Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) // 中華人民共和國2017年上半年互聯網安全報告

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) //


1 Internet security situation is grim, to develop network security is imperative

At the same time, the Internet security has become more and more important. In 2014, the central network security and information leading group was formally established, Xi Jinping personally as head of the country and the government’s attention to the degree of network security is evident. In the central network security and information leading group at the first meeting, Xi Jinping first proposed “network power” strategy, “no network security is no national security”, network security is a relationship between national security and sovereignty, social stability, national culture The important issue of inheritance and development. Its importance, with the pace of global information to accelerate and become more and more significant. “Home is the door”, security issues without delay.

In China, the network has entered the tens of thousands of households, the number of Internet users in the world, China has become a network power. The Internet has been deeply involved in all aspects of people’s lives. According to a survey on the information of the public, students and white-collar groups of Internet usage has been close to 100%, more than Jiucheng college students and white-collar groups the most important information access channel for the Internet. Internet users on the Internet to conduct the main news, learning, real-time communication, social networking and all kinds of leisure and entertainment. In the era of universal networking, Internet users how to ensure network security? How does an enterprise network effectively defend against cyber attacks? These have become important issues that countries, governments and the security industry are facing and need to address as soon as possible.

From the domestic “dark cloud Ⅲ” virus, to sweeping the global “WannaCry” extortion virus, and then to “Petya” malignant devastating virus, all that the current network security situation is grim, corporate security vulnerable, vigorously develop the network Security is imperative.

2 to strengthen the network security construction, lack of talent need to improve the current situation

Although China has become a big country network, but there is distance from the network power. Trojans and botnets, mobile Internet malicious programs, denial of service attacks, security vulnerabilities, phishing, web tampering and other network security incidents have occurred, the basic network equipment, domain name systems, industrial Internet and other basic infrastructure and critical infrastructure is still facing Greater security risks, strengthen the network security construction is imminent.

At the same time, the shortage of network security personnel in China is in urgent need of improvement. As a network power, China in addition to research and development of computer equipment to enhance the speed of network transmission, but also should step up the cultivation of computer information security personnel, so that China from the network power into a network power, which is to enhance China’s information security important basis.

Network security has risen to the national strategy, the state is also vigorously invested to promote the construction of network security. But do a good job of network security is not an organization, a department of things, but the need for the participation of the whole society. From the city of Wuhan issued “on the support of national network security personnel and innovation base development policy measures” invested 4.5 billion construction funds, to June 1, 2017 formally implemented the “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law”, are for network security Healthy, steady development and make efforts. We also call for the social responsibility as a safe enterprise, institutions, individuals actively into the network security building, for the country, the national network security protection contribute a force.

3 Tencent to promote the establishment of China’s first strongest Internet security matrix

Tencent security has 17 years of capacity accumulation and 800 million users of large data operating experience, is China’s leading Internet security products, security services provider. In the spirit of “open, joint, shared” concept, will accumulate years of ability and data sharing to partners, is committed to the Internet security and open platform construction, enhance the security of the Internet security industry chain, enhance user safety awareness, and jointly promote China’s Internet security Environmental construction.

At present, Tencent has promoted the establishment of China’s first Internet security matrix, covering the basic security of the laboratory matrix, security product matrix, security, large data platform matrix, and Internet security open platform matrix, committed to China’s Internet security new ecological construction, open core competencies And data for China’s Internet security and ecological construction unremitting efforts.

First, the overall status of network security scan

1.1 affect the world’s six major network security incidents, the cumulative impact of the world

1.1.1 WikiLeaks CIA top secret file leak event

March 7, 2017, WiKiLeaks announced thousands of documents and revealed the CIA on the hacker hacking technology, Mobile phones and smart TVs, but also can invade attacks on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, and even control smart cars to launch assassination activities. Outside the name of the leak event named Vault 7, Vault 7 published confidential documents recorded by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) conducted by the global hacker attacks.

Vault7 contains 8761 confidential documents and documents, which documents the CIA for Android and Apple smart phones developed by the intrusion crack technology details, some of which can also get the complete control of the target device. WikiLeaks founder A Sangqi said the document shows the “CIA network attack the overall ability”, and WikiLeaks in the release of these documents claimed that “CIA network armory has been out of control.”

1.1.2 Shadow Broker Public NSA (US National Security Agency) Hacker Arsenal

On April 14, 2017, Shadow Brokers published a large number of very destructive hacking tools used by the Equation Group in the NSA (National Security Agency) on, including You can remotely break the global about 70% of the Windows machine vulnerability exploit tools. Anyone can use NSA’s hacker weapons to attack someone else’s computer. Among them, there are ten tools most likely to affect Windows personal users, including eternal blue, eternal king, eternal romance, eternal collaboration, emerald fiber, eccentric hamster, Eskimo volume, elegant scholar, eclipse wings and respect review. Hackers do not need any operation, as long as the network can invade the computer, like shock waves, Sasser and other famous worms can instantly blood wash the Internet.

1.1.3 “WannaCry” extortion virus broke out in the world on May 12th

May 12, 2017, “WannaCry” (want to cry) bitbell blackmail virus in the global outbreak, the event affected more than 150 countries and regions, more than 10 million organizations and institutions and more than 30 million Internet users, the total loss Up to more than 500 billion yuan. Including hospitals, educational institutions and government departments, without exception, suffered an attack. Blackmail virus worms in conjunction with the way the spread of the attack is a large-scale outbreak of the important reasons.

User’s most obvious symptoms after poisoning is the computer desktop background is modified, many files are encrypted lock, the virus pops up prompted the user to the relevant bit coin address transfer $ 300 in order to unlock the file. At present, security companies have found ways to restore encrypted files.

1.1.4 FireBall Fireball virus infected more than 250 million computers

June 1, 2017, foreign security agency Check Point reported that the outbreak of a “FireBall” virus abroad, and claimed that more than 250 million computers worldwide are infected, the most affected countries are India (10.1%) and Brazil (9.6%). The United States has 5.5 million computers in the move, accounting for 2.2%. In the infected business network, India and Brazil accounted for 43% and 38% respectively, compared with 10.7% in the US.

This malware will force the browser home page to its own website and search engine, and redirect the search results to Google or Yahoo. These forged search engines track user data and secretly collect user information. The author of this virus for the production of China’s Rafotech company, the company’s Web site has been unable to visit.

1.1.5 “dark cloud” series virus upgrade to “dark cloud III” again struck

June 9, 2017, Tencent computer housekeeper detected, as early as 2015 was first discovered and intercepted killing the “dark cloud” virus resurgence, upgrade to “dark cloud Ⅲ”, through the download station large-scale transmission, at the same time through Infected disk MBR boot boot, the number of infected users has reached millions.

After the upgrade of the “dark cloud Ⅲ” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates, and its function is currently downloaded to promote malicious Trojans, lock the browser home page, tampering to promote navigation page id. Once the user in the move, the computer will become a “broiler” to form a “botnet”, and the use of DDoS attacks built on a cloud service provider platform chess class site, resulting in the site access becomes abnormal card slow.

1.1.6 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

June 27, 2017, a new round of extortion virus “Petya” attacked a number of countries in Europe, including Ukraine, Russia, India, Spain, France, Britain, Denmark and other countries have been attacked, the governments of these countries, Banks, enterprises, power systems, communications systems and airports are affected by different procedures.

This virus is more destructive than “WannaCry”, the virus on the computer’s hard disk MFT encryption, and modify the MBR, so that the operating system can not enter. According to the relevant analysis, said the information on the boot interface even if the information provided to the hackers is no way to decrypt, therefore, had to doubt the “Petya” the real purpose of the virus. “Petya” is more like a purposeful attack, the target can not repair the devastating attack, rather than extortion for the purpose.

1.2 “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law” formally implemented

June 1, China’s first comprehensive standard of cyberspace security management of the basic law – “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law,” the formal implementation of a total of seven chapters seventy-nine, the content is very rich, with six outstanding highlights. One is clear the principle of cyberspace sovereignty; the second is clear the network products and service providers of security obligations; third is clear the network operator’s security obligations; four is to further improve the personal information protection rules; five is the establishment of the key Information infrastructure security protection system; six is ​​to establish a key information infrastructure important data cross-border transmission rules.

At the same time the new law also pointed out that should take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. The implementation of the new law marks the network security of China from the law, cyber space management, network information dissemination order norms, cybercrime punishment and so forth will open a new page, to protect China’s network security, safeguarding the overall security of the country has far-reaching and significant The meaning of.

1.3 The size of Internet users in China is equivalent to the total population of Europe, the safety gap of up to 95%

1.3.1 Chinese Internet users reached 731 million, equivalent to the total population of Europe

As of December 2016, the scale of Internet users in China reached 731 million, the penetration rate reached 53.2%, more than the global average of 3.1 percentage points, more than the Asian average of 7.6 percentage points. A total of 42.99 million new Internet users, the growth rate of 6.2%. The size of Chinese Internet users has been equivalent to the total population of Europe.

1.3.2 mobile users continue to grow, the proportion of mobile phone users accounted for 95.1%

As of December 2016, China’s mobile phone users reached 695 million scale, the growth rate of more than 10% for three consecutive years. Desktop computers, notebook computers are using the decline in the number of mobile phones continue to squeeze the use of other personal Internet devices.

1.3.3 security talent gap is huge, up to 95%

Although the number of Internet users in China has been ranked first in the world, but China’s information security industry in the very few people, security personnel and its lack. According to relevant information, in recent years, China’s education and training of information security professionals only 3 million people, and the total demand for network security personnel is more than 700,000 people, the gap up to 95%. 710 million Internet users in China network security issues, has become the industry and the country to solve the problem.

Beijing Institute of Electronic Science and Technology, vice president of the Ministry of Education of Higher Education Information Teaching Committee of the Secretary-General Fenghua pointed out that the current important information systems and information infrastructure in China need all kinds of network information security personnel will be 15,000 per year The rate of increase, by 2020 the relevant talent needs will grow to 1.4 million. But at present, only 126 colleges and universities in China have set up 143 network security related professionals, accounting for only 10% of the 1200 science and engineering institutions.

Analysis on the situation of network virus threat in the first half of 2017

2.1 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory PC-side virus interception over 1 billion, the chain by 30%

2.1.1 Trojan horse intercepts an average of nearly 170 million times per month

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory statistics show that PC-side total has blocked the virus 1 billion times, the overall number of viruses compared to the second half of 2016 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to intercept the number of viruses increased by 30% Interception Trojan virus nearly 170 million times. April, June to intercept the peak of the virus, interceptions are 180 million times.

2017 Q2 quarter compared to 2016 Q2 quarter, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory virus blocking an increase of 23.7%. From 2014 to 2017 Q2 season, the amount of virus blocking the number of malicious programs increased year by year.

2.1.2 PC users in Guangdong, the highest number of poisoning, poisoning peak for the morning 9-11 points found a total of 230 million times in the first half of the user machine Trojan virus 

The first half of 2017 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory found a total of 230 million times the user machine Trojan virus, compared to the second half of 2016 down 0.5%, an average of 38.8 million poisoning machines per month for virus killing. 2017 Q2 quarter compared to Q1 quarter, a slight increase in the number of poisoning machines.

In the second quarter of 2017, the number of users in the second quarter of 2016 increased by 3% compared with the same period in the second quarter of 2016. From 2015 to 2017 Q2 season, the number of poisoning machine growth trend is obvious, was increasing year by year state. PC end user poisoning peak for the morning 9:00 to 11:00

According to statistics, the peak time of daily poisoning for the morning 10 am – 11 am, in line with business and ordinary users 9 am – 11 am to open the computer processing work of the law. This time the user poisoning virus type is more use of e-mail, sharing, etc. spread Office document macro virus, indicating that the office security situation is still grim. PC end poisoning user provinces up to Guangdong, which ranks first in Shenzhen

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to monitor the number of poisoning PC statistics, from the urban distribution point of view, the Internet is more developed city users poisoning situation is heavy, the country ranked the first city to intercept the virus in Shenzhen City, accounting for 3.76% , The second for the Chengdu City, accounting for 3.57% of all interceptions, the third for the Guangzhou City, accounting for 3.39% of all interceptions.

From the provincial geographical distribution, the largest number of PC poisoning in Guangdong Province, accounting for 13.29% of the total intercept, the second in Jiangsu Province, accounting for 7.75% of all interceptions, the third in Shandong Province, accounting for all Intercept the amount of 7.12%.

2.1.3 The largest virus category accounted for 53.8% of the Trojan virus, blackmail virus added 13.39% PC-side of the first major virus is still Trojans, PE-infected virus type, but the spread of large

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory 2017 Q2 season to obtain the virus sample analysis, from the virus type, Trojans accounted for 53.80% of the total number, is still the first major virus. Adware class (adware, forced installation, user privacy, spam, etc.) for the second largest virus category, accounting for 39.02% of the total number. Backdoor category for the third largest virus category, accounting for 5.13% of the total number. Compared to the 2017 Q1 quarter, the virus type did not change much.

The number of virus samples from the top of the division, ranked first and second is still the Trojans and Adware class, but ranked third in the PE infection, accounting for 25.07% of the total number.

There are not many types of infectious samples, which is difficult to produce infectious virus, hackers and other programmers need to master the technology, high cost, long development time and other factors. At the same time, the transmission of infectious virus is very large, the survival time is relatively long, therefore, less species of PE infection type in the sample transmission level accounted for a certain proportion, which is due to infection with a wide range of viruses, Fast propagation characteristics. extortion virus sample number Q2 added 13.39%, the first is not WannaCry

The extortion of the virus is the purpose of extortion money for the purpose of making the Trojan horse infected computer user system specified data files are malicious encryption, resulting in user data loss. At present, most of the domestic extortion of the virus by the need to pay the rupiah to be able to decrypt. As the bit currency completely anonymous circulation, the current technical means can not track behind the extortion behind the virus operator, which also makes the extortion virus from 2013 after the explosive growth.

The amount of extortion

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to detect the extortion virus, 2017 in the first half of the total has been found in the number of extortion virus samples in about 300 million, the average monthly detection of the number of extortion virus nearly 500,000, Q2 quarterly extortion virus samples The number increased by 13.39% over Q1 quarter. May, June to intercept the peak of the virus, respectively, 57 million, 530,000.

Extortion virus type

According to the relevant data analysis shows that the May 12 outbreak of the WannaCry extortion virus is the most active in this quarter, the greatest impact on the virus. The virus and other viruses in the way of transmission is significantly different, due to the use of the windows system vulnerabilities, making the virus can spread around the world, as the quarter of the hot safety events. On June 27, a new type of extortion virus called Petya began spreading around the world, and its extortion was similar to WannaCry, but more destructive, directly encrypting the MFT of the user’s hard drive and modifying the MBR, causing the user to fail to windows system.

Although the impact of the virus is large, but from the sample size point of view, the largest or with the spread of infection PolyRansom virus. This virus will be infected, encrypted users of the file to extortion, but because there is no use like WannaCry virus key encryption, but the use of a simple encryption algorithm, and the algorithm is reversible, anti-virus software can help users to restore files, So although the number of samples in the first, but the impact is not great. This type of extortion virus accounted for 78.84% of all extortion virus, we can see the spread of infectious virus strong.

From the sample size point of view, in addition to infectious extortion virus, the first is Blocker, accounting for 36.82% of all extortion virus, the second category is Zerber, accounting for 23.63% of all extortion virus, the third category Is the most affected this quarter, WannaCry extortion virus, accounting for all extortion virus 12.06%. WannaCry virus volume quickly rose to the third position, because the means of communication using the spread of vulnerability.

The current extortion virus mainly uses the following kinds of transmission:

Document infection spread

File infection is the use of infectious virus transmission characteristics, such as PolyRansom virus is the use of infectious virus characteristics, encrypted users all the documents and then pop-up information. Because the PE class file is infected with the ability to infect other files, so if the file is carried by the user (U disk, network upload, etc.) to run on other computers, it will make the computer’s files are all infected with encryption.

Site hanging horse spread

Web site is through the site or the site server to obtain some or all of the authority, in the web page file to insert a malicious code, these malicious code, including IE and other browser vulnerabilities use code. When a user accesses a linked page, a malicious code is executed if the system does not update the exploit patch used in the malicious code.

The virus can also use known software vulnerabilities to attack, such as the use of Flash, PDF software vulnerabilities, to the site with malicious code to add the file, the user with a loopholes in the software to open the file will be executed after the malicious code, download virus.

Using system vulnerabilities

May outbreak of WannaCry is the use of Windows system vulnerabilities to spread, the use of system vulnerabilities is characterized by passive poisoning, that is, users do not have to visit a malicious site, not open the unknown file will be poisoned. This virus will scan with the network vulnerabilities in other PC host, as long as the host is not marked with a patch, it will be attacked.

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind you, timely updates third-party software patches, timely update the operating system patches to prevent known vulnerabilities attack.

Mail attachment spread

The extortion virus that spreads through e-mail attachments usually disguises documents that users need to view, such as credit card spending lists, product orders, and so on. The attachment will hide the malicious code, when the user opens the malicious code will begin to perform, release the virus. This type of camouflage virus is usually sent to enterprises, universities, hospitals and other units, these units in the computer usually save the more important documents, once malicious encryption, the possibility of payment of ransom far more than ordinary individual users.

Network share file spread

Some small-scale spread of extortion virus will be spread through the way the file spread, the virus will upload the virus to the network sharing space, cloud disk, QQ group, BBS forums and other places to share the way to send a specific crowd to trick the download and install The

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind users to download the software go to the official formal channel download and install, do not download the unknown program, such as the need to use the unknown source of the program can be installed in advance Tencent computer housekeeper for security scanning.

2.2 mobile side killing a total of 693 million Android virus, mobile phone users over 100 million

2.2.1 mobile side of the virus package growth trend slowed down, but the total is still 899 million

In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper intercepted Android new virus package totaled 8990000, compared with 2016 in the first half of a small decline, but the total is still very large.

2.2.2 Guangdong mobile users poisoning the most, the number of mobile phone users decreased by 45.67% Tencent mobile phone housekeeper in the first half were killing Android virus 693 million times

In the case of a large number of virus infection users in the case, the first half of 2017 Tencent mobile phone housekeeper killing the virus has reached 693 million times, an increase of 124.24%, the total number of more than double the first half of 2016 more than doubled. Malicious programs and Trojans to reduce the cost of production, virus transmission channel diversification is an important factor in this phenomenon.

In addition to June, the first half of 2017 killing more than 100 million times a month, of which the number of mosquitoes in January up to 136 million times, almost the first half of 2014, 140 million in the killing of the same level. 2017 in the first half of the number of mobile phone users over 100 million 

In the first half of 2017, the number of virus infected users was 109 million, down 45.67% year on year, compared with 2015, the first half of 2016 compared to all declined.

January 2017 single month infected users reached 21.66 million, the highest for the first half, then the number of infected users began to slow down. the number of mobile users poisoning Guangdong ranks first

In the infected mobile phone users geographical distribution, Guangdong ranked first, accounting for up to 11.41%.

2.2.3 hooliganism and resources accounted for more than 80%, two-dimensional code is most easy to poison mobile-side virus in the hooliganism and tariff consumption accounted for more than 80%

In the first half of 2017, the proportion of mobile phone viruses, rogue behavior and tariff consumption accounted for the highest, to 44.59% and 44.44% ratio of one or two. Ranked third of the same access to privacy accounted for 5.85%, lodging fraud, malicious deductions, remote control, system damage and malicious spread accounted for 1.94%, 1.55%, 0.80%, 0.74% and 0.08%.

Hooliganism refers to the malicious behavior of a virus that has a rogue attribute. Such as the recent WannaCry virus and once again concerned about the mobile phone lock screen Serbia virus with rogue behavior. This type of virus through the forum paste it and other means to spread, the drug will usually use plug-in, free, brush drill, red envelopes and other words on the Trojan virus packaging, induction users download and install. After the installation of the virus will be forced to lock the phone screen, forcing the victim had to contact the drug maker in order to make the equipment back to normal.

Whether the computer or mobile phone, with rogue behavior of the extortion virus to the user losses are difficult to estimate, if accidentally poisoning, not only will cause property damage, will also lead to loss of important information, so users should be careful to guard.

Tariff is also a common type of mobile phone virus, such a virus usually in the user without the knowledge or unauthorized circumstances, by sending text messages, frequent connections to the network, etc., resulting in user tariff losses. Part of the malicious promotion of the virus to help third-party advertisers to increase traffic for the purpose of the user to download and install the virus, access to mobile portal privileges, the implementation of the download malicious advertising software. These software will continue to push a variety of pop advertising, affecting the user’s mobile phone experience, and even those who will disclose user privacy information, stolen online banking accounts, resulting in serious personal and property safety.

Infected with the world’s ultra-36 million Andrews device malicious ad click software “Judy” is a tariff consumption of mobile phone viruses. The malware is hidden in a Korean tour. After completing the download and install, the infected device will send the information to the target page and automatically download the malicious code in the background and access the advertising link, theft of user traffic, to the user Consumption. two-dimensional code, software bundles are the main source of mobile virus source

Mobile virus channel sources are mainly seven categories, namely, two-dimensional code, software bundles, electronic market, network disk communication, mobile phone resource station, ROM built-in and mobile forum. The diversification and diversification of the entrance of the virus channel also further increases the risk and risk of the user’s exposure.

In the first half of 2017, two-dimensional code became the source of mainstream virus channels, accounting for up to 20.80%. Two-dimensional code in the various areas of the popularity of more and more users to develop a habit of sweeping the random, the drug maker also increased for the two-dimensional code channel virus package delivery ratio. Part of the virus is embedded in the two-dimensional code, as long as swept away will automatically download the malicious virus, ranging from mobile phone poisoning, while the personal privacy information is caused by leakage, resulting in property losses.

Third, anti-harassment fraud effect is remarkable, but the user loss situation is grim

3.1 the first half of the number of spam messages over 566 million, illegal loans over 50%

3.1.1 In the first half of 2017, the total number of spam messages continued to grow close to 600 million

Low spread costs and the existence of a huge chain of interests, resulting in spam messages have been difficult to be effectively remediation, the number of users is also increasing the number of reports. In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper received a total of 586 million copies of spam messages reported by users, an increase of 40.69%, more than 2 times in the first half of 2014.

3.1.2 users to report spam messages up to the provinces of Guangdong, the largest city for Shenzhen

In the geographical distribution of spam messages, the top three provinces that reported spam messages were Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong, accounting for 12.91%, 6.98% and 5.70% respectively. In addition, Henan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hebei, Beijing, Hunan and Shanghai also ranked the top ten. These provinces or municipalities are generally distributed in the eastern coastal and central regions, and densely populated and economically developed are their greatest common ground, which creates favorable conditions for fraudulent bulk spam messages and profiteering.

City, the first half of 2017 users in Shenzhen reported a total of 23.34 million spam messages (accounting for 3.98%), Chengdu, Guangzhou and Suzhou, two to four, the number of spam messages are 10 million level.

3.1.3 2017 first half of the common types of fraud SMS

Although the overall amount of fraud SMS reported a downward trend, but its means of diversification and secrecy makes the dangers of fraud has always been high. According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper to monitor the 28.57 million fraud messages show that illegal loans, online shopping, viral Web site, malicious Web site and pseudo-base station is the highest proportion of several fraudulent SMS type.

One of the illegal loan fraud messages a dominant, accounting for more than 50%. In the modern “room full of things” and rely on home buyers to seek a sense of security in the context of the community, the loan to buy a house has become a major social needs. Liar also keep up with this social pain points, a large number of illegal loans to send text messages, to profit.

3.2 harassing telephone users labeled up to 235 million times, down 27.12%

3.2.1 2017 users in the first half of the total number of harassment calls 235 million times down 27.12%

After the first half of 2015, after the explosive growth in the first half of 2015, the number of harassing telephone marks began to decline year by year in the first half of 2016, and the total number of harassing telephone marks in the first half of 2017 was 235 million, down from the first half of 2016 %.

3.2.2 In the first half of 2017, more than 50% of harassing calls were sounded

User-tagged harassing phone types are divided into five categories. Among them, the sound ranked first, accounting for more than 50%. This kind of harassing phone will not cause serious harm to the user, but will still affect the use of mobile phones, interference users. Phishing calls accounted for 15.14%, ranked second, in addition to advertising sales, real estate intermediary and insurance management also occupy a certain percentage.

3.2.3 harassing telephone calls for the highest proportion of verification code

According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper users take the initiative to report the harassment of telephone malicious clues show that asking for verification code, fake leadership, transfer, online shopping and offense is the most common keywords. Which requires the highest proportion of verification code, nearly 24.74% of the harassing phone, the liar will be through various means to ask for verification code, and verification code as an important private information, once leaked, it is easy to cause property damage.

3.2.4 fraud telephone mark down 59.68% year on year, Beijing up

In the user has been marked 235 million harassing phone, scams like telephone ratio is far less than loud, but its substantial harm caused by the largest. Based on Tencent mobile phone housekeeper user fraud phone tag data show that in the first half of 2017 defraud telephone mark down 59.68%, a total of 35.59 million.

These frauds are targeted at the target area is more clear to the eastern coastal economically developed areas and inland central provinces. On the urban side, Beijing is the largest number of cities with the largest number of fraudulent calls, up to 1.826 million. Shenzhen and Guangzhou, respectively, to 141.8 million and 1.257 million mark the number followed. Shanghai, Xi’an, Changsha, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Chongqing and Wuhan are ranked fourth to ten.

3.3 malicious Web site to intercept up to 47.8 billion, pornographic fraud head of the site

3.3.1 The number of malicious web sites detected in the first half of 2017 exceeded 1.83 billion

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security in the PC and mobile side detected a total of more than 183 million malicious web site, the overall trend of rising volatility. Which in June detected 35.75 million malicious Web site, the highest for the first half, the lowest in April, the number of 25.53 million detection.

3.3.2 Pornography The website is still the main means of committing malicious web sites

In the effective detection of malicious Web site at the same time, the first half of 2017 Tencent security in the PC and mobile side to intercept malicious sites up to 47.8 billion times, equivalent to 265 million times a day intercept. This huge data also further illustrates the grim situation of Internet security.

In Tencent’s securely intercepted malicious Web site, pornographic websites, gambling sites, information scams, malicious files, fake ads and phishing scams are the most widely distributed six categories of malicious Web sites. Which accounted for half of the site of pornography, accounting for 51.98%, pornographic fraud sites will be embedded fraudulent advertising or trick users to pay online. Malicious Web site will also be embedded in the fraud message to spread, to increase the confusion, so users see the text in the URL, should consciously raise vigilance, remember not to click.

3.4 iOS harassment and fraud phone calls fell by about 35%, calendar ads into new harassment

3.4.1 iOS harassment calls and phishing calls appear more substantial decline

In September 2016, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper and Apple introduced a new version of iOS10, the first increase in interception harassment and fraud phone features, effectively alleviate the troubled iPhone users troubled phone problems. Data show that the first half of 2017 iOS users were marked a total of 14.492 million harassing telephone, fraud, telephone 2.196 million times.

From the overall trend point of view, the first half of the iOS harassment phone signs showed a downward trend in the number of signs in January the highest number of 3.195 million times, only 2.0 million in April, the first half of the lowest peak. In contrast, the overall trend of fraudulent phone is more stable. From the above data can be seen, the first half of 2017 harassing telephone and phishing calls have emerged a more substantial decline, which is inseparable from the relevant departments, mobile operators and mobile phone users to work together.

3-4 calendar ads into the third largest harassment of Apple phones

Spam, harassing the phone, calendar advertising has become the main source of iPhone users harassment. Among them, the calendar advertising harassment problem is increasingly serious. 61.1% of users have experienced calendar ads, including gambling ads, real estate advertising, taxi software advertising top three.

3.5 Tencent Kirin system to combat pseudo-base station protection 150 million people

3.5.1 Tencent Kirin system to intercept 230 million fraud messages to protect 150 million people

In the first half of 2017, Tencent Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system for the national users to intercept 230 million pseudo-base station fraud messages, the total impact of the number of 150 million people.

3.5.2 pseudo-base station regional characteristics: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hubei and Hubei provinces up

From the geographical point of view, Tencent Kirin for Sichuan, Shaanxi, Beijing, Hubei, Hunan users to intercept the largest number of fraudulent SMS, the five provincial administrative departments to intercept the number of fraud messages more than 50% of the total.

From the city point of view, the number of intercepting the number of fraud messages Top 10 cities such as Beijing, Chengdu, Xi’an, etc. are almost capital cities or economically developed cities, due to densely populated, urban residents income is higher, by pseudo-base station fraud gang included in the key attack Object.

3.5.3 pseudo-base station crime time characteristics: the most frequent working hours

From the time of committing the crime point of view, pseudo-base station fraud messages sent between 9 am to 19 pm, which in 10 am to 12 pm, 15 pm to 18 pm for the two peaks. It is easy to see that the peak of fraudulent SMS coincides with the daily working hours.

3.5.4 Content characteristics: Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Mobile most “lying gun”

Pseudo-base station SMS type, the points exchange, account abnormalities and bank credit card mention category accounted for close to 90%. These three categories often associated with operators, banks, often points to clear, credit card to mention the amount, account real name, abnormal and other reasons to fraud.

Tencent Kirin intercepted pseudo-base station counterfeit port, counterfeit industrial and commercial bank fraud SMS up to (up to 52%), Top 5 counterfeit port in addition to middle peasants construction of four major banks, as well as operators China Mobile. It is not difficult to see that these “lying gun” business because the user community is huge, business mode, short message is particularly important, so become a pseudo-base station fraud group to simulate the main object to send.

Fake base station SMS reach the user’s operator distribution, China Mobile accounted for 74%, followed by China Telecom (16%), China Unicom (10%).

