Category Archives: China Cyber Dilemma in the 21st Century

China Information Warfare – China’s Basic Form of a Future War //中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

In the 21st century, the rapid development of high technology and extensive application, and promote the development and evolution of combat weapons and equipment, and promote the transformation and innovation and the development of institutional military doctrine, which triggered a new revolution in military affairs. Information warfare will eventually replace mechanized war, become the basic form of war. Information warfare refers to occur in the information age, information-based, using information technology as a tool of war weaponry of war. Information warfare does not change the nature of war, but the war must take into account the outcome of the mentor and the consequences of war, first in the pursuit of strategic guidance on how to achieve “the enemy without fighting the soldiers,” the strategic victory, the kind of large-scale physical destruction at the expense of traditional warfare will be greatly constraints and limitations.

Knowledge has become the main source of war to destroy the force  on the right in terms of information (quantity and quality) dependence, the past is not any war and information war. In conventional war, the two sides focus more on comprehensive contest on the basis of physical force. Such as mechanized war, mainly for steel contest, contest the whole country is full of large industrial machinery production capacity. Information war contest does not exclude physical force, but more important is the contest of knowledge, innovation ability and speed of innovation contest. Knowledge will become the main source of war to destroy force, “an ounce of effect of silicon computer generated perhaps more than a ton of uranium is also big.”

Firepower, mobility, information, constitute an important part of modern military combat capability, and the ability of information has become the primary indicator to measure the level of combat capability. Information capabilities, performance in terms of information acquisition, processing, transmission, and use of confrontation, to be manifested through information superiority and competition control. Information superiority, in essence, in the understanding of the enemy at the same time prevent the enemy to understand one’s own situation, confrontation is a dynamic process. It has become a fight for air supremacy, command of the sea, land control of the premise of a direct impact on the process and outcome of the war. Of course, people will always be the master of information warfare. Plan and organize and direct the war from people completely dominated increasingly dependent on technology to develop human-machine combination of military quality requirements are higher. Information from the advantages of competition to the final decision superiority into more competitive knowledge and wisdom.

War forces will move toward information, intelligence  forces of war are directly and indirectly referred to the various forces for war, to fight the information war, natural rely heavily on information, intelligence and information technology military weapons and equipment.

The most basic of war, the most significant feature is the use of the most advanced scientific and technological achievements to create the most advanced instruments of war. Information weapons and equipment is developed on the basis of mechanized equipment, such as C4ISR systems, precision-guided weapons, information warfare equipment and various high-tech combat platforms.They are highly knowledge-intensive tools of war, and thus can not be compared with the traditional tools of war performance, functionality, operational capabilities and effectiveness. At the same time, they play to the performance level and the operational level, directly restricted information, information systems and information capabilities.   The army is the army of information technology refers to using information technology to weapons armed with the information age. Its unprecedented level of integration will enhance the overall combat capability more powerful, emphasizing optimal combination of combat capability, the services are just part of joint combat forces. At the same time, the size of the forces become smaller, more flexible and diverse forms of grouping, vertical command structure will also benefit from the tree into a flat network architecture. From the subordinate command relationship changed multilayer horizontal communication, and down one command relationships, delayering, put as many combat units into the same level of information, information sharing, shorten the information flow to meet the real-time command decision Claim.

War mode will tend to systematic, precise  Technological development determines the evolution of tactics. With the development of weapons and equipment, the scale of war is also growing, the most prominent battlefield extended to three-dimensional space from the plane: from land to sea and air space, and then, from the visible to the invisible electromagnetic space and information space, it has formed armed day one dimensional, tangible and intangible space space Blending the new operational environment. This network battlefield is great depth, three-dimensional high, dilute the distinction between front and rear, major changes have taken place in time and space, both traditional air, naval, marine, electronic warfare, and more will be a new web-based attacks information warfare. Rely on the support of information networks, through the orderly flow of information, all combat operations within the space really blending together.

In the past, a new weapon tends to cause relatively large impact, obtain better operational effectiveness. But in the modern battlefield, the two sides are no longer hostile confrontation between a single or a few branches, but not a single weapon system confrontation, but confrontation between systems. In the information war, the extent of such a system of confrontation and even more will not emphasize the operational performance of tanks, aircraft, warships and other single combat platform, but rather to highlight the overall performance of information technology weaponry system, pay attention to multiple armed services, comprehensive combat effectiveness of a variety of weapons and equipment.

Destroy the enemy is an important part of the war. Mechanized warfare, anti-surface fire mostly destroyed, such as fire suppression, carpet bombing, saturation-type attacks. This operational mode corresponding to the extensive mode of production of the industrial age, reflecting the idea of a war of attrition, to victory in that time, space, energy, supplies and other aspects of continuous consumption and weaken the power of the enemy, and finally defeat the enemy. The precision strike in line with the characteristics and requirements of the information age, but also reflects the basic characteristics of information warfare. Intensive production model of the information age emphasizes effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness. Weapons and equipment level of intelligence and combat accuracy was greatly improved, can be done “pinpoint” type of destroyed; also can be accurate, non-physical damage, such as psychological warfare and information warfare. In addition, the precision strike can also significantly reduce collateral damage, so that the development and the process of social civilization synchronization war, war means more conducive to play its unique role.

Course of the war would be short, controlled – the rhythm of information warfare significantly accelerated course of the war will become shorter and shorter, but the intensity is getting high, and humanity as a whole control of the war also significantly enhanced.   Army should pay more attention to the quality of the information age and effectiveness. Winning quality from quantity into winning, it is one of the significant change in the war. Such as the combination of high-tech precision-guided weapons and combat platforms used to enhance the ability of the enemy to combat the standoff embodiment, can greatly reduce the loss of one’s own operations; continually improve the accuracy of the attack, it can greatly reduce the number of weapons consumption. World War II in 9000 to use bombs to blow up a goal, now 1-2 as long as missiles or guided bombs can solve the problem, operational tempo and the natural process will be faster.

Layers of advancing successive war, set small victories, this contact, wire is typical of traditional methods of warfare combat visual feedback. In information warfare, from the contact, non-line operations will be the main form of combat operations will be launched simultaneously in all the whole depth of space combat and battlefield, the primary targets will point directly to the enemy center of gravity. Especially powerful information warfare, even in the enemy without the knowledge of the state, it is possible to make several hacker instant enemy paralyzed economic and social, to quickly achieve the purposes of war.

Source: http://www.china001.com/

Original Mandarin Chinese:

進入21世紀,高技術的迅猛發展和廣泛應用,推動了武器裝備的發展和作戰方式的演變,促進了軍事理論的創新和編制體制的變革,由此引發新的軍事革命。信息化戰爭最終將取代機械化戰爭,成為未來戰爭的基本形態。信息化戰爭是指發生在信息時代、以信息為基礎、以信息化武器裝備為戰爭工具的戰爭。信息化戰爭不會改變戰爭的本質,但戰爭指導者必須考慮到戰爭的結局和後果,在戰略指導上首先追求如何實現“不戰而屈人之兵”的全勝戰略,那種以大規模物理性破壞為代價的傳統戰爭必將受到極大的約束和限制。

知識成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源

就對信息(數量和質量)的依賴程度而言,過去的任何戰爭都不及信息化戰爭。在傳統戰爭中,雙方更注重在物質力量基礎上的綜合較量。如機械化戰爭,主要表現為鋼鐵的較量,是整個國家機器大工業生產能力的全面競賽。信息化戰爭並不排斥物質力量的較量,但更主要的是知識的較量,是創新能力和創新速度的競賽。知識將成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源,“計算機中一盎司矽產生的效應也許比一噸鈾還大”。

