cracked. The asymmetric encryption algorithm is usually slower than symmetric encryption. The asymmetric encryption algorithms commonly used by blackmail viruses include RSA algorithms and ECC algorithms.

Usually, the blackmail virus will combine these two categories of encryption algorithms, both can quickly complete the entire computer a large number of documents encryption, but also to ensure that the author’s private key is not leaked.

5.1.2 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

Event Background: 

June 27 A new round of extortion virus Petya attacked several European countries. This virus is more damaging than WannaCry. The virus encrypts the computer’s hard disk MFT and modifies the MBR so that the operating system can not enter. Compared to the previous, Petya more like a purpose of the attack, rather than a simple extortion. Tencent Hubble analysis system has been able to identify the virus and determine the high risk, the use of Tencent computer housekeeper can kill the virus.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

Petya Serbia virus virus poisoning will scan the network after the machine, through the eternal blue loopholes since the spread, to achieve the purpose of rapid propagation. Foreign security researchers believe that Petya extortion virus variants will be spread through the mailbox attachment, using the vulnerability to carry the DOC document to attack. After poisoning, the virus will modify the system MBR boot sector, when the computer restart, the virus code in the Windows operating system before taking over the computer, the implementation of encryption and other malicious operations. After the computer restarts, it will display a disguised interface, this interface is actually a virus display, the interface is suspected of being a disk scan, in fact, the disk data encryption operation.

5.1.3 Laurent virus Tencent security response program

For the outbreak of extortion virus, Tencent security emergency response program, for the advance prevention, in the virus cleanup and after the file recovery three cases, to the majority of users to deal with recommendations:


1. Use the computer housekeeper’s extortion virus immune tools, automated installation system patches and port shielding, or manually download and install.

2. Back up the data, install the security software, turn on the protection.

a) the relevant important documents using offline backup (that is, the use of U disk, etc.), such as backup;

b) the use of some computers with the system restore function, without attack before setting the system restore point, after the attack can restore the system, defense file encryption;

c) install Tencent computer housekeeper, open real-time protection, to avoid attack;

d) the use of computer housekeeper’s document guardian of the file backup, protection.

3. To establish an inactivated domain name for immunization.

According to the existing sample analysis, there is a trigger mechanism for extortion software, if you can successfully access the specified link, the computer will be in the extortion of the virus directly after the exit, it will not file encryption.

a) Ordinary users can be connected to the site, to ensure access to the site, you can avoid the attack to avoid being encrypted (only known to extortion virus);

b) enterprise users can build Web Server through the intranet, and then through the way DNS DNS domain name resolution to Web Server IP way to achieve immunity; through the domain name of the visit can also monitor the situation of intranet virus infection.

Things in the virus clean up

1. Unplug the cable and other ways to isolate the computer has been attacked to avoid infection with other machines.

2. Use the computer steward’s antivirus function to directly check out the blackmail software, scan clean up directly (isolated machines can be downloaded through the U disk, etc. to install the offline package).

3. Back up the relevant data directly after the system reload.

After the file is restored

1. Blackmail software with the ability to restore part of the encrypted file, you can directly through the extrapolated software to restore part of the file; or directly click on the blackmail interface, “Decrypt” pop-up recovery window to restore the list of files.

2. You can use third-party data recovery tool to try data recovery, cloud users can contact Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory to help deal with.

5.2 DDOS attacks continue, dark clouds variants frequently struck

Event Background:

June 9, a 2017 years since the largest DDoS network attack activities swept the country, Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory released traceability analysis report, through the attack source machine analysis, engineers found in the machine dark cloud Ⅲ variants. Through the flow, memory DUMP data and other content analysis, Tencent cloud tripod laboratory to determine the large-scale DDoS attacks by the “dark cloud” hacker gang initiated. After the upgrade, “Dark Cloud III” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

“Dark cloud” series Trojan from the beginning of 2015 by Tencent anti-virus laboratory for the first time to capture and killing, has been more than two years. In the past two years, the Trojan constantly updated iteration, continue to fight against the upgrade.

From the beginning of April this year, the Trojans comeback again, the outbreak of the outbreak of the dark horse than the previous version of the more obvious promotion features, so we named it dark clouds Ⅲ. Dark clouds Ⅲ compared with the previous version has the following characteristics and differences:

First, more subtle, dark cloud Ⅲ is still no file without a registry, compared with the dark cloud II, cancel the number of kernel hooks, cancel the object hijacking, become more hidden, even professionals, it is difficult to find traces The

Second, the compatibility, because the Trojan mainly through the hook disk drive StartIO to achieve the protection and protection of the virus MBR, such a hook is located in the bottom of the kernel, different types of brand hard drive need hook point is not the same, this version of the Trojan increased More judgment code, able to infect the vast majority of the market and hard disk.

Third, targeted against security software, security vendors, “first aid kit” type of tool to do a special confrontation, through the device name of the way to try to prevent the pit of some tools to load the run.

5.3 in the first half of the focus of fraud cases inventory

5.3.1 Xu Yuyu telegraphic case

August 2016, just by the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Xu Yuyu, received a fraudulent phone, the other scholarship in the name of cheating Xu Yuyu University of the cost of 9900 yuan. After the report of Xu Yuyu emotional abnormalities, leading to sudden cardiac death, unfortunately died, triggering social concern about the unprecedented fraud. The case was publicly declared on July 19, 2017, the principal Chen Wenhui was sentenced to life imprisonment, confiscation of all personal property. The other six defendants were sentenced to 15 to 3 years imprisonment and fined. This verdict, to the community to pass the court in accordance with the law severely punished the telecommunications network fraud crime clear attitude.

Proposed: Xu Yuyu tragedy enough to cause public vigilance. Internet era, each person’s information flow are online through different channels of circulation, to the lawless elements can take advantage of the machine. Faced with such an environment, we should be on the strange phone and SMS alert. Even if the other can speak personal accurate information, can not be trusted, any event needs to be verified by reliable channels to protect their own security.

5.3.2 Henan large telecommunications fraud: lied to sell college entrance examination answers cheat nearly 100 million students

June 2017, Henan HebiCity police cracked the big telecommunications fraud, arrested two suspects, seized more than 70 copies of bank cards. These suspects under the guise of selling college entrance examination questions answer the way, through the network of college entrance examination candidates to implement fraud. According to the police preliminary investigation, fraud victims accumulated more than 3,500 people, involving more than 3 million yuan.

Prevention recommendations: the annual admission of college entrance examination, college entrance examination fraud is a high period of time. Candidates and parents need to beware of all the so-called “internal indicators”, false check the site, false search results such as college entrance examination in the name of all kinds of fraud means, do not have luck, deceived.

