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China Military Theater System Reform Era of Information Warfare //中國軍事戰區制改革信息化戰爭時代中國軍隊應對新安全形勢的重大保障

China Military Theater System Reform Era of Information Warfare 

中國軍事戰區制改革信息化戰爭時代中國軍隊應對新安全形勢的重大保障

習近平中國軍事改革

習近平中國軍事改革

February 1, the PLA theater inaugural meeting held in Beijing. CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping granted flag to the theater and five issued a bull. Theater set up joint operations command structure, the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission in accordance with domestic major strategic decision, made ​​by the international situation changes, China will further promote the reform process in military forces, and greatly enhance the combat capability of the PLA.

Substantive reform: the military establishment system to adapt to new forms of information warfare needs

Military technology, military and military establishment system are the three basic elements of the new military revolution. Mankind has experienced a long weapon cold and hot steel age after the war and military technical thinking in the era of rapid development of mechanized warfare. The late 1970s, the Soviet Chief of Staff, Marshal of the Soviet Ogarkov Given the rapid development of military technology, forward-looking put forward the idea of ​​military technological revolution, which started a new military revolution sweeping the globe; 1997 , the US military put forward the “network-centric warfare” concepts, theories began to appear new military revolution prototype – each a full revolution in military affairs, the military establishment were to promote institutional change by a large development of military technology and weaponry – it by military personnel and weaponry so that the army can be effectively combined to form an overall combat power key.

In 1998, China put forward the “information warfare” concept, explicitly stated that mankind is the fourth military revolution of information technology revolution in military affairs, marking the technical form of human warfare into the information age warfare from mechanized war era. Against this background, the PLA is to follow the above rules, after weapons and equipment technology has made rapid progress, the military regime began vigorously to prepare a series of reforms: December 31, 2015, the armed services mechanism reform is completed, set up a new army, rocket forces, strategic support of three services – army, navy and air force combined with the previous, form a pattern of five armed services; January 11, 2016, to complete the formation of organs of the Central military Commission departments, from the previous four general headquarters, JMC became 15 functional departments; February 1, 2016, five theater adjustment is completed, the previous seven military regions, adjusted to five theater.

The main reason: “military” system become shackles China Military Revolution and the development of military

Original seven military system schematic

Original seven military system schematic

From the founding of the early century, by the comprehensive national strength and defense spending restrictions, military equipment levels remained low, failed to achieve the goal of complete mechanization construction; and, when low domestic railway, highway construction level, under difficult conditions in a nuclear war support large formation in the territory of strategic mobility. By the above two limitations, only the army at the time of partition of defense, so that each major military all have independent ability to respond to a threat of strategic direction.

Nearly 15 years, accumulated through investment in national defense and army reform, China’s transport network has been done, “accessible”, the level of military equipment have been greatly improved – Preliminary mechanization and mobility of fighting units sharply higher, with the from “area defensive shift basis “to” trans-regional mobility. “After greatly improved mobility, combat troops in wartime may implement in different zones under the command of, and therefore no longer need to implement the military management by a specific military.

Also, in the “military” system, military and navy and air force the same level, but also under the jurisdiction of the military air force, and even the fleet, in fact, is the embodiment of “Continental Army” thought, there are some drawbacks: military orders, regardless of military inefficient. This system has become the shackles of China Military Revolution and the development of the armed forces, can not effectively respond to security threats or China is likely to face.

Perimeter security situation and the international situation changes, “theater” made a timely decision.

Theater, from a geographic dimension in terms of a multi-dimensional space, including a broad front, greater depth and possible operational target, it is mainly based on strategic and operational tasks delineated strategic and operational activities of the regional corps with the leadership and command bodies, forces have on the area command, the command level is between the high command and strategic battle between the Legion.The main basis for division of the theater, including changes in the international pattern of perimeter security situation, military strategy, political, economic, military status and geographical characteristics of the country, and many other aspects.

