Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China
Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate
China’s People’s Liberation Army General Staff, subordinate to the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The Central Military Commission, is the organization which leads China’s national armed forces; it is a building and military operational command of the supreme command of authority. After streamlining under Xi Jinping’s recent modernization and adjustment, the Office of the General Staff now has an Operations Division, a Ministry of Information, the third section, is the Ministry of Information, which includes military training, a military affairs department, an equipment procurement department, a mobilization section, artillery, armor, combat engineering, anti-chemical warfare unit , electronic warfare radar units, Department of Political Affairs, Confidential Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Bureau, Foreign Affairs Bureau, Aviation Authority, and the military authority over other departments within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
The following highlights at a few key sectors:
A General Staff
General Staff is considered a “General Staff Operations Department,” and is the ultimate operational military authority under China’s Central Military Commission, General Staff of the sequence is the “boss.” One is the most crucial of the General Staff, a division of the army all military commands are issued by one. He is the headquarters of the army during the war, when the war broke out, he was the representative of the country’s Central Military Commission, commander of military operations, and it also serves as the country’s highest military command, from the first place in the hierarchy of the General Staff.
Bai Jianjun incumbent Minister Major General Staff Operations Department, served as the Jinan Military Region deputy commander of the 54th Army, in March 2008, Marshall became the first 20 Army commander led his troops in May to participate in earthquake relief. 2009 appointed Minister of the General Staff Operations Division. There are five deputy minister one, are Major General, the direct leadership of the Chief of Staff Admiral Room Feng Hui.
General Staff of the General Staff is one of the largest department, under the jurisdiction of eight regular division level of bureau-level units, including the operational plan bureau, war Environment Agency, Joint Operations Bureau, Bureau of combat logistics organization, the Special Operations Bureau, the Bureau of the strategic objectives, readiness Bureau the exercise of the Authority. Two units would be under the jurisdiction of more to go, this section of the generals there are dozens of people, there is a joke, just throw a big stone, you can killed several generals. Liang Guanglie, chief of general staff came out after the reform, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff learning system, has been prepared to adjust. The military services, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Strategic Missile Forces (Artillery) – were in combat with a corresponding portion of the armed services bureau, in peacetime, the military services bureau responsible for tracking the corresponding daily activities of the military services, and to the Central Military Commission report. And in wartime, is responsible for coordinating the activities of the various military services.
A functional equivalent of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff J-3. Suppose the PLA is preparing a formal war plan, or emergency contingency plans, then this is a dry live. If Japan is now suddenly on the Diaoyu Islands to stir up trouble, then, is the one responsible for what, in 2001, the South China Sea military aircraft collided, is a direct command of the situation by the process. Also on the 1st to the 6th Shenzhou spacecraft launch, recovery, participation by a command of the General Staff, scheduling.
General Staff on duty 24 hours a belonging department, the command post located near the Summer Palace in northwest Beijing Yuquan Hill, commonly known as “Western Hills command post”, hundreds of meters deep underground command post by the elevator and out, can withstand nuclear attack; the Chinese people PLA land, sea and air, the Second Artillery Corps combat nerve center, similar to the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center. Its own communication center, information center, operations center, and other functional allegations. In wartime can act as a “national war command center” role. Western Hills command post with similar national readiness command center, the country there are many.
Second section of the General Staff
Two is the General Staff of the General Staff “intelligence unit”, is responsible for collecting, analyzing military and political intelligence, and the General Staff and the General Political Department of the three are considered military intelligence system. In a way, its strategic intelligence work and the Ministry of State Security (MSS) has partially overlap. Two main “customer” is the leadership of the General Staff, the Central Military Commission, the Department of Defense, branches of the military headquarters, the military-industrial leadership, and troop commander.
Major General Yang Hui is the incumbent minister of the General Staff bipartite, who has worked in Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Embassy, the Russian Embassy and Kazakh embassy, and later served as vice minister of the General Staff of three, 31 Army deputy commander and concurrently he was appointed Russia Eastern Europe, Central Asia Institute, vice president, director of the Anti-Terrorism Research Center, China International Strategic Studies, Senior Fellow, adjunct professor of the Nanjing Institute of International Relations. Major General Yang Hui network warfare specialists. (Note: The latest data, Vice Minister Chen Friendship promoted bipartite minister)
General Staff consists of more than two bureau-level units.
