Category Archives: 國家網絡空間安全戰略

China’s Blurred War: Trends of Future Battlefields // 中國模糊戰爭:未來戰場的發展趨勢

China’s Blurred War: Trends of Future Battlefields //


With the continuous development of information technology, changing the form, nature and scale of war, so that the combat style, combat methods, combat environment, combat conditions and other elements have been a lot of changes in the past, the future battlefield becomes more blurred, Can be summarized as the following:

War scale and level ambiguity

War in size and level, can be divided into strategies, campaigns and tactics, in the past, the difference between the three very obvious. From the three interrelationships, the strategy decides the battle, the battle determines the tactics, and the tactics reacts to the battle, the battle reacts to the strategy, which is the inherent law of the existence of the war itself. With the development of information technology, the development of high-tech war as information war, although not fundamentally change the strategic, campaign, tactical and counter-role of this dialectical relationship, but it makes the strategy, battle, tactical action scale increasingly blurred. This is because, under the conditions of information under the conditions of local war, the size and use of troops, weapons, limited duration of war, political prominence, war and strategy, battle, tactics combined very closely, tend to one. Information weapons and weapons to combat high precision, powerful, long range, with all-weather, all-weather combination of peaceful reconnaissance and combat integration capabilities for the rapid realization of the purpose of war to provide an effective means, sometimes do not use large forces can Reach the strategy, the battle target. Any combat unit, and even the individual combat operations, can get a strong information and fire support. Under their influence, tactical combat can directly achieve strategic objectives, strategic command can be involved in the tactical level is no longer a dream at any time. Thus, in the past through the local small victory gradually integrated into a strategic victory of the operational theory of the impact of the strategy, campaign, tactical three combat levels between the increasingly blurred.

With the extensive use of precision strike weapons, stealth weapons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and thus through the first and second fire assault can be reached a battle or strategic objectives. In the Gulf War, the multinational force first through a large-scale strategic air raids, and then through the ground operations of the various forces reached a war purpose; US invasion of Panama, through the use of the Army to implement the five-way center of the campaign to achieve the desired purpose; In the war in Afghanistan, the US military, through the air strike and the special forces to achieve the purpose of the war; the Iraq war, the US military in the air against the cover, the US Army division through tactical action reached a war purpose. The scale of operation and the ambiguity of the level are the reflection of the essential characteristics of information warfare. In the information war, the hostile parties for the rapid completion of the established strategic objectives, will be extraordinary use of combat power, to maximize the advanced technical weapons and elite troops, and strive to destroy each other in a short time the command and control system to win the battlefield The advantage of making information right. This feature of the information warfare, so that the battle of combat and strategic purposes there is no obvious distinction between the scale of operations there is no clear battle battle difference. A battle may determine the outcome of the war, a battle may also achieve the purpose of war, thus greatly improving the strategic role of the battle battle. Especially the various precision guidance weapons, ballistic missile defense system, reconnaissance surveillance system, stealth weapon, C4ISR system and other information weapons and the extensive use of rapid reaction forces, special forces, strategic reserve and other frequently into the battlefield, making the definition of combat scale fuzzy More prominent.

Therefore, in the future information operations, the two sides will fight with the uncertainty of the scale of operations, to take over-the-line precision strike, non-programmatic “acupuncture” and structural damage and other tactics, against each other’s battlefield awareness system and information systems Quickly achieve the purpose of fighting. In this way, the special operations forces on the battlefield may be able to show their talents, that is, before the war secretly penetrate the enemy, direct attack and paralyze the enemy command and control system, so that the enemy lost control of its combat forces, and thus into the chaos of command, The Although the scale of the operation of the smaller, but for the outcome of the war can play a very important role.

Weapon equipment and functional blur

Technical decision tactics, also determines the army’s system and the composition of military and arms. For example, the emergence of weapons and equipment such as artillery, chemical weapons and radio telegraphy, laid the material foundation for the emergence of new arms such as artillery, chemical warfare, and communications. In terms of military services, due to the emergence of the aircraft, and then produced the Air Force; ship advent, gave birth to the Navy. Industrial era, the requirements of the division of labor, so refined and produced more and more professional, reflected in the composition of the army, is the division of arms and branches more and more fine; information age, requires the overall combat, the professional Close cooperation, and take the road of integrated and integrated operations. Reflected in the composition of the military trend, is the integration of combat systems. For example, many of the future weapons and equipment system will form an independent combat unit, both to complete the army requirements of the combat mission, but also to achieve the Air Force’s operational requirements, but also to achieve the purpose of naval combat. In other words, when the future combat aircraft’s infinite capacity to extend, and beyond the atmosphere combat; Army bid farewell to the “ground crawling” to achieve global arrival, global operations; the Navy to the sea to land, to the air combat capability transformation, Battle will inevitably lead to integrated forces. Integrated combat troops, generally composed of armored forces, artillery, mechanized infantry, missiles, attack and transport helicopters, naval vessels and other components, can independently combat, will realize the professional army to the professional army transition.

Future integration forces will be the main performance, will break the traditional land, sea, air, days and other military system, in accordance with the requirements of system integration, the establishment of “super-integrated” integrated combat forces. The future of information warfare is a highly integrated joint operations, the use of traditional forces of the implementation of joint operations, it is difficult to adapt to this highly integrated joint operations needs. To this end, the future composition of the military organization, will break the traditional land, sea, air, days and other military system, in accordance with the reconnaissance surveillance, command and control, precision strike and support to protect the four operational functions, built four subsystems, namely: Subsystems, command and control subsystems, precision strike and combat subsystems, and support assurance subsystems. The functions of these four subsystems are closely linked and organically linked to form an interdependent large integrated joint combat system. The army constructed in accordance with this idea will fundamentally abandon the pattern of military construction in the industrial age, eliminate the disadvantages of playing the military expertise and pursuing the interests of a single service, so that the combat forces form a “systematic system” or “system integration” Give full play to the overall power, the implementation of the true sense of “super-joint” integrated joint operations.