火力、機動、信息,是構成現代軍隊作戰能力的重要內容,而信息能力已成為衡量作戰能力高低的首要標誌。信息能力,表現在信息獲取、處理、傳輸、利用和對抗等方面,通過信息優勢的爭奪和控制加以體現。信息優勢,實質就是在了解敵方的同時阻止敵方了解己方情況,是一種動態對抗過程。它已成為爭奪制空權、制海權、陸地控制權的前提,直接影響著整個戰爭的進程和結局。當然,人永遠是信息化戰爭的主宰​​者。戰爭的籌劃和組織指揮已從完全以人為主發展到日益依賴技術手段的人機結合,對軍人素質的要求也更高。從信息優勢的爭奪到最終轉化為決策優勢,更多的是知識和智慧的競爭。

戰爭力量將走向信息化、智能化

戰爭力量是可直接和間接用於戰爭的各種力量的統稱,打信息化戰爭,自然離不開信息化、智能化的武器裝備和信息化軍隊。

戰爭最基本、最顯著的特徵,就是利用當時最先進的科學技術成果製造最先進的戰爭工具。信息化武器裝備是在機械化裝備基礎上發展起來的,如C4ISR系統、精確制導武器、信息戰裝備和各種高技術作戰平台等。它們都是知識高度密集型的戰爭工具,因而具備傳統戰爭工具無法比擬的性能、功能、作戰能力和效果。同時,它們作戰效能的高低和發揮程度,直接受到信息、信息系統和信息能力的製約。

信息化軍隊是指用信息化武器裝備武裝起來的信息時代的軍隊。其一體化程度將空前提高,整體作戰能力更強大,強調作戰能力的優化組合,各軍種都只是聯合作戰力量的一部分。同時,兵力規模將趨於小型化,編組形式更加靈活多樣,指揮體制也將從垂直樹狀結構轉變為扁平網絡結構。即從上下級多層指揮關係改為橫向溝通、上下一體的指揮關係,減少層級,把盡可能多的作戰單元納入同一個信息層次,實現信息共享,縮短信息流程,以滿足實時化指揮決策的要求。

戰爭模式將趨於體系化、精確化

技術的發展決定著戰術的演變。隨著武器裝備的發展,戰爭規模也在日益擴大,突出表現為戰場從平面向立體空間擴展:由陸地到海洋再到空中和太空,從有形空間到無形的電磁和信息空間,已形成了陸海空天四維一體、有形空間與無形空間相互交融的新型作戰環境。這種網絡化戰場是大縱深、高立體的,前後方區別淡化,時空觀都發生了重大變化,既有傳統的空戰、海戰、陸戰、電子戰,更會出現全新的以網絡攻擊為主的信息戰。依靠信息網絡的支撐,通過信息的有序流動,所有作戰空間內的作戰行動真正地融合為一體。

過去,一件新式武器往往會造成比較大的影響,獲得較好的作戰效果。但在現代戰場上,敵對雙方已不再是單一或少數軍兵種之間的對抗,更不會是單一武器系統的對抗,而是體係與體系的對抗。在信息化戰爭中,這種體系化對抗的程度更甚,將不再強調坦克、飛機、軍艦等單件作戰平台的作戰性能,而是突出信息化武器裝備體系的整體效能,注重發揮多個軍種、多種武器裝備的綜合作戰效能。

消滅敵人是戰爭的重要內容。在機械化戰爭中,火力摧毀主要是面殺傷,如火力壓制、地毯式轟炸、飽和式攻擊等。這種作戰方式對應於工業時代的粗放型生產模式,反映了消耗戰的思想,制勝之道在於從時間、空間、能源、補給等方面不斷消耗和削弱敵人的力量,最後戰勝敵人。而精確打擊符合信息時代的特徵和要求,也反映了信息化戰爭的基本特點。信息時代的集約型生產模式講求效能、效率、效益。武器裝備的智能水平和打擊精度也獲得極大的提高,可做到“點穴式”的摧毀;同時還可以進行精確的非物理性毀傷,如心理戰、信息戰等。另外,精確打擊還可以大幅度降低附帶毀傷,使戰爭的發展與社會文明進程同步,更有利於戰爭手段發揮其獨特作用。

戰爭進程將是短暫的、可控的

信息化戰爭的節奏明顯加快,戰爭進程將變得越來越短,但強度卻越來越高,而人類對戰爭的整體控制能力也在顯著增強。

信息時代的軍隊更注重質量和效能。由數量製勝轉變為質量製勝,是戰爭發生的顯著變化之一。如精確制導武器和高技術作戰平台的結合使用,增強了從敵人防區外實施打擊的能力,可大大降低己方的作戰損失;攻擊精度的不斷提高,可大大減少武器消耗數量。第二次世界大戰中要用9000枚普通炸彈才能炸毀一個目標,現在只要1-2枚導彈或製導炸彈就可以解決問題,作戰節奏和進程自然會越來越快。

層層推進,逐次交戰,集小胜為大勝,這種接觸式、線式作戰是傳統作戰方法的典型直觀反映。而在信息化戰爭中,脫離接觸式、非線式作戰將成為主要形式,作戰行動將在所有作戰空間和戰場全縱深同時展開,首要打擊目標將直接指向敵人重心。尤其是信息戰威力巨大,甚至在敵人毫不知情的狀態下,幾個黑客頃刻間就有可能令敵國經濟和社會陷入癱瘓,從而迅速達成戰爭目的。

2016 Development of China’s Network Security Law & Revised National Security Legislation // 中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

2016年03月10日01:40 北京晨报

NPC Standing Committee work report of the Standing Committee Zhang Dejiang as the National People’s Congress. Xinhua News Agency issued

  Zhang Dejiang chairman of the NPC Standing Committee work report for

Second session of the Fourth Session of the 9th National People’s Congress held its second plenary meeting in the afternoon in the Great Hall, commissioned by the National People’s Congress, Zhang Dejiang chairman to report to the General Assembly. Conference and heard presentations on the draft law of charity. Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan, Zhang Gaoli, etc. on the rostrum. Executive meeting presided over by the President of the General Assembly, the Executive Chairman Zhang Ping.

2015

We have done what?

Zhang Dejiang said in the report, over the past year, the Standing Committee formulated five laws, and a decision to change the law on legal issues 37, decided to submit to the National People’s Congress for consideration a through decisions on legal issues 8 ; law enforcement inspection six cases heard and deliberated the State Council, the supreme people’s Procuratorate 17 report on the work carried out three times and three thematic inquiry special investigations by two resolutions; consideration of the motion on behalf of the outcome of the review by the special committee 8 report, the report of the Credentials Committee on behalf of the eligible individual representatives of six decided to approve the treaty between China and foreign states, international agreements and conventions to join 11, a number of decisions and approve the appointment and removal of state organs and the like.

In the area of ​​national security-related legislation, the Criminal Law Amendment (ix) by the five terrorist-related activities included in the Criminal Responsibility range.Legislation in the field of people’s livelihood, be revised Population and Family Planning Law, the implementation of “comprehensive two-child” policy since January 1, 2016.

Second session of the Third Session of the NPC Standing Committee to determine the tasks have been completed, the Standing Committee all aspects of work have made new progress, new results.

2016

General Rules of Civil developing market economy amend the Securities Act

Chairman Zhang Dejiang said in the report, 2016 will be legislation, supervision is the key. By 2016, the NPC Standing Committee will improve the socialist market economy legal system, including modifying the Securities Act, SME Promotion Law and the like. April 2015 and 12th National People’s Congress of the fourteenth session of the draft amendments to the Securities Act conducted the first consideration.

Report, focus of the market play a decisive role in the allocation of resources and better play the role of government, focus on improving the level of economic and social development of the rule of law and market economy. General Rules of Civil develop and improve basic civil legal system. Developing an environmental tax, tonnage tax, tobacco tax law, food law, asset valuation method, modify the Securities Act, SME Promotion Law and the like.