A game in which the General Staff bipartite intelligence gathering is mainly responsible for Hong Kong and Taiwan. Of course, it is also responsible for important goals worldwide. The following inning with five offices: Guangzhou work at work at Beijing, Tianjin work at work at Shanghai, Shenyang work place. These work all over the place in this city in the name of certain offices appear. For example, work at Guangzhou, the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government is the fifth office. Beijing Working People’s Government of Beijing Office called several offices. Now head of bipartite work at Beijing, the original military attaché in Russia. This is based on the geographical distribution of five configurations are also engaged in the work of the secret intelligence operations overseas. For example, Shenyang is responsible for intelligence gathering work in Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the Guangzhou office work also seems to be responsible for intelligence gathering its adjacent areas. Its primary goal is to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions people. Shanghai and Nanjing at work at work are responsible for Western Europe and the United States.
Second, the General Staff Department of the Second Board, also known as “tactical intelligence bureau”, the PLA’s seven military regions (Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Jinan, Beijing, and Shenyang) each under the jurisdiction of the military intelligence unit, is being at the division level. These two sectors directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Second Board of Management. Primarily responsible for providing tactical intelligence to seven military forces and coordinate their work.
Two military intelligence officers of the General Staff Department of Military Strategy in order to meet demand and sent intelligence, belonging to the General Staff bipartite three innings, commonly known as military attaché office, there are more than four hundred employees, by geographical region and the importance of the Special Envoy of the collection activities is subdivided into seven groups. Military personnel gather intelligence on major foreign arms technology, the scale of war, military doctrine, economic and policy aspects. A lot of this information can be obtained from public sources, but sensitive technology in general must also be taken in order to obtain confidential manner. The main way to get there is the General Staff Intelligence bipartite three ways: First, in various capacities as a cover for sending military personnel to a foreign intelligence; the second is the analysis of military intelligence from foreign publications; third is sent to the embassy military attaché. Chinese embassies were sent by the military attaché bipartite General Staff, and not by the Foreign Ministry or the Ministry of Defence. Attaché is military personnel, the highest level is the military attaché in the United States, is the military level, the rank of Major General. Some military attaché stationed in other countries is a positive military level, some deputy corps, but in most countries the military attaché, were positive at the division level, which is the colonel.
Two military personnel have specialized training institutions, training programs including espionage skills and language ability. Two former Minister General Staff Major General Luo Yudong served as president of the Nanjing Institute of Foreign Affairs. Nanjing Foreign Affairs College now renamed the People’s Liberation Army Institute of International Relations, the predecessor of the PLA 793 hospital School of Foreign Languages, Luoyang and Nanjing after the Cultural Revolution moved from Zhangjiakou, is divided into two colleges. That’s two intelligence skills training and language skills of school.
Second, under the jurisdiction of the Department of the General Staff also have many intelligence analysis bureau, responsible for specific geographical targets deep intelligence analysis: If the bipartite four innings responsible for understanding the CIS and Eastern Europe, political and military policy, five innings for the US and Western countries Analysis of intelligence gathering; and the sixth inning put the focus on neighboring Asian countries and China. Five innings during political and economic analysis of the main advantage of open channels to obtain publications. Analysts bipartite in the United States often have to work for many years in the United States, because this particular study enjoy high reputation in China intelligence circles. At the same time it may take considerable time and effort to develop the language ability of the analyst, so that he can identify the cultural and political information publications in the United States and Europe reflected. Five innings two favorite sources of information is the US Congress and the RAND Corporation report file.
Bipartite seven innings for the Science and Technology Bureau, is responsible for military weapons research, design and development of intelligence. Seven foreign intelligence aimed at future military science and technology, and domestic weapons development unit has close ties, can play a significant role in weapons development process. Qiju existing six research institutions belong to the Agency’s Management: includes fifty-eighth Institute of espionage equipment development, production and technical assistance equipment seagulls electronic equipment factory, Beijing electronics factory, fifty-seventh Institute, North Jiaotong University Computer center and where your own computer center.
Two and a bureau of arms control, specifically designed to deal with foreign ballistic missile defense systems and arms control issues. Since the Foreign Ministry has a department in charge of arms control and disarmament, the People’s Liberation Army and he set up a similar department. And the arms control mechanism is provided under the two, it is because the work of intelligence and foreign affairs at the General Staff of the interior is made with a deputy chief of staff to charge.