5.3.3 Wuhan female teachers suffered a series of telecommunications fraud 7 months to cheat 2.53 million

Wuhan, a secondary school teacher Chen, master’s degree, 2017 May to the police alarm fraud. It is understood that in November 2016, Chen received a strange call, said its social security card was stolen brush, and directly to the phone to the “Hunan Provincial Public Security Department.” Answer the phone “police” said Ms. Chen involved a fraudulent money laundering case, as “washing charges”, Ms. Chen half a year to the other side of the transfer of 2.53 million, the debt owed more than 300 million. The case is still in the investigation.

Precautionary advice: people need to be alert to unfamiliar calls and text messages. When receiving a suspected fraud or SMS, pay attention to verify the identity of the other party, especially the other party to the designated account remittance, do not easily remittance, should be the first time to inform the family to discuss or consult the public security organs; The public security department can not provide a security account, but will not guide you transfer, set a password.

Six, security experts advice

In the computer use, set the security factor high password. Using a password that is not easily guessed by violent attacks is an effective way to improve your security. Violent attack is an attacker using an automated system to guess the password. Avoid using words that can be found in the dictionary, do not use pure digital passwords; use special characters and spaces, and use uppercase and lowercase letters. This password is harder to crack than use your mother’s name or birthday as a password. In addition, the password length for each additional one, the combination of the composition of the password characters will increase in multiple, so the long password will be more secure.

Regularly upgrade the software, update the security patch. In many cases, it is important to patch the system before installing and deploying the production application software. The final security patch must be installed on the PC’s system. If not for a long time without a security upgrade, may lead to the computer is very easy to become an unethical hacker attack target. Therefore, do not install the software on a computer that does not have a security patch update for a long time.

Protect your data by backing up important documents. Back up your data, which is one of the important ways you can protect yourself from minimizing the loss in the face of a disaster. If the amount of data is huge, the data can be saved to the hard disk. But more convenient way, you can use Tencent computer steward class of security software, at any time to automatically restore the data to the local, you can also store to the cloud, maximize the data to ensure security.

Do not easily trust the external network, open network risk is huge. In an open wireless network, such as in a wireless network with a coffee shop, the network risk will multiply, this concept is very important. This does not mean that in some untrusted external network can not use the wireless network, but to always keep the security and caution of security. The key is that the user must be through their own systems to ensure safety, do not believe that the external network and its own private network as safe.

Improve the unfamiliar telephone, SMS alertness, do not believe in which the content. Fraudulent forms of SMS diversification, a variety of new SMS Trojans flooding through the temptation of the SMS comes with the virus link to pay the class, privacy stealth virus rapid growth. For the “college entrance examination”, “school notice”, “test report card”, “household registration management”, “mobile phone real name system”, “video video” and “traffic violation” and other text messages embedded in the URL link should be vigilant, Do not click anywhere. For unfamiliar calls, SMS should be vigilant and wary, do not believe what the other side of the content, if necessary, to verify their identity information.

Protect personal privacy information, do not easily disclose personal information to others. Personal account, password, ID card information and other key personal privacy information, it is absolutely free to any unfamiliar SMS, the phone revealed. Receive a strange message, the phone asked personal privacy, be sure to be vigilant. When publishing a message on a social platform, beware of important privacy information in the form of photos, screenshots, etc. Do not arbitrarily discard tickets, tickets or courier documents containing personal information to prevent personal information from being stolen.

Mobile phone users should develop good habits to use security software to protect the safety of mobile phones. Mobile phone users can download and install such as Tencent mobile phone housekeeper a class of mobile phone security software, regular mobile phone physical examination and virus killing, and timely update the virus database. For the latest popular and difficult to remove the virus or vulnerability, you can download the killing tool in time to kill or repair. At the same time open Tencent mobile phone housekeeper harassment intercept function, which can effectively intercept fraud phone, SMS, enhance mobile phone security.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

1 互联网安全形势严峻,大力发展网络安全防护势在必行












1.1 影响全球的六大网络安全事件,累计影响遍及全球


2017年3月7日,维基解密(WiKiLeaks)公布了数千份文档并揭秘了美国中央情报局关于黑客入侵技术的最高机密,根据泄密文档中记录的内容,该组织不仅能够入侵iPhone手机、Android手机和智能电视,而且还可以入侵攻击Windows、Mac和Linux操作系统,甚至可以控制智能汽车发起暗杀活动。外界将此次泄漏事件取名为Vault 7,Vault 7公布的机密文件记录的是美国中央情报局(CIA)所进行的全球性黑客攻击活动。



2017年4月14日,影子经纪人(Shadow Brokers)在steemit.com上公开了一大批NSA(美国国家安全局)“方程式组织” (Equation Group)使用的极具破坏力的黑客工具,其中包括可以远程攻破全球约70%Windows机器的漏洞利用工具。任何人都可以使用NSA的黑客武器攻击别人电脑。其中,有十款工具最容易影响Windows个人用户,包括永恒之蓝、永恒王者、永恒浪漫、永恒协作、翡翠纤维、古怪地鼠、爱斯基摩卷、文雅学者、日食之翼和尊重审查。黑客无需任何操作,只要联网就可以入侵电脑,就像冲击波、震荡波等著名蠕虫一样可以瞬间血洗互联网。

1.1.3 “WannaCry”敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发



1.1.4 FireBall火球病毒感染超过2.5亿电脑

2017年6月1日,国外安全机构Check Point发报告称在国外爆发了“FireBall”病毒,并声称全球有超过2.5亿台电脑受到感染,其中受影响最大的国家分别是印度(10.1%)和巴西(9.6%)。美国有550万台电脑中招,占2.2%。受感染的企业网络中,印度和巴西分别占到43%和38%,美国则为10.7%。





















2.1.1 木马病毒拦截量平均每月近1.7亿次



2.1.2 PC端广东用户中毒最多,中毒高峰期为上午9-11点 上半年共发现2.3亿次用户机器中木马病毒 


2017年Q2季度相较于2016年Q2季度报毒用户量同比增长3%。从2015年到2017年Q2季度中毒机器数增长趋势明显,呈逐年递增状态。 PC端用户中毒高峰期为上午9点到11点

根据统计,每天中毒高峰时间为上午10点-上午11点,符合企业及普通用户上午9点-上午11点开启电脑处理工作的规律。这段时间用户中毒的病毒类型较多为利用邮件、共享等方式传播的Office文档类宏病毒,说明企业办公安全防护形势依旧严峻。 PC端中毒用户省份最多为广东,其中深圳市居首



2.1.3第一大病毒种类为占比53.8%的木马病毒,勒索病毒新增13.39% PC端第一大种类病毒依然是木马,PE感染型病毒种类少但传播性大

























2.2 移动端共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次,手机染毒用户数超1亿



2.2.2 移动端广东用户中毒最多,染毒手机用户数同比减少45.67%上半年腾讯手机管家共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次