Military combat operations and the preparation of fuzzy war

Military combat forces have different targets and perform different combat missions. World War II, combat forces mainly infantry-based, basically infantry and infantry confrontation; the Second World War, due to the development of weapons and equipment, aircraft, tanks, cannons for war, arms and arms between the combat The task has a distinct distinction, usually performing a different combat mission. However, under the conditions of information in the local war, due to the development of weapons and equipment to the direction of multi-functional integration, the establishment of the army, not only the arms, as well as various services. Combat forces can perform both ground combat missions, but also the implementation of the fight against air and sea objectives and tasks, so that the boundaries between the military operations will be difficult to distinguish. For example: destroy the enemy tank weapons, may have been the Army’s tanks or anti-tank weapons, it may be the Air Force aircraft or naval submarines launched “smart” missiles. The US military plans to form four integrated forces: an integrated ground force composed of armored forces, artillery, flying warriors, attack and transport helicopters: air-to-air mechanized units with “flying tanks”; air force mixed knits composed of multiple models and A “joint task force” consisting of various military units. The Russian army intends to form a “multi-purpose mobile force”, an “aerospace force” composed of ground, air and space forces, and a “non-nuclear strategic deterrent force” composed of non-strategic nuclear forces.

In the future of localized information warfare, weapons and equipment to the multi-functional, integrated direction, the development of the trend of the trend of mixing, miniaturization. Combat, the arms and arms around the established operational objectives, each other, integrated into the organic whole. On the battlefield, the arms and services will be in the land, sea, air, days, electricity and other multi-dimensional areas, around the purpose of a unified combat, both in the activities of space is relatively independent, but also in the combat operations on a high degree of integration, making different arms and arms The task line becomes more vague.

War motives and ambiguity

The motive of the traditional war is generally the political struggle to cover up the economic interests of the dispute. In the information age, the economic interests of the dispute will continue to lead to the root causes of the war, but in addition, due to the international and domestic political forces between the various contacts increased, closely linked, which will inevitably lead to various countries, And the conflicts between the societies caused by political, diplomatic and spiritual factors have increased, so that the contradictions between religions and nationalities have increased, so that violence can be smuggled and drug trafficking and terrorist activities are internationalized. These contradictions and conflicts are not only the direct cause of the “sub-war operations”, but also one of the causes of the war. The direct cause of the Gulf War in 1991 was the convening of the United Nations Security Council immediately after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990, the adoption of resolution 660, condemning Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, and demanding that Iraq be unconditionally withdrawn from its forces. The United States for the protection of Western oil sources and in order to establish a new order in line with the interests of the world’s new order, take the lead in the implementation of economic sanctions against Iraq, followed by the United States led the multinational force to implement the UN Security Council resolution in the name of the troops to the Gulf. Through 42 days of war, the US military reached the purpose of the war. The war in Iraq, the United States to Iraq has a weapons of mass destruction on the grounds, without the authorization of the United Nations launched an injustice war. Throughout the war, the focus of US military operations against Saddam Hussein and a handful of Iraqi high-level leaders, and to find weapons of mass destruction and launched the attack. Although the war has overthrew the Saddam regime, the United States still has not found strong evidence that Iraq has such banned weapons. In this war military purpose, the United States is also to test the new operational theory.

In recent years, the US military vigorously advocated military reform. The theory of the war in Iraq is the theory of “cyber-centric warfare” and uses the new theory of “shock and deterrence” put forward in 1996: emphasizing the use of violent firepower, shocking against opponents, regardless of frontier and depth, The enemy to combat, the use of advanced precision guidance technology, against each other’s goals when one side of the pursuit of both sides less casualties; air and ground operations at the same time, the purpose is to destroy each other’s will, so that its regime collapse, so as to achieve war and subdue The purpose of the soldiers. In the Iraq war, the US military did not carry out large-scale strategic bombing, but the use of high-tech and special forces tactics to combat, which is one of the main achievements of US military reform.

War attack and defense blur

The process of attack and defense in the past is very clear, the attacking party usually in accordance with the offensive preparation, breakthrough, shock, deep combat and other step by step attack procedures, defense side in accordance with the defense preparation, fire against the preparation, anti-impact, deep combat and other sub-combat operations Attack and defense both sides of the various stages of combat orderly. The development of high-tech weapons and equipment and information technology, the new military revolution will change the future combat procedures, combat operations will break through the fixed battlefield and position constraints in the entire operational space at all levels, all directions, all aspects of the same time. In this way, the front and rear lines in the past are blurred, the relatively stable front and fixed battlefields no longer exist, the line of offensive action and defensive action because the battlefield’s high mobility and uncertainty also become blurred and influence World military force balance. Offensive and defensive both offensive and defensive combat, especially offensive and defensive information war will become the focus of future combat art, so that every war has attack in the defense, anti-attack.

Attack and defense operations will be in the land, sea, air, days, electricity and outer space and front and depth, front and wing side, front and rear at the same time, the battlefield frequent mobility, line combat style has not adapted to the conditions of local war development Need to, instead of non-line operations, the formation of a “island-based combat base”, front and rear of the line, the enemy and the two sides of the front becomes blurred, the battlefield of the flow of non-linear or non-state state of the multi-dimensional battlefield.

Measure the outcome of the war with the standard fuzzy

In the past, the criteria for measuring the outcome of a war usually refer to how many troops are wiped out, how many weapons are seized, how many cities and territories are occupied, but in the case of local warfare, the criteria for measuring the outcome of a war are not just that. Under the conditions of information, local warfare, political purpose and war are closely integrated, war attempts often not through the invasion of each other’s territory, wiped out the enemy or the enemy completely surrendered, so as not to lead the world public opinion and the people’s strong opposition, resulting in political Passive.

One of the hallmarks of information warfare is that it minimizes casualties, in particular, collateral damage, and often uses precision-guided weapons to strike precisely, to avoid heavy assault, face-to-face fights, and fight against Libya “Surgical” operations, the implementation of air long-range maneuvers, to achieve the purpose of war; also the implementation of missiles, thousands of miles away siege warfare, but also to achieve the purpose of local war; also like the Gulf War, do not occupy its territory, Do not kill their soldiers a soldier, not seized its weapons, ammunition, the implementation of large-scale air strikes, weakened its military facilities, destroyed its regime.