Since the reform and opening up, China’s economic construction has made remarkable achievements in comprehensive national strength rising rapidly driven by changes in national strategy occurred; the Soviet Union, China land border security threat disappeared, and security threats from maritime direction is upward trend, originally established military regime on the basis of the Continental Army can not adapt to the new international situation and the security situation in neighboring China, thereby theater system came into being. In the People’s Liberation Army is divided into five theater, theater should correspond to the east of Japan and the East China Sea direction, corresponding to the western Central Asia and India theater direction, mainly the southern theater direction corresponding to the South China Sea, the northern war zone corresponds to the direction of Russia and Mongolia, as the central theater centered coordinate strategic reserve corps.

Officers appointed theater: Theater five display a mission and future trends

Five theater and officers appointed

Five theater and officers appointed

Officers from the theater can be seen in the appointment of some common: theater five ten military officers are “50,” so relatively young; most of them have experience working at the grassroots level, the so-called “starting in Reggie died five”, which two military officers have battlefield experience; most have received training integrated joint operations command. This shows the five main tasks entrusted to the theater and future trends:

First, combat and theater become the main task is to deter. Eastern theater commanderLiu PLA and western theater commander Zhao Zongqi are returning heroes from the battlefield, with actual combat experience, which is a valuable asset, but also the implementation of the “Military Commission to total, theater battle, armed services main building” in the implementation of the “theater of battle “organizational guarantee.

Second, the integrated joint operations will be the main model for future combat theater. The so-called “integrated joint operations” around unified combat purposes to the combat units, combat elements of highly integrated combat system as the main body, give full play to the overall combat effectiveness, in a multidimensional space combat or fight against the enemy’s fighting style. And the appointment of military officers have a theater at the National Defense University and other institutions of military education integrated joint operations experience.

Third, the theater system will be in constant development and improvement. The theater is a relatively young officers will and individual will, visionary, to accept new things, strong ability; In addition, the relatively young military officers also means working for a long time, can ensure coherence of policy implementation.

With the deepening of Chinese People’s Liberation Army to change the implementation of the system, this massive military force after the founding of foreign unbeaten mighty will rapidly improve combat effectiveness. This not only has a positive significance for peace and stability in the region and the world, but also for the new military revolution on a global scale provides a theoretical and practical aspects of the double “template.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习近平向五大战区授予军旗

习近平向五大战区授予军旗

2月1日,中国人民解放军战区成立大会在北京举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向五大战区授予军旗并发布训令。组建战区联合作战指挥机构,是党中央和中央军委根据国内、国际形势变化做出的重大战略决策,将进一步推动中国部队军事改革进程,并大大提升中国人民解放军的作战能力。

改革实质:使军队编制体制适应信息化战争形态新需要

军事技术、军事力量和军队编制体制是新军事革命的三个基本要素。人类经历了漫长的冷兵器和热兵器时代之后,战争技术与军事思想在机械化战争时代迅猛发展。20世纪70年代末,苏军总参谋长、苏联元帅奥加尔科夫鉴于军事技术的飞速发展,富有前瞻性的提出了军事技术革命的设想,由此展开一场席卷全球的新军事革命;1997年,美军提出“网络中心战”概念,新军事革命的理论开始出现雏形——在每一场全面的军事革命中,均是由军事技术和武器装备的大发展推动军队编制体制变革——它是通过保证军队人员和武器装备有效结合从而使军队能够形成整体作战力量的关键。

1998年,中国提出“信息战”概念,直接指出人类第四次军事革命就是信息化的军事革命,标志着人类战争的技术形态从机械化战争时代迈向信息化战争时代。在此种背景下,中国人民解放军正是遵循着上述规律,在武器装备技术水平得到长足发展后,开始着手大力对军事体制编制进行一系列改革:2015年12月31日,军种改革机制完成,新组建了陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队三个军种,加上此前的海军和空军,形成5个军种的格局;2016年1月11日,军委机关各部门组建完成,从以前的四总部,变成了15个军委职能部门;2016年2月1日,五大战区调整完毕,以前的七大军区,调整为五大战区。