除6月以外,2017年上半年每月查杀病毒次数均超过1亿次,其中1月份查杀次数更高达1.36亿次,几乎与2014年上半年1.4亿的查杀次数持平。 2017年上半年染毒手机用户数超1亿 


2017年1月单月感染用户数达到2166万,为上半年最高纪录,此后感染用户数开始缓慢下降。 移动端中毒用户数量广东居首







感染了全球超3600万安卓设备的恶意广告点击软件“Judy”就属于资费消耗类手机病毒。该恶意软件暗藏于一款韩国手游中,在完成下载安装后,会将感染设备的信息发送到目标页面,并在后台自动下载恶意代码并访问广告链接,盗刷用户流量,给用户造成资费消耗。 二维码、软件捆绑是移动病毒主要渠道来源





3.1.1 2017年上半年垃圾短信持续增长 总数接近6亿





3.1.3 2017年上半年常见的诈骗短信类型




3.2.1 2017年上半年用户共标记骚扰电话2.35亿次 同比下降27.12%


3.2.2 2017年上半年骚扰电话超过50%为响一声


3.2.3 骚扰电话中索要验证码占比最高


3.2.4 诈骗电话标记数同比下降59.68%,北京最多



3.3 恶意网址拦截次数高达478亿,色情欺诈网站居首

3.3.1 2017年上半年检出恶意网址数量超1.83亿





3.4 iOS骚扰及诈骗电话降幅约35%,日历广告成新的骚扰

3.4.1 iOS骚扰电话和诈骗电话出现较大幅度下降





3.5 腾讯麒麟系统打击伪基站保护1.5亿人次





从城市来看,拦截诈骗短信数量Top 10的城市如北京、成都、西安等几乎均为省会城市或经济较发达城市,由于人口密集、城市居民收入较高,被伪基站诈骗团伙列入重点攻击对象。

3.5.3 伪基站作案时间特征:工作时间最频繁




腾讯麒麟拦截的伪基站仿冒端口中,仿冒工商银行的诈骗短信最多(高达52%),Top 5仿冒端口除中农工建四大银行,还有运营商中国移动。不难看出,这些“躺枪”的企业是因为用户群体巨大,业务模式中短信息又尤为重要,所以成为伪基站诈骗团伙主要模拟的发送对象。







4.2 安全人才培养“腾讯模式”:打造人才闭环









5.1 勒索病毒集中爆发及病毒详解

5.1.1 WannaCry敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发









5.1.2 新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”来袭,更具破坏性

















b)企业用户可以通过在内网搭建Web Server,然后通过内网DNS的方式将域名解析到Web Server IP的方式来实现免疫;通过该域名的访问情况也可以监控内网病毒感染的情况。








5.2 DDOS攻击不断,暗云变种频繁来袭







第二、兼容性,由于该木马主要通过挂钩磁盘驱动器的StartIO来实现隐藏和保护病毒MBR,此类钩子位于内核很底层,不同类型、品牌的硬盘所需要的 hook点不一样,此版本木马增加了更多判断代码,能够感染市面上的绝大多数系统和硬盘。



5.3.1 8.19徐玉玉电信诈骗案宣判






5.3.3武汉女教师遭遇连环电信诈骗 7个月被骗253万











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Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures : China. DPRK, Russia, US // 中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures :China. DPRK, Russia, US //



China ‘s Armed Forces Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Overview of China ‘s Armed Forces

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system


China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system


China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Description: blue font for the deputy military units. Xinjiang Military Region is the only deputy deputy military district, under the Lanzhou Military Region.

American military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

US military command system description

The president of the United States is the commander in chief of the armed forces and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The president, through the Ministry of Defense leadership and command of the army, emergency can be leapfrog command. The strategic nuclear forces are controlled by the president at all times.

The National Security Council is the supreme defense decision-making advisory body. Its legal members include the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Defense Minister. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military adviser to the National Security Council. The Director of the CIA is the National Security Council’s statutory intelligence adviser. The daily work of the National Security Council is the responsibility of the President’s National Security Adviser (Consultant).

The Ministry of Defense is the supreme military organ that leads and directs the US Armed Forces, is responsible for the defense policy, the formulation and implementation of the plan, and the management of the defense affairs, and through the joint meeting of the Chief of Staff to carry out operational command. It consists of the Ministry of Defense headquarters system, the military system and operational command system composed of three parts.

Department of Defense Department of the system is mainly responsible for the policy, finance, military and other military affairs, as well as the coordination between the military. Under the policy, procurement and technical, personnel and combat readiness, auditing and finance, directing communication control and intelligence, legislation, logistics affairs, intelligence supervision, administration, public affairs, supervision, combat test and evaluation departments, respectively, by the Deputy Defense Minister , Assistant defense minister, director, director or department head and other supervisors.

The military system consists of the Ministry of War, the Air Force Department and the Department of the Navy three military (military department). The military departments are responsible for the administration of the service, education and training, weapons and equipment development and procurement and logistical support and other duties, and the responsibility to warfare to the joint operations headquarters to provide combat troops and the corresponding service and logistical support, but no combat Command. The military minister is a civilian officer, under which he is the chief of staff (Navy for the combat minister). The chief of staff (naval combat minister) is the highest military officer of the service.

The operational command system refers to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Command and Special Command affiliated to it. The Joint Chiefs of Staff is both the President, the Minister of Defense, the Military Advisory Body of the National Security Council, and the Military Commander of the President and the Minister of Defense to issue operational orders to the Joint Command and Special Command. In a sense, the Department of Defense is the military and government departments of the President, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the President’s military order.

The former Soviet Union military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Russian military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

North Korea ‘s Military Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Original Mandarin Chinese:

























Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy // 中共優先發展網絡戰略力量

Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy


Cyberspace has become the national comprehensive security of the door. Network warfare reality, the network battlefield globalization, network confrontation normalization, network attack heart white hot, the network to build the army of the general trend, no one can block. Give priority to the development of network strategy, and actively seize the commanding heights of network strategy, for my army building is of great significance.

  The main features of network strategy

Network strategic strength refers to the ability to achieve the desired results through cyberspace. From the current development and possible future trends, mainly with the following characteristics.

Composed of multiple. In recent years, the major network events in the world have shown that the strategic power of the military network is the main force of cyberspace competition. The strategic power of the government departments and the private sector is an important part of the cyberspace competition. The “cyber warrior” An important addition.

Strong professionalism. Network strategy strength has a strong latent and difficult to predict, and the speed of light, instantaneous effect, monitoring and early warning is difficult; once the action is effective, damage effect superimposed amplification or non-linear step, with a typical “butterfly effect.” In 2010, the “shock net” virus attacked the centrifuges of the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant and the Natanz uranium enrichment plant, resulting in nearly a thousand centrifuge scrapped, forcing Iran’s nuclear capacity building to delay 2 to 3 years, opened the network attack soft means Destroy the country’s hard facilities.