The war army is blurred with the people

In previous wars, the links between the army and the society were relatively “loose” due to restrictions on information infrastructure and technology; pure war weapons and equipment also led to military organizations that were completely independent of the people. Information age, information has become a link between the military and the people, this combination, with the social and military information degree of development, integration will also continue to improve. This makes society and ordinary people no longer a spectator of war, and even not only in support and subordinate status, but with the army, from the back of the war to the front desk.

As people see, on the one hand, the purpose of modern warfare is no longer simply pursuing siege and the greatest annihilation of enemy forces, the target is no longer confined to the enemy’s heavy military and military facilities, but includes Corresponding to the survival and operation of the infrastructure, such as: financial networks, power grids, transport networks, administrative networks, communications networks. On the other hand, the war has a tendency to “civilians”. For example, information makes the “non-state” has the ability to confront national power. Any “non-state subject”, as long as there is a certain technical and information equipment, you can attack the vital goal of a country, its harm is sometimes no less than a traditional sense of the war. Such as Al Qaeda attacks on the United States launched the 9.11 attack, that is the case. Although the composition of the information warfare forces, although still have traces of the war in the past war, but in the form of form and combat quality, due to more information to join the content, in particular, more to join the information of the whole society Warfare ability, so no doubt to determine the specific role of information warfare when the thinking tends to blur, but for combat decision-making and command to bring greater difficulties. With the in-depth development of information technology, the degree of social information will be greatly improved. In this case the information war, it is more prominent military and civilian compatibility characteristics. Especially in the information warfare, many high-tech work, alone, the strength of the army is difficult to complete independently, but also the need for the whole social forces of collaboration, which makes the information warfare combat power, more into the national factors.

Combat both forces with contrast and blur

In the past, the strength of the war between the two sides, usually the number of military personnel, the number of weapons to measure the number of weapons to determine the strength of the advantages of planning and combat operations. But in the information under the conditions of local war, concentrated forces of content and methods have changed. The strength of the comparison is not only the number of considerations, but also mainly consider the quality, in particular, to consider the concentration of firepower and information, a variety of long-range strike weapons do not need to focus on deployment, you can focus on the implementation of the target surprise. To make the concentration of fire after the effective role, but also must focus on a lot of information, otherwise they can not capture, track and destroy the target. The most important weapon in military forces will no longer be a high-performance fighter, bomber, tank, warships, but a huge flood of data from the information system. Invisible information and knowledge, like armored masters, play a huge role in combat and are increasingly becoming the most important combat and power multiplier. Computing power, communication ability, reconnaissance ability, processing ability, decision-making ability, computer simulation ability, network warfare and other information and knowledge factors will become a key factor in measuring military power.

The contrast of military forces is increasingly dependent on the invisible and difficult potential of the intelligence and structural forces of the information weapons system. Therefore, in the past according to the number of combatants and tanks, aircraft, artillery, warships and other weapons and equipment performance, quantity and other static indicators to assess the strength of military strength is clearly challenged. Because of the intelligence of the information weapon system, the structural force has great potential for dynamic. The strength of the Gulf War contrast and the outcome of the war can explain this problem. Before the war, Iraq and the multinational force compared to 1.6: 1, but the result of the war is the Iraqi army casualties for the multinational force 100 times. Obviously, if not a large number of multinational force weapons system to play a multiplier combat potential, there will be no such a war situation. It can be seen that the principle of force assessment of the number of static quantities will be replaced by a new force theory.

Battlefield information is true and false

Because of the development of information technology, and widely used in future war, so that a large amount of modern war information, processing information has been very difficult. Such as: the US Strategic Air Force Command, an average of more than 815,000 per month to deal with military information, almost 26,500 copies per day. In the Gulf War, the multinational force in the 42 days of combat, dealing with up to millions of military information. Only the US Army logistics will handle 10,700 copies of military information every day. After the military, weapons and equipment and the battlefield are digitized, the military information highway will cover the entire combat space, the information is true and false, there are new and old, heavy and light, there is real, there are thick and so on, information Like the tide to the red and blue both sides of the command came. In such a fast-paced, fighter fleeting, information massive battlefield environment, to the red and blue commander of a brief decision-making time, forcing both commanders in the complex battlefield information forging discrimination, analysis and judgment, quick decision-making , Through the phenomenon to seize the essence, improve the command ability.

Battlefield space and scope is blurred

Battlefield is the enemy of the two sides of the interaction between combat forces and combat forces and firepower to kill the maximum distance. In the past war, due to the level of weapons and equipment constraints, cold weapons era battlefield space, basically confined to the war between the two sides of the visual distance; hot weapons and mechanized war era, battlefield space by the firearms and the two sides of the maneuverability And the battlefield space is expanding, and from a single land battlefield, to the development of the marine battlefield and air battlefield; combat distance from the visual distance to the development of remote and ultra-long-range , The depth and dimension of the battlefield continue to expand. After entering the information warfare, with the development of military weapons and equipment and structure changes, modern warfare space from the traditional land, sea and air to space, computer space, especially information, psychology, electromagnetic, cognitive and other virtual space expansion , In addition to the range of modern weapons and equipment and a substantial increase in mobility, the future battlefield in front and rear become increasingly blurred, in addition to the solid space in the solid before and after the exception, in the dynamic action space has no difference. Fighting may start from the front, it may start from the depth. Especially the establishment of digital forces, so that the army choose the way of combat operations, with greater freedom and flexibility. At the same time, but also to accurately determine the other side of the operational space and the exact location of the space, increasing the complexity. First, information weapons greatly improve the military’s ability to war, so that the military battlefield combat more flexible way. Second, information weapons greatly enhance the military’s full-time, all-round rapid mobility, so that information warfare warfare areas to expand.