Fourth, the first half of 2017 safety personnel development progress and results

4.1 “Network Security Law” to promote the comprehensive training of talent

June 1, 2017 from the implementation of the “Internet Security Law” for the first time in the form of legal provisions of the network space security field of personnel requirements, not only reflects the country’s attention to the network of talent, but also for the State Council and the local network The rules of safety personnel training provide the highest level of legal basis.

“Network Security Law” provides that: state support enterprises and institutions of higher learning, vocational schools and other education and training institutions to carry out network security-related education and training, to take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. Network security personnel not only include technical talent, but also management talent. The current network security is not only the technical contest, it is the idea, the rules of the contest, familiar with international rules, power relations network security personnel in the future of cyberspace competition can play a greater role. Therefore, the training of network security personnel not only to cultivate traditional talents, but also based on the domestic, look at the world, cultivate a comprehensive understanding of network diplomacy talent.

At the same time, the provisions of the provisions of the “network of security personnel exchanges”, reflects the training mechanism for China’s open innovation and innovative ideas. Talent training is inseparable from the advanced countries of academic research and technical exchanges, the business organizations should attract foreign high-end technical personnel, while speeding up the training of our top talent.

4.2 security personnel training “Tencent mode”: to create talent closed-loop

As an advocate of Internet security open platform, Tencent has been “network security” as an important part of the enterprise design and strategic project. In the process of continuous attention and support of safe personnel selection and training, Tencent has gradually recruited a set of safety personnel selection system in the aspects of campus recruitment, social recruitment, promotion of internal talents, salary and welfare, etc .; at the same time, Security events and promote personnel training program, Tencent has gradually formed a mature, perfect, and for social reference to the safety of personnel training system.

Tencent in 2017, the parties launched the Tencent Information Security Competition (TCTF), through the internationalization of the system to explore talent, through high-quality counseling mechanism and professional mentor team training personnel and through the construction of enterprises and universities bridge transport personnel. At the same time, Tencent through the creation of “Hundred Talents Program” to build the Internet security personnel training closed-loop, through the TCTF contest layers of competition examinations, selected the most potential of 100 security personnel, and through continuous follow-up training to build the Internet security complex, Leading talent.

Tencent hopes to TCTF as a professional security personnel training platform between enterprises and universities to build a bridge between the formation of selection, training, transportation in one of the closed-loop talent for the Chinese new forces to provide a multi-dimensional growth environment, and further promote the development of China’s network security The

4.3 Tencent security joint laboratory set up the first anniversary: ​​escort six key areas of the Internet

July 2016, Tencent security integration of its laboratory resources, the establishment of the first domestic Internet laboratory matrix – Tencent security joint laboratory, which covers Cohen Laboratory, basaltic laboratory, Zhan Lu laboratory, cloud tripod laboratory, Anti-virus laboratory, anti-fraud laboratory, mobile security laboratory, including seven laboratories. Laboratory focus on security technology research and security attack and defense system structures, security and security coverage covers the connection, systems, applications, information, equipment and cloud, touch the six key areas of the Internet.

2016, Tencent security joint laboratory for Google, Microsoft, Apple, adobe and other international manufacturers to dig a total of 269 loopholes, ranking first in the country. In addition, by virtue of “the world’s first long-range non-physical contact with the invasion of Tesla car” research results, Tencent security joint laboratory Cohen laboratory selected “Tesla security researcher Hall of Fame”, and Tesla CEO Maske’s personal thanks The

In the field of anti-fraud in the country concerned, the anti-fraud laboratory in Tencent Security Joint Laboratory has formed a set of new standards for anti-fraud evaluation based on AI innovation + ability and openness in the field of anti-fraud research. Stop mode. In the AI ​​innovation and the ability to open the two-wheel drive, the laboratory has launched Hawkeye anti-telephone fraud system, Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system, God anti-phishing system, God investigation funds flow control system, God sheep intelligence analysis platform Five systems, and through the Tencent cloud SaaS services open to the need for government units, enterprises, etc., to help users prevent Internet fraud.

Five, safe hot event inventory

5.1 outbreak of Serbian virus and virus outbreak

5.1.1 WannaCry extortion virus broke out globally on 12 May

Event Background:

On May 12th, WannaCry (wanna cry) bitbell blackmail virus broke out on a global scale. According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory security researchers found that the extortion event compared with the past, the biggest difference is that the extortion virus combined with the way worms to spread. Due to the leak in the NSA file, WannaCry spread vulnerability code is called “EternalBlue”, so some reports that the attack is “eternal blue”.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

The outbreak of blackmail virus in the past two years is largely related to the increasing perfection of encryption algorithms. The continuous updating of cryptography and algorithms ensures the security of data transmission and preservation in our daily network. Unfortunately, the author of the extortion virus also used this feature, so that although we know the Trojan algorithm, but do not know the author to use the key, there is no way to restore the file is maliciously encrypted.

Encryption algorithms are usually divided into symmetric encryption algorithm and asymmetric encryption algorithm two categories. These two types of algorithms are used in the blackmail virus.

The encryption and decryption of the symmetric encryption algorithm uses exactly the same key, which is characterized by a faster operation, but when using such an algorithm alone, the key must be exchanged with the server using a method that is recorded in the process And the risk of leakage. The symmetric encryption algorithms commonly used for blackmail viruses include AES and RC4.

Asymmetric encryption algorithm is also known as public key encryption algorithm, which can use the public key to encrypt the information, and only the owner of the private key can be decrypted, so as long as the public key and save the private key, you can guarantee The encrypted data is not cracked. The asymmetric encryption algorithm is usually slower than symmetric encryption. The asymmetric encryption algorithms commonly used by blackmail viruses include RSA algorithms and ECC algorithms.

Usually, the blackmail virus will combine these two categories of encryption algorithms, both can quickly complete the entire computer a large number of documents encryption, but also to ensure that the author’s private key is not leaked.

5.1.2 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

Event Background: 

June 27 A new round of extortion virus Petya attacked several European countries. This virus is more damaging than WannaCry. The virus encrypts the computer’s hard disk MFT and modifies the MBR so that the operating system can not enter. Compared to the previous, Petya more like a purpose of the attack, rather than a simple extortion. Tencent Hubble analysis system has been able to identify the virus and determine the high risk, the use of Tencent computer housekeeper can kill the virus.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

Petya Serbia virus virus poisoning will scan the network after the machine, through the eternal blue loopholes since the spread, to achieve the purpose of rapid propagation. Foreign security researchers believe that Petya extortion virus variants will be spread through the mailbox attachment, using the vulnerability to carry the DOC document to attack. After poisoning, the virus will modify the system MBR boot sector, when the computer restart, the virus code in the Windows operating system before taking over the computer, the implementation of encryption and other malicious operations. After the computer restarts, it will display a disguised interface, this interface is actually a virus display, the interface is suspected of being a disk scan, in fact, the disk data encryption operation.

5.1.3 Laurent virus Tencent security response program

For the outbreak of extortion virus, Tencent security emergency response program, for the advance prevention, in the virus cleanup and after the file recovery three cases, to the majority of users to deal with recommendations:


1. Use the computer housekeeper’s extortion virus immune tools, automated installation system patches and port shielding, or manually download and install.

2. Back up the data, install the security software, turn on the protection.

a) the relevant important documents using offline backup (that is, the use of U disk, etc.), such as backup;

b) the use of some computers with the system restore function, without attack before setting the system restore point, after the attack can restore the system, defense file encryption;

c) install Tencent computer housekeeper, open real-time protection, to avoid attack;

d) the use of computer housekeeper’s document guardian of the file backup, protection.

3. To establish an inactivated domain name for immunization.

According to the existing sample analysis, there is a trigger mechanism for extortion software, if you can successfully access the specified link, the computer will be in the extortion of the virus directly after the exit, it will not file encryption.

a) Ordinary users can be connected to the site, to ensure access to the site, you can avoid the attack to avoid being encrypted (only known to extortion virus);

b) enterprise users can build Web Server through the intranet, and then through the way DNS DNS domain name resolution to Web Server IP way to achieve immunity; through the domain name of the visit can also monitor the situation of intranet virus infection.

Things in the virus clean up

1. Unplug the cable and other ways to isolate the computer has been attacked to avoid infection with other machines.

2. Use the computer steward’s antivirus function to directly check out the blackmail software, scan clean up directly (isolated machines can be downloaded through the U disk, etc. to install the offline package).

3. Back up the relevant data directly after the system reload.

After the file is restored

1. Blackmail software with the ability to restore part of the encrypted file, you can directly through the extrapolated software to restore part of the file; or directly click on the blackmail interface, “Decrypt” pop-up recovery window to restore the list of files.

2. You can use third-party data recovery tool to try data recovery, cloud users can contact Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory to help deal with.

5.2 DDOS attacks continue, dark clouds variants frequently struck

Event Background:

June 9, a 2017 years since the largest DDoS network attack activities swept the country, Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory released traceability analysis report, through the attack source machine analysis, engineers found in the machine dark cloud Ⅲ variants. Through the flow, memory DUMP data and other content analysis, Tencent cloud tripod laboratory to determine the large-scale DDoS attacks by the “dark cloud” hacker gang initiated. After the upgrade, “Dark Cloud III” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

“Dark cloud” series Trojan from the beginning of 2015 by Tencent anti-virus laboratory for the first time to capture and killing, has been more than two years. In the past two years, the Trojan constantly updated iteration, continue to fight against the upgrade.

From the beginning of April this year, the Trojans comeback again, the outbreak of the outbreak of the dark horse than the previous version of the more obvious promotion features, so we named it dark clouds Ⅲ. Dark clouds Ⅲ compared with the previous version has the following characteristics and differences:

First, more subtle, dark cloud Ⅲ is still no file without a registry, compared with the dark cloud II, cancel the number of kernel hooks, cancel the object hijacking, become more hidden, even professionals, it is difficult to find traces The

Second, the compatibility, because the Trojan mainly through the hook disk drive StartIO to achieve the protection and protection of the virus MBR, such a hook is located in the bottom of the kernel, different types of brand hard drive need hook point is not the same, this version of the Trojan increased More judgment code, able to infect the vast majority of the market and hard disk.

Third, targeted against security software, security vendors, “first aid kit” type of tool to do a special confrontation, through the device name of the way to try to prevent the pit of some tools to load the run.

5.3 in the first half of the focus of fraud cases inventory

5.3.1 Xu Yuyu telegraphic case

August 2016, just by the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Xu Yuyu, received a fraudulent phone, the other scholarship in the name of cheating Xu Yuyu University of the cost of 9900 yuan. After the report of Xu Yuyu emotional abnormalities, leading to sudden cardiac death, unfortunately died, triggering social concern about the unprecedented fraud. The case was publicly declared on July 19, 2017, the principal Chen Wenhui was sentenced to life imprisonment, confiscation of all personal property. The other six defendants were sentenced to 15 to 3 years imprisonment and fined. This verdict, to the community to pass the court in accordance with the law severely punished the telecommunications network fraud crime clear attitude.

Proposed: Xu Yuyu tragedy enough to cause public vigilance. Internet era, each person’s information flow are online through different channels of circulation, to the lawless elements can take advantage of the machine. Faced with such an environment, we should be on the strange phone and SMS alert. Even if the other can speak personal accurate information, can not be trusted, any event needs to be verified by reliable channels to protect their own security.

5.3.2 Henan large telecommunications fraud: lied to sell college entrance examination answers cheat nearly 100 million students

June 2017, Henan HebiCity police cracked the big telecommunications fraud, arrested two suspects, seized more than 70 copies of bank cards. These suspects under the guise of selling college entrance examination questions answer the way, through the network of college entrance examination candidates to implement fraud. According to the police preliminary investigation, fraud victims accumulated more than 3,500 people, involving more than 3 million yuan.

Prevention recommendations: the annual admission of college entrance examination, college entrance examination fraud is a high period of time. Candidates and parents need to beware of all the so-called “internal indicators”, false check the site, false search results such as college entrance examination in the name of all kinds of fraud means, do not have luck, deceived.

5.3.3 Wuhan female teachers suffered a series of telecommunications fraud 7 months to cheat 2.53 million

Wuhan, a secondary school teacher Chen, master’s degree, 2017 May to the police alarm fraud. It is understood that in November 2016, Chen received a strange call, said its social security card was stolen brush, and directly to the phone to the “Hunan Provincial Public Security Department.” Answer the phone “police” said Ms. Chen involved a fraudulent money laundering case, as “washing charges”, Ms. Chen half a year to the other side of the transfer of 2.53 million, the debt owed more than 300 million. The case is still in the investigation.

Precautionary advice: people need to be alert to unfamiliar calls and text messages. When receiving a suspected fraud or SMS, pay attention to verify the identity of the other party, especially the other party to the designated account remittance, do not easily remittance, should be the first time to inform the family to discuss or consult the public security organs; The public security department can not provide a security account, but will not guide you transfer, set a password.

Six, security experts advice

In the computer use, set the security factor high password. Using a password that is not easily guessed by violent attacks is an effective way to improve your security. Violent attack is an attacker using an automated system to guess the password. Avoid using words that can be found in the dictionary, do not use pure digital passwords; use special characters and spaces, and use uppercase and lowercase letters. This password is harder to crack than use your mother’s name or birthday as a password. In addition, the password length for each additional one, the combination of the composition of the password characters will increase in multiple, so the long password will be more secure.

Regularly upgrade the software, update the security patch. In many cases, it is important to patch the system before installing and deploying the production application software. The final security patch must be installed on the PC’s system. If not for a long time without a security upgrade, may lead to the computer is very easy to become an unethical hacker attack target. Therefore, do not install the software on a computer that does not have a security patch update for a long time.

Protect your data by backing up important documents. Back up your data, which is one of the important ways you can protect yourself from minimizing the loss in the face of a disaster. If the amount of data is huge, the data can be saved to the hard disk. But more convenient way, you can use Tencent computer steward class of security software, at any time to automatically restore the data to the local, you can also store to the cloud, maximize the data to ensure security.

Do not easily trust the external network, open network risk is huge. In an open wireless network, such as in a wireless network with a coffee shop, the network risk will multiply, this concept is very important. This does not mean that in some untrusted external network can not use the wireless network, but to always keep the security and caution of security. The key is that the user must be through their own systems to ensure safety, do not believe that the external network and its own private network as safe.

Improve the unfamiliar telephone, SMS alertness, do not believe in which the content. Fraudulent forms of SMS diversification, a variety of new SMS Trojans flooding through the temptation of the SMS comes with the virus link to pay the class, privacy stealth virus rapid growth. For the “college entrance examination”, “school notice”, “test report card”, “household registration management”, “mobile phone real name system”, “video video” and “traffic violation” and other text messages embedded in the URL link should be vigilant, Do not click anywhere. For unfamiliar calls, SMS should be vigilant and wary, do not believe what the other side of the content, if necessary, to verify their identity information.

Protect personal privacy information, do not easily disclose personal information to others. Personal account, password, ID card information and other key personal privacy information, it is absolutely free to any unfamiliar SMS, the phone revealed. Receive a strange message, the phone asked personal privacy, be sure to be vigilant. When publishing a message on a social platform, beware of important privacy information in the form of photos, screenshots, etc. Do not arbitrarily discard tickets, tickets or courier documents containing personal information to prevent personal information from being stolen.

Mobile phone users should develop good habits to use security software to protect the safety of mobile phones. Mobile phone users can download and install such as Tencent mobile phone housekeeper a class of mobile phone security software, regular mobile phone physical examination and virus killing, and timely update the virus database. For the latest popular and difficult to remove the virus or vulnerability, you can download the killing tool in time to kill or repair. At the same time open Tencent mobile phone housekeeper harassment intercept function, which can effectively intercept fraud phone, SMS, enhance mobile phone security.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

1 互联网安全形势严峻,大力发展网络安全防护势在必行












1.1 影响全球的六大网络安全事件,累计影响遍及全球


2017年3月7日,维基解密(WiKiLeaks)公布了数千份文档并揭秘了美国中央情报局关于黑客入侵技术的最高机密,根据泄密文档中记录的内容,该组织不仅能够入侵iPhone手机、Android手机和智能电视,而且还可以入侵攻击Windows、Mac和Linux操作系统,甚至可以控制智能汽车发起暗杀活动。外界将此次泄漏事件取名为Vault 7,Vault 7公布的机密文件记录的是美国中央情报局(CIA)所进行的全球性黑客攻击活动。



2017年4月14日,影子经纪人(Shadow Brokers)在steemit.com上公开了一大批NSA(美国国家安全局)“方程式组织” (Equation Group)使用的极具破坏力的黑客工具,其中包括可以远程攻破全球约70%Windows机器的漏洞利用工具。任何人都可以使用NSA的黑客武器攻击别人电脑。其中,有十款工具最容易影响Windows个人用户,包括永恒之蓝、永恒王者、永恒浪漫、永恒协作、翡翠纤维、古怪地鼠、爱斯基摩卷、文雅学者、日食之翼和尊重审查。黑客无需任何操作,只要联网就可以入侵电脑,就像冲击波、震荡波等著名蠕虫一样可以瞬间血洗互联网。

1.1.3 “WannaCry”敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发



1.1.4 FireBall火球病毒感染超过2.5亿电脑

2017年6月1日,国外安全机构Check Point发报告称在国外爆发了“FireBall”病毒,并声称全球有超过2.5亿台电脑受到感染,其中受影响最大的国家分别是印度(10.1%)和巴西(9.6%)。美国有550万台电脑中招,占2.2%。受感染的企业网络中,印度和巴西分别占到43%和38%,美国则为10.7%。





















2.1.1 木马病毒拦截量平均每月近1.7亿次



2.1.2 PC端广东用户中毒最多,中毒高峰期为上午9-11点 上半年共发现2.3亿次用户机器中木马病毒 


2017年Q2季度相较于2016年Q2季度报毒用户量同比增长3%。从2015年到2017年Q2季度中毒机器数增长趋势明显,呈逐年递增状态。 PC端用户中毒高峰期为上午9点到11点

根据统计,每天中毒高峰时间为上午10点-上午11点,符合企业及普通用户上午9点-上午11点开启电脑处理工作的规律。这段时间用户中毒的病毒类型较多为利用邮件、共享等方式传播的Office文档类宏病毒,说明企业办公安全防护形势依旧严峻。 PC端中毒用户省份最多为广东,其中深圳市居首



2.1.3第一大病毒种类为占比53.8%的木马病毒,勒索病毒新增13.39% PC端第一大种类病毒依然是木马,PE感染型病毒种类少但传播性大

























2.2 移动端共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次,手机染毒用户数超1亿



2.2.2 移动端广东用户中毒最多,染毒手机用户数同比减少45.67%上半年腾讯手机管家共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次


除6月以外,2017年上半年每月查杀病毒次数均超过1亿次,其中1月份查杀次数更高达1.36亿次,几乎与2014年上半年1.4亿的查杀次数持平。 2017年上半年染毒手机用户数超1亿 


2017年1月单月感染用户数达到2166万,为上半年最高纪录,此后感染用户数开始缓慢下降。 移动端中毒用户数量广东居首







感染了全球超3600万安卓设备的恶意广告点击软件“Judy”就属于资费消耗类手机病毒。该恶意软件暗藏于一款韩国手游中,在完成下载安装后,会将感染设备的信息发送到目标页面,并在后台自动下载恶意代码并访问广告链接,盗刷用户流量,给用户造成资费消耗。 二维码、软件捆绑是移动病毒主要渠道来源





3.1.1 2017年上半年垃圾短信持续增长 总数接近6亿





3.1.3 2017年上半年常见的诈骗短信类型




3.2.1 2017年上半年用户共标记骚扰电话2.35亿次 同比下降27.12%


3.2.2 2017年上半年骚扰电话超过50%为响一声


3.2.3 骚扰电话中索要验证码占比最高


3.2.4 诈骗电话标记数同比下降59.68%,北京最多



3.3 恶意网址拦截次数高达478亿,色情欺诈网站居首

3.3.1 2017年上半年检出恶意网址数量超1.83亿





3.4 iOS骚扰及诈骗电话降幅约35%,日历广告成新的骚扰

3.4.1 iOS骚扰电话和诈骗电话出现较大幅度下降





3.5 腾讯麒麟系统打击伪基站保护1.5亿人次





从城市来看,拦截诈骗短信数量Top 10的城市如北京、成都、西安等几乎均为省会城市或经济较发达城市,由于人口密集、城市居民收入较高,被伪基站诈骗团伙列入重点攻击对象。

3.5.3 伪基站作案时间特征:工作时间最频繁




腾讯麒麟拦截的伪基站仿冒端口中,仿冒工商银行的诈骗短信最多(高达52%),Top 5仿冒端口除中农工建四大银行,还有运营商中国移动。不难看出,这些“躺枪”的企业是因为用户群体巨大,业务模式中短信息又尤为重要,所以成为伪基站诈骗团伙主要模拟的发送对象。







4.2 安全人才培养“腾讯模式”:打造人才闭环









5.1 勒索病毒集中爆发及病毒详解

5.1.1 WannaCry敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发









5.1.2 新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”来袭,更具破坏性

















b)企业用户可以通过在内网搭建Web Server,然后通过内网DNS的方式将域名解析到Web Server IP的方式来实现免疫;通过该域名的访问情况也可以监控内网病毒感染的情况。








5.2 DDOS攻击不断,暗云变种频繁来袭







第二、兼容性,由于该木马主要通过挂钩磁盘驱动器的StartIO来实现隐藏和保护病毒MBR,此类钩子位于内核很底层,不同类型、品牌的硬盘所需要的 hook点不一样,此版本木马增加了更多判断代码,能够感染市面上的绝大多数系统和硬盘。



5.3.1 8.19徐玉玉电信诈骗案宣判






5.3.3武汉女教师遭遇连环电信诈骗 7个月被骗253万











Referring URL:

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures : China. DPRK, Russia, US // 中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures :China. DPRK, Russia, US //



China ‘s Armed Forces Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Overview of China ‘s Armed Forces

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system


China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system


China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Description: blue font for the deputy military units. Xinjiang Military Region is the only deputy deputy military district, under the Lanzhou Military Region.

American military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

US military command system description

The president of the United States is the commander in chief of the armed forces and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The president, through the Ministry of Defense leadership and command of the army, emergency can be leapfrog command. The strategic nuclear forces are controlled by the president at all times.

The National Security Council is the supreme defense decision-making advisory body. Its legal members include the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Defense Minister. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military adviser to the National Security Council. The Director of the CIA is the National Security Council’s statutory intelligence adviser. The daily work of the National Security Council is the responsibility of the President’s National Security Adviser (Consultant).

The Ministry of Defense is the supreme military organ that leads and directs the US Armed Forces, is responsible for the defense policy, the formulation and implementation of the plan, and the management of the defense affairs, and through the joint meeting of the Chief of Staff to carry out operational command. It consists of the Ministry of Defense headquarters system, the military system and operational command system composed of three parts.

Department of Defense Department of the system is mainly responsible for the policy, finance, military and other military affairs, as well as the coordination between the military. Under the policy, procurement and technical, personnel and combat readiness, auditing and finance, directing communication control and intelligence, legislation, logistics affairs, intelligence supervision, administration, public affairs, supervision, combat test and evaluation departments, respectively, by the Deputy Defense Minister , Assistant defense minister, director, director or department head and other supervisors.

The military system consists of the Ministry of War, the Air Force Department and the Department of the Navy three military (military department). The military departments are responsible for the administration of the service, education and training, weapons and equipment development and procurement and logistical support and other duties, and the responsibility to warfare to the joint operations headquarters to provide combat troops and the corresponding service and logistical support, but no combat Command. The military minister is a civilian officer, under which he is the chief of staff (Navy for the combat minister). The chief of staff (naval combat minister) is the highest military officer of the service.

The operational command system refers to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Command and Special Command affiliated to it. The Joint Chiefs of Staff is both the President, the Minister of Defense, the Military Advisory Body of the National Security Council, and the Military Commander of the President and the Minister of Defense to issue operational orders to the Joint Command and Special Command. In a sense, the Department of Defense is the military and government departments of the President, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the President’s military order.

The former Soviet Union military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Russian military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

North Korea ‘s Military Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Original Mandarin Chinese:

























Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy // 中共優先發展網絡戰略力量

Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy


Cyberspace has become the national comprehensive security of the door. Network warfare reality, the network battlefield globalization, network confrontation normalization, network attack heart white hot, the network to build the army of the general trend, no one can block. Give priority to the development of network strategy, and actively seize the commanding heights of network strategy, for my army building is of great significance.

  The main features of network strategy

Network strategic strength refers to the ability to achieve the desired results through cyberspace. From the current development and possible future trends, mainly with the following characteristics.

Composed of multiple. In recent years, the major network events in the world have shown that the strategic power of the military network is the main force of cyberspace competition. The strategic power of the government departments and the private sector is an important part of the cyberspace competition. The “cyber warrior” An important addition.

Strong professionalism. Network strategy strength has a strong latent and difficult to predict, and the speed of light, instantaneous effect, monitoring and early warning is difficult; once the action is effective, damage effect superimposed amplification or non-linear step, with a typical “butterfly effect.” In 2010, the “shock net” virus attacked the centrifuges of the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant and the Natanz uranium enrichment plant, resulting in nearly a thousand centrifuge scrapped, forcing Iran’s nuclear capacity building to delay 2 to 3 years, opened the network attack soft means Destroy the country’s hard facilities.

Destructive. The strategic power of the network is no less than the weapons of mass destruction. Russia and Georgia in 2008, “the five-day war”, the Russian military to Georgia’s television media, government websites and transportation systems as the goal, to carry out a comprehensive “bee group” type network paralysis attacks, leading to grid government agencies operating chaos, Logistics and communication system collapse, much-needed war materials can not be delivered in a timely manner, the potential of the war has been seriously weakened, a direct impact on the grid of social order, operational command and troop scheduling. The Russian military doctrine has identified cybercrime as a weapon of mass destruction and has retained the right to use weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons to counterattack.

Advanced technology and phase. Network strategy strength development speed, replacement fast, technical materialization for the equipment cycle is short. At present, the speed of the microprocessor doubles every 18 months, the backbone bandwidth doubled every six months, a variety of new electronic information equipment after another, all kinds of application software dizzying. Cyber ​​space confrontation is the field of information in the field of offensive and defensive struggle, the use of network strategy forces in the confrontation of the phase with grams, constantly renovated. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology makes the software of the anti-wall software upgrade continuously. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology is the development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology. , Can be described as “a foot high, magic high ten feet.”

  The Developing Trend of Network Strategic

From the subordinate force to the development of key forces. In the past, the network strategic power is mainly for other forces to provide information security, in a subordinate position; with the development of network information technology, network system control of other rights, network strategic forces from the subordinate status to the dominant position to accelerate into the maintenance of national The key to safety. There is no network security there is no sovereign security, “no net” to become a new law of war, the world’s major countries around the network space development rights, dominance and control of a new round of competition, especially the United States and Russia adhere to the practice In the use and continue to develop.

From the maintenance of force to the development of specialized forces. In the past, the network strategy is mainly to maintain the network information system and all kinds of network transmission system, network attack and defense attributes are not clear. At present, all areas of the network space in depth, the world’s major countries are hard to build cyberspace offensive and defensive capabilities, the main military power of the network strategy has become a network of reconnaissance, network attacks, network defense and other clear division of labor, professional regular military forces. The United States has so far built the world’s most complete and powerful network of the army, and held a series of “network storm” series of exercises. The new “cyberspace strategy” in the United States, the first public to cyberspace combat as one of the tactical options for future military conflict, clearly proposed to improve the US military in the cyberspace of deterrence and offensive capability. In order to adapt to the new strategy, the US Department of Defense proposed 2018 to build a offensive and defensive, flexible form, with full combat capability of the network forces construction goals.

From the military to the integration of military and civilian development. The development of the strategic power of the military network started relatively late compared with the civil field, and because of the confidentiality of military confrontation and the specificity of the operational objectives, it is often developed independently. With the development of network technology, the military’s own network strategic strength is difficult to meet the needs of diversified tasks, we must learn from local folk technical means, integrate local network resources, realize the integration of military and civilian development. Network space capacity building on the talent, intelligence, experience and other software environment is extremely high, coupled with the local convergence of a wealth of network resources, military and civilian forces to promote the development of cyberspace capabilities become the strong tone of the times.

From a single model to the “network integration” development. At present, the network includes both the computer IP system network and the non-computer IP system network including a large number of complex early warning detection network, satellite communication network and tactical data link. The traditional single network confrontation model is difficult to meet the challenge of cyberspace. With the development of information technology, especially the Internet of Things technology, the relationship between the network and the power of the battlefield network more and more closely, which for the “network integration” in the technical means to provide the possibility. The use of electronic warfare and network warfare means, for different systems around the open bow, broken chain broken network, to achieve complementary advantages, system damage, as the latest guidance on the construction of network space. Data show that the US military typical network of integrated attack equipment “Shu special” system has been from the “Shu-1” to the current development of “Shu-5”. According to reports, “Shute” system through the enemy radar antenna, microwave relay station, network processing nodes to invade the enemy air defense network system, real-time monitoring of enemy radar detection results, even as a system administrator to take over the enemy network, Control of the sensor.

From non-state actors to state actors. At present, the network attack has developed from a single hacker behavior for the national, political, military confrontation, the attack object has been developed from the personal website to the country, the army’s important information system, attack “unit” has grown from stand-alone to tens of thousands Hundreds of thousands of terminals, and can instantly release the amazing attack energy. Although many of the intentions of malicious acts of non-State actors are non-state, the consequences are national, whether they are espionage, political opinions, or personal discontent, or terrorist activities , Have a direct impact on social stability, disrupt the economic order, endanger the stability of state power. Once the relevant reaction is made, the subject of the act must be the state and the army, and not the non-state actors themselves.