Destructive. The strategic power of the network is no less than the weapons of mass destruction. Russia and Georgia in 2008, “the five-day war”, the Russian military to Georgia’s television media, government websites and transportation systems as the goal, to carry out a comprehensive “bee group” type network paralysis attacks, leading to grid government agencies operating chaos, Logistics and communication system collapse, much-needed war materials can not be delivered in a timely manner, the potential of the war has been seriously weakened, a direct impact on the grid of social order, operational command and troop scheduling. The Russian military doctrine has identified cybercrime as a weapon of mass destruction and has retained the right to use weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons to counterattack.

Advanced technology and phase. Network strategy strength development speed, replacement fast, technical materialization for the equipment cycle is short. At present, the speed of the microprocessor doubles every 18 months, the backbone bandwidth doubled every six months, a variety of new electronic information equipment after another, all kinds of application software dizzying. Cyber ​​space confrontation is the field of information in the field of offensive and defensive struggle, the use of network strategy forces in the confrontation of the phase with grams, constantly renovated. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology makes the software of the anti-wall software upgrade continuously. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology is the development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology. , Can be described as “a foot high, magic high ten feet.”

  The Developing Trend of Network Strategic

From the subordinate force to the development of key forces. In the past, the network strategic power is mainly for other forces to provide information security, in a subordinate position; with the development of network information technology, network system control of other rights, network strategic forces from the subordinate status to the dominant position to accelerate into the maintenance of national The key to safety. There is no network security there is no sovereign security, “no net” to become a new law of war, the world’s major countries around the network space development rights, dominance and control of a new round of competition, especially the United States and Russia adhere to the practice In the use and continue to develop.

From the maintenance of force to the development of specialized forces. In the past, the network strategy is mainly to maintain the network information system and all kinds of network transmission system, network attack and defense attributes are not clear. At present, all areas of the network space in depth, the world’s major countries are hard to build cyberspace offensive and defensive capabilities, the main military power of the network strategy has become a network of reconnaissance, network attacks, network defense and other clear division of labor, professional regular military forces. The United States has so far built the world’s most complete and powerful network of the army, and held a series of “network storm” series of exercises. The new “cyberspace strategy” in the United States, the first public to cyberspace combat as one of the tactical options for future military conflict, clearly proposed to improve the US military in the cyberspace of deterrence and offensive capability. In order to adapt to the new strategy, the US Department of Defense proposed 2018 to build a offensive and defensive, flexible form, with full combat capability of the network forces construction goals.

From the military to the integration of military and civilian development. The development of the strategic power of the military network started relatively late compared with the civil field, and because of the confidentiality of military confrontation and the specificity of the operational objectives, it is often developed independently. With the development of network technology, the military’s own network strategic strength is difficult to meet the needs of diversified tasks, we must learn from local folk technical means, integrate local network resources, realize the integration of military and civilian development. Network space capacity building on the talent, intelligence, experience and other software environment is extremely high, coupled with the local convergence of a wealth of network resources, military and civilian forces to promote the development of cyberspace capabilities become the strong tone of the times.

From a single model to the “network integration” development. At present, the network includes both the computer IP system network and the non-computer IP system network including a large number of complex early warning detection network, satellite communication network and tactical data link. The traditional single network confrontation model is difficult to meet the challenge of cyberspace. With the development of information technology, especially the Internet of Things technology, the relationship between the network and the power of the battlefield network more and more closely, which for the “network integration” in the technical means to provide the possibility. The use of electronic warfare and network warfare means, for different systems around the open bow, broken chain broken network, to achieve complementary advantages, system damage, as the latest guidance on the construction of network space. Data show that the US military typical network of integrated attack equipment “Shu special” system has been from the “Shu-1” to the current development of “Shu-5”. According to reports, “Shute” system through the enemy radar antenna, microwave relay station, network processing nodes to invade the enemy air defense network system, real-time monitoring of enemy radar detection results, even as a system administrator to take over the enemy network, Control of the sensor.

From non-state actors to state actors. At present, the network attack has developed from a single hacker behavior for the national, political, military confrontation, the attack object has been developed from the personal website to the country, the army’s important information system, attack “unit” has grown from stand-alone to tens of thousands Hundreds of thousands of terminals, and can instantly release the amazing attack energy. Although many of the intentions of malicious acts of non-State actors are non-state, the consequences are national, whether they are espionage, political opinions, or personal discontent, or terrorist activities , Have a direct impact on social stability, disrupt the economic order, endanger the stability of state power. Once the relevant reaction is made, the subject of the act must be the state and the army, and not the non-state actors themselves.

  The Construction of Network Strategic Strength

Strengthen strategic planning. Cyberspace competition is the first strategic battle of the contest. From the national level, the network strategy of the power of the main function is to reduce the risk of cyberspace, maintaining the normal operation of the country. We must understand the extreme importance and realistic urgency of cyberspace security from the perspective of national security, raise the focus of cyberspace capacity building to the strategic level, and try to solve the problem of how to make good use of cyberspace while trying to reduce the national cyberspace security Risk, so that cyberspace security has become an important support for national prosperity and security. From the military level, the network strategy is mainly to seize the system of network power. We must expand the military vision, the cyberspace as an important area of ​​action, to seize the system as the core, change the military ideas and ideas, adjust the structure and composition of armed forces, the development of weapons and equipment and take a new tactics.

Speed ​​up the construction of the power system. Maintain cyberspace security in the final analysis depends on the strength. We must base ourselves on the characteristics and laws of cyberspace capacity building, focus on the core elements of network capability system and the overall layout of network strategy strength, and systematically design the system structure which conforms to the law and characteristics of cyberspace confrontation in our country, and perfect the system of leadership and command Functional tasks, straighten out the relationship between command and management. We should take the network strategic power as an important new combat force, from the organization construction, personnel training, equipment development, elements of training and other aspects, to take extraordinary measures to give priority construction, focus on protection. To normalize the national network of offensive and defensive exercises, test theory, tactics, equipment and technology effectiveness, and comprehensively enhance the comprehensive prevention of cyberspace capabilities.