Military aerospace capacity and long-range air transport capacity, the extensive use of armed helicopters, to achieve long-range rapid maneuver provides a good material basis. Future information warfare, or in three-dimensional space or in four-dimensional space, generally difficult to accurately grasp. And only when the other side of the combat operations to a certain size, it is possible to make a relatively accurate judgments, which to some extent increased the difficulty of command and control. The ambiguity of combat space is also manifested in the fuzzy scope of combat operations. As the future of information operations will break through the frontier to the depth of the gradual advance of the pattern, in a multi-dimensional space within the full range, full depth of the war, so that the scope of combat operations increased, combat space has become elusive. The uncertainty of the scale of combat operations in the information warfare determines the diversity of combat space. This also makes it possible to judge the space of the other combat operations, become blurred, and show the characteristics of difficult to predict and control.

Combat methods and methods are blurred

Advanced information technology, not only to achieve the real-time reconnaissance intelligence and digital battlefield, greatly improving the combat effectiveness of the army, more importantly, there have been many new means of warfare: such as information warfare momentum and power to make enemies Information deterrence; to disperse, conceal and open the information channel of the information shielding; on the enemy battlefield awareness system and information system implementation of information attacks; through the information system hidden false information fraud and information cut, computer virus attacks , Special operations, psychological warfare, non-contact operations, non-fatal attacks, structural damage warfare, these combat methods used in information warfare, completely changed the past offensive and defensive procedures clear and coherent characteristics, so that the use of combat means Order, combat form of non-model and other characteristics of more and more prominent, and then led to the information warfare, the use of the enemy means of warfare, timing and methods, become more difficult to guess. In the process of the combination of fuzzy, that is, in the course of the war, due to the enemy due to the appropriate choice of means of attack, and flexible combination, so that the enemy can not determine what the other side will take the means of combat, can not effectively take the appropriate protective measures. In the use of the timing of the fuzzy, that is, according to the intention of war and combat purposes, for different stages of combat and different areas of combat, to take different means of attack, reduce the enemy resistance will make it in trouble. In the fight against the ambiguity of the target, that is, the use of information warfare means of diversification, for the needs of information operations, both sound East West, but also the East and East, the flexibility to combat the enemy command center, communication center or radar station, air defense system , Logistical support systems and other key nodes, so that the enemy is difficult to use the means of my war to make accurate predictions.

Original Mandarin Chinese:




























由於信息技術的發展,並廣泛運用於未來戰爭,使現代戰爭信息量很大,處理信息已經十分困難。如:美國戰略空軍司令部,平均每月要處理軍事信息815000多份,差不多每天處理26500份。在海灣戰爭中,多國部隊在42 天作戰中,處理軍事信息多達數百萬份。僅美國陸軍後勤每天就要處理軍事信息10700份。在軍隊、武器裝備和戰場都實現數字化以後,軍事信息高速公路將覆蓋整個作戰空間,這些信息有真有假、有新有舊、有重有輕、有虛有實、有粗有細等,信息像潮水般地向紅藍雙方指揮所湧來。在這樣快節奏、戰機稍縱即逝、信息海量戰場環境中,給紅藍雙方指揮員短暫決策處理時間,逼著雙方指揮員在錯綜複雜的戰場信息中鍛鍊辨別力、分析判斷力、快速決策力,透過現象抓住本質,提高指揮能力。






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中國優先發展網絡戰略信息化戰 // China to give priority to the development of network strategy & information warfare

中國優先發展網絡戰略信息化戰 //

China to give priority to the development of network strategy & information warfare

Cyberspace has become the national comprehensive security of the door. Network warfare reality, the network battlefield globalization, network confrontation normalization, the network attack heart white hot, the network to build the army of the general trend, no one can block. Give priority to the development of network strategy, and actively seize the commanding heights of network strategy, for my army building is of great significance.

  The main features of network strategy

Network strategic strength refers to the ability to achieve the desired results through cyberspace. From the current development and possible future trends, mainly with the following characteristics.

Composed of multiple. In recent years, the major network events in the world have shown that the strategic power of the military network is the main force of cyberspace competition. The strategic power of the government departments and the private sector is an important part of the cyberspace competition. The “cyber warrior” An important addition.

Strong professionalism. Network strategy strength has a strong latent and difficult to predict, and the speed of light, instantaneous effect, monitoring and early warning is difficult; once the action is effective, damage effect superimposed magnification or non-linear step, with a typical “butterfly effect.” In 2010, the “shock net” virus attacked the centrifuges of the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant and the Natanz uranium enrichment plant, resulting in nearly a thousand centrifuge scrapped, forcing Iran’s nuclear capacity building to delay 2 to 3 years, opened the network attack soft means Destroy the national hard facilities.

Destructive. The strategic power of the network is no less than the weapons of mass destruction. Russia and Georgia in 2008, “the five-day war”, the Russian military to Georgia’s television media, government websites and transportation systems as the goal, to carry out a comprehensive “bee group” type of network paralysis attacks, leading to grid government agencies operating chaos, Logistics and communication system collapse, much-needed war materials can not be delivered in a timely manner, the potential of the war has been seriously weakened, a direct impact on the grid of social order, operational command and troop scheduling. The Russian military doctrine has identified cybercrime as a weapon of mass destruction and has retained the right to use weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons to counterattack.

Advanced technology and phase. Network strategy strength development speed, replacement fast, technical materialization for the equipment cycle is short. At present, the speed of the microprocessor doubles every 18 months, the backbone bandwidth doubled every six months, a variety of new electronic information equipment after another, all kinds of application software dizzying. Cyber ​​space confrontation is the field of information in the field of offensive and defensive struggle, the use of network strategy forces in the confrontation of the phase with grams, constantly renovated. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology makes the software of the anti-wall software upgrade continuously. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology has led to the development of the firewall. , Can be described as “a foot high, magic high ten feet.”