  The Construction of Network Strategic Strength

Strengthen strategic planning. Cyberspace competition is the first strategic battle of the contest. From the national level, the network strategy of the power of the main function is to reduce the risk of cyberspace, maintaining the normal operation of the country. We must understand the extreme importance and realistic urgency of cyberspace security from the perspective of national security, raise the focus of cyberspace capacity building to the strategic level, and try to solve the problem of how to make good use of cyberspace while trying to reduce the national cyberspace security Risk, so that cyberspace security has become an important support for national prosperity and security. From the military level, the network strategy is mainly to seize the system of network power. We must expand the military vision, the cyberspace as an important area of ​​action, to seize the system as the core, change the military ideas and ideas, adjust the structure and composition of armed forces, the development of weapons and equipment and take a new tactics.

Speed ​​up the construction of the power system. Maintain cyberspace security in the final analysis depends on the strength. We must base ourselves on the characteristics and laws of cyberspace capacity building, focus on the core elements of network capability system and the overall layout of network strategy strength, and systematically design the system structure which conforms to the law and characteristics of cyberspace confrontation in our country, and perfect the system of leadership and command Functional tasks, straighten out the relationship between command and management. We should take the network strategic power as an important new combat force, from the organization construction, personnel training, equipment development, elements of training and other aspects, to take extraordinary measures to give priority construction, focus on protection. To normalize the national network of offensive and defensive exercises, test theory, tactics, equipment and technology effectiveness, and comprehensively enhance the comprehensive prevention of cyberspace capabilities.

Promote technological innovation. The essence of cyberspace confrontation is the competition of core technology, and it is necessary to accelerate the independent innovation of network information technology. We should focus on improving the capability of independent innovation as a strategic basis, relying on the national innovation system as the basic support, concentrating on breaking the frontier technology of network development and the key core technology with international competitiveness, ahead of deployment and focusing on the development of information technology and information industry. To speed up the process of localization of key core technologies, strengthen the construction of safety testing and active early warning means, and gradually improve the equipment system of cyberspace in China, and comprehensively improve our network space capability. To follow the basic laws of cyberspace confrontation, in accordance with the “asymmetric checks and balances” strategy, increase the quantum technology, Internet of things and cloud computing and other new technology research and development efforts to create unique combat capability, master the initiative of cyberspace security development The

Promote the integration of military and civilian development. The integration of military and spatial ability of military and civilian development is not only the overall situation of national security and development strategy, but also the objective fact that cyberspace security can not be avoided by the overall planning of national defense and economic and social development. We must actively promote the deep integration of military and civilian development, to promote China’s network space capacity supporting the construction. It is necessary to formulate top-level planning in the form of policies and regulations, clarify the objectives and tasks, methods, organizational division and basic requirements of the deepening development of cyberspace in the form of policies and regulations, and make the integration of military and civilian development into law enforcement and organizational behavior; To establish a sound military coordination, demand docking, resource sharing mechanism, through a unified leadership management organization and coordination of military needs and major work, to achieve risk sharing, resource sharing, and common development of the new situation. We should pay attention to the distinction between the boundaries of military and civilian integration, clear the concept of development-oriented people and the main idea of ​​the army-based, and actively explore the military and the people, the advantages of complementary channels.


Original Communist Mandarin Chinese 🙂





專業性強。網絡戰略力量具有極強的潛伏性和難預測性,且以光速進行、瞬時產生效果,監測預警難度大;一旦行動奏效,損害效果疊加放大或非線性階躍,具有典型的“蝴蝶效應”。 2010年,“震網”病毒攻擊了伊朗布什爾核電站和納坦茲鈾濃縮廠的離心機,造成近千台離心機報廢,迫使伊朗核能力建設延遲2至3年,開啟了網絡攻擊軟手段摧毀國家硬設施的先河。

破壞性大。網絡戰略力量破壞力不亞於大規模殺傷性武器。 2008年俄國與格魯吉亞“五日戰爭”中,俄軍以格方的電視媒體、政府網站和交通系統等為目標,開展全面的“蜂群”式網絡阻癱攻擊,導致格政府機構運作混亂,物流和通信系統崩潰,急需的戰爭物資無法及時投送,戰爭潛力受到嚴重削弱,直接影響了格的社會秩序、作戰指揮和部隊調度。俄羅斯軍事學說已將網絡攻擊手段定性為大規模毀滅性武器,並保留了運用大規模毀滅性武器或核武器反擊的權利。













Referring URL:

Chinese Military Applications & Use of Bitcoin in Future Wars // 中國軍事應用與比特幣在未來戰爭中的應用

Chinese Military Applications & Use of Bitcoin in Future Wars //


Can you imagine that Bitcoin can show up in military applications? Recently, Estonia and NATO are trying to use block-chain technology to develop next-generation systems to modernize NATO’s network defense platform. In order to collect effective information against terrorists, the US military is trying to “reward” the bit as a reward for intelligence providers. Such as “brain hole open” block chain technology military applications, gradually “Starfire can start a prairie fire” trend. In the future, the block chain technology can not only be used for intelligence personnel performance performance incentives, but also for weapons and equipment life tracking, military human resources management, military supplies procurement, intelligent military logistics and many other aspects. Block chain of this future war “alternative dancers”, most likely quietly subvert the future war. Detailed explanation Please pay attention to today’s published “Liberation Army Daily”

How does the block chain create “currency” for the world?

If you want to read the block chain in the future battlefield on the “unique dance”, have to start from the bit currency. The name of the bit as much as the earliest in 2009, once launched quickly set off the Internet platform investment and trading boom, and thus become the most typical block block technology applications.

Despite the fact that people are mixed, but the block chain technology behind it has shown great interest. Block-chain technology is a decentralized digital book system that contains a complete transaction record for Bitcoin since the start-up of the bitcoin system. It is based on the new de-centricization of the block chain. People can safely store or trade bitmaps. The relevant information can not be forged or tampered with. It can automatically execute smart contracts without any central agency.

The birth of block chain technology, derived from the name of “Byzantine General” computer science problem solving. In layman’s terms, it is a question of how to achieve a credible consensus in a network of nodes that lack trust. By introducing the dynamic cycle of “competition-verification-synchronization-competition” to solve the problem, the block chain technology eventually becomes a new technology platform that allows individuals to carry out effective and credible cooperation without third party certification.

In the Bitcoin system, the generation and trading of “money” is closely related to the block chain. The dynamic process of the block chain is the process of generating and circulating the new currency, which is the basis for the safe, orderly and credible operation of the whole bitcover system. Need to constantly update and maintain the block chain, such as “Mint”, you can package the latest transaction records loaded into the end of the chain, and then the formation of new blocks.

Block chain technology is the technical support behind Bitcoin, which itself consists of multiple connected blocks, each of which is like a page in the book, records the relevant transactions for a period of time, and through different areas Block before and after the point of the relationship between all the blocks are connected in order to form a block chain. At present, the block chain technology uses P2P technology, such as P2P data transmission, file sharing, asymmetric encryption and distributed storage technology, which is accelerating the development of technology bottlenecks and application popularization.









Of course, the block-chain technology, which has long been implemented on the algorithm, is somewhat difficult to understand because of its abstraction. In fact, the block chain is similar to a “trust manufacturing machine”, it is the emergence of mutual understanding for both sides to create trust. Block-chain technology can generate a set of record time, can not be tampered with a trusted database, through this technology, even if there is no neutral third-party institutions, between the nodes can also achieve cooperation. At present, the block chain technology has been from a single digital currency, and gradually extended to the intelligent contract, Internet of things, authentication, e-commerce, social communications, file storage and other fields.

Among them, the international financial giants have begun to try to use the block chain technology to deal with complex accounting business, IBM and other companies claim that the block chain is to solve the Internet of things information security, data storage, interactive processing of the core technology. Block chain technology is designed to achieve cross-network distribution, which makes it an ideal choice for cross-organizational business networks. Block chain to trust the characteristics of its bring scalability, data encryption standards to ensure that the content can not be tampered with the decentralization of data processing to further enhance the security of the data. In addition, the block chain can also encourage people to get out of the firewall protection circle, sharing data. It is the block chain technology “maverick” characteristics, it makes it seem so different.

The successful use of Bitcoin, fully demonstrated the block chain technology open and transparent, safe and trustworthy, distributed sharing and other excellent features. Inspired by the fact that dozens of international technology giants are jointly developing the “super books” project, trying to create a transparent, open, decentralized distributed books, so that more applications can be more easily built in the block Chain technology. In the future, “trust manufacturing machine” will also bring us, including basic applications, upgrade applications and extended applications and many other “surprise.”

The basic application mainly relies on the existing bit coin system, with the exchange of money for the intermediary, as the value of the carrier between the users to pass. Including shopping, payment, transfer, liquidation and other network transactions can take the block chain technology “ride” to further enhance the safety of financial life. The upgrade application is the transplantation, upgrading and transformation of the block chain technology, and then fully exploits the technical advantages of the block chain to realize the secure storage of the data. The future, personal electronic file management, charitable donation registration, data permanent curing and disaster recovery can see the block chain technology figure. Expanded application is the innovation, generalization and popularization of the block chain technology. The “trust manufacturing machine” will reconstruct the existing network rules, establish a perfect network credit system, and then in the future world of things to show their talents.

Of course, the block chain technology, although the prospects are broad, but still need to address information security and confidentiality, network construction and regulatory control and many other issues. Although you can use asymmetric encryption technology to obtain a strong information security, but does not mean that the security of the block chain technology on the “impregnable”. How to build a decentralized peer-to-peer network, how to achieve effective monitoring of user information is an urgent need to solve the problem.








In the field of military applications, “natural” with information integrity and many other features of the block chain technology, from the beginning to achieve the data storage and data encryption of the organic combination, will be in the military field flex its muscles.

Battlefield information protection. No matter how the war form changes, information integrity and confidential information protection are the key to determine the outcome of the war. Although the modern military system has established a number of verification, separate preservation, multiplayer operation and a series of security initiatives, but directly break the existing system issued a fake command is not impossible. With the block chain technology, to a certain extent, to enhance the security of battlefield information protection. At present, the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is through the block chain technology to create a secure information platform to study the block chain can protect the highly sensitive data to help and study its military satellites, nuclear weapons and other scenes Of the potential of the application, the future is likely to be used to support the forces of combat.

Weapon and Equipment Management. Weapons and equipment from the project demonstration, development and production, delivery service to retirement retirement, the need for the entire life cycle, including design, test results, technical status and other large data records for the record. The current use of paper and electronic media security is difficult to protect, transfer transfer difficulties, the lack of effective supervision and other security risks. Through the introduction of block chain technology, can form a party can participate in the preservation of the distributed, supervised file registration network, to further improve the safety of weapons and equipment management, convenience and credibility. Similarly, in the process of military human resources management, but also through the block chain records of each soldier’s resume, the formation of electronic files can not be tampered with, technically completely solve the problem of archives management system.

Intelligent military logistics. Modern military logistics is moving towards the intelligent era, intelligent warehousing, intelligent packaging, intelligent transportation and intelligent distribution and other intelligent network will cover the whole process of military logistics. The use of block chain technology can effectively solve the intelligent military logistics network communication, data preservation and system maintenance and other problems, to further improve the viability of the logistics system to achieve free exchange of information to ensure the orderly and efficient operation of the system. With the block chain technology, it will realize the qualitative change from free transmission to free notarization, which is very likely to become the “subversive” technology of the future network infrastructure agreement and credit paradigm.

Information hidden incentive. In recent years, the US military fully excavated the block chain in the record of the anonymous characteristics of the transaction, and its application to the field of intelligence gathering, to achieve information to provide incentives for the incentive to pay gold. As we all know, intelligence providers or “informants” need a secret identity and whereabouts, the traditional transfer, cash and other payment methods can easily be tracked locked. Through Bitcoin as a payment intermediary, you can cleverly break the payment channel, so that information flow is difficult to trace, and thus effectively protect the security of intelligence personnel. Among them, the bit currency trading platform in the entire payment process plays a “black box” role, to achieve the hidden information between the two sides of the transaction hidden.







The concept of Bitcoin was originally proposed by Nakamoto in 2009, according to the idea of ​​the open source of the open source software and the construction of its P2P network. Bitcoin is a digital currency in the form of P2P. Point-to-point transmission means a decentralized payment system.

Unlike most currencies, Bitcoin does not rely on a specific currency institution, which is generated by a large number of calculations based on a particular algorithm. The bit currency economy uses a distributed database of many nodes in the entire P2P network to confirm and record all transactions, And the use of cryptographic design to ensure that all aspects of currency circulation security. P2P de-centricity and the algorithm itself can ensure that the currency can not be manipulated by a large number of manufacturing bits. A cryptographic-based design allows a bit currency to be transferred or paid only by the real owner. This also ensures that the ownership of money and the anonymity of circulation transactions. Bitcoin is the biggest difference from other virtual currencies, and its total quantity is very limited and has a strong scarcity. The monetary system has had no more than 10.5 million in four years, and the total number will be permanently limited to 21 million.

Bitcoin can be used to cash, can be converted into the currency of most countries. Users can use some coins to buy some virtual items, such as online games among the clothes, hats, equipment, etc., as long as someone accepts, you can also use the bitcover to buy real life items.




Block chain technology, also known as distributed book technology, is an Internet database technology, which is characterized by decentralized, open and transparent, so that everyone can participate in database records.


The earliest is the basic technology of Bitcoin, the world is in the study, can be widely used in various fields such as finance.


The basic principles of block chains are not difficult to understand. The basic concepts include:

A transaction that causes a change in the state of the book, such as the addition of a record;

Block: record a period of time transactions and status of the results of the current state of the book is a consensus;

Chain: by a block in the order of occurrence in series, is the state changes in the log records.

If the block chain is used as a state machine, each transaction is an attempt to change the state once, and each time the consensus is generated, the participant confirms the result of the change in the status of all the transactions in the block.










Original referring URL:

China’s Military Taking Action to Defend Nation’s Network // 中國軍事行動維護國家網絡

China’s Military Taking Action to Defend Nation’s Network //



Original title: from the guard “network camp” to guard the “network country”

Original: “National Defense Reference” 2017 No. 3

Cyber ​​space was born in the military field, such as the first computer, Apache and GPS navigation systems are all derived from the military, today, cyberspace security has been closely related with national security, the military has once again become the maintenance of national cyberspace security , Whether it is the face of normalized network penetration, or large-scale network attacks, are an urgent need for the military from the guard “network camp” to guard the “network country”, breaking the traditional mission of the military mission, breaking the traditional battle preparation mode, To a new network of national defense thinking, casting the network era of the firm.

From the “network camp” to “network country”, a new era of military mission to bring new trends

Internet space is not only related to the maintenance of national strategic interests, a direct impact on political, economic, cultural security and social development, has become a modern battlefield joint war blood and ties. The Chinese army can not be limited to maintaining the internal security of the barracks, but also take the initiative to adapt to the trend of the times, the courage to take the “network of countries,” the country to play. Network strength is an important part of the network power construction, from the “network gate” to “network country” is the information age situation at home and abroad the inevitable trend of development.

Guarding the “network country” is the cyberspace security situation forced. China as the first network power, the security situation is not optimistic, the strategic opponent has never stopped preparing for my network operations. The United States, Britain, France and other countries actively preparing for cyberspace, through the cyberspace security legislation to give the military functions, the development of network warfare forces, research and development of network warfare weapons equipment, the war will advance to the human “fifth space”, especially in China increasingly strong In the process of rising history, the western countries under the auspices of the Cold War mentality and containment subversion strategy, the use of network technology and means of communication to implement uninterrupted harassment, subversion and cyber attacks, seriously affecting my country’s security and social development, China has become Network security threats to the hardest hit, the virus attack the test field, the penetration of awareness of the destination, the national security is facing a huge risk.

In the coming period, China, as a big emerging country, will intensify its conflicts of interest, strengthen the network defense strategy and strengthen the cyberspace war preparation. It is an inevitable way to actively strive for the dominance and discourse of cyberspace. The only way to go. As the main force of national security and stability, the army must meet the requirements of cyberspace characteristics and become the backbone and main force against cyber invasion, network subversion and safeguard national security and social stability.

Winning the network war is the new military change in the information age. As one of the most advanced productive forces in the information age, network technology has made cyber space combat become the dominant factor to guide the evolution of modern warfare, which affects the whole situation of war. In recent years, from the Iranian “earthquake network” attack, Russia and Georgia conflict network warfare, the Ukrainian power grid was a large number of paralysis and the US military on the IS network attacks, cyberspace in combat show a huge role in the emergence of a sign that the network Has become an important model for future joint operations.

The US military attaches great importance to the construction of cyberspace armaments, the establishment of cyberspace headquarters, the introduction of cyberspace joint operations, a substantial expansion of network warfare forces, and strive to maintain its cyberspace hegemony, the control of cyberspace as a “third offset strategy “Absolute advantage of the most important content of competition.

The world has followed up the country, the military space militarization trend is obvious. Severe cyberspace The situation of military struggle requires the Chinese army to focus on the network battlefield space changes, to meet the requirements of the era of information warfare, to achieve in the cyberspace can fight, win the battle of the strong military goals.

Effective network of deterrence is to speed up the construction of the network power inherent. In China by the network power to the network power development process, can not do without a strong network space military power as a guarantee. The international competition of cyberspace is a comprehensive game of national comprehensive strength. Among them, the network military capability construction is directly related to the national security and stability, and the whole body is the core factor of the whole national security field.

At present, the interests of the world in the cyberspace mutual penetration, there “you have me, I have you, mutual cooperation and common development” situation. But this common development is not equal, the United States and Western powers to use cyberspace dominance, has made a certain degree of network deterrence, so that my network development and interests subject to others. How the army in the construction of the network to complete the mission of reorganization of the mission, the premise is to be able to contain the crisis, deter opponents of the network offensive and defensive ability to ensure the peaceful development of the network environment.

Therefore, the army needs to establish a deterrent strategic goal of effective deterrence, form a strategic balance with the enemy “destroy each other”, so as to enhance the strategic competitiveness, deter cyber space aggression and ensure the smooth development of the network power strategy.

From the “defensive responsibility” to “protect the network defenders”, the new situation requires the army to undertake new tasks

The army is to defend the national security of the main and pillars, cyberspace is no exception. The National Security Act of July 1, 2015 stipulates that “citizens of the People’s Republic of China, all state organs and armed forces, political parties and people’s organizations, enterprises and other organizations and other social organizations have the responsibility to safeguard national security And obligations. “The Network Security Act promulgated in November 2016 emphasized the need to maintain cyberspace sovereignty and national security.

On the basis of the laws of the two countries, the National Cyberspace Security Strategy (hereinafter referred to as the “Strategy”) was formally introduced on December 27, 2016, providing overall guidance for creating a new model of network power at a new starting point. Basically follow, clearly put forward nine strategic tasks, and further reflects the army in the process of building a network of power in the mission task.

Full of network of national mission, the army to defend the sovereignty of cyberspace strong pillars. “Strategy” listed in the nine strategic task is the first “firmly defend cyberspace sovereignty,” made it clear that “including economic, administrative, scientific and technological, legal, diplomatic, military and all other measures, unswervingly maintain our network Space sovereignty “. It can be seen that the military must assume the national mission of using the physical means of the physical space to defend the sovereign security and interests of the virtual cyberspace.

Internet space sovereignty is the core interests of the country, is an important component of national sovereignty, that the state in the cyberspace owned by the independent, equal rights, self-defense and management rights. Once the hostile forces have violated my cyberspace sovereignty, it is equivalent to violating the sovereignty of the landspace and other physical space, China will have the right to take all measures, including military means to give a strong fight back.

At the international level, the United States has long proposed a cyberspace deterrence strategy, declared the attack on the US network information facilities is equivalent to the war, the United States will take military strike measures to retaliate. Military means is the fundamental means of safeguarding national sovereignty, and plays a vital role in safeguarding national cyberspace security. Therefore, the historical forces of land, sea and air, should be given the historical mission of protecting the sovereignty of cyberspace, must rely on the powerful physical space to defend the national interests of cyberspace, a powerful deterrent to the hostile forces of the network destruction attempt.

According to the era of network security to play, the army to do to defend the national security of the ballast. The second focus of the “strategy” task emphasizes the need to resolutely safeguard national security, prevent, stop and punish any act of using the Internet for treason, secession, incitement to rebellion, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship.

In the era of information network, the world’s military has become an important participant in cyberspace. The level of cyberspace capability has become one of the main indexes to evaluate the modernization degree of a country’s army. It is one of the main responsibilities of the information security army to carry out the task of network space mission.

From the historical process of China’s development, it is necessary to be highly vigilant about the national security strategy needs of the successful completion of the well-off society. It is necessary to be highly vigilant about the risk of being invaded, subversive and divided by cyberspace. The development of the overall situation of the danger of being destroyed, a high degree of vigilance of the development process of socialism with Chinese characteristics is disturbed, the risk of destruction.

Take preventive measures, requiring the state must have the means to deal with and deal with these dangerous measures, with the prevention, suppression and punishment of cyberspace according to the law of the powerful forces of destruction. The defense of the country has always been an unshirkable historical responsibility of the army. The inherent mission task determines that the Chinese army must take on the various measures taken in cyberspace to maintain national politics, economy, cultural security and social stability.

Offensive and defensive both strategic tasks, the army to enhance the ability to enhance the network space strong backing. The third and eighth of the nine major tasks in the Strategy make it clear that all necessary measures should be taken to protect critical information infrastructures and their important data from attack and destruction, and that both technology and management should be adhered to both protection and deterrence. Construction and international status commensurate with the network power to adapt to the network space protection, and vigorously develop the network security and defense means to detect and resist the network invasion, casting and maintenance of national network security strong backing. In all the state’s political, diplomatic, military, scientific and technological capacity to maintain security, military power has always been the foundation and support of all abilities. It is the fundamental guarantee of all ability and the ultimate guarantee of national security.

Therefore, the army must assume the strategic task of strengthening the national network space protection ability strong backing. In the real world, the army is the reassurance of safeguarding national security. In cyberspace, it should also become the safe dependency and guarantee of the people. As an important part of the national network space protection ability, the army must be both offensive and defensive, and have the ability to firmly safeguard the interests and security of the country and the people in the cyberspace, and can effectively eliminate the various crises and ideological turbulence caused by the network security threat So that people can truly feel the production and life to be effectively protected, as the people of the country’s network protection capacity of confidence in the emboldened.

The global responsibility of the joint defense, the military to do to maintain the important support of global network security. The final mandate of the Strategy explicitly proposes to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace and to support the United Nations in its leading role in promoting the development of international rules for cyberspace, international cyberspace international counter-terrorism conventions that are universally accepted, and a sound mechanism for combating cybercrime Policy and law, technological innovation, standards, emergency response, key information infrastructure protection and other areas of international cooperation.

Cybercrime and cybercrime are the new forms of global threat catalyzed by information network fermentation, posing a great threat to the political, economic, military and cultural security of all countries in the world. It is not enough to rely solely on the power of government and civil society. And other Western countries have given the military the responsibility to protect the network security and the right to combat cyber terrorism. Maintaining global cyberspace security and stability is in line with the fundamental interests of China and the rest of the world. The army should be an important defender of cyberspace security and become an important force in combating global cybercrime and cybercrime.

The globalization and unboundedness of the network determines the international demand for combating cyber-terrorism and transnational cybercrime. The army should promote inter-State network governance and military cooperation within the framework of the UN Security Council, and use the strategy and technology of the Internet age to establish a joint defense Mechanism, and effectively safeguard the national and world cyberspace security.

From the “battlefield training” to “network preparation”, the new areas need to prepare for the military new initiatives

In the new historical situation, the cyberspace put forward new requirements to the military training mode, should adapt to the new features of the cyberspace and the new mission of the army to innovate and reform the traditional model, aim at the goal of strengthening the country and strengthening the macro- Focus on cyberspace military action legal needs, closely linked to cyberspace “military and civilian one” of the natural properties, the construction of “peace and war” network security attack and defense system, to create “military dual-use” network defense force.

Legislative empowerment, for the military to carry out functional mission to provide legal basis. Countries in the world, especially the Western developed countries in the network security legislation attaches great importance to network defense issues. The United States has promulgated the “National Security No. 16 Presidential Decree” “cyberspace action strategy” and a series of policies and regulations on how to protect the national network security in the field of national network security has been deepening norms.

At present, it is necessary to clarify the duties of the cyberspace army from the legal level. It should be based on the “National Security Law” and “Network Security Law”, and introduce the network defense law and relevant cyberspace military warfare regulations for network defense construction and military Action to provide regulatory support and action programs, so that the military in cyberspace responsibilities and mission more specific and specific.

First, through the network of national defense legislation to further define the network sovereignty and network frontier, clear the scope of the military duties.

Second, through the construction of network operations laws and regulations, clear the military to defend the national network space security action authority, to distinguish between network intrusion, network damage and other military means of behavior. Third, through the international cooperation policy of cyberspace, clear military cooperation with other countries, civil forces and other international networks to combat terrorism, cybercrime function tasks.

Military and civilian integration, for the construction of network power to provide innovative power. The integration of military and civilian integration is the main practice of enhancing the competitiveness of cyberspace in the world. For the construction of China’s network power, it is necessary to construct military and civilian defense and defense system, and to develop military and national defense information infrastructure. Source.

First, the co-ordination of national, military and all levels of government and other military and civilian integration functional departments, set up a special command and coordination agencies, mobilize all national network power, building “military and civilian” “peace and war” network security attack and defense system.

Second, as soon as possible the introduction of network security integration of civil and military development of the guiding ideology, and gradually expand the integration of basic legal research and demonstration, to guide the long-term integration of military and civilian development.

Third, relying on the country’s existing public mobile communication network, optical fiber communication network and satellite system, the military and the people to build a nationwide information infrastructure, to achieve military and civilian unity, in charge of sharing.

The fourth is to establish a joint emergency response mechanism for military and civilian personnel, to increase the capacity of the training departments to control the situation, to strengthen the expertise of experts and emergency professionals to enhance the ability to quickly restore damaged networks or information systems.

Military and civilian training, for the cyberspace military capabilities to provide a realistic environment. The common characteristics of military and civilian space in the network space make the military and civilian training become an important way of military military training in cyberspace all over the world. The United States and NATO and other countries of the network space military and civilian joint exercises have been a series of “network storm” “network guards” and other training activities to attract the government, enterprises, research institutions and even private hackers extensive participation. Our military cyberspace military strength training also requires extensive participation in civil forces.

First, do a good job of military and political cooperation, the establishment of military and civilian joint attack and defense exercise mechanism, learn from the United States and other developed countries in the network warfare exercises in the red and blue confrontation training methods, and actively build the “national network shooting range”, planning the government, civil society series of joint exercises to enhance military and civilian , Officials and one network of offensive and defensive level.

Second, do a good job in military and military cooperation, relying on the Internet to set up a network of enterprises to improve the training area, to promote military and civilian ability to run between the offensive and defensive, and jointly improve the ability to prevent unknown risks.

Third, the organization of civil network security companies and hackers talent, to carry out network security competition and other activities, mutual confirmation, and jointly improve the level of network security technology and tactics.

Network reserve, to build a strong network of troops to provide the source of strength. Reserve as a reserve force of national defense, both military and civilian dual characteristics, is to achieve cyberspace economic development and national defense construction of organic unity of the powerful initiatives.

First, the national security sector as the leading, according to the national interests of the overall planning, the introduction of the network defense reserve is conducive to the construction of a series of laws and regulations, from the top to solve the network defense reserve construction in the construction of the main division of labor, promotion strategy, problem.

Second, innovative reserve organization and leadership system and comprehensive coordination mechanism, there are plans to reserve construction into the national network of information development at all levels and various fields.

Third, focus on the military and local management reform of the two models to the provincial and municipal governments, military and local enterprises and institutions under the management mechanism to establish a network of national defense reserve personnel to jointly use the mechanism, improve the national emergency mobilization mechanism, the establishment of national network defense professionals Database, the network militia and reserve forces into the scope of the people’s armed mobilization, usually in accordance with the provisions of the militia emergency unit into the training, the urgent selection of elite personnel with the team to participate in the task of non-war military operations, wartime, So that the national defense potential into national defense strength. (An Weiping, deputy chief of staff of the northern theater)

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中國政府要求公開評論保護中國關鍵基礎設施 // Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure


Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure

Notice of the National Internet Information Office on the Public Opinion on the Protection of Key Information Infrastructure Security Regulations (Draft for Soliciting Opinions)

    In order to ensure the security of key information infrastructure, according to the “Internet Security Law of the People’s Republic of China”, we will draft the “Key Information Infrastructure Safety Protection Regulations (draft)” with the relevant departments. The relevant units and people of all walks of life may submit their views by August 10, 2017 by:

First, by mail to the views sent to: Xicheng District, Beijing Chegongzhuang Street on the 11th National Internet Information Office Network Security Coordination Bureau, Zip code 100044, and in the envelope marked “comments”.

Second, by e-mail to:


Annex: Key information infrastructure security regulations (draft)


National Internet Information Office

 July 10, 2017

Key information infrastructure security regulations


Chapter 1 General Provisions

    Article 1 These Regulations are enacted in accordance with the Network Security Law of the People’s Republic of China in order to ensure the safety of key information infrastructures.

Article 2 These Regulations shall apply to the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and use of key information infrastructures within the territory of the People’s Republic of China and the protection of key information infrastructures.

Article 3 The key information infrastructure security protection adhere to the top design, overall protection, coordination, division of labor is responsible for the principle, give full play to the role of the main operation, the active participation of all parties to jointly protect the key information infrastructure security.

Article 4 The competent department of national industry or the supervisory department shall be responsible for guiding and supervising the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in the field in accordance with the division of responsibilities stipulated by the State Council.

State network letter department is responsible for coordinating the key information infrastructure security protection and related supervision and management work. The State Council public security, national security, state secrecy administration, national password management and other departments within their respective responsibilities are responsible for the relevant network security protection and supervision and management work.

The relevant departments of the local people’s governments at or above the county level shall carry out the key information infrastructure safety protection work in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State.