“Adhere to green development, promote the construction of ecological civilization, to build the most stringent environmental protection system, modify the Water Pollution Control Act, the Marine Environment Protection Law, Wildlife Law and other.” The report said.

Social and cultural development of network security law revision Red Cross Society

2016, the NPC Standing Committee will coordinate development of legislation in the field of social, cultural, etc., making medicine law, Community Corrections Act, modify Private Education Promotion Law, the Red Cross method.

Report, in terms of deepening the reform, the development of public cultural services security law, the promotion of the film industry and the like. To promote civil-military integration depth development, deepen reform of national defense and the armed forces, the development of national defense transportation law, amend law on military officers and so on. In promoting anti-corruption legislation, the development of international criminal judicial assistance law, revise study Administrative Supervision Law. Develop overseas NGO management method, network security law.

In addition, the report proposes reform of the authorization decision to do related work.

The implementation of the supervision and inspection of food safety inspection method

Zhang Dejiang said in the report, in 2016, the NPC Standing Committee will strengthen the supervision of the implementation of the law and check the implementation of the Food Safety Law and other six laws.

This six laws include: Food Safety Law, Water Law, promote scientific and technological achievements into law, the Environmental Protection Act, the Road Traffic Safety Law, Production Safety Law.

Meanwhile, the NPC Standing Committee will consider combining food safety law enforcement inspection report carried out three Environmental Protection Act, Production Safety Law and other topics upon request. Strengthen tracking supervision, to consider the report of the State Council to listen to feedback on research process rights of the elderly security law, food safety law enforcement inspection report and deliberations on the situation. Listen to consider the report of the State Council on the implementation of the Exit and Entry Management Law.Water Pollution Control Act to carry out the implementation of special investigations.

New initiative to review the filing and examination of administrative regulations

  By 2016, the NPC Standing Committee will strengthen the filing and examination of the development of new administrative regulations and judicial interpretations active review examined piece by piece.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

2016年03月10日01:40 北京晨报

全国人大常委会委员长张德江作全国人民代表大会常务委员会工作报告。新华社发

张德江委员长作全国人大常委会工作报告

十二届全国人大四次会议9日下午在人民大会堂举行第二次全体会议,受全国人大常委会委托,张德江委员长向大会报告工作。会议并听取了关于慈善法草案的说明。习近平、李克强、俞正声、刘云山、王岐山、张高丽等在主席台就座。会议由大会主席团常务主席、执行主席张平主持。

2015年

都做了啥?

张德江在报告中说,一年来,常委会制定5部法律,修改37部法律和1个有关法律问题的决定,决定提请全国人民代表大会审议的法律案1件,通过有关法律问题的决定8个;检查6部法律实施情况,听取审议国务院、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院17个工作报告,开展3次专题询问和3项专题调研,通过2个决议;审议通过专门委员会关于代表议案审议结果的报告8个、代表资格审查委员会关于个别代表的代表资格的报告6个,决定批准我国与外国缔结的条约、协定以及加入的国际公约11件,决定和批准任免一批国家机关工作人员等。

在国家安全领域相关立法方面,通过的刑法修正案(九)中将五种恐怖相关活动列入刑事追责范围。在民生领域立法方面,及时修改人口与计划生育法,自2016年1月1日起实施“全面两孩”政策。

十二届全国人大三次会议确定的常委会各项任务已经完成,常委会各方面工作都取得了新进展、新成效。

2016年

将要做啥?

市场经济修改证券法制定民法总则

张德江委员长在报告中说,2016年将以立法、监督为重点。2016年,全国人大常委会将完善社会主义市场经济等方面法律制度,其中包括修改证券法、中小企业促进法等。2015年4月,十二届全国人大常委会第十四次会议对证券法修订草案进行了第一次审议。

报告提出,紧紧围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,着力提高经济社会发展和市场经济运行的法制化水平。制定民法总则,健全民事基本法律制度。制定环境保护税法、船舶吨税法、烟叶税法、粮食法、资产评估法等,修改证券法、中小企业促进法等。

“坚持绿色发展、促进生态文明建设,构建最严格的生态环境保护制度,修改水污染防治法、海洋环境保护法、野生动物保护法等。”报告中说。

社会文化制定网络安全法修改红十字会法

2016年全国人大常委会将统筹推进社会、文化等领域立法工作,制定中医药法、社区矫正法,修改民办教育促进法、红十字会法。

报告提出,在深化文化体制改革方面,制定公共文化服务保障法、电影产业促进法等。在促进军民融合深度发展、深化国防和军队改革方面,制定国防交通法,修改现役军官法等。在推进反腐败立法方面,制定国际刑事司法协助法,研究修改行政监察法。制定境外非政府组织管理法、网络安全法。

此外,报告提出做好改革试点授权决定相关工作。

监督检查检查食品安全法实施情况

张德江在报告中说,2016年,全国人大常委会将加强对法律实施情况的监督,检查食品安全法等6部法律的实施情况。

这6部法律包括:食品安全法、水法、促进科技成果转化法、环境保护法、道路交通安全法、安全生产法。

同时,全国人大常委会将结合审议食品安全法、环境保护法、安全生产法等3个执法检查报告开展专题询问。加强跟踪督办,听取审议国务院关于研究处理老年人权益保障法、食品安全法执法检查报告及审议意见情况的反馈报告。听取审议国务院关于出境入境管理法执行情况的报告。开展水污染防治法实施情况专题调研。

备案审查主动审查研究新的行政法规

2016年,全国人大常委会将加强备案审查工作,对新制定的行政法规、司法解释逐件进行主动审查研究。

中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

2016年03月10日01:40 北京晨报

People’s Republic of China Enters Global Governance Era

來源:中國信息安全

Source: China Information Security

China

Faced with a global network of new space, new areas, new home, how to learn the basis of Western Internet technology as the driving force of the traditional advantages of Internet governance model, to insist upon the sovereignty of the network, network security, network continue to promote economic prosperity and the need to fully reflect the General secretary Xi “four principles, five advocate” contains Chinese wisdom. For this reason, we face the reality of network threats, adherence to the “network of global governance China is entering the era of” road confidence is to make the network power of dreams and the vision to build a common destiny in cyberspace interconnection important ideological foundation.

Wuzhen successful conclusion of the summit, the global Internet governance is being used by Western values-based, rule the West as the main rule, Western Internet technology as the driving force of traditional Internet governance model, to insist on the sovereignty of the network, network security and economic prosperity as the basic network-oriented China mode steering. This shift was marked by the construction of the Internet learning General Secretary of the five propositions. These five ideas ranging from the physical aspects of China Unicom, cultural communication, trade exchange and network security, summed up in three fundamental characteristics, namely security, prosperity and globalization.

First, the general secretary Xi five ideas, to enhance network security and Internet freedom both status. This is a development of the Internet during ultra-liberal favorable correction of flooding. In human society entered the globalization and modernization of the historical background of a higher stage, the Internet has gone beyond the scope of technology, business and even exchange on the state of human life made for a global state. The living conditions of globalization try to mankind so far carried out in other areas, as both benefit from the freedom, innovation and diversity, but also trapped in dangerous disorder brought pluralism and deconstruction of the conflicts caused confusion . If in the early stages of development of the Internet, people can also use the price of liberty to defend the Internet out of order, then in this case, today’s Internet life is closely related to the direct and real life, it has been found that the “price of freedom “not only heavy and expensive, and in many cases even have constituted for economic security, political security and social security of all-round challenge.