Promote technological innovation. The essence of cyberspace confrontation is the competition of core technology, and it is necessary to accelerate the independent innovation of network information technology. We should focus on improving the capability of independent innovation as a strategic basis, relying on the national innovation system as the basic support, concentrating on breaking the frontier technology of network development and the key core technology with international competitiveness, ahead of deployment and focusing on the development of information technology and information industry. To speed up the process of localization of key core technologies, strengthen the construction of safety testing and active early warning means, and gradually improve the equipment system of cyberspace in China, and comprehensively improve our network space capability. To follow the basic laws of cyberspace confrontation, in accordance with the “asymmetric checks and balances” strategy, increase the quantum technology, Internet of things and cloud computing and other new technology research and development efforts to create unique combat capability, master the initiative of cyberspace security development The

Promote the integration of military and civilian development. The integration of military and spatial ability of military and civilian development is not only the overall situation of national security and development strategy, but also the objective fact that cyberspace security can not be avoided by the overall planning of national defense and economic and social development. We must actively promote the deep integration of military and civilian development, to promote China’s network space capacity supporting the construction. It is necessary to formulate top-level planning in the form of policies and regulations, clarify the objectives and tasks, methods, organizational division and basic requirements of the deepening development of cyberspace in the form of policies and regulations, and make the integration of military and civilian development into law enforcement and organizational behavior; To establish a sound military coordination, demand docking, resource sharing mechanism, through a unified leadership management organization and coordination of military needs and major work, to achieve risk sharing, resource sharing, and common development of the new situation. We should pay attention to the distinction between the boundaries of military and civilian integration, clear the concept of development-oriented people and the main idea of ​​the army-based, and actively explore the military and the people, the advantages of complementary channels.


Original Communist Mandarin Chinese 🙂





專業性強。網絡戰略力量具有極強的潛伏性和難預測性,且以光速進行、瞬時產生效果,監測預警難度大;一旦行動奏效,損害效果疊加放大或非線性階躍,具有典型的“蝴蝶效應”。 2010年,“震網”病毒攻擊了伊朗布什爾核電站和納坦茲鈾濃縮廠的離心機,造成近千台離心機報廢,迫使伊朗核能力建設延遲2至3年,開啟了網絡攻擊軟手段摧毀國家硬設施的先河。

破壞性大。網絡戰略力量破壞力不亞於大規模殺傷性武器。 2008年俄國與格魯吉亞“五日戰爭”中,俄軍以格方的電視媒體、政府網站和交通系統等為目標,開展全面的“蜂群”式網絡阻癱攻擊,導致格政府機構運作混亂,物流和通信系統崩潰,急需的戰爭物資無法及時投送,戰爭潛力受到嚴重削弱,直接影響了格的社會秩序、作戰指揮和部隊調度。俄羅斯軍事學說已將網絡攻擊手段定性為大規模毀滅性武器,並保留了運用大規模毀滅性武器或核武器反擊的權利。













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Chinese Military Applications & Use of Bitcoin in Future Wars // 中國軍事應用與比特幣在未來戰爭中的應用

Chinese Military Applications & Use of Bitcoin in Future Wars //


Can you imagine that Bitcoin can show up in military applications? Recently, Estonia and NATO are trying to use block-chain technology to develop next-generation systems to modernize NATO’s network defense platform. In order to collect effective information against terrorists, the US military is trying to “reward” the bit as a reward for intelligence providers. Such as “brain hole open” block chain technology military applications, gradually “Starfire can start a prairie fire” trend. In the future, the block chain technology can not only be used for intelligence personnel performance performance incentives, but also for weapons and equipment life tracking, military human resources management, military supplies procurement, intelligent military logistics and many other aspects. Block chain of this future war “alternative dancers”, most likely quietly subvert the future war. Detailed explanation Please pay attention to today’s published “Liberation Army Daily”

How does the block chain create “currency” for the world?

If you want to read the block chain in the future battlefield on the “unique dance”, have to start from the bit currency. The name of the bit as much as the earliest in 2009, once launched quickly set off the Internet platform investment and trading boom, and thus become the most typical block block technology applications.

Despite the fact that people are mixed, but the block chain technology behind it has shown great interest. Block-chain technology is a decentralized digital book system that contains a complete transaction record for Bitcoin since the start-up of the bitcoin system. It is based on the new de-centricization of the block chain. People can safely store or trade bitmaps. The relevant information can not be forged or tampered with. It can automatically execute smart contracts without any central agency.

The birth of block chain technology, derived from the name of “Byzantine General” computer science problem solving. In layman’s terms, it is a question of how to achieve a credible consensus in a network of nodes that lack trust. By introducing the dynamic cycle of “competition-verification-synchronization-competition” to solve the problem, the block chain technology eventually becomes a new technology platform that allows individuals to carry out effective and credible cooperation without third party certification.

In the Bitcoin system, the generation and trading of “money” is closely related to the block chain. The dynamic process of the block chain is the process of generating and circulating the new currency, which is the basis for the safe, orderly and credible operation of the whole bitcover system. Need to constantly update and maintain the block chain, such as “Mint”, you can package the latest transaction records loaded into the end of the chain, and then the formation of new blocks.

Block chain technology is the technical support behind Bitcoin, which itself consists of multiple connected blocks, each of which is like a page in the book, records the relevant transactions for a period of time, and through different areas Block before and after the point of the relationship between all the blocks are connected in order to form a block chain. At present, the block chain technology uses P2P technology, such as P2P data transmission, file sharing, asymmetric encryption and distributed storage technology, which is accelerating the development of technology bottlenecks and application popularization.









Of course, the block-chain technology, which has long been implemented on the algorithm, is somewhat difficult to understand because of its abstraction. In fact, the block chain is similar to a “trust manufacturing machine”, it is the emergence of mutual understanding for both sides to create trust. Block-chain technology can generate a set of record time, can not be tampered with a trusted database, through this technology, even if there is no neutral third-party institutions, between the nodes can also achieve cooperation. At present, the block chain technology has been from a single digital currency, and gradually extended to the intelligent contract, Internet of things, authentication, e-commerce, social communications, file storage and other fields.

Among them, the international financial giants have begun to try to use the block chain technology to deal with complex accounting business, IBM and other companies claim that the block chain is to solve the Internet of things information security, data storage, interactive processing of the core technology. Block chain technology is designed to achieve cross-network distribution, which makes it an ideal choice for cross-organizational business networks. Block chain to trust the characteristics of its bring scalability, data encryption standards to ensure that the content can not be tampered with the decentralization of data processing to further enhance the security of the data. In addition, the block chain can also encourage people to get out of the firewall protection circle, sharing data. It is the block chain technology “maverick” characteristics, it makes it seem so different.

The successful use of Bitcoin, fully demonstrated the block chain technology open and transparent, safe and trustworthy, distributed sharing and other excellent features. Inspired by the fact that dozens of international technology giants are jointly developing the “super books” project, trying to create a transparent, open, decentralized distributed books, so that more applications can be more easily built in the block Chain technology. In the future, “trust manufacturing machine” will also bring us, including basic applications, upgrade applications and extended applications and many other “surprise.”