Article 5 The operator of the key information infrastructure (hereinafter referred to as the operator) shall bear the responsibility for the security of the key information infrastructure of the unit, perform the obligation of network security protection, accept the government and social supervision, and bear social responsibility.

The country encourages network operators outside key information infrastructures to participate voluntarily in critical information infrastructure protection systems.

Article 6 Key information infrastructure In the network security level protection system, based on the implementation of key protection.

Article 7 Any person or organization who discovers the safety of the infrastructure of the critical information infrastructure shall have the right to report to the department of the letter, telecommunications, public security and industry supervisors or supervisors.

The department that receives the report shall handle it in a timely manner and if it does not belong to the duties of the department, it shall promptly transfer the department to be handled.

The relevant departments shall keep the relevant information of the whistleblower and protect the legitimate rights and interests of the whistleblower.


Chapter II Support and Safeguard

    Article 8 The State shall take measures to monitor, defend and dispose of network security risks and threats arising from the territory of the People ‘s Republic of China, protect the critical information infrastructure from attack, intrusion, interference and destruction, and punish the criminal activities of the Internet according to law.

Article 9 The State shall formulate policies such as industry, finance, taxation, finance and personnel, support the innovation of key information infrastructure related technologies, products and services, promote safe and reliable network products and services, train and select network security personnel, and improve key information The level of safety of the infrastructure.

Article 10 The State shall establish and improve the network security standard system and use standard guidance to standardize the work of key information infrastructure security protection.

Article 11 The people ‘s governments at or above the municipal level shall incorporate the key information infrastructure security protection into the overall planning of the economic and social development of the district, increase the investment and carry out the evaluation and evaluation of the work performance.

Article 12 The State encourages government departments, operators, scientific research institutions, network security services, industry organizations, network products and service providers to carry out key information infrastructure security cooperation.

Article 13 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall set up or clarify the institutions and personnel who are responsible for the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in this field, and compile and organize the implementation of the industry, the network security planning in the field, and establish a sound work Funding protection mechanism and supervise the implementation.

Article 14 Energy, telecommunications, transportation and other industries shall provide key support and support for power supply, network communication, transportation and other aspects of emergency management and network function restoration of key information infrastructure network security incidents.

Article 15 Public security organs and other departments shall, according to law, investigate and punish illegal and criminal activities against and use key information infrastructures.

Article 16 Any individual or organization shall not engage in any of the following activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure:

(I) attacks, intrusion, interference, and destruction of critical information infrastructures;

(B) illegally obtaining, selling or unauthorized access to information such as technical information that may be used exclusively for the safety of critical information infrastructures;

(Iii) unauthorized penetration of critical information infrastructures, aggressive scanning detection;

(D) knowing that others are engaged in activities that endanger the security of key information infrastructure and still provide assistance such as Internet access, server hosting, network storage, communication transmission, advertising promotion, payment settlement and so on;

(E) other activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure.

Article 17 The State shall safeguard the network security based on the open environment and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation in the field of key information infrastructure security.


Chapter 3 Key Information Infrastructure Scope

    Article 18 The network facilities and information systems operated and managed by the following units shall be included in the scope of protection of key information infrastructures in the event of damage, loss of function or data leakage, which may seriously endanger the national security, the people’s livelihood and the public interest.

(A) government agencies and energy, finance, transportation, water conservancy, health care, education, social security, environmental protection, public utilities and other sectors of the unit;

(B) telecommunications networks, radio and television networks, the Internet and other information networks, and provide cloud computing, large data and other large public information network services units;

(3) scientific research and production units in the fields of national defense science and technology, large-scale equipment, chemical industry, food and medicine industry;

(4) news units such as radio stations, television stations and news malls;

(5) other key units.

Article 19 The State Network Letter Department shall, in conjunction with the competent departments of telecommunications under the State Council and the public security departments, formulate guidelines for the identification of key information infrastructure.

National industry supervisors or regulators organize identification of the industry and key information infrastructures in the field in accordance with the key information infrastructure identification guidelines and submit the identification results according to the procedures.

Key information infrastructure identification process, should give full play to the role of experts, improve the identification of key information infrastructure identification accuracy, rationality and scientific.

Article 20 If a major change in the key information infrastructure or key information infrastructure has occurred, the operator shall promptly report the relevant situation to the national competent or supervisory department.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall promptly carry out the identification and adjustment according to the situation reported by the operator and submit the adjustment according to the procedure.


Chapter IV Operator Safety Protection

    Article 21 The construction of a key information infrastructure shall ensure that it has the performance of supporting the stable and continuous operation of the business and ensures that the safety and technical measures are synchronized, synchronized and synchronized.

Article 22 The principal responsible person of the operator is the first person responsible for the safety protection work of the key information infrastructure of the unit. It is responsible for establishing and perfecting the network security responsibility system and organizing the implementation, and is fully responsible for the security protection of the key information infrastructure of the unit.

Article 23 The operator shall, in accordance with the requirements of the network security level protection system, perform the following security protection obligations to protect the critical information infrastructure from interference, damage or unauthorized access to prevent the leakage or theft of the network data:

(1) to formulate internal safety management systems and operating procedures, strict identity authentication and rights management;

(B) to take technical measures to prevent computer viruses and network attacks, network intrusion and other hazards to network security behavior;

(3) to take technical measures to monitor and record the operation status of the network and the network security incident, and keep the relevant network log in accordance with the regulations for not less than six months;

(D) to take data classification, important data backup and encryption authentication and other measures.

Article 24 In addition to Article 23 of these Regulations, the operator shall perform the following safety and protection obligations in accordance with the requirements of national laws and regulations and the mandatory requirements of the relevant national standards:

(A) set up a dedicated network security management and network security management, and the person in charge and key positions for security background review;

(2) regularly carry out network security education, technical training and skills assessment for employees;

(C) of the important systems and databases for disaster recovery, in time for system vulnerabilities and other security risks to take remedial measures;

(D) the development of network security incident contingency plans and regular exercise;

(5) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations.

Article 25 The person in charge of network security management of the operator shall perform the following duties:

(1) to formulate network security rules and regulations, operational procedures and supervise the implementation;

(2) organizing the skills assessment of key positions;

(3) to formulate and implement the network safety education and training program of the unit;

(4) to organize network security checks and emergency drills to deal with the handling of network security incidents;

(5) to report to the relevant departments of the country on network security important matters, events.

Article twenty-sixth operators of network security key positions of professional and technical personnel to implement the system of certificates.

The specific provisions of the promulgation of posts by the State Council human resources and social security departments in conjunction with the State Network letter and other departments to develop.

Article 27 Operators shall organize the training of network safety education for employees. Each year, the training time shall not be less than one working day, and the number of professional and technical personnel in key positions shall not be less than 3 working days per year.

Article 28 The operator shall establish and improve the safety assessment and evaluation system for the key information infrastructure, and carry out the safety inspection and evaluation when the key information infrastructure is on or after the major changes.

The operator shall, at its own expense, entrust the network security service organization to carry out at least one annual inspection and evaluation of the safety and possible risk of the key information infrastructure, rectify the problems found in time and report the relevant situation to the national industry supervisor or the supervisory department The

Article 29 Personal information and important data collected and produced by the operator in the operation of the People’s Republic of China shall be stored in the territory. For business needs, it is necessary to provide overseas, should be in accordance with personal information and important data outbound security assessment methods to assess; laws, administrative regulations otherwise provided, in accordance with its provisions.


Chapter 5 Product and Service Security

    Article 30 The key equipment and network security special products purchased and used by the operators shall comply with the requirements of laws and administrative regulations and the mandatory requirements of relevant national standards.

Article 31 Where an operator purchases a network product and service that may affect the security of the State, it shall, through the network security review, sign a security confidentiality agreement with the provider in accordance with the requirements of the safety inspection method of the network product and service.

Article 32 Operators shall carry out safety testing on the system, software, and donated network products that have been developed for outsourcing.

Article 33 Where an operator finds that there is a risk of security defects or loopholes in the use of the network products and services, it shall promptly take measures to eliminate the risks and involve significant risks in reporting to the relevant departments.

Article 34 The operation and maintenance of key information infrastructures shall be implemented in the territory. Due to business needs, do need to remote maintenance, should be reported to the national industry executives or regulatory authorities and the State Council public security departments.

Article 35 Institutions that carry out safety assessment and evaluation, publish security threats such as system vulnerabilities, computer viruses, and network attacks for key information infrastructures, provide services such as cloud computing and information technology outsourcing, shall meet the relevant requirements.

The specific requirements by the State Network letter department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council to develop.


Chapter 6 Monitoring, Early Warning, Emergency Handling and Testing

    Article 36 The national network communication department shall co-ordinate the establishment of the key information infrastructure network security monitoring and early warning system and the information communication system, organize and guide the relevant agencies to carry out the network security information summary, analyze and judge the report, and publish the network security monitoring and early warning information according to the regulations The

Article 37 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall establish and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and information reporting system of the key information infrastructure in this industry, and keep abreast of the industry, the operation status of the key information infrastructure in the field and the security risks, Inform the operator about safety risks and related work information.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall organize the judgment of the safety monitoring information, and if it is necessary to take immediate preventive measures, it shall promptly issue the early warning information and emergency preventive measures to the relevant operators and, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, Relevant departments report.

Article 38 The national network communication department shall coordinate the relevant departments, operators and relevant research institutions and network security service agencies to establish a network information sharing mechanism for key information infrastructure and promote the sharing of network security information.

Article 39 In accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan , the State Network shall, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, coordinate the relevant departments to establish and perfect the key information infrastructure network security emergency coordination mechanism, strengthen the network security emergency power construction, and coordinate the relevant departments to organize cross- Regional network security emergency drills.

National industry supervisors or regulators should organize the development of the industry, the field of network security incident contingency plans, and regularly organize exercises to enhance the network security incident response and disaster recovery capabilities. After major network security incidents or early warning information received by the network letter department, should immediately start the contingency plan to respond, and timely report on the situation.

Article 40 The competent department of national industry or the regulatory department shall regularly organize the inspection and inspection of the safety risks of the industry and the key information infrastructure in the field and the performance of the operators’ performance of safety protection, and propose measures to improve the supervision and supervision of the operators in time The problems found in the assessment.

State network letter department co-ordinate the relevant departments to carry out the spot checks to prevent cross-testing and evaluation.

Article 41 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment and evaluation of the key information infrastructure safety, and shall adhere to the principle of objectivity, impartiality, efficiency and transparency, adopt a scientific evaluation and evaluation method, standardize the inspection and evaluation process and control the risk of testing and evaluation.

Operators should be carried out by the relevant departments to implement the assessment and assessment to the assessment of the problems found in time for rectification.

Article 42 The relevant departments may organize the following measures to carry out the safety inspection and evaluation of key information infrastructure:

(1) requiring the relevant personnel of the operator to make a statement on the examination and evaluation;

(B) access to, retrieval, reproduction and safety protection related documents, records;

(C) to view the network security management system development, implementation and network security technical measures planning, construction, operation;

(4) to use the testing tools or commissioned by the network security services for technical testing;

(5) other necessary means agreed by the operator.

Article 43 The information obtained by the relevant departments and the network security service organizations in the assessment of key information infrastructure safety inspection and evaluation can only be used for the maintenance of network security and shall not be used for other purposes.

Article 44 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment of the security of the key information infrastructure, and shall not charge the units to be tested and tested, and shall not require the persons to be tested and appraised to purchase the designated brand or the products and services of the designated production and sales units.


Chapter VII Legal Liability

    Article 45 An operator shall fail to perform the provisions of Article 20, Paragraph 1, Article 21, Article 23, Article 24, Article 26, Article 27, and Article 2 Article 18, Article 30, Article 32, Article 33, Article 34 of the network security protection obligations, by the relevant authorities in accordance with their duties ordered to correct, give a warning; refused to correct or Resulting in damage to the network security and other consequences, at a fine of more than 100,000 yuan a million yuan, the person in charge directly responsible for more than 10,000 yuan more than 100,000 yuan fine.

Article 46 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 29 of these Regulations, he or she shall, in accordance with his / her duties, make corrections, give a warning, confiscate the illegal income, And shall be ordered to suspend the relevant business, suspend business for rectification, close the website, revoke the relevant business license; the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan The

Article 47 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 31 of these Regulations and uses the network products or services that have not passed the security examination or security examination, the relevant competent department of the State shall order it to cease to use and double the purchase amount More than ten times the fine; the person in charge directly responsible and other directly responsible persons at a fine of not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 48 Where an individual violates the provisions of Article 16 of these Regulations and does not constitute a crime, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and shall be detained for less than five days and shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; Shall be imposed a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan; if the case constitutes a crime, the criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

If the unit has any of the acts mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and impose a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan and impose penalties on the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Violation of the provisions of Article XVI of the Ordinance, the criminal punishment of personnel, life shall not be engaged in key information infrastructure security management and network operations key positions in the work.

Article 49 Where the operator of a key information infrastructure of a state organ fails to perform the obligations of the network security protection provided for in these Regulations, the superior organ or the relevant organ shall order it to make corrections; and the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law.

Article 50 Where any of the following departments and their staff members commits any of the following acts, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law; if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(A) in the work of the use of authority to obtain, accept bribes;

(B) neglect of duty, abuse of authority;

(Iii) unauthorized disclosure of relevant information, information and data files of key information infrastructures;

(4) other acts that violate statutory duties.

 Article 51 Where a major cyber security incident occurs in a critical information infrastructure, the responsibility for the investigation shall be identified, and the responsibility for the relevant network security service and relevant departments shall be identified in addition to the investigation of the responsibility of the operating unit and the investigation , For dereliction of duty, dereliction of duty and other violations, shall be held accountable.

Article 52 If the organs, organizations and individuals engaged in attack, intrusion, interference, or damage to the key information infrastructure of the People’s Republic of China cause serious consequences, they shall be investigated for legal responsibility according to law; the public security department of the State Council and the State security organ And the relevant departments and may decide to impose a frozen property or other necessary sanctions on the institution, organization or individual.


Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions

    Article 53 The security protection of key information infrastructures involved in the storage and handling of information concerning state secrets shall also be subject to the provisions of confidentiality laws and administrative regulations.

Critical information infrastructure in the use and management of passwords, should also comply with the password laws and administrative regulations.

 Article 54 The security protection of military key information infrastructures shall be separately stipulated by the Central Military Commission.

Article 55 These Regulations shall enter into force on the date of ****.

Original Mandarin Chinese:


第一章 總則
第一條 為了保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,根據《中華人民共和國網絡安全法》,制定本條例。
第二條 在中華人民共和國境內規劃、建設、運營、維護、使用關鍵信息基礎設施,以及開展關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,適用本條例。
第三條 關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護堅持頂層設計、整體防護,統籌協調、分工負責的原則,充分發揮運營主體作用,社會各方積極參與,共同保護關鍵信息基礎設施安全。
第四條 國家行業主管或監管部門按照國務院規定的職責分工,負責指導和監督本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第五條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者(以下稱運營者)對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全負主體責任,履行網絡安全保護義務,接受政府和社會監督,承擔社會責任。
第六條 關鍵信息基礎設施在網絡安全等級保護製度基礎上,實行重點保護。
第七條 任何個人和組織發現危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的行為,有權向網信、電信、公安等部門以及行業主管或監管部門舉報。

第二章 支持與保障
第八條 國家採取措施,監測、防禦、處置來源於中華人民共和國境內外的網絡安全風險和威脅,保護關鍵信息基礎設施免受攻擊、侵入、干擾和破壞,依法懲治網絡違法犯罪活動。
第十條 國家建立和完善網絡安全標準體系,利用標準指導、規範關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第十一條 地市級以上人民政府應當將關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作納入地區經濟社會發展總體規劃,加大投入,開展工作績效考核評價。
第十二條 國家鼓勵政府部門、運營者、科研機構、網絡安全服務機構、行業組織、網絡產品和服務提供者開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全合作。
第十四條 能源、電信、交通等行業應當為關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全事件應急處置與網絡功能恢復提供電力供應、網絡通信、交通運輸等方面的重點保障和支持。
第十五條 公安機關等部門依法偵查打擊針對和利用關鍵信息基礎設施實施的違法犯罪活動。
第十六條 任何個人和組織不得從事下列危害關鍵信息基礎設施的活動和行為:
第十七條 國家立足開放環境維護網絡安全,積極開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全領域的國際交流與合作。

第三章 關鍵信息基礎設施範圍
第十八條 下列單位運行、管理的網絡設施和信息系統,一旦遭到破壞、喪失功能或者數據洩露,可能嚴重危害國家安全、國計民生、公共利益的,應當納入關鍵信息基礎設施保護範圍:
第十九條 國家網信部門會同國務院電信主管部門、公安部門等部門製定關鍵信息基礎設施識別指南。
第二十條 新建、停運關鍵信息基礎設施,或關鍵信息基礎設施發生重大變化的,運營者應當及時將相關情況報告國家行業主管或監管部門。

第四章 運營者安全保護
第二十一條 建設關鍵信息基礎設施應當確保其具有支持業務穩定、持續運行的性能,並保證安全技術措施同步規劃、同步建設、同步使用。
第二十二條 運營者主要負責人是本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作第一責任人,負責建立健全網絡安全責任制並組織落實,對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作全面負責。
第二十三條 運營者應當按照網絡安全等級保護製度的要求,履行下列安全保護義務,保障關鍵信息基礎設施免受干擾、破壞或者未經授權的訪問,防止網絡數據洩漏或者被竊取、篡改:
第二十四條 除本條例第二十三條外,運營者還應當按照國家法律法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求,履行下列安全保護義務:
第二十五條 運營者網絡安全管理負責人履行下列職責:
(一) 組織製定網絡安全規章制度、操作規程並監督執行;
第二十六條 運營者網絡安全關鍵崗位專業技術人員實行執證上崗制度。
第二十七條 運營者應當組織從業人員網絡安全教育培訓,每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於1個工作日,關鍵崗位專業技術人員每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於3個工作日。
第二十八條 運營者應當建立健全關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估制度,關鍵信息基礎設施上線運行前或者發生重大變化時應當進行安全檢測評估。
第二十九條 運營者在中華人民共和國境內運營中收集和產生的個人信息和重要數據應當在境內存儲。因業務需要,確需向境外提供的,應當按照個人信息和重要數據出境安全評估辦法進行評估;法律、行政法規另有規定的,依照其規定。

第五章 產品和服務安全
第三十條 運營者採購、使用的網絡關鍵設備、網絡安全專用產品,應當符合法律、行政法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求。
第三十一條 運營者採購網絡產品和服務,可能影響國家安全的,應當按照網絡產品和服務安全審查辦法的要求,通過網絡安全審查,並與提供者簽訂安全保密協議。
第三十二條 運營者應當對外包開發的系統、軟件,接受捐贈的網絡產品,在其上線應用前進行安全檢測。
第三十三條 運營者發現使用的網絡產品、服務存在安全缺陷、漏洞等風險的,應當及時採取措施消除風險隱患,涉及重大風險的應當按規定向有關部門報告。
第三十四條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運行維護應當在境內實施。因業務需要,確需進行境外遠程維護的,應事先報國家行業主管或監管部門和國務院公安部門。
第三十五條 面向關鍵信息基礎設施開展安全檢測評估,發布系統漏洞、計算機病毒、網絡攻擊等安全威脅信息,提供雲計算、信息技術外包等服務的機構,應當符合有關要求。

第六章 監測預警、應急處置和檢測評估
第三十八條 國家網信部門統籌協調有關部門、運營者以及有關研究機構、網絡安全服務機構建立關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全信息共享機制,促進網絡安全信息共享。
第四十一條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,應堅持客觀公正、高效透明的原則,採取科學的檢測評估方法,規範檢測評估流程,控制檢測評估風險。
第四十二條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,可採取下列措施:
第四十三條 有關部門以及網絡安全服務機構在關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估中獲取的信息,只能用於維護網絡安全的需要,不得用於其他用途。
第四十四條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,不得向被檢測評估單位收取費用,不得要求被檢測評估單位購買指定品牌或者指定生產、銷售單位的產品和服務。

第七章 法律責任
第四十九條 國家機關關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者不履行本條例規定的網絡安全保護義務的,由其上級機關或者有關機關責令改正;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接負責人員依法給予處分。
第五十條 有關部門及其工作人員有下列行為之一的,對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依法給予處分;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任:

第八章 附則
第五十三條 存儲、處理涉及國家秘密信息的關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,還應當遵守保密法律、行政法規的規定。
第五十四條 軍事關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,由中央軍事委員會另行規定。
第五十五條 本條例自****年**月**日起施行。

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中國軍隊分析北韓軍隊朝鲜先军时代军事战略问题研究 // Chinese Military Analysis of North Korean Army

中國軍隊分析北韓軍隊朝鲜先军时代军事战略问题研究 //

Chinese Military Analysis of North Korean Army

The first part of the preface

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the drastic changes in the Eastern Europe, the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the socialist camp suffered great setbacks. In the mid-1990s, the Korean economy suddenly plunged into recession. In July 1994, Kim Il Sung died. At that time, people generally believe that North Korea is facing a serious crisis, the development prospects of North Korea is quite worrying. Nevertheless, North Korea has experienced three years of “mourning mourning”, and continue to missile test and nuclear test activities, and constantly strengthen its military power.

Into 2000, the DPRK has provoked the second, third Western war, carried out two nuclear tests, and the implementation of several missile test firing. In 2010, the DPRK in the West Sea (Korean Peninsula in the western waters) to create a “Cheonan ship incident” and “Yin Ping Island shelling incident.” North Korea’s military provocation, not only to South Korea, back to the surrounding countries to bring unease, but also to the security situation in Northeast Asia has brought great variables, and become an important factor in the regional arms competition.

September 1998, Kim Jong Il in the introduction of its regime, held high the banner of building a “strong power”, put forward a new political slogan – “first army politics.” To December 17, 2011 Kim Jong-il died, he had a long-17 years of strong rule of the DPRK. Kim Jong Il’s “first army politics” refers to all military work as the first, all military work as the most important, under the principle of military advance, to solve all the problems in the revolution and national construction, the people’s army as a pillar of the revolution , The political way of advancing the whole of socialism. It can be said that the first army politics is Kim Jong-Japanese political way. Its core content is that under the leadership of Kim Jong Il, the DPRK’s army actively responded to economic difficulties, social problems and security crisis, and strive to maintain the Korean-style socialist system. “Military strategy” is the DPRK in order to “first army politics” rooted in the Korean society, all to give priority to the development of national defense forces for all purposes, to give priority to the protection of national defense for the purpose of Kim Jong-Japanese military forces use.

In this paper, after the death of Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong-il system under the Korean military strategy development changes in the study, in particular, the DPRK in spite of the strong opposition from the international community, is still nuclear development and has a certain nuclear weapons after the strategic changes as a study Focus.

The second part of the Korean military strategy

First, the formation of the Korean military strategy background

The military strategy of the DPRK is gradually formed on the basis of Kim Il Sung’s military strategic thinking. Kim Il Sung’s military strategic thinking can be said to be the integration of formal warfare and guerrilla warfare. In the process of anti-Japanese activities in China and the former Soviet Union, Kim Il Sung accumulated a wealth of practical experience, which laid a solid foundation for the formation of its military strategic thinking. On the basis of these military experiences, Kim Il Sung put forward the “main tactics”, and stressed that “the main tactics” is the DPRK’s unique military strategy. In order to fully understand the DPRK’s military strategy, the study of Kim Il Sung’s military experience is very important.

In 1928, Kim Il Sung joined the Communist Youth League of China. Later, Kim Il Sung as a member of the Communist Party of China, in the East Manchuria, coastal state area carried out anti-Japanese activities behind enemy lines. Through the small Wangqing, the old Montenegro, Putian Fort fighting and other guerrilla warfare, Kim Il Sung from Mao Zedong’s military thinking to draw a wealth of wisdom and nutrition, and gradually realize the penetration war, guerrilla warfare, night war, behind enemy lines, large forces and small forces With the importance of tactics. Kim Il Sung was led behind the enemy’s anti-Japanese activities, the main fighting style for the ambush, raid, etc., but belong to the tactical category of guerrilla warfare. However, the DPRK will be these guerrilla warfare style exaggerated, propaganda into a large-scale battle, that is, a typical war in the revolutionary war. Because of this, today’s North Korean army still attaches great importance to guerrilla warfare.

In the late 1940s, Kim Il Sung had to flee to the former Soviet Union and was incorporated into the Red Army of the Soviet Union due to the encroachment of the Japanese Kwantung Army. At that time, Kim Il-sheng by learning Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukachevsky (1893 – 1939) prepared by the Marshal of the “workers and peasants Red Army field”, the military-style military organization , With the mobile combat-based battle compiled, the fire as the center of the weapons and equipment system and other content of the Soviet army’s regular war thinking has a certain understanding. Kim Il Sung’s military struggle in China and the former Soviet Union has played a very important role in the development of the military-based military forces in North Korea and the formation of military tactics such as speed warfare, raid warfare and cooperation. Through the Korean War, the DPRK in its military strategy to increase the annihilation of enemy forces surrounded by war, to promote political work, to ensure that the contents of war materials and so on. Through local conflicts, North Korea recognizes the need to strengthen the ability to cooperate with the war, strengthen the mechanized forces and air force. Based on the above, the DPRK continued to carry out the war to supplement and improve the method.

Figure 1: The formation of the Korean military strategy.

Figure 1: The formation of the Korean military strategy. [Save to album]

Source: Park Jung Pao, “North Korea’s Military Strategy Research”, “Korean Studies” Volume 6 (Seoul: Dongguo University, 2010), p.123.

Second, Kim Il Sung military strategy

1, preemptive attack strategy

Preemptive strategy is to choose the enemy completely unpredictable, or even if it can be expected but there is no time to respond to the timing, places and methods to attack each other’s strategy. Preemptive attack strategy can maximize the play to a sudden, fast, secret, camouflage, etc.. Often, the implementation of surprise operations, you can at the lowest cost, get the maximum combat effect. Kim Il Sung has repeatedly stressed that to do surprise success, usually must maintain a good fighting situation. Not only that, the combat troops have to really have the ability to completely destroy each other’s combat capability. This means that the purpose of pre-emptive surprise strategy is through the efficient and fast combat operations, in a short time focus on fighting forces, the complete destruction of enemy combat forces.

In order to implement pre-emptive surprise attacks, North Korea will be the deployment of most of the military forces in the front area. In the structure of the troops, but also highlights the rapid response, flexible and flexible features. It is particularly worth mentioning that North Korea will be about 70% of the military forces deployed in Pyongyang – Yuan Shan line south, if the DPRK made surprise attack decision, then the North Korean troops do not have another combat deployment, you can directly to South Korea to take military action.

2, with the strategy

“Coordination strategy” refers to a battle, two or more combat forms of mutual cooperation, mutual coordination strategy. On the basis of Mao Zedong ‘s guerrilla war ideas, summed up the experience of the Vietnam War, and fully considered the characteristics of the Korean Peninsula after the so – called “main tactics. The core of the war is in the large-scale regular warfare and guerrilla warfare, large forces and small forces with the launch of various forms of attack operations, such a battlefield will be no front and rear, making the other completely into a state of chaos.

In order to implement the war, North Korea has established the world’s largest special forces, and has AN-2 machine, hovercraft, submarines and other sea, air penetration means. In addition, the North Korean Navy, the Air Force also set up a sniper brigade, taking into account the characteristics of different services, and constantly strengthen the combat capability building. North Korea may take the type of war with a combination of regular warfare and guerrilla warfare, cooperation between large forces and small forces, cooperation between different services (land and sea air force), between different arms (arms), military and people force (Military and folk resources) and so on.

3, quick fix strategy

In the traditional military strategy theory, quick fix strategy has been highly valued by all parties. Quick tactical strategy is to focus on superior forces, each break the other main force, in a short time, with rapid tactical victory, the end of the war strategy. To this end, North Korea attaches great importance to the rapid development strategy, from the 20th century, 80 years, North Korea focused on the construction of armored forces, mechanized forces. In order to achieve the speed of war, North Korea’s military structure is also fully highlighted the rapid response, flexible and flexible features. The main combat forces of the warlords are tanks, armored vehicles, fighters, standing forces, compared with South Korea, in addition to armored vehicles, the DPRK in the number of obvious dominant. Therefore, if the DPRK launched a speed war on South Korea, then within a few days, the Korean army may sweep the whole of South Korea, and block the US military reinforcements involved.

Third, the evaluation of Kim Il Sung’s military strategy

Kim Il Sung’s military strategy is to sum up Kim Il Sung’s experience of military struggle in China and the former Soviet Union, taking into account the terrain characteristics of the Korean Peninsula and the gradual formation of local warfare. It can be said that Kim Il Sung’s military strategy is offensive offensive strategy. It is particularly worth emphasizing that the use of conventional combat power to occupy the number of advantages, the attack on South Korea launched a surprise attack, and then master the war dominance, and in the external reinforcements arrived in the Korean Peninsula before the end of the war speed strategy is Kim Il Sung’s military strategy core.

At present, the local war style is changing from long-term war, war of attrition, ground warfare to ground combat, maritime combat, air combat, space operations, network operations and other integrated all-round, multi-level modern three-dimensional operations. In addition, with the development of science and technology, the destruction of weapons and equipment, remote precision strike capability increased significantly, making the war style is developing into a rapid focus on precision strike style. In the past, the focus of the war was to use conventional military forces to win the victory of war and compete for the dominance of war. The focus of modern warfare is based on cutting-edge weapons and equipment system, to achieve the battlefield digital, efficient play the overall effectiveness of combat effectiveness. However, Kim Il Sung’s military strategy only embodies the conventional combat power of the implementation of the war, North Korea’s nuclear and missile areas are not included. Obviously, Kim Il Sung’s military strategy is very obvious, can not adapt to the needs of modern warfare. The army is an effective means for the DPRK to maintain its regime and to combat the threat of the system. Therefore, in order to give full play to the role of the military, Kim had to put forward a new military strategic concept.