Section II has the following departments:
Archives Collection publications abroad. It is a subordinate unit of military Yi Wen Press, the company responsible for the translation and re-military magazine published in other countries.
Secret Service is responsible for handling, conveying and collection of confidential documents, is also responsible for the development of security classification of documents.
Provide comprehensive logistics services for office staff, such as transportation, office equipment, entertainment centers and diet.
Guard Bureau is responsible for the safety of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of leadership. In the second section of the security agencies also enjoy judicial powers.
In addition, the name of the General Staff publicly bipartite research institution “International Institute for Strategic Studies”, which is past the Beijing International Institute of Research. So that both experts and scholars Strategic Research Institute, is the second unit of the General Staff officer. For example, in the period after Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often published by a young scholar to speak against Taiwan Xin Qi, which is the second portion of the General Staff of a scholar. Staff Intelligence bipartite level is much higher than the Ministry of National Security, as it has been extended from the Red Army era to the present, therefore, there is China’s CIA (US Central Intelligence Agency) said.
Second section of the General Staff intelligence officers who are basically three: dense industrial and commercial dry, anchored. The first man is of the General Staff of full-time military personnel bipartite, is in the preparation of such a person in the circle is called the “secret work” professionally trained. The Ministry of State Security and Public Security of these people are called “dense dry”, but also in public security or national security establishment in the interior. The second man is half in the series, in the circle is called the “commercial dry”, saying that they are ‘half in the series “because their names on the computer intelligence unit, but the staff did not enter the military system. The administrative establishment such as one called Zhang Peng, whether it is an accident in Guangdong beat up, robbed, or open the underground brothel, as long as there is no dead, police came when Zhang Peng, Peng can say: You I cannot move, I was engaged in intelligence, a certain person. In addition, if Peng exit, than People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration can only take six thousand Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong when the Chinese citizens to the provisions of carry sixty ten thousand Hong Kong dollars and then caught by Customs, customs Peng will tell people, you cannot move me, I was the mouth of intelligence, is a certain person. Then customs will likely make a phone call to the authorities to ask. And because Peng’s name is on the mouth of computer intelligence, there a check and said: Peng is our people after such confirmation, the customs then you can only put people to put money.
In fact, the second man inside, and can be divided into two categories: one is relatively close to the “secret workers” are both on the list of military computers, has officially made the uniforms. Also, there is a salary nominally, the Central Military Commission is Rehang. If this person is indeed engaged in intelligence work because of the expense, then the money will be handed over to the man’s family. This may usually receive no wages, but the state will retain a person for this. Another person is not doing intelligence, it can be said of such people into the intelligence sector is purely to be able to rely on the usual relationship between the two portions for trading a lot of money. Because everyone knows that Chinese military authorities have called exemption chapter, there is an absolute privilege exemption of imports of goods. A third person is called “anchored”, which most people in the community. The vast majority of these people who are affiliated to a number of foreign military in the local offices below. For example: the Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department of identity at the local level is the “Guangdong Provincial People’s Government fifth office”, the head of sub-director and political commissar. The original five-run political commissar called Fu Jun, vice minister-level equivalent of Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department, he turned out to be the Director of Personnel Department of the Guangzhou Military Region.
Three of the General Staff
Three General Staff, also known as “listening unit”, is responsible for interception, processing and transfer of foreign radio communication signal propagation. That is through a border and coastal areas in the numerous “listening post” in intercepting electronic intelligence work. Former intelligence officers monitoring 24 hours a day listening to foreign television, and now adds support for Internet surveillance. This is somewhat similar to the US National Security Agency (NSA). “Network Control Center” section of the three located in Haidian District. General Staff is currently estimated at three hundred thousand persons responsible for monitoring all international calls. All international calls on recording equipment in advance to enter some key words, such as the names of some of the Chinese leaders, some sensitive event name, as well as some of the taboo words, when the recorder is sensitive to these terms, it will automatically jump up, then monitor staff will immediately check this phone to track listening, and three also intercepted faxes overseas.