The basic application mainly relies on the existing bit coin system, with the exchange of money for the intermediary, as the value of the carrier between the users to pass. Including shopping, payment, transfer, liquidation and other network transactions can take the block chain technology “ride” to further enhance the safety of financial life. The upgrade application is the transplantation, upgrading and transformation of the block chain technology, and then fully exploits the technical advantages of the block chain to realize the secure storage of the data. The future, personal electronic file management, charitable donation registration, data permanent curing and disaster recovery can see the block chain technology figure. Expanded application is the innovation, generalization and popularization of the block chain technology. The “trust manufacturing machine” will reconstruct the existing network rules, establish a perfect network credit system, and then in the future world of things to show their talents.

Of course, the block chain technology, although the prospects are broad, but still need to address information security and confidentiality, network construction and regulatory control and many other issues. Although you can use asymmetric encryption technology to obtain a strong information security, but does not mean that the security of the block chain technology on the “impregnable”. How to build a decentralized peer-to-peer network, how to achieve effective monitoring of user information is an urgent need to solve the problem.








In the field of military applications, “natural” with information integrity and many other features of the block chain technology, from the beginning to achieve the data storage and data encryption of the organic combination, will be in the military field flex its muscles.

Battlefield information protection. No matter how the war form changes, information integrity and confidential information protection are the key to determine the outcome of the war. Although the modern military system has established a number of verification, separate preservation, multiplayer operation and a series of security initiatives, but directly break the existing system issued a fake command is not impossible. With the block chain technology, to a certain extent, to enhance the security of battlefield information protection. At present, the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is through the block chain technology to create a secure information platform to study the block chain can protect the highly sensitive data to help and study its military satellites, nuclear weapons and other scenes Of the potential of the application, the future is likely to be used to support the forces of combat.

Weapon and Equipment Management. Weapons and equipment from the project demonstration, development and production, delivery service to retirement retirement, the need for the entire life cycle, including design, test results, technical status and other large data records for the record. The current use of paper and electronic media security is difficult to protect, transfer transfer difficulties, the lack of effective supervision and other security risks. Through the introduction of block chain technology, can form a party can participate in the preservation of the distributed, supervised file registration network, to further improve the safety of weapons and equipment management, convenience and credibility. Similarly, in the process of military human resources management, but also through the block chain records of each soldier’s resume, the formation of electronic files can not be tampered with, technically completely solve the problem of archives management system.

Intelligent military logistics. Modern military logistics is moving towards the intelligent era, intelligent warehousing, intelligent packaging, intelligent transportation and intelligent distribution and other intelligent network will cover the whole process of military logistics. The use of block chain technology can effectively solve the intelligent military logistics network communication, data preservation and system maintenance and other problems, to further improve the viability of the logistics system to achieve free exchange of information to ensure the orderly and efficient operation of the system. With the block chain technology, it will realize the qualitative change from free transmission to free notarization, which is very likely to become the “subversive” technology of the future network infrastructure agreement and credit paradigm.

Information hidden incentive. In recent years, the US military fully excavated the block chain in the record of the anonymous characteristics of the transaction, and its application to the field of intelligence gathering, to achieve information to provide incentives for the incentive to pay gold. As we all know, intelligence providers or “informants” need a secret identity and whereabouts, the traditional transfer, cash and other payment methods can easily be tracked locked. Through Bitcoin as a payment intermediary, you can cleverly break the payment channel, so that information flow is difficult to trace, and thus effectively protect the security of intelligence personnel. Among them, the bit currency trading platform in the entire payment process plays a “black box” role, to achieve the hidden information between the two sides of the transaction hidden.







The concept of Bitcoin was originally proposed by Nakamoto in 2009, according to the idea of ​​the open source of the open source software and the construction of its P2P network. Bitcoin is a digital currency in the form of P2P. Point-to-point transmission means a decentralized payment system.

Unlike most currencies, Bitcoin does not rely on a specific currency institution, which is generated by a large number of calculations based on a particular algorithm. The bit currency economy uses a distributed database of many nodes in the entire P2P network to confirm and record all transactions, And the use of cryptographic design to ensure that all aspects of currency circulation security. P2P de-centricity and the algorithm itself can ensure that the currency can not be manipulated by a large number of manufacturing bits. A cryptographic-based design allows a bit currency to be transferred or paid only by the real owner. This also ensures that the ownership of money and the anonymity of circulation transactions. Bitcoin is the biggest difference from other virtual currencies, and its total quantity is very limited and has a strong scarcity. The monetary system has had no more than 10.5 million in four years, and the total number will be permanently limited to 21 million.

Bitcoin can be used to cash, can be converted into the currency of most countries. Users can use some coins to buy some virtual items, such as online games among the clothes, hats, equipment, etc., as long as someone accepts, you can also use the bitcover to buy real life items.




Block chain technology, also known as distributed book technology, is an Internet database technology, which is characterized by decentralized, open and transparent, so that everyone can participate in database records.


The earliest is the basic technology of Bitcoin, the world is in the study, can be widely used in various fields such as finance.


The basic principles of block chains are not difficult to understand. The basic concepts include:

A transaction that causes a change in the state of the book, such as the addition of a record;

Block: record a period of time transactions and status of the results of the current state of the book is a consensus;

Chain: by a block in the order of occurrence in series, is the state changes in the log records.

If the block chain is used as a state machine, each transaction is an attempt to change the state once, and each time the consensus is generated, the participant confirms the result of the change in the status of all the transactions in the block.










Original referring URL:

China’s Military Taking Action to Defend Nation’s Network // 中國軍事行動維護國家網絡

China’s Military Taking Action to Defend Nation’s Network //



Original title: from the guard “network camp” to guard the “network country”

Original: “National Defense Reference” 2017 No. 3

Cyber ​​space was born in the military field, such as the first computer, Apache and GPS navigation systems are all derived from the military, today, cyberspace security has been closely related with national security, the military has once again become the maintenance of national cyberspace security , Whether it is the face of normalized network penetration, or large-scale network attacks, are an urgent need for the military from the guard “network camp” to guard the “network country”, breaking the traditional mission of the military mission, breaking the traditional battle preparation mode, To a new network of national defense thinking, casting the network era of the firm.

From the “network camp” to “network country”, a new era of military mission to bring new trends

Internet space is not only related to the maintenance of national strategic interests, a direct impact on political, economic, cultural security and social development, has become a modern battlefield joint war blood and ties. The Chinese army can not be limited to maintaining the internal security of the barracks, but also take the initiative to adapt to the trend of the times, the courage to take the “network of countries,” the country to play. Network strength is an important part of the network power construction, from the “network gate” to “network country” is the information age situation at home and abroad the inevitable trend of development.