The third part of the military era of military strategy and military strength construction

First, the military strategy

Kim Jong-il pointed out that the modern war was a new form of war, characterized by a highly expanded three-dimensional warfare, information warfare (reconnaissance, electronic warfare, cyber warfare, psychological warfare) Non-symmetrical warfare, non-contact warfare, precision strike, short time war decisive battle. In addition, Kim Jong Il also stressed that to do a good job in preparing for the new battle. It can be seen that Kim Jong-il has fully recognized that the modern war style is subject to qualitative changes, and that continue to use the existing conventional war tactics, can not guarantee the victory of future war. Therefore, in full consideration of the modern war style at the same time, in order to develop can cope with the United States and South Korea joint military forces, Kim Jong Il conceived the “large-scale destruction strategy”, “quick decision strategy”, “network strategy.”

(A), large-scale destruction strategy

Large-scale destruction strategy is to bring a huge destructive strategy to each other, is a “serious retaliation strategy” of a. To achieve a large-scale destruction strategy, need to have beyond the other side of the military power or have to give each other a decisive loss of military means. North Korea for large-scale destruction of the strategic forces, including nuclear weapons, including weapons of mass destruction and artillery units.

The massive destruction strategy is a strategy developed by the DPRK in order to protect the “victorious” battle of victory. In 1994, the DPRK was facing a major crisis because of the US threat to military attacks on North Korea’s nuclear facilities. It can be said that the emergence of this crisis directly promoted Kim Jong Il from the containment level to develop large-scale destruction of the military strategy.

The massive destruction strategy is the most representative strategy adopted by countries with nuclear weapons. In order to make up for the “blockade strategy” deficiencies, the former US President Eisenhower has proposed a “large-scale revenge strategy.” The United States, on the basis of its absolute nuclear superiority, pursued a large-scale retaliation strategy, reduced defense spending and established military hegemony in the international community. Former Soviet leader Khrushchev argues that the Soviet Union had failed in the “Cuban Missile Crisis” in 1962, mainly because the Soviet Union was at a disadvantage in terms of nuclear warfare compared with the United States. Therefore, Khrushchev actively promote nuclear weapons as the main force of large-scale retaliation strategy, trying to have the military strength with the United States. In 1964, China’s first atomic bomb after the success of China’s international influence, political status has been significantly improved. It can be said that through the nuclear development, to take a deterrent revenge strategy, China protects the security of its own country and establishes the status of the Asian military power based on it.

As mentioned above, countries with nuclear weapons, as a military power, can occupy a dominant position in the international community. Not only that, but also nuclear weapons as a primary means to promote large-scale retaliation strategy, in order to ensure their own national security. Therefore, the DPRK may be through the possession of nuclear weapons to promote large-scale destruction strategy. In other words, large-scale destruction strategy can not only make North Korea effective response to a variety of external threats, but also in the “something” to ensure that North Korea to win. 6.25 After the war, North Korea and the United States has maintained a truce. In recent years, the DPRK-US relations, due to nuclear problems, human rights issues, counterfeiting problems and other contradictions, the contest continued. In this context, the DPRK that at any time possible with the United States outbreak of war. Therefore, the DPRK’s massive destruction strategy is likely to play an important role in the future DPRK-US relations.

In 2006, the DPRK Labor Party Propaganda Department Deputy Minister has said that once the war broke out, the whole of Seoul will be 30 minutes into a flames, 100,000 US troops, 70% of South Korean residents face death, South Korea’s economic 90% Above into ashes. July 24, 2010, the DPRK National Defense Commission has also issued a threat that will be necessary when the start of nuclear-based North Korean retaliation “jihad”. This means that “something” when North Korea will use weapons of mass destruction to launch attacks.

(2) quick fix strategy

Kim Jong Il’s “quick fix strategy” is in the external forces reinforce the Korean Peninsula before the end of the war strategy, is Kim Il Sung’s strategy of succession, continuation and development. The Gulf War, the war in Afghanistan, the war in Iraq, the “quick fix strategy” has been widely used. Obviously, through the “quick fix strategy”, you can focus on attack and destroy hostile country command facilities and the main force, to master the war dominance, and in a very short time to end the war victory. The reason why North Korea will use quick fix strategy, the main reasons are as follows:

1, North Korea has a considerable scale can start the speed of combat forces

North Korea’s armored forces and mechanized forces with a high degree of mobility, can give each other a strong impact and deterrence, artillery forces can focus on the enemy’s core targets, can cause great losses and damage to each other. North Korea’s main battle of the speed of war – armored forces is 1.7 times the Han Jun, artillery units are Han Jun 2.5 times.

2, North Korea’s military system as a whole is conducive to maneuver

Despite North Korea’s economic difficulties, North Korea has been building military power. In recent years, not only the strength of military forces and equipment continued to increase, the army structure adaptation, also pay great attention to the construction of mobile combat capability. According to South Korea’s defense paper published in 2010, in order to improve the combat effectiveness of the troops, the DPRK reorganized part of the army, the two mechanized army reorganized as mechanized division, a tank army reorganized as armored division, an artillery army reorganized as artillery division. In addition, the DPRK has also strengthened the front forces of firepower building capacity. These changes in the Korean army provide a reliable guarantee for its speed warfare.

3, the Korean army most of the combat effectiveness deployed in the front area

North Korea has deployed more than 10 troops and more than 60 divisions / brigades in Pyongyang – south of Wonsan Line, accounting for about 70% of the overall combat effectiveness of the Korean army. In this way, as long as the North Korean leadership determined, then the North Korean troops do not have to re-adjust the deployment, you can always put into the South invasion. In November 2009, after the third naval battle in the Western Seas (Korean Peninsula), the Korean army deployed a 240-mm rocket launcher on its west coast, posing a direct threat to the South West and the capitals. It can be said that North Korea in front of the deployment of a large number of troops in order to focus on the early war to launch attacks, through the speed of war hit the Korean army.

North Korea stressed that with the traditional war style changes, non-linear combat, non-contact operations and other new combat methods are emerging, modern war may be in front and rear at the same time start. This means that the DPRK regular forces in front of a positive attack at the same time, the Korean special forces may be to the south of the region to launch interference operations. Undeniably, the battlefield before and after the start at the same time, the war will be quick to play a decisive role.

4, network strategy

Network attack refers to the use of computer networks exist loopholes and security flaws, the enemy military, administrative, personnel and other major systems and resources to attack, usually also known as “no gunfire.” With the rapid development of computer technology and the concept of network-centric warfare, the center of modern warfare is moving from the traditional combat platform to the network. From recent years, the local war style can also be seen, network combat is as one of the main forms of war, played a very important role.

In 2009, Kim Jong Il held a speech at the senior parliamentary conference of the Korean army that the war of the twentieth century was a war of oil and shells, and that war in the twenty-first century was an information war. It can also be seen that North Korea attaches great importance to cyber warfare.

There are two main ways to network attacks. The first for the illegal invasion of each other’s information systems, steal the system confidential information, damage to the target system data. The second is not invade the other side of the information system, the external destruction of the other information system, so that its function can not play a role.

From the 90s of the 20th century, North Korea in Pyongyang command automation university, computer technology university, Jinze Industrial University, and so vigorously cultivate professional network warfare talent. Pyongyang command automation university under the People’s Army General Staff, is North Korea’s most representative network warfare personnel training institutions, each year for the army to train more than 100 computer professional and technical personnel. It is speculated that the Korean army has a professional hacker scale of 500 to 600.

The military strategy of the United States, South Korea and other developed countries is heavily dependent on the computer network. If North Korea launched a network attack, it is easy to lead to South Korea’s network system confusion, affecting the transmission and sharing of information. At the crucial moment, and even may paralyze the entire network, so that South Korea missed the opportunity to deal with, so as to bring a fatal blow to South Korea. Before the outbreak of the war, the DPRK may attack the government of the Korean government at home or abroad through hacking. During the war, the DPRK may also interfere with the destruction of Han Jun’s computer network, leading to the entire computer network data transmission interruption and system paralysis.

North Korea’s network strategy will also have a positive impact on the psychological warfare. With regard to the war in Iraq, the DPRK believes that the US imperialists have been able to win in the war in Iraq, not so much the role of high-tech weapons, as it is the psychological warfare in the role, and from the ideological collapse of Iraq results. It can be seen that North Korea attaches great importance to the psychological warfare, and that in the future war conditions, the psychological war will run through the whole process of war. North Korea through the network to carry out the psychological warfare style mainly includes: in hostile countries or support the national network spread to the DPRK is conducive to the spread of information and gossip, and even false information (bacterial warfare, chemical warfare, the use of nuclear weapons, large casualties) Thus bringing panic to the public in hostile countries and weakening the will of the hostile countries. For the support of the country, through the efforts to create anti-war public opinion, forcing the support of the state to stop the reinforcements, and the early withdrawal of troops have been invested.

Figure 2: Military strategy of the army.

Figure 2: Military strategy of the army. [Save to album]

The main feature of the military strategy of the army is based on Kim Il Sung’s aggressive strategy, in order to maintain the regime, increase the content of the protective strategy. In other words, Kim Jong Il through the army to establish a military strategy, will be his successor Kim Jong-un faithfully inheritance, continuation and carry forward.

Although Kim Il Sung’s military strategy – pre-emptive attack strategy, with the strategy, quick fix strategy is based on conventional combat power to develop, but taking into account the status of North Korea’s weapons and equipment system and changes in modern war style, these military strategy will Will continue to continue. Based on the pre-emptive strike strategy, most of the troops of the Korean army are deployed in the front area. This will reduce the time required for the deployment, movement and take-over of the troops, thereby increasing the mobility of the force. Based on the strategy of cooperation, we can realize the effective cooperation between the Korean troops and the regular combat forces. This can improve operational effectiveness, weaken the other side of the military power, and then achieve the purpose of quick fix.

Second, the military characteristics of the military strategy: the pursuit of military adventurism

After the death of Kim Il Sung, North Korea’s biggest change in the military field is that North Korea has carried out nuclear development. North Korea, despite the strong opposition from the international community, is still engaged in nuclear development, its purpose is to the United States, the relationship between Korea, through the pursuit of military adventurism to take the initiative.

In December 2010, the Democratic People’s Armed Forces Minister Kim Yong-chun pointed out that the Korean Revolutionary Armed Forces had been prepared to launch the “nuclear-based jihad-based jihad” when necessary. North Korea’s revolutionary armed forces not only to resist aggression, but also sweep the enemy base camp, to eliminate the root causes of war, and then realize the reunification of the motherland history. In addition, the DPRK in 2009 set up a new reconnaissance General Administration, to further strengthen the role of external intelligence departments and functions. As can be seen from these initiatives in the DPRK, North Korea is strengthening military adventurism on the Korean Peninsula, based on the evolving military power.

North Korea’s pursuit of military adventurism, mainly for the following reasons: First, the historical experience to tell North Korea, the pursuit of military adventurism is very necessary. North Korea believes that the late 20th century, the late 60s to capture the US armed spy ship “Pueblo” incident and shot down the US EC-121 reconnaissance plane incident, North Korea and the United States confrontation made a major victory. Therefore, it can be said that these two events have become North Korea continue to promote the main cause of military adventurism. Second, trying to urge the international community to recognize North Korea as a military power. The DPRK believes that public military demonstrations or military provocation can be carried out to demonstrate to the international community its military power. In other words, North Korea in advocates, have a strong military strength in order to attract people’s attention, building a strong army is the power of the country. Thirdly, a powerful army can be used as an effective means of strengthening internal unity within its system. North Korea believes that a military provocation in the vicinity of the northern limit line or the armistice can create a military crisis within the DPRK, and this sense of crisis can effectively enhance unity within North Korea.

In the following circumstances, North Korea is likely to take military adventurism action: First, the North-South exchange is interrupted, further escalation of military tensions. Second, the DPRK nuclear issue has not progressed, the DPRK-US relations have stalled and the relationship has deteriorated seriously. Third, Kim Jong-un system is unstable. Military adventurist actions include: the implementation of nuclear tests, the launch of long-range missiles, in the West Sea (South Korea’s western waters) and near the stop line to launch local provocation. North Korea believes that through these provocative activities, can enhance the unity of the people, consolidate and improve the Kim Jong-un system.

Third, the military strength of the military construction

(A) to maintain the military superiority of South Korea

Although North Korea is facing serious economic difficulties, it is still actively promoting the modernization of weapons and equipment, vigorously developing nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, missiles and other weapons of mass destruction, and strive to build a strategic weapon system, and promote a strong military power based on the construction of a strong power. Into 2000, North Korea not only to strengthen the standing forces, artillery units, armored forces, special operations forces have also been rapid development. According to South Korea’s 2010 Defense White Paper, compared with 2008, North Korea ground forces added four divisions and one motor brigade, an increase of more than 200 tanks.

Table 1: Comparison of North and South Military Forces.

Table 1: Comparison of North and South Military Forces. [Save to album]

* In order to facilitate the comparison of military forces between the North and the South, the Marine Corps equipment into the Army troops equipment project was calculated.

Source: Defense Department, Defense White Paper 2010 (Seoul: Republic of Korea Ministry of Defense, 2010) p.271.

North Korea believes that as long as the US military to withdraw from the Korean Peninsula, South Korea to maintain military superiority in the case, the DPRK can achieve the “unity of the South.” There is no doubt that North Korea has strengthened its military power and provided a reliable guarantee for its large-scale destruction and speed warfare. In addition, the DPRK also believes that the collapse of the former Soviet Union and China’s reform and opening up, resulting in North Korea’s back-up forces weakened. Based on this judgment, the DPRK began to strengthen the military building for the South Triangular Military Relations (Korea, the United States and Japan) to enhance its autonomous military response capability.

(B) to strengthen the containment strategy

1, nuclear development

North Korea received 10 kilograms to 15 kilograms of plutonium from the start of the 5 MWe nuclear reactor in Ningxia before the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) verification in June 1992. According to the analysis, North Korea has been using these plutonium to promote nuclear weapons research and development program. At present, North Korea has about 40 kilograms to 50 kilograms of plutonium, which can produce 6 to 9 nuclear weapons (the manufacture of a nuclear weapon requires 6 kg to 8 kg of plutonium). In addition, North Korea’s uranium (for the manufacture of atomic reactor nuclear fuel) reserves are very rich, the total burial of about 26 million tons, of which the amount of 4 million tons.

With regard to North Korea’s nuclear capabilities, the former head of the US National Nuclear Institute, Dr. Heck, wrote in the article “North Korea’s Lessons Learned in the Core Crisis” that North Korea has nuclear weapons manufacturing that is as powerful as the United States in Nagasaki, Japan ability. From the current situation, the DPRK is likely to have 4-8 pieces of primary nuclear weapons. On April 9, 2010, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said in a speech titled “Nuclear Nonproliferation” at the University of Louisville, Kentucky, that North Korea has six thousand nuclear weapons. This is the first time that US government officials have formally addressed the number of nuclear weapons owned by the DPRK in public. In March 2010, when he participated in political studies, political instructors pointed out that “North Korea is a country with nuclear weapons, although the United States is the world,” the Korean People’s Army in South Korea, in March 2010, Power, but not provoke North Korea, entirely because North Korea has nuclear weapons. ”

Therefore, North Korea can be considered independent of nuclear weapons manufacturing capacity, with the number of nuclear weapons for the 1-8. But so far, it is not clear to the extent to which the DPRK will carry nuclear weapons on its missiles to launch nuclear weapons technology to what extent.

On the issue of highly enriched uranium (HEU), on September 3, 2009, the former representative of the DPRK in the United States, Park Ji-yuan, pointed out that North Korea has successfully pilot uranium enrichment, the test has entered the final stage. If uranium enrichment is successful, it means that it can be produced with less, continuous mass production, and is not easily perceived by the outside world. The use of uranium in comparison with the way in which plutonium is used to make nuclear weapons is relatively simple and easy to achieve the miniaturization of nuclear weapons. In order to be able to carry nuclear weapons on field artillery or short-range missiles as tactical nuclear weapons to use, many nuclear-owned countries often choose to use uranium to create nuclear weapons. Compared with the development of conventional combat power, the development of nuclear weapons investment costs less, and can effectively compensate for the military power of the disadvantages. Therefore, the more weak national defense forces, in order to have the means to contain the war, with the military to carry out military confrontation, the more vigorously develop nuclear weapons.

It is not difficult to predict that North Korea will strive to improve its ability to strike short-range military targets by developing small-scale nuclear weapons. Han Peninsula battlefield lack of depth, so in the Korean Peninsula battlefield environment, compared with the long-range nuclear weapons, can be close combat tactical nuclear weapons can play a full role. In addition, the DPRK will also build a large-scale nuclear weapons production system, trying to establish its military power status.

2, chemical and biological weapons

From the 20th century, 80 years, the DPRK independent production of gas bombs and bacteriological weapons, with a certain degree of chemical and biological weapons attack capability. Since the 1990s, the DPRK has started to develop, produce and stockpile the chemical and biological (radioactive) weapons and materials, and has the capability of biochemical radiative warfare. At present, North Korea will 2,500 tons to 5,000 tons of chemical agents dispersed in six storage facilities, chemical weapons, the average annual production capacity of 4,500 tons. In addition, North Korea can also cultivate and produce 13 kinds of biological weapons such as anthrax, smallpox, cholera, typhoid, plague and so on. It is reported that these biological weapons training about 10 days, you can directly put into use.

North Korea’s biochemical weapons will use artillery, missiles, aircraft and other delivery tools. At the beginning of the war, the DPRK is likely to focus on the use of chemical weapons in the area, in order to destroy Han Jun’s defensive positions, to create favorable conditions for its attack. North Korea is also likely to use chemical and biological weapons to South Korea’s capitals, large cities and other densely populated areas to launch indiscriminate attacks, by triggering public panic to interfere with military operations.

3, missile development

In 1985, the DPRK experimented with an improved Scud-B missile with a range of 320 km to 340 km. In 1989, the Scout-500 missile with a range of 500 km was tested. In May 1993, the shooting range was 1,300 km Of the missile No. 1, in August 1998, a test of a 1,600 km to 2,500 km Dapu dong 1 missile, in July 2006 and April 2009 test of the intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) level of the Taipu hole 2 Missiles.

In 2004, North Korea successfully developed a range of 120 km KN-02-type short-range missiles, and carried out a combat deployment. In 2007, North Korea also deployed a medium-range ballistic missile (IRBM) with a range of more than 3,000 km using a mobile launcher. In 2010, the DPRK created a “new IRBM division”, the division under the People’s Army General Staff Missile Guidance Bureau. The reason why North Korea continues to develop a range of 3,000 km or more medium-range missiles, is to “something” to fight against the Korean Peninsula reinforcements, to prevent the US military and the Pacific region in the external combat power to the Korean Peninsula. Although the Korean missile range has increased significantly, but the accuracy is not high. As a result, the DPRK had to increase the number of missiles in order to strike the target effectively.

Table 2: North Korean missile development status quo.

Table 2: North Korean missile development status quo. [Save to album]

Source: Ministry of Defense, “Encyclopedia of weapons of mass destruction” (Seoul: Ministry of Defense, 2004), p.35; reference to “Defense White Paper 2010”.

North Korea’s ballistic missiles, not only able to attack South Korea, Japan, and even the United States are under its threat. North Korea in accelerating the development of the missile at the same time, but also actively promote nuclear development, which has aroused great concern of the international community. Because the DPRK once the ability to carry nuclear weapons on the missile, the threat range and destructive power will be greatly increased. In other words, if North Korea to achieve the miniaturization of nuclear weapons, that is, to create a nuclear weapons below 1 ton, it means that North Korea can be equipped with nuclear weapons in the use of ballistic missiles.

North Korea’s missile production capacity in the former Soviet Union and China’s technical guidance, through independent research and development has reached a considerable level. It is widely believed that North Korea’s missile manufacturing capacity ranks sixth in the world.

(C) to enhance the speed of quick fix

North Korea from the 20th century, 80 years, in order to implement the speed war, focus on strengthening the armored forces, mechanized troops. The late 1980s, the DPRK began to produce the former Soviet Union T-62 tank imitation – “Tianma” tank, this tank in the water depth of 5.5 meters can also successfully wading river. In addition, the DPRK also introduced, produced, deployed a 23 mm air gun. In 2009, North Korea successfully developed “Tianma” tank improved – “storm” tank, and the actual deployment of two “storm” tank brigade. The reason why North Korea attaches importance to the construction of mechanized forces, mainly in order to use the mechanized forces of the motor power and the impact of the speed of war. Over the past decade, North Korea has increased the deployment of more than 2,000 rockets (more than 3,100 doors to more than 5,100 doors) and more than 300 long-range artillery deployments in the vicinity of the Armed Forces (DME). The reason why the DPRK forward deployment of rockets and long-range artillery, is to the beginning of the war on the South Korean capital to focus on the fight.

The North Korean Navy is equipped with more than 810 ships, including combat ships, submarines, support ships and so on. Among them, about 60% of the ships deployed in front of the base. There are more than 290 ships, such as the ship’s combat ship, the missile boat, the torpedo boat, the fire support boat and so on. The support ship has more than 290 ships such as landing craft and hovercraft. The submarine has more than 70 vessels such as Romeo class submarine, shark class submarine and south class submarine The

With the technical support of Russia, the Korean Air Force assembled the MIG-29 fighter from the early 1990s. Since 1999, North Korea has introduced more than 40 MIG-21s from Kazakhstan. In addition, the DPRK has also introduced a new MI-8 helicopter from Russia. Including the main models MIG-19/21, IL-28, SU-7/25 and other 470 aircraft, including the Korean Air Force has a total of 1,650 aircraft.

Into 2000, the DPRK created a light infantry division, light infantry division under the front army. In addition, the former division of the light infantry brigade expansion for the light infantry regiment. In this way, the strength of the special forces of the DPRK significantly enhanced, the number of more than 20 million. The reason why North Korea strengthened the construction of special forces was to make a decision after taking full account of the reality of the Korean-American Joint Forces and the lessons learned from the war in Iraq. Most of the Korean special forces were deployed in Pyongyang and south of the mountain, so they could be used immediately in the early stages of the war. In order to train officers and men of the special combat capability, the DPRK in the division, military forces set up a special combat training ground. According to the Korean Peninsula combat environment continue to strengthen the night war, mountain warfare, street fighting and other special subjects training, making the troops of the special combat capability has been significantly improved. It is not difficult to predict that in the early days of the war, the DPRK will be through the tunnel, air, sea and other infiltration, the special forces focused on the rear area of ​​Korea. In this way, through the active match, the war developed into a speed war.

North Korean troops to the front of the troops as the center, to strengthen the ground forces fire configuration. In addition, special forces are created or expanded. Through these efforts, the army’s first echelon of combat power can be greatly enhanced. This laid the groundwork for the Korean army to focus on the fighting in the early stages of the war.

After the death of Kim Il Sung, the DPRK in the development of nuclear weapons, missiles and other strategic weapons at the same time, the number and level of conventional combat power has also improved. It is widely believed that North Korea’s military power has grown rapidly. The DPRK has provided the necessary military capabilities and means to realize its military strategy by vigorously strengthening the quantity and quality of military forces.

The fourth part of the DPRK military action outlook

First, the Korean crisis situation evaluation

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the socialist countries of Eastern Europe changed drastically. Today, the democratization of anti-dictatorship is spreading and spreading. In this complex international environment, has always been to maintain the dictatorship of the DPRK unprecedented unprecedented difficulties and pressure. The collapse of the former Soviet Union and China’s reform and opening up began to let North Korea doubt its powerful host country. 2011 in Egypt and Libya and other Middle East jasmine revolution occurred, so that North Korea’s sense of crisis further aggravated. At present, North Korea is building the hereditary system of the Jinjia dynasty, but also faces a series of internal and external crises.

Table 3: North Korea may face the crisis index may occur.
Table 3: North Korea may face the crisis index may occur. [Save to album]

From the perspective of the internal crisis of the DPRK, as long as the Kim Jong-un regime is unstable, then around the control of the regime, at any time there may be internal fighting. In addition, economic difficulties, food shortages and other issues may also lead to the discontent of the DPRK residents, leading to distraught inside the DPRK, social unrest.

From the DPRK’s external crisis level, the DPRK nuclear crisis worsened, the international community to increase sanctions against North Korea, will inevitably lead to North Korea’s economy is facing more serious difficulties. North Korea’s military provocation to South Korea has led to further tension in North-South relations, disruption of North-South exchanges and the possible occurrence of new North-South military conflicts. In addition, the communist circle, the collapse of long-term dictatorship, etc., at any time may spread to North Korea, and affect the stability of the Korean system.

When North Korea faces a crisis index, North Korea is more likely to take military action in order to maintain its institutional security. On the other hand, when North Korea faces a relatively low crisis index, North Korea is more likely to focus on strengthening its internal solidarity than military action. In other words, when the internal and external crisis is serious, North Korea will be through military action to strengthen internal control, to resist external threats and pressures, and strive to maintain its political stability. When the internal and external crises are moderate, North Korea will put the army into economic activity in order to get rid of serious economic difficulties. When the external crisis is serious, but the internal crisis is moderate, North Korea will take concrete military action to deal with external threats, and thus strengthen internal solidarity. When the external crisis is eased and the internal crisis is serious, the DPRK will use the army to strengthen its control over the population and ensure its stability.

Second, the military action outlook

If the DPRK launched a military provocation based on weapons of mass destruction, the DPRK’s crisis index would determine North Korea’s military operations. North Korea may take the military action can be divided into four types.

Figure 3: Military operations in North Korea in different crisis situations.

Figure 3: Military operations in North Korea in different crisis situations. [Save to album]

In the “situation I”, the DPRK will launch a comprehensive war. In this situation, the DPRK’s internal and external environment is extremely bad, in addition to launching a comprehensive war, there is no other way to choose. In other words, because of the issue of power inheritance, food problems, North Korea into a serious chaos, the North Korean system is facing a crisis of collapse. In addition, the DPRK-US relations are stalled by the DPRK nuclear issue, and there is no room for maneuver. In this case, the DPRK is likely to choose a comprehensive war that extreme behavior. At this time, North Korea will use strategic weapons – nuclear weapons and missiles threat to South Korea and the United States, and the use of conventional combat power to South Korea launched a large-scale destruction war and speed war. For North Korea, it is necessary to have a prerequisite for launching a comprehensive war, that is, the need for pre-approval and active assistance from China and Russia.

In the “situation II”, the DPRK will launch a local provocation to South Korea. In this situation, North Korea, although facing external and internal crises, but the external crisis is not very serious. In other words, although the DPRK faces external pressures due to nuclear problems, but this external crisis has not intensified. From the internal situation of the DPRK, the DPRK residents due to food difficulties and other issues, dissatisfaction. The whole regime was controlled by Kim Jong-un, but there was a trace of power struggle. At that time, the DPRK launched a military provocation in the area of ​​the Armistice Line and the North Boundary Line (NLL), attempting to divert domestic contradictions, strengthen internal solidarity and further consolidate the Kim Jong-un system. 2010 “Cheonan ship incident” and “Yin Ping Island shelling incident”, is two typical examples. At that time, Kim Jong Il in order to establish its power inheritance system, launched a military provocation to South Korea.

Under “situation III”, the DPRK will take measures to ease military tension. In this situation, both the external crisis, or the internal crisis is not serious, tensions tend to ease. In other words, speaking abroad, the DPRK nuclear issue is moving in the direction of favoring the DPRK, and the economic problem has been solved to a certain extent. On the inside, Kim Jong-un system has been established and consolidated, political stability in North Korea, social stability, there is no power struggle. At this time, North Korea will promote similar to China’s reform and opening up the line, while taking measures to reduce armaments and other positive measures to establish a new relationship between Korea and the United States.

Under “condition IV”, the DPRK will carry out military force demonstrations. In this situation, North Korea’s external crisis is serious, and the internal crisis is not obvious. In other words, despite the existence of food problems within North Korea, but its internal control is very successful. To the outside world, the international community has intensified its pressure on the DPRK due to the nuclear issue, the export of illegal arms and human rights. The DPRK’s friendly forces – China and Russia, have stopped their support for North Korea or taken careless measures. Will be through nuclear tests and missile test to seek foreign political consultation approach. In addition, in order to highlight the role of Kim Jong-un, internal and external display of strong achievements in the construction of a strong country, North Korea may also continue to carry out nuclear tests or missile test activities.

From the above four conditions, the most likely to happen is the “situation II”, that is, North Korea launched a local provocation. At present, North-South relations are stalled. After the death of Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong-un system is full of instability and uncertainty. In order to alleviate the internal contradictions, North Korea is likely to launch a provocation to South Korea. In particular, if there is a power struggle within North Korea or the Kim Jong-un system is provocative or shocked, Kim Jong-un is likely to launch a provocative activity against South Korea in order to demonstrate his strong leadership while eradicating opposition. North Korea may choose to provoke the main way: the peninsula in the western waters or eastern waters using submarines to attack; occupation or shelling the West Sea (South Korea Sea) five islands; in the armistice zone manufacturing military conflict; the implementation of terrorist activities to create chaos in South Korea society Wait.

The most unlikely is “situation I”, that is, North Korea launched a comprehensive war. North Korea is very clear to launch a comprehensive war, means that joint efforts with the ROK and the United States to combat. Obviously, the level of combat effectiveness of the Korean army compared with the United States and South Korea, compared with the absolute disadvantage. Therefore, if the DPRK wants to launch a comprehensive war, is bound to need China and Russia’s full support and help. However, from the reality of the situation, Russia and China will not easily intervene in the Korean Peninsula war. After the disintegration of the former Soviet Union, the Russian national power injury, has not recovered. Therefore, it is difficult for Russia to carry out effective assistance to the DPRK. Although China stressed that North Korea and China are close neighbors, but China is unswervingly promoting reform and opening up, and actively promote economic growth. In this context, China is clearly reluctant to oppose the United States, involved in the Korean Peninsula war, destroy the hard-won peace and stability of the development environment.