  The Developing Trend of Network Strategic

From the subordinate force to the development of key forces. In the past, the network strategic power is mainly for other forces to provide information security, in a subordinate position; with the development of network information technology, network system control of other rights, network strategic forces from subordinate status to the dominant position to accelerate into, to maintain the country The key to safety. There is no network security there is no sovereign security, “no net” to become a new law of war, the world’s major countries around the network space development rights, dominance and control of a new round of competition, especially the United States and Russia adhere to the practice In the use and continue to develop.

From the maintenance of force to the development of specialized forces. In the past, the network strategy is mainly to maintain the network information system and all kinds of network transmission system, network attack and defense attributes are not clear. At present, all areas of the network space in depth, the world’s major countries are hard to build cyberspace offensive and defensive capabilities, the main military power of the network strategy has become a network of reconnaissance, network attacks, network defense and other clear division of labor, professional regular military forces. The United States has so far built the world’s most complete and powerful network of the army, and held a series of “network storm” series of exercises. The new “cyberspace strategy” in the United States, the first public to cyberspace combat as one of the tactical options for future military conflict, clearly proposed to improve the US military in the cyberspace of deterrence and offensive capability. In order to adapt to the new strategy, the US Department of Defense proposed 2018 to build a offensive and defensive, flexible form, with full combat capability of the network forces construction goals.

From the military to the integration of military and civilian development. The development of the strategic power of the military network started relatively late compared with the civil field, and because of the confidentiality of military confrontation and the specificity of the operational objectives, it is often developed independently. With the development of network technology, the military’s own network strategic strength is difficult to meet the needs of diversified tasks, we must learn from local folk technical means, integrate local network resources, realize the integration of military and civilian development. Network space capacity building on the talent, intelligence, experience and other software environment is extremely high, coupled with the local convergence of a wealth of network resources, military and civilian forces to promote the development of cyberspace capabilities become the strong tone of the times.

From a single model to the “network integration” development. At present, the network includes both the computer IP system network and the non-computer IP system network including a large number of complex early warning detection network, satellite communication network and tactical data link. The traditional single network confrontation model is difficult to meet the challenge of cyberspace. With the development of information technology, especially the Internet of Things technology, the relationship between the network and the power of the battlefield network more and more closely, which for the “network integration” in the technical means to provide the possibility. The use of electronic warfare and network warfare means, for different systems around the open bow, broken chain broken network, to achieve complementary advantages, system damage, as the latest guidance on the construction of network space. Data show that the US military typical network of integrated attack equipment “Shu special” system has been from the “Shu-1” to the current development of “Shu-5”. According to reports, “Shute” system through the enemy radar antenna, microwave relay station, network processing nodes to invade the enemy air defense network system, real-time monitoring of enemy radar detection results, even as a system administrator to take over the enemy network, Control of the sensor.

From non-state actors to state actors. At present, the network attack has developed from a single hacker behavior for the national, political, military confrontation, the attack object has been developed from the personal website to the country, the army’s important information system, attack “unit” has grown from stand-alone to tens of thousands Hundreds of thousands of terminals, and can instantly release the amazing attack energy. Although many of the intentions of malicious acts of non-State actors are non-state, the consequences are national, whether they are espionage, political opinions, or personal discontent, or terrorist activities , Have a direct impact on social stability, disrupt the economic order, endanger the stability of state power. Once the relevant reaction is made, the subject of the act must be the state and the army, and not the non-state actors themselves.

  The Construction of Network Strategic Strength

Strengthen strategic planning. Cyberspace competition is the first strategic battle of the contest. From the national level, the network strategy of the power of the main function is to reduce the risk of cyberspace, maintaining the normal operation of the country. We must understand the extreme importance and realistic urgency of cyberspace security from the perspective of national security, raise the focus of cyberspace capacity building to the strategic level, and try to reduce the national cyberspace security while trying to solve the problem of how to make good use of cyberspace Risk, so that cyberspace security has become an important support for national prosperity and security. From the military level, the network strategy is mainly to seize the system of network power. We must expand the military vision, the cyberspace as an important area of ​​action, to seize the system as the core, change the military ideas and ideas, adjust the structure and composition of armed forces, the development of weapons and equipment and take a new tactics.

Speed ​​up the construction of the power system. Maintain cyberspace security in the final analysis depends on the strength. We must base ourselves on the characteristics and laws of cyberspace capacity building, focus on the core elements of network capability system and the overall layout of network strategy, and systematically design the system structure which conforms to the law and characteristics of cyberspace confrontation in our country, and perfect the system of leadership and command Functional tasks, straighten out the relationship between command and management. We should take the network strategic power as an important new combat force, from the organization construction, personnel training, equipment development, elements of training and other aspects, to take extraordinary measures to give priority construction, focus on protection. To normalize the national network of offensive and defensive exercises, test theory, tactics, equipment and technology effectiveness, and comprehensively enhance the comprehensive prevention of cyberspace capabilities.

Promote technological innovation. The essence of cyberspace confrontation is the competition of core technology, and it is necessary to accelerate the independent innovation of network information technology. To improve the ability of independent innovation as a strategic basis to the national innovation system as the basic support, focus on breaking the forefront of network development technology and international competitiveness of the key core technology, advanced deployment and focus on the development of information technology and information industry. To speed up the process of localization of key core technologies, strengthen the construction of safety testing and active early warning means, and gradually improve the equipment system of cyberspace in China, and comprehensively improve our network space capability. To follow the basic laws of cyberspace confrontation, in accordance with the “asymmetric checks and balances” strategy, increase the quantum technology, Internet of things and cloud computing and other new technology research and development efforts to create unique combat capability, master the initiative of cyberspace security development The

Promote the integration of military and civilian development. The integration of the military space ability of military and civilian development is not only the overall situation of national security and development strategy, the overall planning of national defense and economic and social development, but also the objective fact that cyberspace security can not be avoided. We must actively promote the deep integration of military and civilian development, to promote China’s network space capacity supporting the construction. It is necessary to formulate top-level planning in the form of policies and regulations, clarify the objectives, methods, organizational division and basic requirements of the deepening development of cyberspace in the form of policies and regulations, and make the integration of military and civilian development into law enforcement and organizational behavior; To establish a sound military coordination, demand docking, resource sharing mechanism, through a unified leadership management organization and coordination of military needs and major work, to achieve risk sharing, sharing of resources and common development of the new situation. We should pay attention to the distinction between the boundaries of military and civilian integration, clear the concept of development-oriented people and the main battle concept of the army, and actively explore the military and the people, the advantages of complementary channels.