Guarding the “network country” is the cyberspace security situation forced. China as the first network power, the security situation is not optimistic, the strategic opponent has never stopped preparing for my network operations. The United States, Britain, France and other countries actively preparing for cyberspace, through the cyberspace security legislation to give the military functions, the development of network warfare forces, research and development of network warfare weapons equipment, the war will advance to the human “fifth space”, especially in China increasingly strong In the process of rising history, the western countries under the auspices of the Cold War mentality and containment subversion strategy, the use of network technology and means of communication to implement uninterrupted harassment, subversion and cyber attacks, seriously affecting my country’s security and social development, China has become Network security threats to the hardest hit, the virus attack the test field, the penetration of awareness of the destination, the national security is facing a huge risk.

In the coming period, China, as a big emerging country, will intensify its conflicts of interest, strengthen the network defense strategy and strengthen the cyberspace war preparation. It is an inevitable way to actively strive for the dominance and discourse of cyberspace. The only way to go. As the main force of national security and stability, the army must meet the requirements of cyberspace characteristics and become the backbone and main force against cyber invasion, network subversion and safeguard national security and social stability.

Winning the network war is the new military change in the information age. As one of the most advanced productive forces in the information age, network technology has made cyber space combat become the dominant factor to guide the evolution of modern warfare, which affects the whole situation of war. In recent years, from the Iranian “earthquake network” attack, Russia and Georgia conflict network warfare, the Ukrainian power grid was a large number of paralysis and the US military on the IS network attacks, cyberspace in combat show a huge role in the emergence of a sign that the network Has become an important model for future joint operations.

The US military attaches great importance to the construction of cyberspace armaments, the establishment of cyberspace headquarters, the introduction of cyberspace joint operations, a substantial expansion of network warfare forces, and strive to maintain its cyberspace hegemony, the control of cyberspace as a “third offset strategy “Absolute advantage of the most important content of competition.

The world has followed up the country, the military space militarization trend is obvious. Severe cyberspace The situation of military struggle requires the Chinese army to focus on the network battlefield space changes, to meet the requirements of the era of information warfare, to achieve in the cyberspace can fight, win the battle of the strong military goals.

Effective network of deterrence is to speed up the construction of the network power inherent. In China by the network power to the network power development process, can not do without a strong network space military power as a guarantee. The international competition of cyberspace is a comprehensive game of national comprehensive strength. Among them, the network military capability construction is directly related to the national security and stability, and the whole body is the core factor of the whole national security field.

At present, the interests of the world in the cyberspace mutual penetration, there “you have me, I have you, mutual cooperation and common development” situation. But this common development is not equal, the United States and Western powers to use cyberspace dominance, has made a certain degree of network deterrence, so that my network development and interests subject to others. How the army in the construction of the network to complete the mission of reorganization of the mission, the premise is to be able to contain the crisis, deter opponents of the network offensive and defensive ability to ensure the peaceful development of the network environment.

Therefore, the army needs to establish a deterrent strategic goal of effective deterrence, form a strategic balance with the enemy “destroy each other”, so as to enhance the strategic competitiveness, deter cyber space aggression and ensure the smooth development of the network power strategy.

From the “defensive responsibility” to “protect the network defenders”, the new situation requires the army to undertake new tasks

The army is to defend the national security of the main and pillars, cyberspace is no exception. The National Security Act of July 1, 2015 stipulates that “citizens of the People’s Republic of China, all state organs and armed forces, political parties and people’s organizations, enterprises and other organizations and other social organizations have the responsibility to safeguard national security And obligations. “The Network Security Act promulgated in November 2016 emphasized the need to maintain cyberspace sovereignty and national security.

On the basis of the laws of the two countries, the National Cyberspace Security Strategy (hereinafter referred to as the “Strategy”) was formally introduced on December 27, 2016, providing overall guidance for creating a new model of network power at a new starting point. Basically follow, clearly put forward nine strategic tasks, and further reflects the army in the process of building a network of power in the mission task.

Full of network of national mission, the army to defend the sovereignty of cyberspace strong pillars. “Strategy” listed in the nine strategic task is the first “firmly defend cyberspace sovereignty,” made it clear that “including economic, administrative, scientific and technological, legal, diplomatic, military and all other measures, unswervingly maintain our network Space sovereignty “. It can be seen that the military must assume the national mission of using the physical means of the physical space to defend the sovereign security and interests of the virtual cyberspace.

Internet space sovereignty is the core interests of the country, is an important component of national sovereignty, that the state in the cyberspace owned by the independent, equal rights, self-defense and management rights. Once the hostile forces have violated my cyberspace sovereignty, it is equivalent to violating the sovereignty of the landspace and other physical space, China will have the right to take all measures, including military means to give a strong fight back.

At the international level, the United States has long proposed a cyberspace deterrence strategy, declared the attack on the US network information facilities is equivalent to the war, the United States will take military strike measures to retaliate. Military means is the fundamental means of safeguarding national sovereignty, and plays a vital role in safeguarding national cyberspace security. Therefore, the historical forces of land, sea and air, should be given the historical mission of protecting the sovereignty of cyberspace, must rely on the powerful physical space to defend the national interests of cyberspace, a powerful deterrent to the hostile forces of the network destruction attempt.

According to the era of network security to play, the army to do to defend the national security of the ballast. The second focus of the “strategy” task emphasizes the need to resolutely safeguard national security, prevent, stop and punish any act of using the Internet for treason, secession, incitement to rebellion, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship.

In the era of information network, the world’s military has become an important participant in cyberspace. The level of cyberspace capability has become one of the main indexes to evaluate the modernization degree of a country’s army. It is one of the main responsibilities of the information security army to carry out the task of network space mission.

From the historical process of China’s development, it is necessary to be highly vigilant about the national security strategy needs of the successful completion of the well-off society. It is necessary to be highly vigilant about the risk of being invaded, subversive and divided by cyberspace. The development of the overall situation of the danger of being destroyed, a high degree of vigilance of the development process of socialism with Chinese characteristics is disturbed, the risk of destruction.

Take preventive measures, requiring the state must have the means to deal with and deal with these dangerous measures, with the prevention, suppression and punishment of cyberspace according to the law of the powerful forces of destruction. The defense of the country has always been an unshirkable historical responsibility of the army. The inherent mission task determines that the Chinese army must take on the various measures taken in cyberspace to maintain national politics, economy, cultural security and social stability.

Offensive and defensive both strategic tasks, the army to enhance the ability to enhance the network space strong backing. The third and eighth of the nine major tasks in the Strategy make it clear that all necessary measures should be taken to protect critical information infrastructures and their important data from attack and destruction, and that both technology and management should be adhered to both protection and deterrence. Construction and international status commensurate with the network power to adapt to the network space protection, and vigorously develop the network security and defense means to detect and resist the network invasion, casting and maintenance of national network security strong backing. In all the state’s political, diplomatic, military, scientific and technological capacity to maintain security, military power has always been the foundation and support of all abilities. It is the fundamental guarantee of all ability and the ultimate guarantee of national security.