Such challenges are mainly in three aspects, first, transnational crime is using Internet technology to achieve a new global distribution and the ability to upgrade the crime, and international judicial cooperation system is still unable to effectively respond to this challenge. In addition to traditional money laundering, smuggling, drug trafficking and other transnational criminal activities is the “Internet +” vision beyond the restructuring, the Internet itself is a breeding ground for its unique form of high-tech crime, such as hacking, virus, virtual currency black market, etc. . Although countries the judiciary had a hard struggle, but due to unity, flexibility, vastly more complex than the effectiveness of cooperation among countries of the Internet world, this fragmented country anchored to the Internet security system there are still serious failure. Second, among the increasingly fierce national competition, confrontation and ideological cultural conflict, so that the Internet has become a virtual battleground possible. If in reality, due to multiple brutal war mankind has accumulated a number of how much the bottom line with consensus, then in such a new field of Internet, the human consensus is still quite limited. Some countries and groups act in the Internet has been a serious violation of international rules and the reality of national sovereignty, and even loss of human ethics basic respect. The Internet has become the espionage, subversion and extreme battlefield behavior, the imperialists, hegemony, extremists and terrorists are turning to the name of freedom, the basic values ​​of human society and order challenge. Third, the Internet has brought economic opportunities are increasingly reflect the complex multi-faceted, excessive trade liberalization on economic security are new challenges. On the one hand, the “Internet +” is indeed able to promote the rational allocation of resources, to break the monopoly and information asymmetry, to facilitate transactions occur frequently, but on the other hand, the Internet economy has a serious impact on many traditional offline trading patterns, exacerbated protection of intellectual property rights dilemma, enlarged attention economy bubble. In this case, the security of the Internet has become the common interests of China and around the world essential.

Secondly, the development of the online world is inseparable from the real world support. E-commerce, network attention economy is becoming the world’s most important material basis, and this basis in fact. The stability is closely related to the real economy. In the world economy, there are many uncertainties, sluggish Western economies today, only continued prosperity of China’s economy can continue to provide opportunities for the development of the global Internet economy, only China is leading the world in order to build the basis for a global network to maximize. During the “Twelve Five”, China’s Internet industry to flourish. China Internet Network Information Center show that China’s industrial development of the Internet show a continued increase in industrial scale, “Twelve Five” period, expanding the audience, and gradually optimize the characteristics of technical facilities. “Twelve Five” period, the economic growth rate of China’s Internet significantly improved, the Internet economy in the proportion of GDP continues to rise. In 2014, the rate of contribution to the GDP of the Internet industry of 7% over the same period the United States. China is the world’s largest network of retail trading market, trading volume and user scale ranked first in the world.

And promote the common development of the global Internet economy in the West embarrassment structure of vested interests, to fully release the potential of the Internet can not be compared, the greater the intensity and commitment to reform, the reality of China’s Internet economy less bound themselves not only to achieve the turn to overtake, but already has strength.It is particularly worth mentioning is that, with the advancement of initiatives along the way, along the way to integrate e-commerce in global e-commerce is becoming a hot spot. Unicom physical, smooth e-commerce business will provide a vast space on the upgrade along the way.

Finally, the general secretary Xi five not trying to advocate a traditional concept of sovereignty to limit the development of the modern Internet, but on the basis of security, freedom and prosperity on both raised the times of global Internet governance ideas. This is because, on the one hand, the reform and opening up has always been China’s basic national policy, including any area, including the Internet field, it is impossible to challenge the policy. China’s Internet development in China’s economy as a result of integration into the world rather than isolated from the world. On the other hand, Internet issues facing China and local issues facing the global community as to promote closer cooperation of all concerned to build a just and rational order of the Internet, almost the only solution. The problem is that, for the purposes of some developed countries have technological advantages and disorderly state has given them much brought some problems, but it also brings technical advantages of the abuse of privilege. In this case, the responsibility and conditional responsibility, perhaps only China, which is the biggest beneficiary because on the one hand, China is both Internet freedom and prosperity, but also the largest Internet chaos and crime victims.

More importantly, the rise of China and indeed eager to have a field to lead the world to practice their own ideals. In the online world, the Chinese have the opportunity to turn to overtake. Indeed, in an increasingly global political unrest, economic stagnation appetite, the reality of an increasingly negative energy dispersive historical juncture, the online world has never been so urgently needs Chinese wisdom, Chinese programs and Chinese forces.China likely to extraordinary efforts to lead the world digital economy, out of the mire of stagnation. China advocates the concept may lead the online world hegemony from the digital world into the jungle community of destiny.The Chinese also need to grasp this opportunity, as compared to large countries, vested interest structure is highly curable realities of the international community, in the digital global society, China has more space and more opportunities to show himself as a modern powers to govern, to get a feeling of authority in the world should have a big country, and this authority will eventually radiated by the network to reality.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

面对全球一网的新空间、新领域、新家园,如何在汲取以西方互联网技术为动力的传统互联网治理模式优点的基础上,坚持网络主权、网络安全,持续推动网络经济繁荣,需要充分体现习总书记“四项原则、五大主张” 蕴含的中国智慧。为此,直面现实网络威胁,坚持“网络全球治理正在进入中国时代”的道路自信,是让网络强国梦想与构建网络空间命运共同体愿景互联互通的重要思想基础。

乌镇峰会顺利结束,全球互联网治理正在由以西方价值观为基础、以西方规则为主要规则、西方互联网技术为动力的传统互联网治理模式,向坚持网络主权、网络安全与网络经济繁荣为基本导向的中国模式转向。这个转向的标志就是习总书记提出的互联网建设五大主张。这五大主张涵盖了从物理联通、文化沟通、贸易互通以及网络安全等多个方面,归纳起来有三个根本的特征,即安全、繁荣与全球化。

首先,习总书记的五大主张,将网络安全提升到与网络自由并重的地位。这是对互联网发展过程中极端自由主义泛滥的有利纠治。在人类社会进入全球化、现代化更高阶段的历史背景下,互联网已经超越了技术、商务乃至交流上的范畴,而成为了一种人类全球化状态下的生活状态。这一生活状态与人类迄今为止在其他领域内进行的全球化尝试一样,既受益于自由、创新与多元,也受困于无序带来的危险、多元带来的冲突与解构带来的混乱。如果说在早期的互联网发展阶段,人们还可以用自由的代价来对互联网的失序进行辩护,那么在今天这种互联网生活直接与现实生活密切相关的情况下,人们已经发现这种“自由的代价”不仅沉重且昂贵,而且在很多时候甚至已经构成了对于经济安全、政治安全与社会安全的全方位挑战。

这种挑战主要表现在三个方面,其一,跨国犯罪正在利用互联网技术,实现全新的全球化布局与犯罪能力升级,而国际司法合作体系尚无法有效回应这一严峻挑战。除了传统的洗钱、偷渡、贩毒等跨国犯罪活动正在以“互联网+”的视野进行重组之外,互联网本身也滋生出其特有的高科技犯罪形态,比如黑客攻击、病毒传播、虚拟货币黑市等等。尽管各国司法机关进行了艰苦的斗争,但是由于互联网世界的一体性、灵活性、复杂性远远超过各国合作的有效性,这种以碎片状的国家为基点的互联网安全体制仍然存在着严重的失灵。其二,日益激烈的国家间竞争、意识形态对立以及文化冲突,让互联网有成为虚拟战场的可能。如果说在现实社会中,人类由于多次残酷的大战还多少积累了一些底线与共识,那么在互联网这样一个全新的领域中,人类的共识还相当有限。一些国家与群体在互联网中的行径已经严重侵犯了现实中的国际规则与国家主权,甚至丧失了对于人类道德伦理的基本尊重。互联网成为了间谍行为、颠覆行为与极端行为的战场,帝国主义者、霸权主义者、极端主义者与恐怖主义者正在借助自由的名义,对人类社会的基本秩序与价值进行挑战。其三,互联网带来的经济机遇正在越来越体现出复杂的多面性,过度的贸易自由正在对经济安全提出新的挑战。一方面,“互联网+”的确能够促进资源的合理配置,打破信息的垄断与不对称,便于交易的频繁发生,但是另一方面,互联网经济也严重冲击了许多传统的线下交易模式,加剧了知识产权保护的困境,放大了注意力经济中的泡沫。在这种情况下,互联网的安全已经成为中国与全球各国至关重要的共同利益。