Part 5 concluding remarks

Kim Jong Il regime in order to maintain the advantages of the military field of Korea, focusing on the development of nuclear weapons, missiles and other asymmetric combat capability. It can be said that the construction of military forces in North Korea fully embodies the large-scale destruction strategy, quick fix strategy, network strategy.

The “mass destruction strategy” is a strategy established to ensure that “something” is victorious. In 1994, the United States threatened to bomb North Korea’s nuclear facilities. This crisis has prompted the DPRK to establish a “mass destruction strategy” from the containment level has played a decisive role. “Quick war strategy” is based on Kim Il Sung’s military strategy established, the North Korean aviation forces, armored forces, mechanized forces, etc. will play a full role in the speed of war, the military structure is also around the military is conducive to maneuver And the preparation of the. Taking into account these factors, the DPRK will continue to maintain a quick strategy in the future for a long time. “Network strategy” is also the DPRK may adopt the military strategy. At present, North Korea has a considerable number of professional hackers, coupled with the United States, South Korea and other developed countries, military strategy is heavily dependent on computer networks. If North Korea’s “network strategy” can play a role, will directly affect the Korean-American joint forces to play.

The military strategy of the army is based on the military strategy of Kim Il Sung’s offensive concept, adding the military strategy of Kim Jong Il’s defense concept. That is, the military strategy of the army is Kim Jong-il in order to maintain its political stability and socialist system security made a specific choice. Kim Jong-il has repeatedly stressed that the modern war is a new form of war, which is characterized by a highly expanded three-dimensional warfare, information warfare, asymmetric warfare, non-contact warfare, precision combat, short time and decisive battle, and asked the troops to adapt Modern warfare ready to fight. It can be seen that Kim Jong-il has recognized the need to change the conventional tactics of the past and argues that it is possible to win in the future war only if he has adopted a new tactic that can deal with modern warfare. Therefore, it can be said that the DPRK’s military strategy fully reflects the Kim Jong-il military ideology of the war to carry out the method.

From the DPRK’s military strategic changes and the direction of the development of military forces, the DPRK’s most likely future military action is to launch a local provocation to South Korea. In the case of the instability of the Kim Jung-en regime and the stalemate in North-South relations, it is possible for the DPRK to launch local provocations in the vicinity of the Western Seas (South Korea’s western waters) or near the armistice, as well as possible long-range missile tests, nuclear tests, etc. To seek institutional security. Through these military and military actions, the DPRK tried to divert internal contradictions, strengthen internal solidarity and consolidate the regime. As South Korea, in the face of various threats and complex situations, the need to develop a specific, effective and practical response to the program.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

第一部分 前 言



1998年9月,金正日在其政权出台之际,高举建设“强盛大国”的旗帜,提出了新的政治口号-“先军政治”。至2011年12月17日金正日去世为止,他对朝鲜进行了长达17年的强权统治。金正日提出的“先军政治”是指一切以军事工作为先,一切以军事工作为重,在军事先行的原则下,解决革命和国家建设中的所有问题,把人民军队作为革命的栋梁,推进整个社会主义伟业的政治方式 。可以说,先军政治是金正日式的政治方式。其核心内容为,在金正日的领导下,朝鲜的军队积极应对经济困难、社会问题和安全危机,努力维护朝鲜式社会主义体制。“先军军事战略”是朝鲜为了让“先军政治”植根于朝鲜社会,一切以优先发展国防力量为目的,一切以优先保障国防建设为目的的金正日式的军事力量运用方法。


第二部分 朝鲜军事战略


朝鲜的军事战略是在金日成的军事战略思想基础上逐渐形成的。金日成军事战略思想可以说是正规战思想和游击战思想的融合。在中国和前苏联的抗日活动过程中,金日成积累了丰富的实践经验,这些为其军事战略思想的形成奠定了坚实的基础。在这些军事经验的基础上,金日成提出了“主体战法 ”,并强调“主体战法”是朝鲜特有的军事战略。为了充分理解朝鲜的军事战略,研究金日成的军事经历是非常重要的。

1928年,金日成加入中国共产党青年同盟。之后,金日成作为中国共产党的一员,在东满洲、沿海州一带开展了敌后抗日活动。通过小汪清、老黑山、普天堡战斗等游击战,金日成从毛泽东军事思想中汲取了丰富的智慧和营养,逐步认识到渗透战、游击战、夜间战、敌后抗日活动、大部队和小部队间配合战术的重要性。金日成当时领导的敌后抗日活动,主要战斗样式为设伏、突袭等,只是属于战术范畴的游击战。但是,朝鲜将这些游击战样式一味夸大,宣传成大规模的战斗,即革命战争中的典型战例。正因为如此,今天的朝鲜军队依然非常重视游击战 。

20世纪40年代后期,迫于日本关东军的围剿扫荡,金日成不得不逃往前苏联,并被编入苏联红军。当时,金日成通过学习米哈伊尔•尼古拉耶维奇•图哈切夫斯基(1893年-1939年)元帅编写的《工农红军野外条令》,对统合军式的军事组织结构、以机动作战为主的战斗编成、火力为中心的武器装备体系等内容的苏联军队的正规战思想有了一定的认识。金日成在中国及前苏联的军事斗争经历,对于朝鲜发展以数量为主的军事力量,形成实施速度战、突袭战、配合战等的军事战略起到了非常重要的作用。通过韩国战争,朝鲜在其军事战略中增加了歼灭敌有生力量 的包围战,推进政治工作,确保战争物资等内容。通过局部冲突,朝鲜认识至增强配合战执行能力,强化机械化部队及空军力量的必要性。基于上述内容,朝鲜不断对遂行战争的方法加以补充与完善。


图-1:朝鲜军事战略的形成。 [保存到相册]

出处:朴容丸,“朝鲜军事战略问题研究”,《朝鲜学研究》第6卷1号(首尔:东国大学,2010), p.123。



先发制人奇袭战略是指选择敌人完全无法预料,或者即便可以预料但是也没有时间做出反应的时机、场所和方法,向对方发动攻击的战略。先发制人奇袭战略可以最大限度地发挥突然性,以快速、秘密、伪装等方式进行。通常,实施奇袭作战,可以以最小的代价,获得最大的作战效果 。金日成曾多次强调,要做到奇袭成功,平时必须保持良好的战斗态势。不但如此,作战部队还要真正具备能够完全摧毁对方的作战能力。这意味着先发制人奇袭战略的目的是通过高效、快速的作战行动,在短时间内集中战斗力量,彻底摧毁敌作战力量。






在传统的军事战略理论中,速战速决战略一直受到各方面的高度重视。速战速决战略是集中优势兵力,各个击破对方主力部队,在短时间内,以快速的战术取得胜利、结束战局的战略 。为此,朝鲜非常重视速战速决战略的发展,从20世纪80年代起,朝鲜集中力量建设装甲部队、机械化部队。为了实现速度战,朝鲜的部队结构编制也充分突出了快速反应、机动灵活的特点。朝军发动速度战的主要战力有坦克、装甲车、战斗机、常备兵力,与韩国相比,除了装甲车外,朝鲜在数量上明显占据优势。因此,如果朝鲜对韩国发动速度战,那么在数日内,朝鲜军队就可能席卷整个韩国,并阻断美军增援部队的介入。




第三部分 先军时代的军事战略和军事力量建设


金正日在向人民军下达的《学习提纲》中指出,现代战争是新的形态的战争,其特征为高度扩大的立体战、信息战(侦察战、电子战、网络战、心理战)、非对称战、非接触战、精确打击战、短时间速决战 。此外,金正日还强调,要做好新的战斗准备。从中可以看出,金正日已经充分认识到现代战争样式正在发生质的变化,并认为继续采用现有的常规战战法,无法保证未来战争的胜利。因此,在充分考虑现代战争样式的同时,为了发展可以应对韩美联合战力的军事力量,金正日构想了“大规模破坏战略”、“速战速决战略”、“网络战略”。






2006年,朝鲜劳动党宣传部副部长曾发表谈话称,一旦战争爆发,整个首尔将在30分钟内变成一片火海,10万名美军、70%的南朝鲜居民面临死亡,韩国经济的90%以上化为灰烬 。2010年7月24日,朝鲜国防委员会也曾发出威胁称,将在必要的时候启动基于核遏制力的朝鲜式的报复“圣战”。这意味着,“有事时”朝鲜将会利用大规模杀伤性武器来发动攻击。






尽管朝鲜经济上面临诸多困境,但是朝鲜一直在加强军事力量建设。近年来,不但朝军的兵力规模和装备持续增加,部队结构改编时,也非常注重机动作战能力的建设。据韩国2010年发表的国防白皮书称,为提高部队战斗力,朝鲜整编部分军队,将两个机械化军整编为机械化师,将1个坦克军整编为装甲师,将1个炮兵军整编为炮兵师。此外,朝鲜还加强了前方部队的火力打击能力建设 。朝鲜军队的这些变化,为其实施速度战提供了可靠的保证。







网络攻击主要有两种方式 。第一种为非法侵入对方的信息系统,窃取系统保密信息、破坏目标系统数据的方式。第二种为不侵入对方信息系统,在外部破坏对方信息系统,使其功能无法发挥作用的方式。





图-2:先军军事战略。 [保存到相册]





2010年12月,朝鲜人民武力部部长金永春指出,朝鲜革命武装已做好各种准备,在必要的时候将展开“基于核遏制力的朝鲜式圣战”。朝鲜革命武装不但要抵御侵略,还要扫荡敌大本营,消除战争根源,进而实现祖国统一的历史伟业 。此外,朝鲜在2009年新组建了侦察总局 ,进一步强化对外谍报部门的作用和职能。从朝鲜的这些举措中可以看出,朝鲜基于不断发展的军事力量,正在强化在韩半岛的军事冒险主义。







表-1:南北军事力量比较。 [保存到相册]



朝鲜认为,只要美军撤出韩半岛 ,在保持对韩军事优势的情况下,朝鲜就可以实现“对南赤化统一”。无疑,朝鲜强化军事力量,为其实施大规模破坏战和速度战提供了可靠的保证。另外,朝鲜还认为前苏联崩溃和中国的改革开放,造成朝鲜的后援势力变弱。基于这种判断,朝鲜开始针对南方三角军事关系(韩国、美国、日本)大力加强军备建设,以提高其自主的军事应对能力。



朝鲜从启动宁边5MWe核反应堆,到1992年6月接受国际原子能机构(IAEA)核查前,共获得了10 公斤至15 公斤的钚 。据分析,朝鲜一直利用这些钚来推进核武器研发计划。目前,朝鲜大约拥有40 公斤至50 公斤的钚,这些可以生产6枚至9枚核武器(制造1枚核武器需要 6 公斤至8 公斤的钚)。另外,朝鲜的铀(用于制造原子反应堆核燃料)储量非常丰富,整个埋藏量约2,600万吨,其中可采量为400万吨。

关于朝鲜的核能力,美国前国立核研究所所长赫克博士在《朝鲜在核心危机中学到的教训》一文中指出,朝鲜具备与美国在日本长崎投放的那颗原子弹相同威力的核武器制造能力。从目前的情形来看,朝鲜极有可能拥有初级核武器4-8枚。2010年4月9日,时任美国国务卿希拉里•克林顿在肯塔基州路易斯维尔大学发表题为《核不扩散》的演讲中称,据判断,朝鲜拥有 1-6枚核武器。这是美国政府官员首次在公开场合正式论及朝鲜拥有的核武器数量。2010年3月,通过东部战线归顺韩国的朝鲜人民军***在证词中称,2010年1月,他在参加政治学习时,政治教官曾指出“朝鲜是拥有核武器的国家,美国虽然是世界强国,但是不敢招惹朝鲜,完全是因为朝鲜拥有核武器”。


关于高浓缩铀(HEU)问题,2009年9月3日,朝鲜驻联合国前任代表朴吉渊曾指出,朝鲜已成功进行试验性铀浓缩,试验已进入最后阶段。铀浓缩若取得成功,意味着可以以较少的投入,连续进行大量生产,而且还不易被外界察觉 。与使用钚制造核武器的方式相比,使用铀的话,核武器的起爆装置制造起来会相对简单,而且还便于实现核武器小型化。为了能够将核武器搭载于野战炮或短程导弹上作为战术核武器来使用,很多核拥有国往往会选择使用铀来制造核武器。与发展常规战力相比,发展核武器投入的费用较少,并且能够有效弥补军事力量上的劣势。因此,越是国防力量薄弱的国家,为了具备遏制战争的手段,能够与大国进行军事对抗,越会大力发展核武器。

不难预计,朝鲜今后将努力通过发展小型化核武器,来提升对近距离军事目标的打击能力。韩半岛战场缺乏纵深,因此在韩半岛战场环境下,与远程核武器相比,能够进行近距离打击的战术核武器更能充分发挥作用 。另外,朝鲜还将通过构筑大规模的核武器生产体系,试图确立其军事强国的地位。


从20世纪80年代起,朝鲜自主生产毒气弹和细菌武器,具备了一定程度的生化武器攻击能力。20世纪90年代起,朝鲜开始研发、生产及储备化生放(化学、生物、放射性) 武器和物资,具备了生物化学放射战执行能力。目前,朝鲜将2,500吨到5,000吨的化学作用剂分散保管在6个储藏设施中 ,化学武器的年均生产能力为4,500吨。另外,朝鲜还能够培养和生产炭疽菌、天花、霍乱、伤寒、瘟疫等13种生物武器。据悉,这些生物武器培养10天左右,就能直接投入使用。






表-2:朝鲜导弹开发现状。 [保存到相册]

出处:国防部,《大规模杀伤性武器问答百科》(首尔:国防部,2004年), p.35;参考《国防白皮书2010》。




朝鲜从20世纪80年代起,为了实施速度战,集中加强装甲部队、机械化部队建设。20世纪80年代末期,朝鲜开始生产前苏联T-62型坦克的仿制型-“天马号”坦克,这种坦克在水下5.5米深度也能够成功涉水渡河。此外,朝鲜还引进、生产、部署了23毫米对空火炮。2009年,朝鲜成功研制“天马号”坦克的改进型-“暴风号”坦克,并实战部署了2个“暴风号”坦克大队。朝鲜之所以重视机械化部队建设,主要是为了利用机械化部队的机动力和冲击力展开速度战。最近十年,朝鲜又增加部署了2,000多门火箭炮(从3,100多门增加到5,100多门),另外还在非武装地带(DME)附近地区部署了300多门远程火炮。朝鲜之所以前进部署火箭炮和远程火炮,就是为了在开战初期对韩国的首都圈进行集中打击 。


在俄罗斯的技术支援下,朝鲜空军从20世纪90年代初起组装生产MIG-29最新式战斗机。1999年起,朝鲜从哈萨克斯坦引进了40多架MIG-21。另外,朝鲜还从俄罗斯引进了新型MI-8直升机。包括主力机种MIG-19/21, IL-28,SU-7/25等470多架飞机在内,朝鲜空军共拥有1,650架飞机。



金日成去世后,朝鲜在发展核武器、导弹等战略武器的同时,常规战力的数量和水平也有所提升。普遍认为,朝鲜的军事力量得到了快速增长 。朝鲜通过大力加强军事力量的数量、质量建设,为实现其先军军事战略提供了必要的军事能力和手段。

第四部分 朝鲜军事行动展望


20世纪80年代末90年代初,东欧社会主义国家发生剧变。今天,反独裁政权的民主化抵抗运动正在蔓延和扩散。在这种复杂的国际环境下,一直以来维持独裁政权的朝鲜空前感到了巨大的困难和压力。前苏联的崩溃和中国的改革开放,开始让朝鲜怀疑其强大的后援国。2011年在埃及和利比亚等中东地区发生的茉莉花革命 ,使朝鲜的危机感进一步加重。目前,朝鲜正在构建金家王朝的世袭体制,但也面临着一系列的内外危机。

表-3:朝鲜面临的危机指数 可能出现的情况。
表-3:朝鲜面临的危机指数 可能出现的情况。 [保存到相册]







图-3:朝鲜不同危机状况下的军事行动。 [保存到相册]






最不可能发生的是“状况I”,即朝鲜发动全面战争。朝鲜很清楚发动全面战争,意味着与韩美联合战力进行作战。显然,朝鲜军队的战斗力水平与韩美联合战力相比,处于绝对劣势。因此,朝鲜若想发动全面战争,势必需要得到中国和俄罗斯的全力支持和大力帮助。但是,从现实的情况来看,俄罗斯和中国都不会轻易介入韩半岛战争。前苏联解体后,俄罗斯国力大伤, 一直没有恢复元气。因此,俄罗斯很难对朝鲜进行有效的援助。中国虽然强调朝鲜与中国是唇齿相依的友好邻邦,但是中国正在坚定不移地推进改革开放,积极促进经济增长。在这种背景下,中国显然不愿意与美国对立,介入韩半岛战争,破坏来之不易的和平稳定发展环境。

第五部分 结束语





Original URL:

美國軍事網絡戰:黑客入侵防禦成為無菸的戰爭 // American military network warfare: hackers attack and defense creating a war without smoke


American military network warfare: hackers attack and defense creating a war without smoke

Hackers may also be soldiers. Recently, the US Internet security company and the government issued a series of reports that “the Chinese military to participate in hacking.” With the “China hacker threat theory”, the US government immediately announced the latest anti-hacking strategy, although the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense in a timely manner to make a refutation, but for a time, hacker news from the army or aroused everyone’s interest. In fact, the United States is the world’s largest Internet hacker location, has a huge network of troops.

As the daily consumption from the physical store to the transfer of electricity, and now the war has also moved from the line to the line. Not only the United States, Europe and the United States and Asia, many countries have begun to set up their own “network forces” – hackers is to become a frequent visitor to this service. And how these countries are leading the “formal” network of the army.

In 007 “skyfall” in the lovely Mr. Q is a network war master.

In May 2010, the US Department of Defense set up a network warfare headquarters officially launched, the US military strategic headquarters in September 1, 2010 before the development of a network warfare philosophy and plans, and plans in the next few years to expand the network security forces to 4900 people. This marks the United States intends to military hegemony from the land, sea, sky and space to the so-called “fifth field” of the network space extension.

It is reported that the United States is currently recruiting 2,000 to 4,000 soldiers, set up a “network special forces.” This unit not only to assume the task of network defense, but also to other countries of the computer network and electronic systems for secret attacks. According to Xinhua reported that a former US Air Force Major John Bradley at a meeting in 2002, said the United States spent on network attacks on the study than the network defense much more, because the senior staff of the former more Interested. And, the US military network attack time may be much earlier than we imagined.

In the Iraq war that began in 2003, the US military used the cyber warfare more widely. Before the war, thousands of Iraqi military and political officials in their e-mail mailbox received the US military sent the “persuade the letter”, resulting in a great psychological impact. Less than four hours after the war, Al Jazeera English website will be the US military “ban”, can not function properly.

In addition, the United States also in 2006 and 2008 has held two code-named “network storm” large-scale network war exercises.

Japan and South Korea: already set up a “network army”

At the end of 2009, the Ministry of Defense of Japan decided to establish a special “cyber space defense team” in 2011 to guard against hacker attacks and strengthen the ability to protect confidential information. According to the Japanese “Yomiuri Shimbun” reported on May 1, 2011, “cyberspace defense team” plan is set in the SDF command communications system under the initial number of about 60 people. This “network force” is responsible for collecting and analyzing the latest virus information, and anti-hacker attack training.

Japan’s network warfare is through the master “system of network” to paralyze the enemy combat system. Japan in the construction of network combat system, emphasizing the “offensive and defensive”, allocated large sums of money into the network hardware and “network warfare” construction, respectively, the establishment of the “defense information communication platform” and “computer system common platform”, to achieve the SDF Organs, forces network system of mutual exchange and resource sharing. And set up by the 5000 people of the “cyberspace defense team”, developed the network operations “offensive weapons” and network defense system, now has a strong network attack combat strength.

The DPRK this “enemy”, South Korea in 1999 put forward the overall vision of the future information construction, announced in 2009 will be the formation of “network command”, and officially launched in 2010. At present, South Korea already has about 20 million received professional training of the huge personnel, and 5% of annual defense funds are used to develop and improve the implementation of the core technology of network warfare.

Britain and Russia: enlisted hackers

Network forces hackers preferred, as early as 1998, because of the successful invasion of the US Pentagon computer system, Israel’s 18-year-old boy hacker Tenenbaum put on uniforms to become an Israeli soldier. Subsequently, the British government also in 2009, including former hackers, including network elite to defend the network security. They are young, diverse in background, some have been hackers, and even minor cybercrime.

On June 25, 2009, the UK government introduced its first national cybersecurity strategy and announced the establishment of two new departments of cybersecurity, the Network Security Office and the Network Security Operations Center, which are responsible for coordinating government security and coordination of government and government The security of the main computer system of civil society.

India in 2007 formed a land, sea and air armed forces joint emergency team, and enlisted hackers. At the same time, by absorbing the civil master enlisted and the cadet students “hacker” technical training, etc., and gradually complete the future network war talent pool.

Military power Russia in the 1990s on the establishment of the Information Security Committee, specifically responsible for network information security, launched in 2002, “Russian Federal Information Security Theory”, the network information warfare compared to the future “sixth generation of war.” Russia already has a large number of network elite, anti-virus technology is walking in the forefront of the world, in the event of a threat or need, these talents and technology will soon be transferred to military use.

“Black door”: ridiculous blame

Although there is no factual basis, but the US Internet security companies and the government is still often create “hacker door”, directed at China, not only involving colleges and universities, enterprises, as well as technical schools such as Shandong Lan Xiang, there are network individuals, now point to the Chinese military, Even to provide “hacker headquarters building” photos. However, the relationship between the IP address alone, “the source of the attack from China,” highlighting the ignorance of the relevant US people.

How do hackers use their own computer to attack? How can I leave a registered IP address? They usually through the springboard control of third-party computer to form a botnet and then attack. Take the initiative to expose the IP address left traces, is it a professional hacker!

China’s Ministry of Defense International Bureau of Communications Deputy Director Meng Yan wrote that the United States in the transformation of the way to render the Chinese hacker attack trick, even ignore itself is the network virtual space “rule makers.” 2012, 73,000 foreign IP addresses as Trojans and botnet control server to participate in the control of more than 1,400 million hosts in China, 32,000 IP through the implantation of the back door of China’s nearly 38,000 sites in the implementation of remote control, which originated in the United States The number of network attacks ranked first.

Hacker attack and defense: no smoke of the war

Only a few minutes, the domestic password experts, Tsinghua University Distinguished Professor Wang Xiaoyun and her research team with ordinary personal computers, will be able to crack MD5 password algorithm. Before her, even with the fastest giant computer, but also to calculate more than 1 million years to crack.

If this is a war, you can not hear the sound and can not see the smoke. Hackers often through the acquisition of passwords, place Trojan horse program, e-mail attacks, node attacks, network monitoring, find system vulnerabilities, steal privileges and so on, and the use of WWW spoofing technology, the use of account attacks, etc. to launch network attacks.

Reporters learned that the current “hanging horse” (that is, in the page to load Trojan virus), “phishing” (forged WEB site or e-mail, etc.) and other ways to become the mainstream of hacker attacks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:





















中國國防部國際傳播局副局長孟彥日前撰文稱,美國各界在變換手法渲染中國黑客攻擊把戲時,竟然無視自身才是網絡虛擬空間的“規則制定者”。 2012年,7.3萬個境外IP地址作為木馬和殭屍網絡控制服務器參與控制中國境內1400餘萬台主機,3.2萬個IP通過植入後門對中國境內近3.8萬個網站實施遠程控制,其中源自美國的網絡攻擊數量名列第一。





Russian Ministry of Defense set up information operations forces to deal with Western networks – psychological attacks // 俄國防部組建信息作戰部隊 應對西方網絡-心理攻擊

Russian Ministry of Defense set up information operations forces to deal with Western networks – psychological attacks // 俄國防部組建信息作戰部隊 應對西方網絡-心理攻擊

With the Russian and Western cyber space in the game is becoming increasingly fierce, especially in the 2018 Russian presidential election near the background, the Western countries for Russia’s network and information / psychological attacks increasing. To this end, Russia to strengthen the network and information security construction. At the end of 2016, the revision of the new edition of the Russian Federation Information Security Theory. February 27, 2017, Russian Defense Minister Shaoyou announced the formation of information operations forces, accelerate the construction of information combat forces, clear its functional mission.

First, the new theory clearly set up the purpose of information combat forces and their functions

December 6, 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin approved the new version of “Russian Federation information security theory.” It points out that the main objectives of information security in the field of defense include the implementation of strategic containment and prevention of military conflicts caused by information technology, the improvement of the Russian armed forces information security system, the development of information confrontation forces and equipment, the forecasting, inspection and evaluation of the Russian armed forces Threats in the field of information; elimination of information / psychological effects aimed at destabilizing national history and patriotic traditions.

The formation of information combat forces is one of Russia’s important initiatives to achieve these goals. First of all, the Russian information combat forces is to contain and prevent the field of network information conflict or the main force of war. Second, the formation of information combat forces is the Russian armed forces information security system construction and the Russian new military reform an important step, will take into account the strength of construction and equipment development. Once again, the information warfare forces ensure that Russian armed forces are protected from cyber attacks and information security threats, ensuring wartime command and control and operational capability. Finally, the information warfare forces will also confront and counter the Western countries of the anti-Russian information penetration and psychological impact, to maintain the fighting morale and national stability.

Second, the troops named on the network attack and information penetration of the “two-handedly”

Russian Defense Minister Shao Yigu pointed out that the main functions of the information combatants include: centralized management of network operations; protection of Russian military networks and nodes, military command systems and communications systems from hackers; to ensure reliable access to information; Russian military capacity to expand its ability to act in cyberspace; against the Western anti-Russian information / psychological propaganda and penetration.

Russian military experts believe that the future of military struggle in the information combat objectives not only include the armed forces allegation system, the government administrative system and the financial system and other hard targets, more strategic is the soldiers and public psychology and other soft targets. An attack on the implementation of soft targets such as soldiers and people can lead to dislocation and disintegration. Information combat forces should not only have to protect their own side and attack each other hard targets and other capabilities, but also have to confront and oppose the enemy information / psychological attack and penetration. At present, countries with network dominance use different means to implement information operations against different objectives. For the use of special information weapons, such as computer viruses, information bombs, logic bombs, computer chips that are given special missions, explosive devices that generate electromagnetic pulses, UHF generators, and electronic biological weapons. And for the soldiers and the public psychological and other soft targets, create provocative or intimidating false information and spread through the information media to achieve military and political purposes.

Therefore, Russia will be named the “information combat forces” rather than the network combat forces fully embodies the scope of its combat both soft and hard targets.

Third, the integration of active elite forces and the recruitment of new forces simultaneously

The force will integrate the existing Russian armed forces network operations, electronic reconnaissance and electronic confrontation and other departments and functions, while absorbing the Ministry of Internal Affairs and security system of network information security and related experts, including mathematicians, programmers, engineers, cryptographers , Communications experts, electronic confrontation experts, translators and so on.

Russian military arms and institutions in 2013 has set up a “technology even”, and from college graduates in the recruitment of professionals, which is the key components of the military system / unit reserves and training professionals specializing in technology research and development and information security team. According to statistics, this force mainly includes the Air Force’s second science and technology even the space and defense forces of the third technology even under the Army’s fifth technology even, under the Military Academy of Sciences, the seventh technology even Wait. Each with 2 to 3 rows, each with about 20 people. To the air days of military science and technology, for example, the troops regularly recruit college graduates, give priority to the use of computer security, communications systems, information security, special radio systems, cryptography, electronic optoelectronic special equipment and other professionals, by the Air Force Academy of Military Academy training and education The center is responsible for training new people.

Fourth, the force commander has not yet determined, Gracimov is the most likely candidate

Russian Defense Minister Shaoyou clear, information warfare force commander will be general rank. Western countries believe that the Russian armed forces, the current chief of staff, Mr. Grazimov served as the commander of the information operations the possibility of the largest. He has proposed the Russian version of the “mixed war” concept, and received the approval of President Putin. He pointed out that “the current principle of war itself has undergone substantial changes, the realization of political and strategic objectives of the non-military means of the status of a series of events show that the effect of non-military means sometimes more than the use of weapons.” In his description of the “civil war in Ukraine” and “the spring of Arabia”, he pointed out that the information / psychological warfare could “turn a peaceful and prosperous country into a brutal armed struggle in months or even days”. March 4, 2017, Grazimov in military academy, asked the Russian Academy of Military Sciences to intensify the study of the new model of confrontation between countries and effective counter-measures. In addition, the West speculated that Gerasimov’s another reason is that he has served as the Russian armed forces network information warfare the highest commander. In 2010, the Russian Armed Forces commanded a powerful message / psychological offensive, and it was Gracimov who had recaptured the Crimea.