Three overseas has many listening posts, in 1992 the Government of Myanmar agreed to set up a listener Chinese station on the Andaman Islands, to monitor the Indian Ocean. 1994 Lao government agree China Champasak Province in southern Laos (Champasak) listens to establish three stations, one in Khong. 1999 Chinese in Cuba located on Lourdes (Lourdes) in a project to expand cooperation listens station, the station was originally established by the Soviet Union.
Three is also responsible for domestic military network communication listener work, any wired and wireless communication links cannot avoid this listener’s ears network between the military regions, which helps to combat security checks.
Similar to the second section of the General Staff, General Staff three in seven military also has subsidiary bodies, regional anti-military regions responsible for intelligence gathering and processing backbone listens station is the headquarters of three military regions to operate directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff Department of the three management. The commander of military regions and staff have no right to intervene in the three institutions to expand their area of prevention work. There is no affiliation between its stationed with the provincial military and large military. These listeners stand personnel, budget, establish respectfully the responsibility of the three Department of the General Staff. Listening station military regions have different functions and objectives of the region, such as: the Lanzhou Military Region, responsible for three innings in signal communication with the Russian side of the listener, and shoulder the important mission of the Russian missile attack early warning. The department should belong to three eight innings, the “former Soviet Union responsible for intercept electronic communications signal”, Central Asian republics also the council’s target range, the listener object is the Sino-Russian border areas. Three 12th Bureau is mainly responsible for the “identification and tracking of foreign satellite – the US military satellites.” A facility located 12 Bureau of Xichang.
Three minister Major General Wu Guohua, political commissar: Major General Wang Yongsheng.
Four General Staff
Four General Staff as “electronic radar countermeasure unit”, established in 1990, is mainly responsible for electronic warfare, including electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, and radar control and so on. Minister of the General Staff had accounted for four flat Major. In recent years, the PLA and electronic warfare tactics Jizhen been strengthened. Before the formation of the General Staff of four electronic warfare is a duty two portions. In addition to the implementation of the policy content of the PLA electronic warfare theory prescribed, four also provides electronic defense to strategic objectives, such as the Western Hills in Beijing military command and control center of the C4I system. In providing electronic protective measures to important national goals, and also in charge of the General Staff of four electronic warfare units army down to the division level units belong. Also manages and signals intelligence and electronic warfare operations leading naval and air forces, such as airborne intelligence-gathering system, the Navy shipboard facilities.
There are also a number four innings, armed forces troops to provide guidance on business respectively, directly under the Department of Electronics and radar troops against troop’s vertical leadership, or their counterparts responsible for some of the work of the Institute. Including the Southwest Research Institute of Electronic (i.e. 29 Chengdu Institute), responsible for the development of radar jammer station. 54 Institute of General Staff, that the special “for the development of electronic warfare and radar unit radar pulse parameters analyzed digital signal processors electronic intelligence.” 36 Hefei Institute, responsible for the development of communication jammer. In addition, the General Staff as well as its own four military academies, including Hefei PLA Electronic Engineering Institute.
In addition to managing the PLA’s military communications systems outside the General Staff Communication Department also full communications infrastructure modernization drive in China has played a leading role. Mainly includes the following items:
◎ Military telephone network (non-secret)
◎ Confidential telephone network
◎ Army data communications network (probably above the “army of public data exchange network”)
◎ Field communications system, which “integrates sound, light, electrical signals, the use of aerial, underground, submarine data link.” (As tactical / operational network system, the integration of optical fiber communications, and satellite communications.)
Another item on the People’s Liberation Army communication systems include:
◎ Underground fiber-optic network
◎ Communications satellite
◎ Microwave Communication
◎ Shortwave radio stations
◎ Automatic command and control network
General Staff Communication Department has a lot of units and personnel within the establishment in the fixed communication facilities (such as high-frequency communications, microwave communications, satellite communications, telephone switching systems, tropospheric scatter communications) as well as mobile communications equipment strategy. Four General Staff under a lot of maintenance and logistics units within the establishment to the relevant equipment repair, supply, maintenance, testing, calibration, and perform the functions of the General terms. In short, the General Staff Communication Department shouldered the main military mission is: planning and realization of the PLA modernization operational command and administrative communication network. Currently in charge of General Staff Communication Department is to build a telecommunication network to meet the need to fight a “local war under high-tech conditions”. At this point, the communication unit is focusing on achieving “six changes” military communications. These changes include:
- from the analog communications to digital communications transformation
- The transition from cable to fiber optic cable
- Terminal to change from single-use multipurpose terminal
- From the electromechanical switching system to an automatic switching system changes
- from the single-task network transition to multi-task network
- from manual to automated systems management and intelligent system management change
General Staff Guard Bureau
People’s Liberation Army General Staff Guard Bureau is prepared, which is the Central Office Guard Bureau, responsible for directing the Central Guards Regiment, known as 8341 troops.