其次,网络世界的发展离不开现实世界的支撑。电子商务、注意力经济正在成为网络世界最重要的物质基础,而这个基础的牢固与否其实与实体经济的发展密切相关。在世界经济存在诸多不确定因素、西方经济低迷不振的今天,只有持续繁荣的中国经济能够为全球互联网经济的发展提供持续的机遇,也只有中国的引领才能最大限度地构筑全球网络世界的基础。“十二五”期间,中国的互联网产业蓬勃发展。中国互联网络信息中心的报告显示,“十二五”期间我国的互联网产业发展呈现产业规模持续增加、受众群体不断扩大、技术设施逐步优化的特点。“十二五”期间,中国互联网对经济增长的贡献率显著提升,互联网经济在GDP中的占比持续攀升。2014年,互联网行业对GDP的贡献率达到7%,超过了美国的同期水平。中国更是拥有全球最大的网络零售交易市场,交易额和用户规模位居世界首位。

与西方困窘于既得利益集团结构,无法充分释放互联网潜力相比,改革决心与力度更大,现实束缚更少的中国互联网经济不仅自己实现了弯道超车,而且已经具备了带动全球互联网经济共同发展的实力。尤其值得一提的是,随着一带一路倡议的推进,电子商务在一带一路上的集成正在成为全球电子商务的热点。物理上的联通,贸易上的畅通将为电子商务在一带一路上的升级提供广阔的空间。

最后,习总书记的五项主张并不是试图以一种传统的主权观念去限制现代互联网的发展,而是在安全、自由、繁荣并重的基础上提出的与时俱进的互联网全球治理思路。这是因为,一方面,改革开放始终是中国的基本国策,包括互联网领域在内的任何领域,都不可能挑战这一政策。中国的互联网发展与中国的经济一样,是融入世界而非隔离于世界的结果。另一方面,中国所面临的互联网问题与当地全球社会面临的问题一样,推动有关各方的密切合作,构建一个公正、合理的互联网秩序,几乎是唯一的解决办法。问题在于,对于一些拥有技术优势的发达国家而言,无序的状态虽然给它们多少带来了一些困扰,但是也带来了滥用技术优势的特权。在这种情况下,能够负起责任的,有条件负起责任的,也许只有中国,这是因为一方面,中国既是互联网自由与繁荣的最大受益者,也是互联网混乱与犯罪最大的受害者。

更重要的是,崛起中的中国也的确渴望能有一块场域来实践自己对于引领世界的理想。在网络世界中,中国更有机会弯道超车。事实上,在全球政治日益动荡、经济停滞不振,现实中的负能量日益弥散的历史关口,网络世界从未如此迫切地需要中国智慧、中国方案和中国力量。中国不凡的努力有可能引领世界数字经济发展,走出发展停滞不前的泥潭中。中国倡导的理念可能引领网络世界从霸权的丛林世界变为数字化的命运共同体。而中国也同样需要把握这样一个机会,因为相比于大国林立、既得利益结构高度固化的现实国际社会,在数字化的全球社会中,中国拥有更大的空间与更多的机遇去展现自己作为一个现代化大国的治理才能,去获得一个具有天下情怀大国应有的权威,而这个权威也终将由网络辐射到现实之中。

來源:中國信息安全

Source: China Information Security

China’s National Network Security is in Their Own Hands

Source: China National Defense News

来源:中国国防报-国防特刊

Chinese “White Hat Hacker Corps” has become an important force in Chinese national cybersecurity”

習近平

◆ General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. Power network construction, China must have her own technology, excellent technology.

◆ Free security software “China model” to create a network security field, the “Chinese miracle.” The Chinese Dream…

◆ In the network security has risen to national security background, should consciously create a good development space for China’s own “white hat Legion” of hackers, while cautioning against a number of organizations or enterprises affected by outside forces controlled competition Chinese security market, and then to depth strategic goals of China’s core security.

After September 17, the US Senate Armed Services Committee issued a report called China network intrusion, causing great concern at home and abroad media.Chinese Foreign Ministry and the Defense Ministry spokesman, speaking one after another, the report noted that the United States is purely fabricated, deliberately fabricated entirely untenable. Defense Ministry spokesman Geng Yansheng solemnly pointed out that the Chinese government and armed forces have never engage in or support any network attacks and theft activities. China has always resolutely opposed and crack down on criminal activities related to network attacks. China faces a serious threat of cyber attacks is one of the world’s leading hacking victim. For network hacker attacks from abroad, we have sufficient evidence.

The United States is China’s largest Internet security threats

Geng Yansheng said that needs to be emphasized is that the “Prism” incident exposed more than a year, the United States should its foreign dignitaries, business, personal theft and network monitoring, monitoring the behavior of reflection to the Chinese side and the international community to make clear explanation . We urge the US to do more to contribute to peace and tranquility in cyberspace thing, rather than the opposite.

In fact, the attacks from the United States is China’s largest Internet security threats.

National Internet Emergency Center recently released “2013 China Internet Network Security Report” revealed that in 2013, China’s government websites frequently suffer outside hackers attacks, including national organized network attacks have increased significantly. China’s government websites, especially the local government website, is under attack “disastrous.”

According to monitoring, in 2013, our country has been tampered with the number of sites is 24,034, an increase of 46.7% compared with 2012, in which the number of government websites has been tampered with 2430, an increase of 34.9% compared with 2012; our territory to be implanted backdoors number of sites for the 76160, compared with 45.6% growth in 2012, has been tampered with and implanted in the back door of government websites, more than 90 per cent below the provincial and municipal local government Web site. Overseas hackers frequently attack government websites in China. In 2013, offshore “anonymous”, “Algerian hacker” and other hackers had attacked government websites in China. Among them, the “hacker anti-communist” organization more active, sustained launched against the territory of government agencies, universities, enterprises and institutions and well-known social organization site of the attack in 2013 on the organization of the territory of more than 120 government websites embodiment tampering. They use pre-implantation site vulnerability backdoor, then attacked the site after the implementation of control, at least the current invasion of the territory of more than 600 sites, an average of every three days publish tampering incident in their social networking sites.

In these networks from outside attacks, the national network of organized attacks increased significantly on China’s network security and information systems pose a serious threat and challenge. Since June 2013, Snowden exposure “Prism Plan” US National Security Agency and a number of network monitoring projects, the disclosure of US intelligence agencies in many countries and people in long-term implementation and monitor network penetration attacks, including multinational monitoring target politicians, diplomatic system, media networks, large enterprise networks and international organizations. Our focus on listening and belong to their targets, national security and Internet security is facing a serious threat to users’ privacy.