Five, conclusion

At present, the Russian Defense Ministry official website has not yet put information warfare troops, and the existing army, air force, navy and strategic missile soldiers, airborne soldiers of these five arms tied. The forces become separate forces or scattered in the existing five arms and key sectors are not yet known. However, the formation of information combat forces is not only a key step in the construction of Russian network information security forces, but also an important step in the reform of the Russian army in the context of the increasingly fierce network security of information security and the increasingly complex environment of security. Information operations forces will defend Russia’s cyberspace and information in the field of soft and hard targets, to achieve their own attack and defense functions, maintaining national network security and political and military security.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

隨著俄羅斯與西方在網絡空間的博弈日趨激烈,特別在2018年俄總統大選臨近的大背景下,西方國家針對俄羅斯的網絡和信息/心理攻擊日益增多。為此,俄羅斯加強網絡和信息安全建設。 2016年底,修訂頒布新版《俄羅斯聯邦信息安全學說》。 2017年2月27日,俄國防部長紹伊古宣布組建信息作戰部隊,加快推進信息作戰力量建設,明確其職能使命。












俄國防部長紹伊古明確,信息作戰部隊司令將是大將軍銜。西方國家認為,俄武裝力量現任總參謀長格拉西莫夫大出任信息作戰部隊司令的可能性最大。他曾提出俄版“混合戰爭”概念,並得到普京總統的認同。他指出,“目前的戰爭原則本身已發生實質性改變,實現政治和戰略目標的非軍事手段的地位在上升。一系列事件表明,非軍事手段的效果有時超過了使用武器”。他在對“烏克蘭內戰”和“阿拉伯之春”等事件的描述中指出,信息/心理戰能夠將“一個祥和繁榮的國家在幾個月甚至幾天之內變成殘酷武裝鬥爭的戰場”。 2017年3月4日,格拉西莫夫在參加軍事學術會議時,要求俄軍事科學院加緊研究國家間對抗的新模式及有效反製手段。此外,西方推測格拉西莫夫的另一原因是,他此前一直擔任俄武裝力量網絡信息作戰的最高指揮官。 2014年指揮俄武裝力量發動強大信息/心理攻勢,兵不血刃收復克里米亞的正是格拉西莫夫。




作者:易鑫磊 來源:中國日報網

網絡空間治理的力量博弈、理念演變與中國戰略 // Power Game of Network Space Governance, Evolution of Ideas & China’s Strategy


Power Game of Network Space Governance, Evolution of Ideas & China’s Strategy

The global cyberspace governance process involves not only the complex game of information developed countries and information developing countries in the fields of Internet key resources, network power and network security, but also the mutual game between government, private sector and civil society. “Prism door incident” in the intensification of cyberspace governance game at the same time, but also to promote the policy position of the parties continue to adjust to increase the possibility of governance cooperation. At the same time, the cyberspace game also reflects the Internet governance and cyberspace governance and other related governance concepts of mutual conflict and integration trend. At present, China’s participation in global cyberspace governance still faces many challenges. China needs to be based on the development trend of network space game and the evolution of governance concept. Combining with the strategy of network power in the “13th Five-Year Plan”, this paper constructs long-term, complete and comprehensive aspects of international mechanism shaping, talent cultivation and technology development as the core Participation strategy.
In June 2013, former US National Security Agency (NSA) former employee Edward Snowden disclosed the council’s “prism” monitoring program. The event [1] made cyberspace governance in the international agenda in the priority of the re-ascension, but also exacerbated the differences in the position of the parties, leading to cyberspace governance in trouble, for the network space management system to create a great challenge The In addition, the international community on the complexity of cyberspace and its governance lack of clear, unified awareness, resulting in one-sided position and a single policy to further exacerbate the governance dilemma. In the face of the complex situation, Joseph Nye tries to explain the practice of cyberspace governance by referring to the theory of mechanism complex in the field of environmental governance, and analyzes the cyberspace management through the loosely coupled complex composed of many different governance mechanisms The [2] This provides a useful perspective for the analysis of cyberspace governance, that is, cyberspace governance is composed of multiple rather than a single governance mechanism, the interaction between the various mechanisms have an impact on governance. This paper intends to examine the development of cyberspace governance from a more macro perspective, and try to explore the evolution of the concept behind cyberspace game, and analyze the complex relationship between government, private sector and civil society in international and domestic levels The On this basis, to explore China’s response measures and participate in cyberspace governance strategy.

First, the power of cyberspace governance Game

network space management process with the government between the game process. According to the situation of network technology, network capacity and network utilization, governments can be divided into three categories: information developed countries, information developing countries and information undeveloped countries. [③] There are also international organizations to use the network readiness (Readiness) as an indicator to measure the degree of information technology. This ranking basically overlaps with the traditional developed, developing and underdeveloped countries, and of course there is also the level of informationization in individual developing countries rising to the ranks of developed countries, or the level of information in some developing countries The level of the developed countries. Therefore, in accordance with the information developed countries, developing countries and underdeveloped countries to divide the three points in the academic more accurate. There are three aspects of the power game of cyberspace governance: one is the game between the developed countries and the information developing countries in the network ownership, the network resource allocation; the second is the non-governmental actors and the government on the Internet key resource control, network security And freedom and other issues of the game; Third, as the dominant space in cyberspace, the US government in its own private sector, civil society and other countries in the Internet between the key resources and other issues on the game (Figure 1).

First of all, information between developed countries and information-developing countries around the network space between the key infrastructure and network technology between the game. According to the behavior, the topic and the characteristic of the power game in cyberspace management, it can be divided into three stages.
The first stage is the early period of Internet governance, which is roughly from the beginning of the formation of the Internet to the United Nations World Summit on Information Society (World Summit on Information Society, WSIS), which is divided into two phases: the Geneva Conference in 2003 and the Tunis Agenda in 2005. The World Summit on the Information Society appears to be a struggle between governments and the private sector and civil society, in essence, the game between the United States and other countries on Internet control.
This period is the stage of rapid development of the Internet, a large number of new technical and technical standards have been created, the US government took the opportunity to vigorously promote the development of information technology, and developed a series of international technical standards, industry and industry norms. And information developing countries are still in the study, learn from the stage, which makes the United States and other developed countries in the field in an absolute strong position. [4] This stage of Internet governance mainly around the Internet domain name registration and analysis and its corresponding 13 root server control, Internet Protocol (IP) address allocation and other key resources to compete. The United States has almost controlled all international organizations and core businesses that have developed and managed Internet standards and refused to internationalize the relevant management functions or to the United Nations specialized agencies. [⑤] Therefore, at the World Summit on the Information Society, despite the pressure from the United Nations, the developing countries and even the European countries, the United States still refused to hand over the Internet management rights. Into the 21st century, the information represented by China’s developing countries to enhance the network technology, they have the domain name, users and other Internet resources have exceeded the information developed countries, but the representation in the Internet governance is far from enough, So the existing Internet governance reflects the legitimacy of the questioned.
The second stage is the stage of political competition and sovereignty competition of cyberspace governance, which is called the “return” stage of the government in cyberspace. This stage from the Information Society World Summit to 2011. In 2011, China, Russia and other countries to the 66th session of the General Assembly to submit the “International Code of Conduct for Information Security”, advocated the United Nations in cyberspace governance play a leading role. In the same year, the United States and Britain and other governments dominated the global network space management conference (Global Cyberspace Conference), also known as the London process (London Process) was held. <A The network space has become the “fifth strategic space” of human society. With the continuous breakthrough of network technology and its disruptive transformation of real society, cyberspace has become the fifth strategic space of human society. The distribution of order, power and wealth in cyberspace, the developed countries and information developing countries have serious differences on the following issues: whether the cyberspace attribute is “global public domain” or “sovereignty”; governance is government-led “Multilateral governance”, or a multi-stakeholder model dominated by non-governmental actors; governance culture is a “multicultural” or “multicultural” that is dominated by the West. [⑥] The focus of this period is also reflected in the free flow of information content in the field, when Hillary Clinton took the US Secretary of State, the Internet for the freedom of many speeches, advocating the US Internet freedom strategy. The role of the US government and social media sites in the wake of the turbulence in North Africa, which began at the end of 2010, has aroused widespread concern in the developing countries and strengthened the management of the Internet. [⑦] The third stage from the “Prism Gate incident” until now, this stage of the competition more focused on cyberspace security governance. “Prism door incident” to the United States in the field of cyberspace governance moral high ground questioned, leadership decline, forcing it to promote cyberspace governance in the low posture. At the same time, cyberspace security situation is further deteriorating, and the security threats facing countries are further increased. After experiencing the fierce confrontation of the “prism gate incident”, the developed countries and the information developing countries are aware that the maintenance of cyberspace requires the participation of all countries, and no country can lead the cyberspace governance process alone. Information developed countries and information development countries in the cognitive level of the gap gradually narrowed, the reduction of confrontational initiatives, cooperation began to grow space. Second, the “prism gate incident” caused the government and the private sector, civil society between the network security, privacy and other issues on the fierce game. Former US National Security Agency former employee Edward Snow led to expose a including “prism”, “X key points” (X-Keyscore), “Fair” (Fairview), “core” (Main Core) and other monitoring systems, including 10 monitoring systems, the monitoring system by the National Security Agency, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other intelligence agencies to participate in almost cover the cyberspace of social networks, e-mail, instant messaging, Web pages, videos, photos, and so on. [8] National Security Agency requires Microsoft, Google, Facebook and other nine major global Internet companies to open the database to monitor the project to carry out data monitoring. In the “Prism Gate incident” exposure, Microsoft, Google, Facebook and other companies to the court to prosecute the federal government. [⑨] civil society have also acted against large-scale data monitoring. The American Civil Society Alliance launched a “Stop Watch Us” action on the Internet, putting pressure on the US government to get tens of thousands of Internet users’ signatures, messages and responses from hundreds of civic groups by organizing parades Demonstrations, petition to Congress, launch network initiatives, etc. to cooperate with the action. [⑩] In the “prism door incident” triggered the other countries with the US government to carry out monitoring projects ICT enterprises dissatisfaction, countries have taken new measures to protect cyberspace security. For example, the Chinese government has accelerated the process of legalization of cyberspace and began to discuss the guiding ideology of cybersecurity equipment, and formulated the network security review method. After the introduction of the “national security law”, “anti-terrorism law” “Network Security Law (Draft)” and “Criminal Law Amendment (9)” have significantly increased the terms involved in network security. These initiatives have aroused serious concern about US ICT companies and lobbyed the US government to put pressure on China to require the Chinese government to cancel the relevant provisions, such as Article 18 of the Anti-Terrorism Act provides that “telecom operators, Internet services Providers should be for the public security organs, the state security organs in accordance with the law to prevent and investigate terrorist activities to provide technical interface and decryption technical support and assistance. [11] Although from the government point of view, these initiatives help to maintain network security and national security, but in the private sector, the above-mentioned initiatives will not only increase the technical input, but also a substantial increase in costs. As long as cyberspace governance does not achieve a breakthrough, the government and the private sector, civil society between the game will continue to exist, and to a certain extent, will evolve into a national game. <A Finally, the US government and its private sector, civil society alliance with other countries in the Internet key resources on the issue of the game. Internet key resources include: IP address allocation, protocol parameter registration, gTLD system management, ccTLD system management and root server system management and time zone database management. Some scholars use the “cyberspace” in cyberspace to describe the status of Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) in cyberspace governance. [12] For historical reasons, these resources have been by the National

Telecommunications and Information Administration (National Telecommunication and Information Administration, NTIA) under the Internet Digital Distribution Agency (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IANA) is responsible for managing, and NTIA authorizes its management of IANA functions through regular engagement with ICANN. Therefore, it can be argued that the US government controls the key resources of the Internet. The United Nations-appointed Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) noted in its report that the US government unilaterally controls the Internet’s key resources, such as root zone documents. [13] The international community has been dissatisfied with this situation, and the WGIG report has proposed four options to replace the existing structure, hoping to take over the Internet’s critical resources through intergovernmental organizations or global institutions. [14] For ICANN, although it has been seeking independence from the US government and has repeatedly contested it, it is more concerned with how to avoid other intergovernmental organizations or institutions to take over or replace their status. Milton Muller described the phenomenon as “some network liberals even eventually turned into secret supporters of nationalism, because as long as the challenged countries were their motherland, they turned to defend the United States, allowing Its control, leading the Internet. “[15] Thus, in some cases, ICANN chooses to” align “with the US government to prevent other countries or intergovernmental organizations from influencing their governance structures. In ICANN’s organizational structure and decision-making system, the Government Advisory Committee (Government Advisory Committee, GAC) is eligible to nominate a liaison who does not have the right to vote. Information developing countries believe that as an international mechanism for Internet governance, the lack of representation in ICANN from information developing countries should reflect government responsibilities and powers in their future management structures and increase the authority of the Governmental Advisory Committee The But ICANN has repeatedly said it will not accept this change. In this case, the US government representatives are highly consistent with ICANN’s official position, both in the government advisory committee and at ICANN’s plenary meetings. Until the “Prism Gate Event” broke out, the US government was forced to restart the process of internationalization of ICANN’s efforts to guide the cyberspace governance game to a new stage. Second, the future development of cyberspace management trend With the advancement of the network space management process, the parties to the understanding of the spatial properties of the network gradually reached a consensus, and thus in the governance approach, the path of the differences narrow. Especially at the cognitive level, the cognition of cyberspace from various countries is based on different political, economic and cultural backgrounds, emphasizing their uniqueness to objective properties and laws based on cyberspace, emphasizing the integration between different views. [16] Internet space interconnection, sharing attributes determine the zero-sum game does not apply to cyberspace, cyberspace security, development, freedom is the government, the private sector and civil society to pursue the common goal. At the same time, the mutual restraint of the three issues of security, development and freedom makes it impossible for either party to ignore the interests of other actors and pursue their own absolute interests. As President Xi Jinping on December 16, 2015 at the Second World Internet Conference (World Internet Conference, WIC) said: “There is no double standard in the field of information, countries have the right to maintain their own information security, not a national security while other countries are not safe, part of the national security and another part of the country is not safe, but not Sacrifice the security of other countries to seek their own so-called absolute security. ” [17] This position reflects the above special properties of cyberspace governance. As a result, the international community has gradually realized that no one can dominate the process of cyberspace governance. First, the US cyberspace strategy adjustment and ICANN internationalization will drive a major transformation of the cyberspace governance architecture. Facing the pressure, the United States by part of the Internet to give up the key resources of direct control, for its network space to adjust the international strategy to prepare. [18] On March 14, 2014, NTIA, a subsidiary of the US Department of Commerce, announced that it would give up control of ICANN and pointed out in its transfer statement that ICANN’s management would organize global multi-stakeholder discussions on receiving issues, but explicitly United Nations or other intergovernmental organizations. [19] ICANN has been seeking its own independent position since its inception, and ICANN’s internationalization goal is not only to get rid of the constraints of the US government, but also to ensure that the US government will not be taken over by other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Therefore, ICANN needs to reach an agreement with the US government to ensure their independence, but also with other governments to start a game, to avoid its internationalization was strongly opposed. Second, the role of the United Nations in cyberspace governance continues to improve, will effectively promote the network space management structure and norms of the pace of construction. Through the efforts of the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts on Information Security (GGE), the international community has also made important breakthroughs in cyberspace codes of conduct and confidence-building measures. In June 2013, the United Nations published a report of the Group of Experts, composed of representatives of 15 countries. The report clarifies for the first time that “national sovereignty and sovereign international norms and principles apply to national communications technology activities and the jurisdiction of the State in its territory for communications technology infrastructure.” At the same time, the report further recognizes the Charter of the United Nations In the applicability of cyberspace “. [20] “While efforts to address the security of communications technology, States must respect the human rights and fundamental freedoms contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international instruments.” [21] Compared with the 2010 expert group report, the above contents were presented as sections 20 and 21 of the 2013 report, which is a significant improvement in the compatibility of information developed countries and information developing countries in cyberspace governance Sex continues to improve.
In July 2015, the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts on the Development of Information and Telecommunications from the Perspective of International Security published a third report on the Code of Conduct for Cyberspace. This report has reached a consensus on the protection of cyberspace-critical infrastructure, confidence-building measures, and international cooperation. The network sovereignty of the developing countries is further clarified, and the application of international law, especially the law of armed conflict, which is advocated by the developed countries, is also included in the application of cyberspace. [22] Finally, the competition and cooperation model between government and non-state actors in cyberspace governance will undergo a major change, and multi-level game will become the “new normal” of cyberspace governance. In terms of governance and path, countries’ policy positions in cyberspace governance also place greater emphasis on reality, especially in dealing with the relationship between government and other actors. All parties are aware that the responsibilities of the government and other actors should be divided according to the problems in cyberspace governance. For the multi-stakeholder governance model, the information developed countries and information development countries gradually unified awareness, the government and the private sector, civil society according to their respective functions to participate in cyberspace governance. The narrowing of cognition means that one party is more aware of the concerns of the other party. The game between the developed countries and the developing countries in cyberspace governance will be more targeted, and competition and cooperation will be carried out synchronously to promote cooperation through competition. Of course, this has increased the investment in cyberspace, and the increase in the right to speak on cyberspace governance. Brazil, China has established a network space multi-stakeholder meeting (NetMundial) and the World Internet Conference mechanism to explore the network and national security, network sovereignty and other core issues, the voice of developing countries will be more and more, more and more Big. Third, the evolution of the concept of cyberspace governance <a In the information developed countries and information development countries, governments, the private sector and civil society around the network space governance game from conflict to integration behind, reflecting the continuous evolution of the concept of cyberspace governance. Although the game around cyberspace governance is mainly to compete for the power and wealth of cyberspace, the different cognition of actors, objects and methods of governance has had an important influence on the conflict and fusion of governance. Craig Mundie, Microsoft’s chief research and strategy officer, pointed out at the 7th China-US Internet forum that “the misunderstanding of cyberspace in both China and the United States is largely due to ‘Internet governance’ and ‘ ‘Cyberspace governance’ caused by the confusion of the two concepts. [23] Similarly, cyberspace governance game and conflict also reflect the conflict between the two governance concepts. Internet governance is considered to be a multi-stakeholder governance model that is dominated by non-governmental actors, but cyberspace governance also requires the participation and coordination of government and intergovernmental organizations. Internet Governance Project (Internet Governance Project, IGP) defines Internet governance as a network-related decision that is linked by an Internet protocol, including the establishment of a dispute resolution mechanism for policies, rules, and technical standards that are common to the owner, operator, developer, and user. Distribution and global Internet standards of human behavior. “[24] The above definition includes three aspects, namely the acceptance and recognition of technical standards and agreements, the allocation of Internet resources such as domain names and IP addresses, spam generated by human Internet behavior, Cybercrime, copyright and trademark disputes, consumer protection issues, public sector and private security issues, rules and policies. Laura DeNardis (Laura DeNardis) proposed to be in accordance with the Internet transmission TCP / IP protocol level, and according to different levels of different functions to build Internet mode, based on the function, tasks and actors were discussed Internet resource control, standard settings , Network access, network security management, information flow, intellectual property protection and other six levels of Internet governance content. [25] Cyberspace governance has shifted from the professional and technical fields that have been emphasized by the original Internet governance to a wider range of political, security and economic sectors, and the importance of government and intergovernmental organizations in cyberspace governance has become increasingly prominent. Cyberspace is a broader field that includes not only the Internet, but also the data that is transmitted in the network, the users of the network, and the interaction between real society and virtual society. The corresponding cyberspace governance is a broader concept, which is “a category of cyberspace infrastructure, standards, law, social culture, economy, development and so on.” [26] It contains more diverse governance issues and challenges that are increasing. Such as the “Prism Gate Incident”, the government’s high-level threat (APT) due to network action in cyberspace, the Digital Divide and Data Poverty ), Cyber ​​terrorism, online business theft and more and more governance issues have gone beyond the scope of the traditional concept of Internet governance. <A The conflict between “global public domain” and “network sovereignty”, “network autonomy” and “state dominance” in cyberspace governance game reflects that people can not understand “Internet governance” and “network Space governance “between the different governance subjects, objects and methods, trying to use a single governance approach to solve the multiple issues. The bottom-up, open and transparent governance model, which is advocated by the Internet governance subject represented by ICANN, is concerned with the high risk of cyber warfare, large-scale data monitoring and theft, and cyber terrorism. Lack of effectiveness and relevance. At the same time, the state-centered, top-down cyberspace governance philosophy can not effectively deal with the real problems of the current Internet governance and can not replace the dominance of Internet international organizations in the field. With the advance of the network space management process, the two governance ideas and methods in the collision also began to integrate. Joseph Chennai believes that cyberspace is composed of multiple governance mechanisms, in which Internet governance focuses on the technical level and is a subset of cyberspace governance. Should be based on different governance issues, to build a different governance mechanism, so that different actors to play a leading role. [27] The integration of governance concepts is also reflected in the increasing consensus among the parties on the multi-stakeholder governance model. ICANN uses a bottom-up, consensus-based decision-making process that advocates a governance model that limits the role of government. [28] Many developing countries initially opposed the multi-stakeholder governance model, stressing that government-led multilateral governance models should be adopted. With the deepening of the governance process, the information-developing countries have gradually accepted the multi-stakeholder governance model, which is gaining more and more consensus in the private sector and civil society as long as the role of the government is well reflected. The government, the private sector and the civil society participate in the decision-making process according to their respective functions and responsibilities, do not deliberately exclude other actors, nor deliberately pursue the leadership of individual actors, reflecting a more objective and balanced approach to cyberspace governance. Fourth, China’s strategic response <a The Chinese government has put forward the two goals of global governance of cyberspace, namely, to build a peaceful, safe, open and cooperative cyberspace and to establish a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system. Important strategic objectives into the “thirteen five” plan recommendations. The former advocates foreign participation in the international network space management process, in order to establish a favorable international governance system; the latter advocates the development of network technology, nurture the network industry, enhance the national network strength. The mutual support and mutual promotion between the two requires an international strategy that can co-ordinate internal and external situations in response to complex cyberspace. Although the Chinese government has not published a specific international cyberspace strategy document, but by analyzing the existing relevant policies, can still be found in China’s international strategy of cyberspace is still in the exploratory stage. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze and discuss the international strategy of cyberspace in China according to the characteristics of cyberspace power game and the strategy of network power. (A) China’s cyberspace international policy practice Since 1994 access to the Internet, China has developed a variety of forms of international network policy into the international network space system. This aspect is to expand the needs of opening up, hope that through international cooperation in learning, the introduction of foreign advanced technical standards; the other is the driving force of information technology, integration into the globalization must be all-round participation in the international system. [29] In addition, with China’s growing influence in international affairs and increased dependence on the network, active participation in cyberspace governance is also an important way to maintain national interests and ways. China’s network policy is largely influenced by the situation of international cyberspace governance and developed and promoted in the interaction with the international cyberspace management system, showing the characteristics of multi-domain, multi-level and multi-subject. <A First, the international policy of the Chinese government network covers international cooperation in international technical standards, information and communication technology industry cooperation, global Internet governance, combating cybercrime, network economy, digital divide and other fields, and the development trend of global network governance Generally consistent. First of all, from the early technology, industry and Internet standards to gradually expand the cooperation to a wider range of network-related policy cooperation, many policy areas in fact beyond the scope of the Internet itself, and international economic, political and security. Secondly, after the “prism door incident”, with the cyberspace security governance become the main issue in governance, the focus of China’s network policy is also focused on the network security governance, and based on the establishment of national security, political security, Safety and social security. China not only vigorously oppose large-scale network monitoring in the international arena, advocate the maintenance of national network sovereignty, but also pay more attention to the legislative work related to cybersecurity in domestic policy and maintain national security and sovereignty in practice. Second, China’s cyberspace international policy covers bilateral, regional, multilateral and international levels. From the bilateral level, China has established intergovernmental dialogue and cooperation mechanisms with countries such as South Korea, Britain and Australia. These cooperation not only covers the contents of network security, digital economy and development, but also become an important content and support for bilateral diplomatic relations. In addition, China and the United States, between China and Russia in the field of network security to carry out a different degree of confidence-building measures (Confidence Building Measures, CBMs). [30] At the regional level, China and ASEAN, the SCO, the European Union, the Arab League and other regional organizations and countries to establish a variety of forms of network dialogue and cooperation mechanism. In 2009, the Chinese government signed the Cooperation Framework of the China-ASEAN Telecommunications Regulatory Commission on Network Security and the Intergovernmental Agreement on Safeguarding International Information Security of Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and ASEAN Member States. [31] China also actively participated in the work of the ASEAN Regional Network Security Working Group, and in September 2013 held in Beijing, the ASEAN Regional Forum “to strengthen the network security measures seminar – legal and cultural perspective.” Conference development The development of the Internet requires the guidance of legal rules and the need to promote and respect cultural diversity. All parties should strengthen exchanges in the field of cybersecurity, promote mutual trust, promote cooperation and jointly build peace, security, openness and cooperation. [32] Finally, China is also actively involved in the multilateral and international level of cyberspace governance mechanisms, both within the United Nations Framework for Information Security, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Summit on the Information Society, the Internet Governance Forum, or the United Nations Framework London process, cyberspace multi-stakeholder meetings and other mechanisms, China is the main participant; in addition, China also through the World Internet Conference to carry out cyber space home diplomacy. China has also submitted two versions of the International Code of Conduct for Information Security to the United Nations General Assembly, together with representatives of OECD countries such as Russia and Uzbekistan. [33] China is also a major participant in the Global Internet Governance Consortium, where the head of the National Internet Information Office (NYSE), Lu Wei and Alibaba Group Chairman Ma, was elected as a member of the Alliance. <A Third, with the cyberspace governance covered by more and more widely, China’s cyberspace international policy to participate in the main body from the traditional Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industry and further expanded to the Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Finance and the new The establishment of the network letter Office, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs set up a “network affairs office” to deal with cyberspace of foreign affairs. Among them, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is mainly responsible for bilateral, regional, multilateral and international level of network diplomacy, it is China’s docking under the framework of the United Nations network governance mechanism of the main forces, especially from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs arms control officials throughout the four United Nations information security Working Group of Experts. Net letter office as the central network security and information leading group of permanent institutions, China is to co-ordinate the network security and information management of the newly established important institutions. Since the role of network management as a co-ordination and coordination of China’s network affairs is becoming more and more important in the international policy of the network, it has not only carried out multi-level international network security and digital economic cooperation, but also established the governance mechanism of the World Internet Conference.
In addition, the Ministry of Public Security in the fight against cyber security crime, network anti-terrorism, the Ministry of Commerce in the information and communication technology market access, the Ministry of Finance in the network infrastructure external assistance and other areas of work will be China’s future implementation of cyberspace international strategy a solid foundation. It can be seen that China has formed a more comprehensive and in-depth international strategic framework of cyberspace, including pluralistic participant, wide-ranging problem coverage and multi-level participation path, which laid a good foundation for the international strategic construction of cyberspace governance basis. With the development of China from the network power to the network power, China will establish a comprehensive and perfect international strategy of cyberspace. (2) Challenges in the international strategy of cyberspace The evolution of cyberspace governance has brought many challenges to China’s cyberspace international strategy: First, the information developed countries will continue to dominate the network space governance game, which is the network of China The international strategy of space poses a challenge; the second is due to the lack of advanced Internet governance talent, leading to China’s Internet international organization in the serious shortage of the third is the network space governance game to emphasize capacity building (Capacity Building), best practice (Best Practice) And so on, will bring competitive pressure to China. These issues and challenges will have a greater impact on China’s cyberspace international strategy, if handled properly, will have a negative impact on the implementation of the network strategy. <A I = 35> First, the information developed countries continue to dominate the network space governance game direction on China’s international strategic challenges. The global governance of cyberspace is played through various forms of governance, and the construction of the mechanism depends on the negotiation between the actors. The bargaining of the negotiations depends not only on the size of the powers of the actors, but also on the global governance of cyberspace In the agenda set the ability to be closely related. [34] According to Joseph Nye’s definition, the former can be called “hard power”, the latter is “soft power”. [35] The advantages of the developed countries in these two areas are obvious, especially in the mechanism of selective or prioritizing the discussion of cyberspace governance. For example, in cybersecurity governance, the United States relies on its agenda setting capacity to prevent the international community from making large-scale data monitoring a governance agenda, while setting its network economy to focus on priority agendas. In addition, the information developed countries in the establishment of the network of human rights agenda, will focus on the field of freedom, and democracy (one country one vote), equality (the size of the country has the same discourse) and other equally important issues are excluded from the agenda. Not only that, for countries in the “prism door incident” after the request to strengthen the exercise of network sovereignty trend, the United States put forward the “data localization” (Data Localization) this agenda to circumvent the global governance mechanism to discuss network sovereignty. Compared with the information developed countries, information development countries in the agenda setting capacity there is still a big gap, the lack of initiative to set the agenda. In recent years, with China, Brazil, India and other countries have established a variety of cyberspace governance mechanism, emerging powers in the global management of cyberspace in the agenda set the ability to continue to increase. But in general, the gap between China and the information developed countries in governance capacity still exists, and will affect China through international mechanisms to safeguard their own national interests, as well as express their concerns. <
Secondly, due to the lack of advanced cyberspace governance talent, leading to China in the Internet international organizations in the representation of a serious shortage. The trend of cyberspace governance game shows that the control of Internet key resources by international organizations such as ICANN, IETF and other international organizations will not be challenged by government and intergovernmental organizations. As the US government abandons its control over ICANN, the latter will have greater independence. Network space is built on the basis of the Internet, the basis of cyberspace governance is also Internet governance. Therefore, China’s cyberspace international strategy must be in the field of Internet governance to achieve a breakthrough, while enhancing the international organizations in the Internet in the influence and representation. For the majority of developing countries, including China, it is necessary to increase the representation in international organizations such as ICANN, so that more voices from China and other developing countries appear in ICANN. Third, the network space governance game to emphasize the ability to build, best practice and other direction, which will bring China’s severe competitive pressure. The convergence of the cyberspace governance game concept has led to the international community’s focus on cyberspace governance to operational and enforceable areas such as capacity building, best practices, including the provision of network infrastructure to information developing countries and underdeveloped countries; Training in technology, law, and policy related to cyberspace governance; and providing best practices for solving specific problems in cyberspace governance. This is China’s participation in cyberspace governance of the international strategy put forward higher requirements, information developed countries in the field of resources, talent advantage is difficult to shake in the short term, which not only requires the Chinese government to invest more resources, but also China’s Internet companies , Industry associations, legal experts of the common and active participation. (C) China’s strategic thinking of cyberspace governance The basic path of China’s cyberspace international strategy is consistent with the overall macro strategy of China’s integration into the international system and the reform of the international system. [36] In response to the complex cyberspace governance game, China on the one hand to strengthen capacity-building, and focus on the ability to participate in the global control of cyberspace influence; the other hand, between the network security and openness to seek a balance, International cyberspace to establish their own legitimate rights and interests, to avoid the negative impact of excessive security; and strengthen the network strategy and cyberspace international strategy between the strategic interaction, the formation of mutually supportive cyberspace strategy system. <A I = 40> First, combined with the new and future development of cyberspace governance, to strengthen the shaping of international mechanisms. In the cyber space global governance level, the struggle around the governance platform is becoming increasingly fierce. Including the Internet forum, the International Telecommunication Union, the London process, the Brazilian cyberspace multi-stakeholder meeting and China’s World Internet Congress, all platforms have their dominant forces, actors involved in the subject matter and the impact of the play Are not the same. China should explore ways to enhance its own capacity-building programs to the international community in the areas of cybersecurity, cybercrime, capacity building, network economy, cyber culture and the digital divide, in conjunction with the World Internet Forum and other cyberspace governance mechanisms involved. Good practice and solutions such as the ability of public goods. Second, focus on training to participate in cyberspace governance of international talent.
Internet governance organizations are mostly non-governmental organizations, and their multi-stakeholder governance model usually requires the selection of senior management personnel from the Internet community, and the corresponding high-level management, based on the contribution of the selection object to Internet technology and governance Management positions, rather than a traditional intergovernmental organization of a country or vote in accordance with the population, economic ratio to allocate places. In the case of ICANN, its existing management structure is comprised of the Board of Directors and three support organizations, three advisory committees and two technical advisory bodies. The Board consists of 16 voting members and 5 non-voting liaison officers, with the exception of the ICANN President, the remaining 15 places from the Supporting Organizations, the General Members Advisory Committee, the Regional General Membership Organization and the Nominating Committee. To be elected as a member of the voting, must pass the bottom-up nomination and election. Therefore, China should rationalize the system and mechanism, and actively to ICANN and other international non-governmental organizations to transport talent to encourage Internet companies, industry organizations and academic institutions to actively participate in ICANN, IETF, Internet Architecture Board (Internet Architecture Board, IAB) and other institutions to select the talent in order to enhance the international organizations in the Internet in the representation and voice, and to improve China’s influence on Internet governance. Third, to strengthen the network strategy and cyberspace international strategy between the strategic interaction. China has put forward the strategy of strengthening the network power in the “13th Five-Year Plan”, and proceeded from five aspects: technological innovation, network culture, network infrastructure, network security and information construction and international cooperation. [37] Network power strategy has repeatedly referred to the opening up, and actively participate in the Internet governance, and even international cooperation as a separate chapter. This shows that the international strategy of cyberspace and network power strategy between the integration of mutual support. The effective interaction between the two is related to China’s openness to cyberspace, the relationship between security and development. From the perspective of the two-tier game, any country’s strategy is faced with the external situation and the internal interests of the double constraints, excessive emphasis on openness or security are not conducive to the overall national security and interests. Strengthening the interaction between the network strategy and the international strategy of cyberspace helps to improve the awareness of the decision-makers on the security and opening of cyberspace, the security of cyberspace, the development and the relationship between opening and breaking, Consistent with the objective laws of the policy. From a technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy. At the technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy. At the technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy. At the technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy. At the technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy.
At the technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy. At the technical level, the network strategy can better support China’s participation in global cyberspace governance. The main competition in the current cyberspace governance has shifted from the cognitive, conceptual level of the game to the provision of solutions, best practices, capacity building and other specific areas of cooperation. Lack of effective support, cyberspace international strategy is difficult to sustain, and won the recognition of the international community. At the same time, cyberspace international strategy will also help to create a favorable external environment for the network power strategy, providing external advanced experience and lessons to the domestic ICT enterprises to provide a broad international market. Finally, we can learn from the field of foreign aid experience, through foreign aid in the field of ICT to ease or even eliminate the digital divide in cyberspace governance issues, on the one hand can contribute to the network space management of Chinese power, on the other hand also contribute to China’s ICT enterprises Internationalization strategy.