General Staff Guard Bureau is being prepared corps, under the eight regular division level unit, the person in charge is the rank of general, and Chief of Staff of the same level. Secretary is also first deputy director of the Central Office (ministerial level), deputy director of including Deputy Secretary are Major General. Responsible for specific security command and coordination of national leaders you.
General Staff Guard Bureau is responsible for the defense of the leading organs of the Party Central Committee (Politburo) of the Central Military Commission and a safe. Also included Vice President, Vice Chairman of the NPC, CPPCC vice-chairman, the deputy secretary, Supreme People’s Procuratorate long, Supreme Court president and above leaders. Almost all state leaders living near Zhongnanhai and Zhongnanhai, the General Staff Guard Bureau is undoubtedly high position. A head of the Guards Regiment, awarded the rank, indicating the central importance of this force, for example, if what happened now Zhongnanhai, the Central Guards Regiment to the quick, or stationed in the Beijing suburb of 38th Army to the quick. Thus in 1976, the CPC Central Committee smash gang of four, is the central security group (8341 units) completed. Central Guards Regiment in charge of the central leadership of the security work, which is a very important and very politically sensitive posts, who must fill the position is the central leadership of the most trusted people.
In many army troops designation in 8341 is arguably the most famous. It was in 1953 in the Central Guard Division to form the basis of a group together, was formally established in Zhongnanhai June 9 that year. First built in 8341 when the army only 1,000 people, the main task is to defend the five leaders – Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun. Owned by the Ministry of Public ninth inning leadership. The then Minister of Public Security is Lo Jui-ching, Wang Dongxing nine innings of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary is Zhang Yaoci. During the “Cultural Revolution” 8341 troops replaced by the Central Office leadership, Wang Dongxing specifically responsible for leading, directing. Preparation expanding more than 8,000, the jurisdiction of seven brigades, 36 squadrons. The number of troops has been the equivalent of a division of troops. “913” after the incident, Lin Biao and the gang attempted to use against aircraft bombed Zhongnanhai, the Diaoyutai conspiracy, has set up an eighth brigade, namely cannon brigade, arranged around Zhongnanhai in order to ensure the safety of its over, but not for long on withdrawn. First built in 8341 when the guard unit or the target is more concentrated, mainly in Yuquan Mountain; new Rokkasho, Zhongnanhai, etc., and later expanded to Beidaihe, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall, Diaoyutai. Due to various reasons, the scope of security is greatly increased during the “Cultural Revolution”, the addition of Changping farm, Beijing Botanical Garden, Garden Village, East Cabinet and other places.
General Staff Guard Bureau under the jurisdiction of departments are: the General Office of Political Affairs, Policy Research Department, the Department (command and coordination center), Ministry of Information Technology, Communications, Training Wing (Cadre Training Group), livelihood security department, construction review Ministry Liaison Department, cadres Force (Guard Battalion), a brigade authorities Service Center (Zhongnanhai) Second Battalion (Great Hall) Third Brigade (new six) four teams (Yuquan Hill) five brigades (Beidaihe) Six Brigade (Special Operations Battalion) Seven Battalion (Cadre Battalion) Eight brigade is (engineering and maintenance team).
Leading security standards are divided into: a guard of the Politburo Standing Committee.
Politburo member, alternate member of the CPC Central Committee, vice chairman of National People’s Congress, State Councilor for the two guards (the Chinese Nationalist Party Chairman Lien Chan to visit the mainland to strengthen the use of two security guards). CPPCC Vice Chairman, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the three guards over the leadership after retirement if, based upon the original standard security guards. Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the main party leaders who also guard the goal, secretary of the country, the city, the state, as the case may determine the level of security, usually three guards and so on.