According to monitoring found only in 2013, there are 31,000 foreign hosts through a back door to China 61000 Website implement remote control, which ranks first in the United States hosts a total of 6215 hosts in control of our 15,349 sites. Phishing attacks against China in terms of attack from the United States the same primacy. Trojan zombie network connection, our country hosts more than 1090 are outside the control server control, which is located in the United States control server control our country hosts 448.5 million, accounting for 41.1% of the total, ranking the first place ……

Original mandarin Chinese:

核心提示

◆习近平总书记强调指出,没有网络安全就没有国家安全,没有信息化就没有现代化。建设网络强国,要有自己的技术,有过硬的技术。

◆免费安全软件的“中国模式”创造了网络安全领域的“中国奇迹”。

◆在网络安全已经上升到国家安全的大背景下,应当有意识地为中国自己的“白帽子军团”创造良好的发展空间,同时警惕一些受境外势力控制的组织或企业争夺中国安全市场,进而达到深入我国核心安全领域的战略目的。

9月17日,美国参议院军事委员会发表所谓中国网络入侵报告后,引起海内外媒体的高度关注。中国外交部和国防部新闻发言人相继发言,指出美方报告纯属无中生有,蓄意捏造,完全是站不住脚的。国防部新闻发言人耿雁生严正指出,中国政府和军队从未从事或支持任何网络攻击和窃密活动。中方一贯坚决反对并依法打击网络攻击等相关犯罪活动。中国面临着网络攻击的严重威胁,是世界上最主要的黑客攻击受害国之一。对于来自境外的网络黑客攻击行为,我们掌握有充分证据。

美国是中国网络安全最大的威胁

耿雁生表示,需要强调的是,“棱镜门”事件曝光一年多了,美方应就其对外国政要、企业、个人进行网络窃密和监听、监控的行为进行反思,向中方和国际社会作出清楚解释。我们敦促美方多做有利于网络空间和平与安宁的事,而不是相反。

实际上,来自美国的网络攻击是中国网络安全最大的威胁。

国家互联网应急中心最新发布的《2013年中国互联网网络安全报告》披露,2013年,我国政府网站频繁遭受境外黑客组织的攻击,其中国家级有组织网络攻击行为显著增多。我国的政府网站,尤其是地方政府网站,是遭受攻击的“重灾区”。

据监测,2013年,我国境内被篡改网站数量为24034个,较2012年增长46.7%,其中政府网站被篡改数量为2430个,较2012年增长34.9%;我国境内被植入后门的网站数量为76160个,较2012年增长45.6%,在被篡改和植入后门的政府网站中,超过90%是省市级以下的地方政府网站。境外黑客组织频繁攻击我国政府网站。2013年,境外“匿名者”“阿尔及利亚黑客”等多个黑客组织曾对我国政府网站发起攻击。其中,“反共黑客”组织较为活跃,持续发起针对我国境内党政机关、高校、企事业单位以及知名社会组织网站的攻击,2013年该组织对我国境内120余个政府网站实施篡改。他们利用网站漏洞预先植入后门,对网站实施控制后遂发起攻击,目前至少入侵600余个境内网站,平均每3天在其社交网站发布一起篡改事件。

在这些来自境外的网络攻击中,国家级有组织网络攻击行为显著增多,对我国的网络安全和信息系统带来严重威胁和挑战。2013年6月以来,斯诺登曝光“棱镜计划”等多项美国家安全局网络监控项目,披露美国情报机构对多个国家和民众长期实施监听和网络渗透攻击,监控对象包括多国政要、外交系统、媒体网络、大型企业网络和国际组织等。我国属于其重点监听和攻击目标,国家安全和互联网用户隐私安全面临严重威胁。

据监测发现,仅在2013年,境外有3.1万台主机通过植入后门对我国6.1万个网站实施远程控制,其中位于美国的主机居首位,共有6215台主机控制着我国15349个网站。在针对中国的网络钓鱼攻击方面,来自美国的攻击同样居于首位。在网络木马僵尸方面,我国境内1090万余台主机被境外控制服务器控制,其中位于美国的控制服务器控制了我国境内448.5万余台主机,占总数的41.1%,仍居首位…

Who will guard China’s network security?

China ushered in the Internet age is the tide of reform and opening up.Chinese Internet users surf the initial means of the Internet, whether hardware or software, mostly imported from overseas to domestic.

八一解放軍

This “borrowed boat” mode, while promoting the development of China’s high-speed network, but also to China’s network security left a great security risk. We use the Internet browser is someone else’s, you’ve seen what page, others see that; our search engine to find the problem is someone else’s, for what you are interested in something, it will be automatically recorded in a database outside in ……

We use the operating system as others in the system hidden “back door” through overseas. After the United States, according to media reports, the world’s largest user coverage Microsoft “Windows” operating system, found loopholes in the system, it will first notify the US intelligence agencies, will then inform the user, provide patches fix vulnerabilities. This means that, in someone else’s “window”, we almost “transparent”. Even more serious is that Microsoft in order to protect its own commercial interests, has designed a mandatory upgrade marketing strategy.For example, in order to promote Win8 operating system, on April 8 to forcibly stop the official service XP system, the millions of Chinese users directly discarded in molar sucking blood before hackers. Domestic media pointed out in a review of Microsoft XP stop taking event, which is an important event once the impact of China’s Internet security. This is not only related to the large number of individual users, but also is related to the key sectors involved in the national economy. Network security system, China must rely on its own security vendors innovation and action.

Network security experts pointed out that China’s current network security system is set up in technology research and development on the basis of the United States, not to mention technology, cloud security technology in the field of key technologies such as a CPU, communications and data transmission encryption and decryption system in the field art networking technology and so on. If you play a very appropriate analogy, just as the Chinese network security gate, he stood an American security.

Network security is a core protection capability of the modern state in cyberspace, the party and state leaders highly concerned about network security issues. February 27, the central network security and information technology leading group was established. CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping himself as a centralized network security and information technology group leader, he delivered an important speech at the first meeting of the leading group, pointed out that China has become a big country network, network security and information technology is a matter of national security and national development, major strategic issues related to the broad masses of working life, starting from the domestic and international trend, the overall layout of the parties to co-ordinate, innovation and development, and strive to build China into a powerful network.

General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. Power network construction, have their own technology, excellent technology.

General Secretary earnest expectation, explicit requirements for China’s domestic network security vendors, it is the direction of future efforts.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

谁来守护中国的网络安全?

中国是在改革开放大潮中迎来网络时代的。中国网民最初冲浪国际互联网的手段,无论是硬件还是软件,大多是从海外进口到国内的。

这种“借船出海”的模式,在促进中国网络高速发展的同时,也给中国的网络安全留下了极大的安全隐患。我们上网用的浏览器是别人的,你看过什么网页,别人一看就知道;我们查找问题的搜索引擎是别人的,你对什么东西感兴趣,会被自动记录在境外的数据库里……

我们用的操作系统也是别人的,系统中暗藏的“后门”直通海外。据美国媒体披露,全球覆盖用户最多的微软“视窗”操作系统,发现系统漏洞后,会首先通知美国的情报部门,而后才会告知用户,提供修补漏洞的补丁。这就意味着,在别人的“视窗”里,我们几乎是“透明”的。更为严重的是,微软为了保护自身的商业利益,设计了一套强制升级的营销战略。例如为了促销Win8操作系统,于4月8日强行停止XP系统的官方服务,把无数中国用户直接丢弃在磨牙吮血的黑客面前。国内媒体在评论微软XP停服事件时指出,这是一次影响中国网络安全的重要事件。这不仅关系到为数众多的个人用户,更是关系到涉及国计民生的关键行业。网络系统的安全保障,必须依靠中国自己的安全厂商的创新与行动。

网络安全专家指出,我国当前的网络安全体系,是在美国研发的技术基础上建立起来的,更不要说CPU等核心关键技术,通信数据传输方面的加密和解密系统领域技术,云安全技术领域和物联网技术领域技术等等。如果打一个不太恰当的比喻,就如同中国网络安全的大门前,站了一个美国保安。

网络安全是现代国家网络空间的核心防护能力,党和国家领导人高度关注网络安全问题。2月27日,中央网络安全和信息化领导小组成立。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平亲自担任中央网络安全和信息化领导小组组长,他在领导小组第一次会议上发表重要讲话,指出中国已成为网络大国,网络安全和信息化是事关国家安全和国家发展、事关广大人民群众工作生活的重大战略问题,要从国际国内大势出发,总体布局,统筹各方,创新发展,努力把我国建设成为网络强国。

习近平总书记强调指出,没有网络安全就没有国家安全,没有信息化就没有现代化。建设网络强国,要有自己的技术,有过硬的技术。

总书记的殷殷期望,是对中国本土网络安全厂商的明确要求,更是未来努力的方向。

“China model” to create a “China miracle”

Rivers and lakes of the network can be divided into decent and Xiepai.Commonly known as “black hat” hackers manufactured by Trojan, the use of computers, mobile phone operating system vulnerabilities to attack, steal private data, illegally obtained personal interests. The guardian of network security “white hat” on the contrary, they take the initiative to find a computer, mobile phone operating system vulnerabilities, provide technical repair programs, research and development of security software and hardware products, build a firewall against hackers, for individuals, society and the country’s network security add a layer of protective cover, active in the first line of network security guard.