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Full Text of China’s National Cyberspace Security Strategy // 國家網絡空間安全戰略全文

Full Text of China’s National Cyberspace Security Strategy


Beijing,People’s Republic of China

27 DEC 2017

December 27, approved by the Central Network Security and Information Technology Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office released the “national cyberspace security strategy”, the full text is as follows.

The extensive application of information technology and the rise and development of cyberspace have greatly promoted the economic and social prosperity and progress, but also brought new security risks and challenges. Cyberspace security (hereinafter referred to as cybersecurity) concerns the common interests of mankind, related to world peace and development, and national security. Safeguarding China’s network security is an important measure to coordinate and promote the comprehensive construction of a well-off society, comprehensively deepen reform, comprehensively administer the country according to law, and strictly pursue the strategic layout of the party, and realize the goal of “two hundred years” and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation An important guarantee. In order to implement the “four principles” of promoting the transformation of the global Internet governance system and the “five-point proposition” to build the cyberspace destiny community, we have clarified China’s important position on cyberspace development and security, guided China’s network security work, The state in the cyberspace of sovereignty, security, development interests, the development of this strategy.

First, opportunities and challenges

(A) a major opportunity

With the rapid development of information revolution, Internet, communication network, computer system, automation control system, digital equipment and its application, service and data, such as the network space, is a comprehensive change in people’s production and lifestyle, profound impact on human society Development process.

New channels for information dissemination. The development of network technology, breaking the time and space constraints, expanding the scope of communication, innovative means of communication, triggering a fundamental change in the pattern of communication. The network has become a new channel for people to access information and learn to communicate, and become a new carrier of human knowledge transmission.

Production and life of the new space. In today’s world, the depth of the network into people’s learning, life, work and other aspects of online education, entrepreneurship, health care, shopping, finance and other increasingly popular, more and more people through the network exchange ideas, achievements and dreams.

The new engine of economic development. The Internet is becoming the leading force of innovation-driven development. Information technology is widely used in all sectors of the national economy. It has promoted the upgrading of traditional industries, promoted new technologies, new forms, new industries and new models, promoted the adjustment of economic structure and economic development , For economic and social development has injected new impetus.

Cultural prosperity of the new carrier. The network promotes the cultural exchange and the popularization of knowledge, the release of cultural development vitality, the promotion of cultural innovation creation, the enrichment of people’s spiritual and cultural life, has become a new way to spread culture, provide a new means of public cultural services. Network culture has become an important part of cultural construction.

A new platform for social governance. The role of the network in advancing the national governance system and the modernization of the governance capability has become increasingly prominent. The application of e-government has been deepened, and the government information has been shared and publicized. The government has made scientific decision-making, democratization and rule of law, and has smoothed the channels of citizens’ participation in social governance. An important way to protect citizens’ right to know, to participate, to express and to supervise.

Exchange and cooperation of the new link. The development of information and globalization has promoted the global flow of information, capital, technology, talent and other elements, and promoted the integration of different civilizations. Network to the world into a global village, the international community more and more you have me, I have your fate in the community.

National sovereignty of the new territory. Cyber ​​space has become an important part of human activity with land, sea, sky and space. National sovereignty extension extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty becomes an important part of national sovereignty. Respect for cyberspace sovereignty, safeguard network security, seek co-governance, achieve win-win situation, is becoming the international community consensus.

(B) severe challenges

The security situation of the network is becoming more and more serious, the national politics, economy, culture, society, national defense security and the legitimate rights and interests of citizens in cyberspace are facing severe risks and challenges.

Network penetration threatens political security. Political stability is the basic prerequisite for national development and people’s happiness. The use of the network to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries, to attack other countries political system, incite social unrest, subversion of other countries, as well as large-scale network monitoring, network theft and other activities seriously endanger the national political security and user information security.

Network attacks threaten economic security. Network and information systems have become the key infrastructure and the entire economic and social center of the nerve, suffered damage, a major security incident, will lead to energy, transportation, communications, financial and other infrastructure paralysis, resulting in catastrophic consequences, seriously endangering national economic security And public interest.

Network Harmful Information Erosion Cultural Security. Various ideological and cultural networks on the network agitation, confrontation, excellent traditional culture and mainstream values ​​facing the impact. Network rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information contrary to the socialist core values ​​erode the physical and mental health of young people, corrupt the social atmosphere, misleading the value orientation, endangering cultural security. Online moral anomie, the phenomenon of lack of integrity frequent, the degree of network civilization need to be improved.

Network terror and criminals undermine social security. Terrorism, separatism, extremism and other forces to use the network to incite, plan, organize and implement violent terrorist activities, a direct threat to people’s lives and property security, social order. Computer viruses, Trojans and other cyberspace spread spread, cyber-fraud, hacking, infringement of intellectual property rights, abuse of personal information and other illegal acts exist, some organizations want to steal user information, transaction data, location information and business secrets, serious damage to the country , Business and personal interests, affecting social harmony and stability.

The international competition in cyberspace is in the ascendant. International competition and control of cyberspace strategic resources, to seize the right to formulate rules and strategic high ground, to seek strategic competition in the increasingly fierce. Individual countries to strengthen the network deterrence strategy, intensify the cyberspace arms race, world peace by new challenges.

Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, opportunities are greater than challenges. We must insist on active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure safety, resolutely safeguard network security, make maximum use of cyberspace development potential, and benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people for the benefit of all mankind and firm maintenance of world peace.

Second, the goal

With the overall national security concept as the guide, implement the innovation, coordination, green, open and shared development concept, enhance the sense of risk and crisis awareness, the overall situation of domestic and international, overall development of security two major events, active defense, effective response, Promote network space peace, security, openness, cooperation and orderly, safeguard national sovereignty, security, development interests, and realize the strategic goal of building a network power.