Therefore, the army must assume the strategic task of strengthening the national network space protection ability strong backing. In the real world, the army is the reassurance of safeguarding national security. In cyberspace, it should also become the safe dependency and guarantee of the people. As an important part of the national network space protection ability, the army must be both offensive and defensive, and have the ability to firmly safeguard the interests and security of the country and the people in the cyberspace, and can effectively eliminate the various crises and ideological turbulence caused by the network security threat So that people can truly feel the production and life to be effectively protected, as the people of the country’s network protection capacity of confidence in the emboldened.

The global responsibility of the joint defense, the military to do to maintain the important support of global network security. The final mandate of the Strategy explicitly proposes to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace and to support the United Nations in its leading role in promoting the development of international rules for cyberspace, international cyberspace international counter-terrorism conventions that are universally accepted, and a sound mechanism for combating cybercrime Policy and law, technological innovation, standards, emergency response, key information infrastructure protection and other areas of international cooperation.

Cybercrime and cybercrime are the new forms of global threat catalyzed by information network fermentation, posing a great threat to the political, economic, military and cultural security of all countries in the world. It is not enough to rely solely on the power of government and civil society. And other Western countries have given the military the responsibility to protect the network security and the right to combat cyber terrorism. Maintaining global cyberspace security and stability is in line with the fundamental interests of China and the rest of the world. The army should be an important defender of cyberspace security and become an important force in combating global cybercrime and cybercrime.

The globalization and unboundedness of the network determines the international demand for combating cyber-terrorism and transnational cybercrime. The army should promote inter-State network governance and military cooperation within the framework of the UN Security Council, and use the strategy and technology of the Internet age to establish a joint defense Mechanism, and effectively safeguard the national and world cyberspace security.

From the “battlefield training” to “network preparation”, the new areas need to prepare for the military new initiatives

In the new historical situation, the cyberspace put forward new requirements to the military training mode, should adapt to the new features of the cyberspace and the new mission of the army to innovate and reform the traditional model, aim at the goal of strengthening the country and strengthening the macro- Focus on cyberspace military action legal needs, closely linked to cyberspace “military and civilian one” of the natural properties, the construction of “peace and war” network security attack and defense system, to create “military dual-use” network defense force.

Legislative empowerment, for the military to carry out functional mission to provide legal basis. Countries in the world, especially the Western developed countries in the network security legislation attaches great importance to network defense issues. The United States has promulgated the “National Security No. 16 Presidential Decree” “cyberspace action strategy” and a series of policies and regulations on how to protect the national network security in the field of national network security has been deepening norms.

At present, it is necessary to clarify the duties of the cyberspace army from the legal level. It should be based on the “National Security Law” and “Network Security Law”, and introduce the network defense law and relevant cyberspace military warfare regulations for network defense construction and military Action to provide regulatory support and action programs, so that the military in cyberspace responsibilities and mission more specific and specific.

First, through the network of national defense legislation to further define the network sovereignty and network frontier, clear the scope of the military duties.

Second, through the construction of network operations laws and regulations, clear the military to defend the national network space security action authority, to distinguish between network intrusion, network damage and other military means of behavior. Third, through the international cooperation policy of cyberspace, clear military cooperation with other countries, civil forces and other international networks to combat terrorism, cybercrime function tasks.

Military and civilian integration, for the construction of network power to provide innovative power. The integration of military and civilian integration is the main practice of enhancing the competitiveness of cyberspace in the world. For the construction of China’s network power, it is necessary to construct military and civilian defense and defense system, and to develop military and national defense information infrastructure. Source.

First, the co-ordination of national, military and all levels of government and other military and civilian integration functional departments, set up a special command and coordination agencies, mobilize all national network power, building “military and civilian” “peace and war” network security attack and defense system.

Second, as soon as possible the introduction of network security integration of civil and military development of the guiding ideology, and gradually expand the integration of basic legal research and demonstration, to guide the long-term integration of military and civilian development.

Third, relying on the country’s existing public mobile communication network, optical fiber communication network and satellite system, the military and the people to build a nationwide information infrastructure, to achieve military and civilian unity, in charge of sharing.

The fourth is to establish a joint emergency response mechanism for military and civilian personnel, to increase the capacity of the training departments to control the situation, to strengthen the expertise of experts and emergency professionals to enhance the ability to quickly restore damaged networks or information systems.

Military and civilian training, for the cyberspace military capabilities to provide a realistic environment. The common characteristics of military and civilian space in the network space make the military and civilian training become an important way of military military training in cyberspace all over the world. The United States and NATO and other countries of the network space military and civilian joint exercises have been a series of “network storm” “network guards” and other training activities to attract the government, enterprises, research institutions and even private hackers extensive participation. Our military cyberspace military strength training also requires extensive participation in civil forces.

First, do a good job of military and political cooperation, the establishment of military and civilian joint attack and defense exercise mechanism, learn from the United States and other developed countries in the network warfare exercises in the red and blue confrontation training methods, and actively build the “national network shooting range”, planning the government, civil society series of joint exercises to enhance military and civilian , Officials and one network of offensive and defensive level.

Second, do a good job in military and military cooperation, relying on the Internet to set up a network of enterprises to improve the training area, to promote military and civilian ability to run between the offensive and defensive, and jointly improve the ability to prevent unknown risks.

Third, the organization of civil network security companies and hackers talent, to carry out network security competition and other activities, mutual confirmation, and jointly improve the level of network security technology and tactics.

Network reserve, to build a strong network of troops to provide the source of strength. Reserve as a reserve force of national defense, both military and civilian dual characteristics, is to achieve cyberspace economic development and national defense construction of organic unity of the powerful initiatives.

First, the national security sector as the leading, according to the national interests of the overall planning, the introduction of the network defense reserve is conducive to the construction of a series of laws and regulations, from the top to solve the network defense reserve construction in the construction of the main division of labor, promotion strategy, problem.

Second, innovative reserve organization and leadership system and comprehensive coordination mechanism, there are plans to reserve construction into the national network of information development at all levels and various fields.

Third, focus on the military and local management reform of the two models to the provincial and municipal governments, military and local enterprises and institutions under the management mechanism to establish a network of national defense reserve personnel to jointly use the mechanism, improve the national emergency mobilization mechanism, the establishment of national network defense professionals Database, the network militia and reserve forces into the scope of the people’s armed mobilization, usually in accordance with the provisions of the militia emergency unit into the training, the urgent selection of elite personnel with the team to participate in the task of non-war military operations, wartime, So that the national defense potential into national defense strength. (An Weiping, deputy chief of staff of the northern theater)

Original Mandarin Chinese:

















































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Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Reasearch