China’s domestic network security vendors are on their market growth and competition from foreign giants up security. Rely on a strong sense of social responsibility and familiarity with national conditions, China’s network security vendors gradually grow from a little foreign magnates recapture market, has won vitality. Many users still remember those familiar names: Kingsoft, Rising, Jiangmin ……

China’s network security vendors not only by virtue of their own efforts to win the market, but also creatively launched the network security field, “China model” completely rewritten the pattern of China’s network security industry.Traditional network security software are used charging mode, charge more than $ 200 a year on average. Because of the higher price threshold, resulting in many who do not want to use security software. The absence of security software, also led to the Trojan virus on the network as a scourge, such as CIH, panda, etc., hundreds of millions of infected computers, sensational news events.

Introduced in 2005, 360 free security software, once the user uses the threshold down to zero. Along with other local network security vendors follow-up, only less than 10 years, Chinese security software PC penetration rate has risen to 99%. In 2013, Microsoft released a security report, the Chinese computer malware infection index of 0.6 per thousand, the global average is only 1/10 of the world’s countries with the lowest infection rates of malware. In 2014, Microsoft re-released a report, a detailed summary of the data in the world’s more than 100 countries and regions, more than 10 million computers after malware statistics pointed out that China is the world’s lowest 4.4, far below the world average of 18.

360 free security software model, Wall Street interpreted as “Chinese model”: the core layer on the basis of free goods and services, to build browser applications open platform and two basic platforms, and refine the site navigation, buy navigation, navigation games, search, open platform and mobile open platform and other services, these services through advertising and internet value-added services realized profits. Such an innovative “China model” will not only China’s network security software penetration is significantly improved, and the R & D investment by increasing safety, security personnel and gather technical team, making China’s network security technology continues to improve and is widely used by foreign counterparts and learn from the followers of the world’s security technology security technology leader, but also created the Eastern Hemisphere strongest Chinese “white hat Legion.”

In this sense, the free security software “China model” to create a network security field, “Chinese miracle.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“中国模式”创造“中国奇迹”

网络的江湖中也分正派和邪派。俗称“黑帽子”的网络黑客靠制造木马病毒、利用电脑、手机操作系统漏洞等进行攻击,窃取隐私、数据,非法获得个人利益。而守护网络安全的“白帽子”正好相反,他们主动发现电脑、手机操作系统的漏洞,提供技术修补方案,研发安全软件硬件产品,对黑客的攻击建立防火墙,为个人、社会乃至国家的网络安全加上一层防护罩,活跃在守护网络安全的第一线。

中国本土的网络安全厂商,是在自己的市场上与国外安全巨头的竞争中成长起来的。依靠强烈的社会责任感和对国情的熟悉,中国网络安全厂商逐步发展壮大,从外国巨头手中一点点夺回市场,赢得了生机。很多网民都还记得那些熟悉的名字:金山、瑞星、江民……

中国的网络安全厂商不但凭借自己的努力赢得了市场,还创造性地推出网络安全领域的“中国模式”,彻底改写了中国网络安全行业的格局。传统的网络安全软件都采用收费模式,平均一年收费超过200元。由于较高的价格门槛,导致很多用者不愿使用安全软件。安全软件的缺位,也导致了网络上的木马病毒像洪水猛兽,如CIH、熊猫烧香等,动辄感染上千万台电脑,成为轰动一时的新闻事件。

2005年推出的360免费安全软件,一下子把用户使用门槛降到了零。随着其他本土网络安全厂商的跟进,只用了不到10年的时间,中国个人电脑的安全软件普及率已经上升至99%。2013年,微软发布安全报告称,中国电脑的恶意软件感染率指标为千分之零点六,仅是全球平均水平的1/10,是全球恶意软件感染率最低的国家。2014年,微软再度发布报告,在汇总了全球100余个国家和地区10亿余台计算机的详尽数据后,指出中国恶意软件统计数据为世界最低的4.4,远低于世界平均水平的18。

360的免费安全软件模式,被华尔街解读为“中国模式”:在核心免费产品服务层基础上,构建浏览器平台与应用开放两大基础平台,然后细化为网址导航、团购导航、游戏导航、搜索、应用开放平台和移动开放平台等服务,将这些服务通过广告与互联网增值服务变现实现盈利。这样一个创新的“中国模式”不但将中国的网络安全软件普及率大幅提高,而且通过不断增加安全研发投入,集聚安全人才和技术团队,使得中国网络安全技术不断提升,被国外同行所广泛应用和借鉴,从安全技术的追随者成为世界安全技术的领先者,也造就了东半球最强的中国“白帽子军团”。

从这个意义上说,免费安全软件的“中国模式”创造了网络安全领域的“中国奇迹”。

Chinese “White Hat Hacker Corps” has become an important force in Chinese national cybersecurity

June 2013, “Prism” incident broke out. Former National Security Agency employee Edward Snowden would disclose secret documents US intelligence agencies monitor the project to the media, in one fell swoop depth reflection triggered a global information security issues. April 2014, suffered more than the major global Internet exploits of attacks: Open SSL “heart bleeding loophole”, IE browser’s “zero-day vulnerabilities”, Struts vulnerability, Flash vulnerability, Linux kernel vulnerability, Synaptics Touchpad Driver Vulnerability and other important vulnerabilities have been found to be. An attacker can exploit to achieve complete control of the target computer, steal confidential information.

The current world, hacking has become the most important network security threats, and network security threats has become a major threat to social security, national security. Cyber ​​attacks not only can disrupt the normal operation of enterprises and social institutions, but also can easily destroy a country’s operational command system and livelihood facilities, network security has become an important part of a national security defense system.

The current network security situation simmering, a turbulent, especially the “prism door” incident has exposed a series of deep-seated problems, showing security threats overseas hostile forces in the formation of China’s network security is growing. After the “Prism” incident, security products and related overseas smartphone products through the back door to steal the core data set of events repeatedly been exposed, and other international security software giant Symantec is also exposed the existence of a backdoor, domestic users lose confidence, exclusion in addition to government procurement list.

At these foreign security software lose confidence forced to withdraw from the Chinese market, the Chinese “white hat Legion” With long-term accumulation of technology and product innovation, and take up more than 600 million Internet users security guard duties. China’s domestic network security vendors have become a priority in government procurement national security products. Information security person in charge of a large state-owned enterprises, said they not only many major projects builders, but also the construction of a number of the world’s top-class large-scale projects. For such a large state-owned enterprises, each security flaw is thrilling security risks. Select the security products must be cautious, not only in respect of corporate security, national interests even more solidarity and public safety. In this context, they would prefer to secure key, handed the hands of their own people.

The rapid development of the network economy, so China’s network security is facing new challenges. The grim reality requires Chinese “white hat Corps” must quick response, China’s network security as a good “gatekeeper.”

The current domestic network ecosystem is very complex, a lot of important Internet companies have the background of foreign capital, which also makes the competitive Internet market, often there will be some market factors outside.Recently, for example, 360 to prosecute the “Daily Economic News” reported a case of alleged false in Shanghai Xuhui District People’s Court formally sentenced.Commenting on the domestic public opinion at the time of the court, and not just limited to commercial disputes, but through the appearance of the event, focusing on national cybersecurity issues. Many network security field and legal experts pointed out that, in the network security has risen to national security background, should be conscious of China’s own “white hat Corps” to create a good development space, while cautioning against a number of foreign forces in control of the organizations or enterprises for China’s security market, thus achieving further core areas of our strategic security purposes.