8341 security work forces very tight organization, the principal leaders of both the division of labor forces, Mao’s guards done by Wang Dongxing, Zhang Yaoci responsible, guards brigade is a brigade, security forces Zhongnanhai A zone is a brigade, a squadron; Lin Biao The guards work by the deputy head Zhang is responsible for, guards brigade is the Second Battalion, Second Battalion of the Guard squadron is a squadron; because Zhou Enlai lived in Zhongnanhai, the guards brigade is also a brigade, a squadron guards brigade three squadrons headed by Yang in. Other Politburo Standing Committee also has specific security brigade and squadron and responsible person. Was responsible for a team of Zhongnanhai and the surrounding area, the Second Battalion in charge of Maojiawan and the surrounding area, the four teams in charge of security in and around the Yuquan Shan, seven brigade responsible for the central directorate Beidaihe resort and the surrounding area, five brigade responsible for the Diaoyutai State and surrounding areas, other Several brigades are mobile brigade. In addition, each security zone has divided into specific perimeter and inner circle, the inner circle is divided into A, B, C area. A person can freely access area B, C area, but B, C zone A zone cannot easily access. In the 1970s to over Beijing’s Great Hall of the people know or see around pulling the cord, there are security guard, pedestrians cannot enter the security zone. Outside the red walls of Zhongnanhai have fixed posts and swimming whistle, of course, plainclothes whistle. Zhongnanhai, the Great Hall in addition to sentry outside the door, door security zone there, an outsider, a stranger is simply to get in. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others around the residence and living areas as well as multi-channel guard, unrelated persons, including 8341 troops of some leading cadres without the approval and consent also do not allow access, which is strictly regulated. 8341 cadres and soldiers because of their work out of Zhongnanhai, the Sentinels know can be released, and did not know where the company should be contacted to ensure correct case can be released.
However, this designation in 8341 there was a time back and forth change too. In 1975, when the military forces of the designation by the 4-digit rise to 5 digits, but the central security group is still 4 digits, then 8341 to 57001 by the designation of external, internal and remains unchanged, but Soon forces have received notice of the change callback 57001 8341 until shortly after the death of Chairman Mao in 1976, 8341 before it was changed to 57003, in October 2000 to 61,889 units.
General Staff Guard Bureau leaders
SECRETARY: Cao Qing in
Major General Li Hongfu
Major General Yan Min
Ma Jinhu Major General in charge of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo guard
Major General Zhao Jiang stay
Major General Sun Yuan Gong
Major Jiangguang Qing
Major General Zhou Dongsheng
Major General Ye your new
The leaders of the Central Military Commission
PRESIDENT: Xi Jinping
Vice-Chairmen: Xu Liang Fan Changlong
Members: Chang Wanquan Room Feng Hui Zhang Yang Zhao Xia Wu Shengli and Zhang Shi Wei Feng and Ma Xiaotian
Former Chief of Staff
Zhou Enlai and chief of staff
Marshal Xu Xiangqian
Huang Kecheng general
Lo Jui-ching generals
Admiral Huang Yongsheng
Deng Xiaoping’s chief of staff
Admiral Yang Dezhi
Admiral Room Feng Hui
Belonging to the Military Academy of the General Staff
Nanjing Army Command College
Shijiazhuang Army Command College
Information Engineering College (Zhengzhou)
Artillery Command College (Hebei Xuanhua)
Shenyang Artillery Academy
Zhenjiang Institute of boats
Engineering Command College (Xuzhou)
Communication Command Academy (Wuhan)
Chongqing Communication Institute
Electronic Engineering Institute (Hefei)
Institute of International Relations (Nanjing}
Army Missile Academy (Langfang)
Nanjing University of technology & Engineering
Anhui Artillery Academy
Bengbu Tank Institute
Xi’an Communication Institute
Luoyang Foreign Languages Institute
Zhangjiakou Communication Institute
Zhengzhou Air Defense Forces College
Sports (communication) College (Guangzhou)
Engineering Institute of Chemical Defense Command (Hebei Changping)
Beijing Army Aviation Academy
National Defense and the National Defense University directly under the Central Military Commission, not to the local college enrollment
Original Mandarin Chinese:
委員：常萬全 房峰輝 張陽 趙克石 張又俠 吳勝利 馬曉天 魏鳳和
Original Source: http://www.81.cn/jwgd/index.htm