Peace: the abuse of information technology has been effectively curbed, cyberspace arms race and other activities threatening international peace have been effectively controlled, cyberspace conflict has been effectively prevented.

Security: network security risks are effectively controlled, the national network security system is sound and perfect, the core technology and equipment are safe and controllable, and the network and information system are stable and reliable. Network security personnel to meet the needs of the whole society of network security awareness, basic protection skills and the use of network confidence greatly improved.

Open: Information technology standards, policies and markets open, transparent, product circulation and information dissemination more smoothly, the digital divide is increasingly bridging. Regardless of size, strength, rich and poor, countries around the world, especially developing countries can share development opportunities, share the fruits of development, fair participation in cyberspace governance.

Cooperation: the world in the technical exchanges, the fight against cyber terrorist and cyber crime and other areas of cooperation more closely, multilateral, democratic and transparent Internet governance system sound and perfect, win-win cooperation as the core of the network space fate community gradually formed.

Order: public interest in the cyberspace, participation, expression, supervision and other legitimate rights and interests are fully protected, cyberspace personal privacy is effectively protected, human rights are fully respected. The network environment of the domestic and international legal system, the standard norms gradually established, the network space to achieve effective management according to law, network environment integrity, civilization, health, freedom of information flow and safeguard national security, public interests to achieve organic unity.

Third, the principle

A safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with all countries to strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, and actively promote the global Internet governance system changes, and jointly safeguard the peace and security of cyberspace.

(A) respect for the maintenance of cyberspace sovereignty

Cyberspace sovereignty is inviolable, respect for the independent choice of development path, network management model, Internet public policy and equal participation in international network space management rights. The network affairs within the sovereign scope of each country are made by the people of each country, and each country has the right to take the necessary measures to manage the network activities of its own information system and its own territory according to its own national conditions and draw lessons from international experience, formulate laws and regulations on cyberspace, National information systems and information resources from intrusion, interference, attack and destruction, to protect the legitimate rights and interests of citizens in cyberspace; to prevent, prevent and punish harmful information harmful to national security and interests in the national network to disseminate and maintain cyberspace order. Any country does not engage in network hegemony, do not engage in double standards, do not use the network to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries, do not engage in, condone or support national activities against national security.

(B) the peaceful use of cyberspace

Peaceful use of cyberspace is in the common interest of mankind. States should abide by the principles of the Charter of the United Nations concerning the non-use or threat of use of force and prevent the use of information technology in the context of the maintenance of international security and stability, to boycott cyberspace arms races and prevent cyberspace conflicts. Adhere to mutual respect, equal treatment, seeking common ground while reserving differences, tolerance and mutual trust, respect for each other in cyberspace security interests and major concerns, to promote the construction of a harmonious network world. Against the use of national security as an excuse to use technological advantages to control other countries network and information systems, to collect and steal other countries data, but can not sacrifice the security of other countries to seek their own so-called absolute security.

(C) to manage cyberspace according to law

Comprehensively promote the legalization of cyberspace, adhere to the rule of law network, according to the law network, according to the Internet, so that the Internet in the rule of law on the healthy operation of the track. According to the law to build a good network order, the protection of cyber space information according to the law of free flow, protection of personal privacy, protection of intellectual property rights. Any organization and individual in the cyberspace to enjoy freedom, exercise the rights at the same time, to comply with the law, respect for the rights of others, their own words and deeds on the network.

(4) co-ordinate network security and development

There is no national security without national security, there is no information without modernization. Network security and information is one of the two wings, driven by the two wheels. Correctly handle the development and security of the relationship, adhere to the security development, to promote the development of security. Security is the prerequisite for development, and any development at the expense of security is difficult to sustain. Development is the foundation of security, and development is not the greatest insecurity. No information development, network security is not guaranteed, the existing security and even lost.

Fourth, strategic tasks

China’s Internet users and network size of the world’s first, to maintain China’s network security, not only their own needs, for the maintenance of global network security and world peace are of great significance. China is committed to safeguarding the national cyberspace sovereignty, security, development interests, promote the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promote the peaceful use of cyberspace and co-governance.

(A) firmly defended cyberspace sovereignty

According to the Constitution and laws and regulations to manage China’s sovereignty within the network activities to protect China’s information facilities and information resources security, including economic, administrative, scientific and technological, legal, diplomatic, military and other measures, unswervingly maintain China’s cyberspace sovereignty. Resolutely oppose all the acts of subverting China’s state power through the Internet and undermining our national sovereignty.

(B) firmly uphold national security

To prevent, stop and punish any act of using the Internet for treason, secession, incitement to rebellion, subversion or incitement to subdue the people’s democratic dictatorship; to prevent, stop and punish the use of the Internet to steal, to disclose state secrets and other acts endangering national security; Prevent, stop and punish foreign forces to use the network to penetrate, destroy, subvert, split the activities.

(Iii) Protection of critical information infrastructures

The key information infrastructure of the country refers to the information facilities that are related to national security, national economy and people’s livelihood, which have been damaged, destroyed or lost, which may seriously endanger the national security and public interests, including but not limited to the provision of public communication, radio and television transmission Information network, energy, finance, transportation, education, scientific research, water conservancy, industrial manufacturing, health care, social security, public utilities and other areas of important information systems, important Internet applications. Take all necessary measures to protect critical information infrastructures and their important data from attack damage. Adhere to the combination of technology and management, protection and deterrence simultaneously, focus on identification, protection, detection, early warning, response, disposal and other aspects, the establishment of the implementation of key information infrastructure protection system, from management, technology, personnel, Comprehensive measures to effectively strengthen the key information infrastructure security protection.