China’s network security depends on our own. This is not just a question of national pride, not just a confidence issue, but a matter of extreme cases, if there are areas of our security problems backdoor planted by hostile forces.Therefore, we should focus on in recent years in areas such as security, foreign hostile forces controlled by Chinese companies through the acquisition of M & I and other ways to penetrate the security field behavior.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中国“白帽子军团”成为国家网络安全的重要力量

2013年6月,“棱镜门”事件爆发。美国国家安全局前雇员爱德华·斯诺登将美国情报机构监听项目的秘密文档披露给了媒体,一举引发了全球对于信息安全问题的深度反思。2014年4月,全球互联网遭遇多起重大漏洞攻击事件袭击:Open SSL的“心脏出血漏洞”、IE浏览器的“零日漏洞”、Struts漏洞、Flash漏洞、Linux内核漏洞、Synaptics触摸板驱动漏洞等重要漏洞被相继发现。攻击者利用漏洞可实现对目标计算机的完全控制,窃取机密信息。

当前世界范围内,黑客攻击已经成为最主要的网络安全威胁,而网络安全威胁成为社会安全、国防安全的重要威胁。网络攻击不仅能够破坏企业和社会机构的正常运行,还能够轻易地摧毁一个国家的作战指挥系统和民生设施,网络安全已经成为一个国家安全防御体系的重要组成部分。

当前网络安全形势暗流涌动、波谲云诡,尤其是“棱镜门”事件暴露出的一系列深层次问题,显示境外敌对势力在网络安全领域对中国形成的安全威胁越来越大。“棱镜门”事件之后,境外相关安全产品和智能手机类产品通过设置后门窃取核心数据的事件屡屡被曝光,赛门铁克等国际安全软件巨头也被曝光存在后门,失去国内用户信任,被排斥在政府采购名单之外。

就在这些国外的安全软件失去信任被迫退出中国市场之际,中国的“白帽子军团”凭借长期技术积累和产品创新,担负起守护6亿多网民安全的职责。中国本土网络安全厂商也成为国家政府采购安全产品的优先考虑。一家大型国有企业的信息安全负责人表示,他们不但是国内许多重大工程的建设者,还承建了世界上多个顶尖级大型工程项目。对于这样的大型国有企业来说,每个安全漏洞都是惊心动魄的安全隐患。选择安全产品必须慎之又慎,这不但关乎企业的安全,更与公共安全甚至国家利益休戚相关。在这种背景下,他们更希望把安全的钥匙,交到自己人手上。

网络经济的飞速发展,使中国网络安全面临着全新的挑战。严峻的现实要求中国“白帽子军团”必须快速反应,为中国的网络安全当好“守门人”。

当前国内的网络生态十分复杂,很多重要的互联网企业都有境外资金的背景,这也使得网络市场的竞争中,往往会出现一些市场之外的因素。例如近日360起诉《每日经济新闻》涉嫌虚假报道一案在上海徐汇区人民法院正式宣判。国内舆论在评论这次法院判决的时候,并不仅仅局限于商业纠纷,而是透过事件的表象,关注国家网络安全的问题。多位网络安全领域的专家和法律专家指出,在网络安全已经上升到国家安全的大背景下,应当有意识地为中国自己的“白帽子军团”创造良好的发展空间,同时警惕一些受境外势力控制的组织或企业争夺中国安全市场,进而达到深入我国核心安全领域的战略目的。

中国的网络安全要靠我们自己。这不仅仅是一个民族气节问题,也不仅仅是一个信心问题,而是一个关乎极端情况下,我们的安全领域是否存在敌对势力安插的后门问题。因此,应重点关注近年来在安全等领域,敌对势力通过外资控制中国公司,通过收购并购等方式向我安全领域渗透的行为。

Original Source URL

Can the People’s Republic of China be Deterred in Cyber Space?

02FEB1200Z2016

Originally posted on EastWest.NGO HERE

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This article on the concept of deterring China in the binary battlefield was written by Mr. Joseph Nye – a gentleman I wholly respect. Joseph S. Nye, Jr. is University Distinguished Service Professor and former Dean of Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.

By Joseph Nye

If we look at the cyber realm, the effectiveness of deterrence depends on who (state or non-state) one tries to deter and which of their behaviors.  Ironically, deterring major states like China from acts of force may be easier than deterring non-state actors from actions that do not rise to the level of force. The threat of a bolt from the blue attack by a major state may have been exaggerated. Major state actors are more likely to be entangled in interdependence than are many non-state actors, and American declaratory policy has made clear that deterrence is not limited to cyber against cyber but can be cross domain with any weapons of our choice.

Along with punishment and denial, entanglement is an important means of making an actor perceive that the costs of an action will exceed the benefits.  Entanglement refers to the existence of  interdependences which makes a successful attack simultaneously impose serious costs on the attacker as well as the victim. This is not unique to cyber. For example, in 2009, when the People’s Liberation Army urged the Chinese government to dump some of China’s massive holdings of dollar reserves to punish the United States for selling arms to Taiwan, the Central Bank pointed out that this would impose large costs on China as well and the government decided against it. Similarly, in scenarios which envisage a Chinese cyber attack on the American electric grid imposing great costs on the American economy, the economic interdependence would mean costly damage to China as well. Precision targeting of less sweeping targets might not produce much blowback, but the increasing importance of the Internet to economic growth may increase general incentives for self restraint. At the same time,  entanglement might not create significant costs for a state like North Korea which has a low degree of interdependence with the international economic system.

Even among major powers, there may be situations, such as August 1914 where various actors believe that the benefits of attack exceed the costs to entanglement. European states were heavily entangled in trade and finance, but still chose to go to war. Most incorrectly envisaged a short war with limited costs, and it is doubtful that the Kaiser, the Czar and the Austro-Hungarian emperor would have made the same decision if they had foreseen the loss of their thrones and dismemberment of their empires.  Norman Angell who wrote that war had become too costly because of entanglement was correct in that sense, but miscalculation can affect any type of deterrence. Trade between the U.S. and Japan did not prevent the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, but in part that was caused by the American embargo that manipulated the interdependence in a way that led the Japanese to fear that failure to take a risky action would lead to their strangulation.

Deterring state actors from attacks that do not reach the level of force is more difficult. For example, deterring China from cyber theft of intellectual property for competitive commercial advantage has proven more difficult than deterring an attack on the electric grid. Yet even here, the American threat of economic sanctions seems to have changed the declaratory policy of Chinese leaders at the time of the September 2015 summit between presidents Xi and Obama. The American indictment of five PLA officers for cyber theft of intellectual property in 2014 initially seemed counter-productive when China used it as a pretext to boycott a previously agreed bilateral cyber committee. But the costs of naming and shaming plus the threat of further economic sanctions seems to have changed Chinese declaratory behavior. Previously, China had not recognized the American distinction of espionage for competitive commercial purposes as a distinct category, but they accepted it in 2015.

Whether the threat of sanctions and loss of face will deter actual behavior of the complex organization we summarize as “China” remains to be seen. Skeptics argue that the declaratory policy change did not alter behavior of cyber theft originating from some actors in China. Optimists point out that deterrence requires clarity about what one is trying to deter, and the Chinese president’s declaration at last provides a clear baseline for behavior that China can be held to.

If there is no progress, further sanctions with credible consequences could include using the dispute settlement mechanism of the World Trade Organization, but such cross domain deterrence can be problematic if it involves issue-linkage which is resisted by trade bureaucracies and corporate groups that do not wish to see their interests damaged by reprisals.  Options such as naming and shaming corrupt officials by disclosing hacked information about their behavior can attack a country’s soft power but it sometimes resisted as over escalatory. The jury is still out on the extent to which China can be deterred in cyber space, but the evidence suggests it would be mistaken to totally discount the possibilities.

Original Source on EastWest.NGO