Original Mandarin Chinese:

全球網絡空間治理進程不僅涉及信息發達國家與信息發展中國家在互聯網關鍵資源、網絡權力和網絡安全等領域的複雜博弈,還包括政府、私營部門和市民社會等行為體之間的相互博弈。 “棱鏡門事件”在加劇網絡空間治理博弈的同時,也推動各方政策立場持續調整,增加了治理合作的可能性。與此同時,網絡空間領域的博弈也反映出互聯網治理與網絡空間治理等相關治理理念的相互衝突與相互融合趨勢。目前,中國在全球網絡空間治理上的參與仍面臨諸多挑戰。中國需要以網絡空間博弈的發展趨勢和治理理念的演進為基礎,結合“十三五”規劃提出的網絡強國戰略,以國際機制塑造、人才培養及技術發展等為核心建構長遠、完備和全面的參與戰略。
2013年6月,美國國家安全局(NSA)前僱員愛德華·斯諾登披露了該局的“棱鏡”監聽項目。該事件[①] 使網絡空間治理在國際議程中的優先次序再度提升,但也加劇了各方立場的分化,導致網絡空間治理陷入困境,為網絡空間治理的建章立制帶來極大挑戰。另外,國際社會對網絡空間及其治理的複雜性缺乏清晰、統一的認知,由此而造成的片面立場和單一政策進一步加劇了治理困境。面對上述複雜情勢,約瑟夫·奈(Joseph Nye)試圖通過借鑒環境治理領域的機制複合體理論來解釋網絡空間治理的實踐,通過多個不同的治理機制組成的鬆散耦合複合體來分析網絡空間治理。 [②] 這為分析網絡空間治理形勢提供了一個有益的視角,即網絡空間治理是由多個而非單一的治理機制組成,各種機制之間的相互作用對治理產生影響。本文擬從更加宏觀的視角來審視網絡空間治理髮展的進程,並試圖探索網絡空間博弈背後的理念演變,同時分析政府、私營部門、公民社會等治理行為體在國際、國內兩個層面的複雜關係。在此基礎之上,探討中國的應對措施和參與網絡空間治理的戰略。


網絡空間治理的進程伴隨著各國政府之間的博弈過程。根據各國政府在網絡技術、網絡能力和網絡使用度等方面的情況,可以將其劃分為信息發達國家、信息發展中國家和信息不發達國家三類。 [③] 也有國際組織以網絡就緒度(Readiness)為指標衡量各國的信息化程度。這種排名基本上與傳統的發達、發展中以及不發達國家的三分法相重疊,當然也存在個別發展中國家的信息化水平上升到發達國家行列,或部分發展中國家的信息化水平跌落到不發達國家的水平。因此,按照信息發達國家、發展中國家和不發達國家的三分法來劃分在學術上更加精確。網絡空間治理的力量博弈主要有三個方面:一是信息發達國家與信息發展中國家在網絡權歸屬、網絡資源分配方面的博弈;二是非政府行為體與政府之間就互聯網關鍵資源控制、網絡安全與自由等問題的博弈;三是作為網絡空間中的主導國家,美國政府聯合其境內的私營部門、市民社會與其他國家之間在互聯網關鍵資源歸屬等問題上的博弈(圖1)。

第一階段是早期的互聯網治理時期,這大致從國際互聯網的形成初期到聯合國召開信息社會世界峰會(World Summit on Information Society, WSIS)為止;該峰會分為2003年日內瓦會議和2005年突尼斯議程兩個階段。信息社會世界峰會表面上表現為各國政府與私營部門和市民社會之間的鬥爭,實質上則是美國與其他國家就互聯網控制權而展開的博弈。
這一時期是互聯網快速發展的階段,大量新的技術及技術標準被創造出來,美國政府藉機大力推動信息技術發展,並製定了一系列國際技術標準、行業和產業規範。而信息發展中國家還處於學習、借鑒階段,這使美國等發達國家在該領域處於絕對強勢地位。 [④] 這一階段的互聯網治理主要圍繞互聯網域名註冊與解析及其相應的13台根服務器控制權、互聯網協議(IP)地址分配等關鍵資源展開爭奪。美國幾乎控制了互聯網標準制定和管理的所有國際組織和核心企業,並拒絕將相關管理職能國際化或交由聯合國專門機構管理。 [⑤] 因此,在信息社會世界峰會上,儘管面臨來自聯合國、信息發展中國家甚至歐洲國家的壓力,美國依然拒絕交出國際互聯網管理權。進入21世紀後,以中國為代表的信息發展中國家的網絡科技力量不斷提升,它們所擁有的域名、用戶等互聯網資源已經超過了信息發達國家,但在互聯網治理中的代表性遠遠不足,因此對現有互聯網治理體現的合法性提出了質疑。
第二階段是網絡空間治理的政治競爭和主權競爭階段,有人稱之為政府在網絡空間的“回歸”階段。這一階段從信息社會世界峰會到2011年。 2011年,中國、俄羅斯等國向第66屆聯大提交了“信息安全國際行為準則”,主張聯合國在網絡空間治理中發揮主導作用。同年,美英等國政府主導的全球網絡空間治理大會(Global Cyber​​space Conference),又稱倫敦進程(London Process)正式召開。
這一階段網絡空間治理博弈的特點是,隨著網絡技術的不斷突破及其對現實社會的顛覆性變革,網絡空間已經成為人類社會的“第五戰略空間”。圍繞網絡空間中秩序、權力與財富的分配,信息發達國家與信息發展中國家在下列問題上產生了嚴重分歧:網絡空間屬性是“全球公域”還是“主權領域”;治理手段是政府主導的“多邊治理”,還是非政府行為體主導的多利益攸關方(Multi-stakeholder)模式;治理文化是西方主導的“一元文化”,還是平等協商的“多元文化”。 [⑥] 這一時期的矛盾焦點還集中體現在信息內容的自由流通領域,希拉里·克林頓就任美國國務卿時,針對互聯網自由發表了多次講話,鼓吹美國的互聯網自由戰略。在始於2010年年底的西亞北非動蕩之中,美國政府與社交媒體網站在背後所扮演的角色引起了信息發展中國家的廣泛關注,並加強了對互聯網的管理。 [⑦]
第三階段從“棱鏡門事件”之後一直到現在,這一階段的競爭更加聚焦網絡空間的安全治理。 “棱鏡門事件”使美國在網絡空間治理領域的道德製高點遭受質疑、領導力下降,迫使其在推動網絡空間治理中放低姿態。與此同時,網絡空間安全形勢進一步惡化,各國面臨的安全威脅進一步加大。在經歷了“棱鏡門事件”初期的激烈對抗之後,信息發達國家與信息發展中國家均意識到維護網絡空間的安全需要各國的共同參與,沒有任何國家可以單獨主導網絡空間治理進程。信息發達國家與信息發展中國家在認知層面的差距逐漸縮小,對抗性舉措減少,合作的空間開始增長。
其次,“棱鏡門事件”引起了政府與私營部門、市民社會之間在網絡安全、公民隱私等問題上的激烈博弈。美國國家安全局前僱員愛德華·斯諾登揭露了一個包括“棱鏡”、“X關鍵分”(X-Keyscore)、“美景”(Fairview)、“核心”(Main core)等近10個監控項目在內的監控體系,該監控體係由國家安全局、中央情報局、聯邦調查局等多個情報機構參與,幾乎覆蓋了網絡空間的社交網絡、郵件、即時通訊、網頁、影片、照片等所有信息。 [⑧] 國家安全局要求微軟、谷歌、臉譜等9家主要全球互聯網企業向監控項目開放數據庫以便開展數據監控。在“棱鏡門事件”曝光後,微軟、谷歌、臉譜等企業向法院公開起訴聯邦政府。 [⑨] 市民社會也紛紛行動起來,反對大規模數據監控。美國市民社會聯盟在網上發起“停止監視我們”(Stop Watch Us)的行動,向美國政府施加壓力,得到數万網民在網站上的簽名、留言及數百個公民團體的響應,他們通過組織遊行示威、向國會請願、發起網絡倡議等方式配合該行動。 [⑩]
在“棱鏡門事件”引發了其他國家對與美國政府合作開展監控項目ICT企業的不滿,各國紛紛採取新的措施保障網絡空間安全。例如,中國政府加快了網絡空間的法制化進程,並開始討論網絡安全設備自主可控的指導思想、制定了網絡安全審查辦法,在先後出台的《國家安全法》、《反恐怖主義法》、 《網絡安全法(草案)》和《刑法修正案(九)》中都大幅增加了涉及網絡安全的條款。這些舉措引起了美國信息通信技術企業的嚴重關切,並遊說美國政府對中國施壓,要求中國政府取消相關規定,如《反恐怖主義法》第十八條中規定“電信業務經營者、互聯網服務提供者應當為公安機關、國家安全機關依法進行防範、調查恐怖活動提供技術接口和解密技術支持和協助”。 [11] 儘管從政府角度看,這些舉措有助於維護網絡安全和國家安全,但在私營部門看來,上述規定的舉措不僅將增加技術上的投入,也會大幅度增加成本。只要網絡空間治理未實現突破,政府與私營部門、市民社會之間的博弈會繼續存在,並在一定程度上將演變為國家間博弈。
最後,美國政府與其境內的私營部門、市民社會之間結盟與其他國家在互聯網關鍵資源歸屬問題上的博弈。互聯網關鍵資源包括:IP地址分配、協議參數註冊、通用頂級域名(gTLD)系統管理,國家和地區頂級域名(ccTLD)系統的管理及根服務器系統的管理和時區數據庫管理等。有學者形像地用掌握網絡空間中的“封疆權”來形容互聯網名稱與數字地址分配機構(Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN)在網絡空間治理中的地位。 [12]

由於歷史的原因,這些資源一直由美國國家通信與信息管理局(National Telecommunication and Information Administration, NTIA)下屬的互聯網數字分配機構(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IANA)負責管理,NTIA通過定期與ICANN簽訂合同,授權其管理IANA的職能。因此,可以認為美國政府控制著互聯網的關鍵資源。聯合國任命的互聯網治理工作組(WGIG)在報告中指出,美國政府單方面控制著如根區文件在內的互聯網關鍵資源。 [13] 國際社會對這種情況一直不滿,WGIG報告中提出了四種方案以取代既有架構,希望通過政府間組織或全球性機構來接管互聯網關鍵資源。 [14] 對於ICANN來說,雖然一直尋求獨立於美國政府之外並與之開展了多次爭奪,但它更關注的是如何避免其他政府間組織或機構接管或取代其地位。彌爾頓·穆勒將這種現象描述為“一些網絡自由主義者甚而最終轉變成了國家主義的秘密支持者,因為只要被挑戰的國家是他們的祖國,他們就轉而為美國辯護,允許其控制、主導互聯網。”[15]
因此,在一些情況下,ICANN選擇與美國政府“結盟”共同阻止其他國家或政府間組織影響其治理結構。在ICANN的組織架構和決策體制中,各國政府代表所在的政府諮詢委員會(Government Advisory Committee, GAC)只有資格提名一名不具有表決權的聯絡員。信息發展中國家認為,作為一種互聯網治理的國際機制,在ICANN中來自信息發展中國家的代表性不足,在其未來的管理架構中,應當體現政府的職責和權力,增加政府諮詢委員會的權限。但ICANN多次表示不會接受這種改變。對於這種情況,無論是在政府諮詢委員會中,還是在ICANN的全體會議上,美國政府代表與ICANN的官方立場高度一致。直到“棱鏡門事件”爆發,美國政府才迫於多方面壓力宣布重啟ICANN的國際化進程,這將網絡空間治理博弈導向了新的階段。


隨著網絡空間治理進程的推進,各方對網絡空間屬性的認知逐漸達成共識,並由此使其在治理方法、路徑上的分歧縮小​​。特別是在認知層面,各國對網絡空間的認知由基於不同的政治、經濟、文化背景,強調各自的獨特性轉向基於網絡空間的客觀屬性和規律,強調不同觀點之間的融合。 [16] 網絡空間的互聯、共享屬性決定了零和博弈不適用於網絡空間,網絡空間的安全、發展、自由是政府、私營部門和市民社會所追求的共同目標。同時,安全、發展、自由這三個議題的相互制約關係,使得任何一方都不能忽視其他行為體的利益,而追求自身的絕對利益。正如習近平主席2015年12月16日在第二屆世界互聯網大會(World Internet Conference, WIC)開幕式的主題演講中指出:“在信息領域沒有雙重標準,各國都有權維護自己的信息安全,不能一個國家安全而其他國家不安全,一部分國家安全而另一部分國家不安全,更不能犧牲別國安全謀求自身所謂絕對安全”。 [17] 這一立場反映了網絡空間治理的上述特殊屬性。由此,國際社會也逐步意識到,沒有任何一方可以主導網絡空間治理進程。
首先,美國的網絡空間戰略調整與ICANN國際化進程將推動網絡空間治理架構的重大轉型。面臨重重壓力,美國通過部分放棄互聯網關鍵資源的直接控制權,為其網絡空間國際戰略的調整做準備。 [18] 2014年3月14日,美國商務部下屬的NTIA宣布將放棄對ICANN的控制,並在移交聲明中指出,將由ICANN管理層組織全球多利益攸關方討論接收問題,但明確拒絕由聯合國或其他政府間組織接管。 [19] ICANN自成立以來一直在尋求自己的獨立地位,ICANN國際化的目標不僅是要擺脫美國政府的製約,同時還要確保在美國政府放權後,不會被其他國家和政府間組織接管。因此,ICANN既需要與美國政府達成協議以保證自己的獨立性,也要與其他國家政府展開博弈,避免其國際化遭到強烈反對。
其次,聯合國在網絡空間治理中的作用持續提升,將有力地推動網絡空間治理架構和規範的建設步伐。通過聯合國信息安全政府專家組(GGE)的努力,國際社會在網絡空間的行為規範和建立信任措施等方面也取得了重要突破。 2013年6月,聯合國發表了一份由15個國家的代表組成的專家組的報告。報告首次明確了“國家主權和源自主權的國際規範及原則適用於國家進行的通信技術活動,以及國家在其領土內對通信技術基礎設施的管轄權。”同時,報告進一步認可了“聯合國憲章在網絡空間中的適用性”。 [20] “各國在努力處理通信技術安全問題的同時,必須尊重《世界人權宣言》和其他國際文書所載的人權和基本自由。”[21] 與2010年的專家組報告相比,上述內容分別作為2013年報告的第20和21條款出現,這是一個巨大的進步,表明信息發達國家和信息發展中國家在網絡空間治理認知理念的兼容性不斷提高。 2015年7月,聯合國關於從國際安全的角度看信息和電信領域的發展政府專家組公佈了第三份關於網絡空間國家行為準則的報告。這份報告在保護網絡空間關鍵基礎設施、建立信任措施、國際合作等領域達成了原則性共識。信息發展中國家關心的網絡主權進一步得到明確,信息發達國家主張的國際法特別是武裝衝突法在網絡空間中的適用也寫入其中。 [22]


在信息發達國家與信息發展中國家,政府、私營部門和市民社會等圍繞網絡空間治理的博弈從衝突轉向融合的背後,反映了網絡空間治理理念的持續演變。儘管圍繞網絡空間治理的博弈主要是為了爭奪網絡空間的權力與財富,但行為體對治理的主體、客體和方法的不同認知對治理的衝突與融合產生了重要影響。微軟首席研究及戰略官克瑞格·蒙迪(Craig Mundie)在第七屆中美互聯網論壇上就曾指出,“中美雙方在網絡空間的誤解很大程度上是由於對’互聯網治理’和’網絡空間治理’兩個概念的混淆所導致”。 [23] 同樣,網絡空間治理博弈和衝突也反映了上述兩種治理概念之間的衝突。
互聯網治理被認為屬於一種由非政府行為體主導的多利益攸關方治理模式,但網絡空間治理也需要政府和政府間組織的參與和協調。互聯網治理項目(Internet Governance Project, IGP)將互聯網治理定義為“所有者、運營商、開發者和用戶共同參與的一個由互聯網協議所聯接起來的與網絡相關的決策,包括確立政策、規則和技術標準的爭端解決機制,制定資源分配和全球互聯網中人類行為的標準。”[24] 上述定義包括三個方面,即技術標準和協議的接受和認可,域名和IP地址等互聯網資源的分配,人類的互聯網行為產生的垃圾郵件、網絡犯罪、版權和商標爭議、消費者保護問題、公共部門和私人的安全問題等相關的規定、規則和政策等。勞拉·迪娜尼斯(Laura DeNardis)提出要按照互聯網傳輸的TCP/IP協議的層級,並根據不同層級的不同功能構建互聯網模式,依據功能、任務和行為體分別討論互聯網資源控制、標准設定、網絡接入、網絡安全治理、信息流動、知識產權保護等六個層面的互聯網治理內容。 [25]
網絡空間治理從原先互聯網治理所強調的專業性、技術性領域轉向更廣泛的政治、安全和經濟範疇,政府和政府間組織在網絡空間治理中的重要性也日益凸顯。網絡空間是一個更廣泛的領域,它不僅包括互聯網,還包括網絡中傳輸的數據,網絡的用戶以及現實社會與虛擬社會的交互等。相對應的網絡空間治理則是一個更加寬泛的概念,它是“包括網絡空間基礎設施、標準、法律、社會文化、經濟、發展等多方面內容的一個範疇”。 [26] 它所包含的治理議題更加多元,面臨的挑戰也在不斷增加。如“棱鏡門事件”引發的對大規模數據監控的關注、政府在網絡空間開展的網絡行動導致的高持續性威脅(APT)、全球範圍內的數字鴻溝(Digital Divide)與數據貧困(Data Poverty )、網絡恐怖主義、網絡商業竊密等越來越多的治理議題已經超越了傳統的互聯網治理理念的範疇。
隨著網絡空間治理進程的推進,上述兩種治理理念和方法在碰撞中也開始不斷融合。約瑟夫·奈認為,網絡空間是由多個治理機制組成,其中互聯網治理聚焦於技術層面,是網絡空間治理的一個子集。應當根據不同的治理議題,構建不同的治理機制,讓不同的行為體來發揮主導作用。 [27] 治理觀念的融合還表現在各方對多利益攸關方治理模式共識的增加。 ICANN採用的是一種自下而上、基於共識基礎的決策過程,並主張限制政府作用的治理模式。 [28] 很多信息發展中國家最初對多利益攸關方治理模式持反對態度,強調應當採用政府主導的多邊治理模式。隨著治理進程的深入,信息發展中國家逐步接受多利益攸關方治理模式,只要政府的作用得到合理體現,這種觀點也在私營部門和市民社會代表中獲得越來越多的共識。政府、私營部門和市民社會根據各自的功能與責任來參與決策過程,不刻意將其他行為體排除在外,也不刻意追求個別行為體的領導權,體現出更加客觀和平衡的網絡空間治理理念。


自1994年接入國際互聯網起,中國就制定了各種形式的網絡國際政策融入國際網絡空間體系。這一方面是擴大開放的需要,希望通過國際合作學習、引進國外先進的技術標準;另一方面是信息技術的驅動,融入全球化必須要全方位參與國際體系。 [29] 此外,隨著中國在國際事務中的影響力越來越大以及對網絡的依存度上升,主動參與網絡空間治理也是維護國家利益的重要路徑和方式。中國的網絡政策在很大程度上受到國際網絡空間治理形勢的影響,並在與國際網絡空間治理制度的互動中得到發展和提升,呈現出多領域、多層次和多主體的特點。
第二,中國的網絡空間國際政策覆蓋了雙邊、地區、多邊和國際等多個層級。從雙邊層面來看,中國與韓國、英國、澳大利亞等國家建立了政府間對話合作機制,這些合作不僅覆蓋網絡安全、數字經濟和發展等內容,還成為雙邊外交關係的重要內容和支撐。此外,中美、中俄之間在網絡安全領域開展了不同程度的建立信任措施(Confidence Building Measures, CBMs)。 [30] 在地區層面,中國與東盟、上合組織、歐盟、阿盟等地區組織和國家之間建立了多種形式的網絡對話合作機制。 2009年中國政府分別與東盟和上合組織成員國簽訂了《中國—東盟電信監管理事會關於網絡安全問題的合作框架》和《上合組織成員國保障國際信息安全政府間合作協定》。 [31] 中國還積極參與東盟地區論壇網絡安全工作組的工作,並於2013年9月在北京召開了東盟地區論壇“加強網絡安全措施研討會——法律和文化視角”。會議倡議互聯網的發展需要法律規則的引領,也需要促進和尊重文化多樣性,各方應在網絡安全領域加強交流、增進互信、推進合作,共同構建和平、安全、開放、合作的網絡空間。 [32] 最後,中國還積極參與多邊和國際層面的網絡空間治理機制,無論是聯合國框架下的信息安全政府專家組、國際電信聯盟、信息社會世界峰會、互聯網治理論壇,還是聯合國框架之外的倫敦進程、網絡空間多利益攸關方會議等機制,中國都是主要參與者;此外,中國還通過召開世界互聯網大會來開展網絡空間的主場外交。中國還與俄羅斯、烏茲別克斯坦等上合組織成員國共同向聯合國大會提交了兩個版本的“信息安全國際行為準則”。 [33] 中國也是全球互聯網治理聯盟的主要參與方,國家互聯網信息辦公室(網信辦)主任魯煒和阿里巴巴集團董事局主席馬雲當選為該聯盟的委員。
網絡空間治理的力量博弈變化給中國的網絡空間國際戰略帶來了多重挑戰:一是信息發達國家將繼續主導網絡空間治理博弈的方向,這對中國的網絡空間國際戰略構成挑戰;二是由於缺乏高級互聯網治理人才,導致中國在互聯網國際組織中的代表性嚴重不足;三是網絡空間治理博弈轉向強調能力建設(Capacity Building)、最佳實踐(Best Practice)等方向,將給中國帶來競爭壓力。這些問題和挑戰對中國網絡空間國際戰略將產生較大衝擊,若處理不當,會對網絡強國戰略的實施造成負面影響。
第一,信息發達國家繼續主導網絡空間治理博弈方向對中國國際戰略構成的挑戰。網絡空間全球治理是通過各種形式的治理機制發揮作用,機制的構建取決於各行為體之間的談判,談判的籌碼不僅取決於各行為體的權力大小,還與各方在網絡空間全球治理中的議程設置能力息息相關。 [34] 按照約瑟夫·奈的定義,前者可稱之為“硬權力”,後者是“軟權力”。 [35] 信息發達國家在這兩個領域的優勢明顯,特別是在通過選擇性或者優先設置議程左右網絡空間治理的機制構建。比如在網絡安全治理中,美國依靠其議程設置能力阻止國際社會將大規模數據監控列為治理議程,同時將其重點關切的網絡經濟竊密設置為優先議程。此外,信息發達國家在設置網絡人權議程時,將重點置於自由領域,而民主(一國一票)、平等(大小國家擁有同等話語權)等同樣重要的議題則被排除在議程之外。不僅如此,對於各國在“棱鏡門事件”後要求加強行使網絡主權的趨勢,美國則提出“數據本地化”(Data Localization)這一議程以規避在全球治理機制中討論網絡主權。與信息發達國家相比,信息發展中國家在議程設置能力上還存在較大差距,缺乏主動設置議程的能力。近年來,隨著中國、巴西、印度等國先後建立了各種網絡空間治理機制,新興大國在網絡空間全球治理中的議程設置能力不斷增強。但總體而言,中國與信息發達國家在治理能力方面的差距依舊存在,並將影響中國通過國際機制維護自身國家利益,以及表達自身關切。

确立中国网络空间国际战略的基本路径与中国整体对外战略强调的融入国际体系,并推动改革国际体系的宏观目标相一致。[36] 为应对复杂的网络空间治理博弈,中国一方面要加强能力建设,并注重将能力转化为参与网络空间全球治理的影响力;另一方面在网络安全与开放之间寻求平衡,通过参与国际网络空间建章立制来维护自己的合法权益,避免过度安全化带来的负面影响;并加强网络强国战略与网络空间国际战略之间的战略互动,形成相互支持的网络空间战略体系。
第二,着重培养参与网络空间治理的国际化人才。国际互联网治理组织多为非政府组织,其采用的多利益攸关方治理模式通常要求从互联网社群中选拔高级管理人才,根据选拔对象对互联网技术、治理所作出的贡献来来担任相应的高级管理职务,而非传统政府间组织的一国一票或按照人口、经济比例来分配名额。以ICANN为例,其现有的管理架构是由董事会和3个支持组织、3个咨询委员会及2个技术咨询机构组成。董事会由16名具有表决权的成员和5名不具有表决权的联络员组成,除ICANN总裁之外,其余15个名额分别来自支持组织、一般会员咨询委员会、区域一般会员组织和提名委员会。要想当选为有投票权的委员,必须要通过自下而上的提名和选举。因此,中国应当理顺体制和机制,积极向ICANN等国际非政府组织输送人才,鼓励互联网企业、行业组织和学术机构积极参与ICANN、IETF、互联网架构委员会(Internet Architecture Board, IAB)等机构的人才选拔,以此来提升在互联网国际组织中的代表性和发言权,并提高中国对互联网治理的影响力。
第三,加强网络强国战略与网络空间国际战略之间的战略互动。中国在“十三五”规划建议中正式提出网络强国战略,并从技术创新、网络文化、网络基础设施、网络安全和信息化建设、国际合作五个方面着手,推进网络强国建设。[37] 网络强国战略中多次提到了对外开放、积极参与国际互联网治理,甚至将国际合作作为单独一章。由此可见,网络空间国际战略与网络强国战略之间相互融合、相互支撑。两者的有效互动,关系到中国对网络空间的开放、安全与发展关系的处理。从双层博弈的角度来看,任何一个国家的战略都面临外部形势和内部利益集团的双重约束,过度强调开放或者安全都不利于整体国家安全和利益。强化网络强国战略与网络空间国际战略之间的互动,有助于提高决策者对于网络空间的安全与开放,网络空间的安全、发展、与开放之间关系的认知,打破双重约束,制定更加符合客观规律的政策。

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Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Reasearch