Key information infrastructure protection is the common responsibility of the government, enterprises and society as a whole. The supervisors, the operating units and organizations shall take the necessary measures to ensure the safety of the key information infrastructure in accordance with the requirements of laws, regulations and system standards. Strengthen critical information infrastructure risk assessment. Strengthen the party and government organs and key areas of the site security protection, grassroots party and government organs to build an intensive mode of operation and management. The establishment of government, industry and business network security information orderly sharing mechanism, give full play to enterprises in the protection of key information infrastructure in the important role.

Adhere to open to the outside world, based on open environment to maintain network security. Establish and implement the network security review system, strengthen the supply chain security management, the party and government organs, key industries procurement and use of important information technology products and services to carry out security review, improve product and service security and control, to prevent product service providers And other organizations use information technology to implement unfair competition or harm the interests of users.

(D) to strengthen the construction of network culture

Strengthen the construction of online ideological and cultural positions, vigorously cultivate and practice the socialist core values, the implementation of network content construction projects, the development of a positive network culture, the dissemination of positive energy, gather a strong spiritual strength, and create a good network atmosphere. Encourage the development of new business, create new products, to create the spirit of the times reflect the network culture brand, and constantly improve the network culture industry scale. The implementation of the outstanding culture of Chinese online communication project, and actively promote the excellent traditional culture and contemporary culture of digital, network production and dissemination. Play the advantages of Internet communication platform, promote the excellent cultural exchange between China and foreign countries, so that people understand the Chinese culture, so that the Chinese people understand the excellent culture of all countries, and jointly promote the prosperity and development of network culture, enrich people’s spiritual world and promote the progress of human civilization.

Strengthen the network ethics, network civilization construction, play moral education guide role, with human civilization excellent results nourish network space, repair network ecology. The construction of civilized integrity of the network environment, advocate civilization network, civilized Internet, the formation of safe, civilized and orderly information dissemination order. Resolutely crack down on rumors, obscenity, violence, superstition, cults and other harmful information spread in cyberspace spread. Improve the youth network literacy literacy, strengthen the protection of minors online, through the government, social organizations, communities, schools, families and other aspects of the joint efforts for the healthy growth of young people to create a good network environment.

(5) to combat cyber terror and crime

Strengthen the network anti-terrorism, anti-spy, anti-stealing capacity building, crack down on cyber terror and cyber espionage.

Adhere to comprehensive management, source control, according to the law to prevent, crack down on cyber fraud, Internet theft, trafficking in drug trafficking, infringement of personal information, dissemination of pornography, hacking, infringement of intellectual property rights and other criminal acts.

(6) improve the network management system

Adhere to the law, open, transparent network management network, and effectively do law, according to law, law enforcement must be strict, illegal research. Improve the network security laws and regulations system, enacted network security law, minor network protection regulations and other laws and regulations, a clear social responsibility and obligations, a clear network security management requirements. To speed up the revision and interpretation of existing laws, so that it applies to cyberspace. Improve the network security related system, establish a network trust system, improve the network security management of the scientific standardization level.

Speed ​​up the construction of legal norms, administrative supervision, industry self-discipline, technical support, public supervision, social education, a combination of network governance system to promote the network of social organization and management innovation, improve the basic management, content management, industry management and network crime prevention and combat Work linkage mechanism. Strengthen the cyberspace communication secrets, freedom of speech, trade secrets, as well as the right to reputation, property rights and other legitimate rights and interests of protection.

Encourage social organizations to participate in network governance, the development of network public welfare undertakings, strengthen the new network of social organization. Encourage Internet users to report network violations and bad information.

(7) reinforce the network security foundation

Adhere to innovation-driven development, and actively create a policy environment conducive to technological innovation, co-ordinate resources and strength to enterprises as the main body, combining production and research, collaborative research to point to the surface, the overall advance, as soon as possible in the core technology breakthrough. Attention to software security, accelerate the application of secure and credible products. The development of network infrastructure, rich network space information content. The implementation of “Internet +” action, vigorously develop the network economy. The implementation of national large data strategy, the establishment of large data security management system to support large data, cloud computing and other new generation of information technology innovation and application. Optimize the market environment, encourage network security enterprises bigger and stronger, to protect the national network security and consolidate the industrial base.

Establish and improve the national network security technology support system. Strengthening the basic theory and major problems of network security. Strengthen the network security standardization and certification work, more use of standard norms cyberspace behavior. Do a good job of level protection, risk assessment, vulnerability discovery and other basic work, improve the network security monitoring and early warning and network security emergency response mechanism.

The implementation of network security personnel projects, strengthen the network security professional construction, build first-class network security college and innovation park, the formation of personnel training and innovation and entrepreneurship of the ecological environment. Run the network security publicity week activities, vigorously carry out the national network security publicity and education. Promote the network security education into the teaching materials, into the school, into the classroom, improve the network media literacy, enhance the whole society network security awareness and protection skills, improve the network of Internet users harmful information, network fraud and other illegal and criminal activities identification and resistance.

(8) to enhance the ability of network space protection

Cyberspace is the new territory of national sovereignty. Construction and international status commensurate with the network power to adapt to the network space protection, and vigorously develop the network security and defense means to detect and resist the network invasion, casting and maintenance of national network security strong backing.

(9) to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace

On the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, strengthen cooperation in international cyberspace dialogue and promote the transformation of the global governance system of the Internet. Deepen cooperation with the bilateral and multilateral network security dialogue and information communication, effective control of differences, and actively participate in global and regional organizations, network security cooperation, to promote the Internet address, root domain name servers and other basic resource management internationalization.

Support the United Nations to play a leading role in promoting the development of international agreements on cyberspace, international cyberspace international anti-terrorism conventions, and sound legal mechanisms to combat cybercrime, deepening policy and legal, technical innovation, standards, emergency response, critical information infrastructure Protection and other fields of international cooperation.

Strengthen support for assistance in the development of Internet technologies and infrastructure in developing and backward regions, and strive to bridge the digital divide. To promote “along the way” building, improve the level of international communication interoperability, smooth information Silk Road. To build the World Internet Conference and other global Internet sharing system, and jointly promote the healthy development of the Internet. We will build a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system through active and effective international cooperation to build a peaceful, safe, open, cooperative and orderly cyberspace.

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