主要原因:“军区”制成为中国军事革命与军队发展的桎梏

原有七大军区制示意图

原有七大军区制示意图

从建国初到上世纪末,受综合国力和国防投入限制,我军装备水平始终较低,未能实现完成机械化建设的目标;并且,当时国内铁路、公路建设水平较低,难以在核战争条件下支持大兵团在境内实施战略机动。受以上两点限制,我军在当时只能进行分区防御,使每个大军区都具备独立应对一个战略方向威胁的能力。

近15年以来,通过国防投入积累和军队体制改革,我国交通网络已经做到“四通八达”,我军装备水平已经得到大幅改善——初步实现机械化,部队机动作战能力大幅高,具备了从“区域防卫型”向“全域机动型”转变的基础。在机动性大大提高之后,部队在战时可能在不同区指挥下实施作战,因此就不再需要由特定的军区实施军政管理。

并且,在“军区”制度下,军区与海空军平级,又下辖军区空军,甚至是舰队,实际上是“大陆军”思想的体现,存在一定弊端:军政军令不分导致效率低下。这种体制已经成为中国军事革命与军队发展的桎梏,不能有效应对中国正在或可能面临的安全威胁。

国际格局和周边安全形势发生变化,“战区”制应时而生

战区,从地理层面来讲是一个多维空间,包括宽阔的正面、较大的纵深和可能的作战对象,它主要是根据战略战役任务而划定的战略战役军团活动区域,设有领导指挥机构,拥有对辖区部队的指挥权,是介于统帅部与战略战役军团之间的指挥层次。划分战区的主要依据包括国际格局的变化,周边安全形势,国家的军事战略,政治、经济、军事力量状况和地理环境特征等诸多方面。

改革开放以来,我国经济建设取得了举世瞩目的成就,综合国力迅速攀升带动国家战略发生变化;苏联解体后,中国陆地边境安全威胁基本消失,而来自海洋方向的安全威胁则呈上升趋势,原先建立在大陆军基础上的军区制度已经不能适应新的国际格局和中国周边安全形势,由此,战区制度应运而生。在此次解放军划分的五大战区之中,东部战区应该对应日本和东海方向,西部战区对应中亚和印度方向,南部战区则主要对应南海方向,北部战区则对应俄罗斯和蒙古方向,中部战区则作为战略预备总队居中策应。

战区主官任命:显示五大战区肩负使命与未来发展趋势

五大战区及主官任命

五大战区及主官任命

从此次任命的各战区主官中可以看到一些共性:五大战区的十位军政主官都是“50后”,相对年轻;大多有在基层任职经历,所谓“猛将起于卒伍”,其中有两位军事主官具有战场经历;大多接受过一体化联合作战的指挥训练。由此可见五大战区肩负的主要任务与未来发展趋势:

第一,作战和是威慑成为战区主要任务。东部战区司令员刘粤军和西部战区司令员赵宗岐都是从战场凯旋的英雄,具有实战经验,这是宝贵的财富,也是落实“军委管总、战区主战、军种主建”中落实“战区主战”的组织保证。

第二,一体化联合作战将成为未来战区的主要作战模式。所谓“一体化联合作战“,是围绕统一的作战目的,以各作战单元、作战要素高度融合的作战体系为主体,充分发挥整体作战效能,在多维作战空间打击或抗击敌方的作战样式。而此次任命的战区军事主官都有在国防大学等军事院校进修一体化联合作战的经历。

第三,战区制度还将处于不断的发展和完善中。此次战区主官都是相对年轻的上将和个别中将,思维开阔、接受新事物能力强;另外,军政主官相对年轻也意味着任职时间长,可以保证政策实施的连贯性。

随着中国人民解放军军改制度的不断深入实施,这支建国后对外大规模用兵保持全胜的威武之师将会快速提高战斗力。这不仅对于地区及世界的和平与稳定具有积极意义,也为全球范围内的新军事革命提供了理论与实践方面的双重“范本”。

Original Source: China MOD

China Cyberspace Security Strategy and Implications // 中國網絡空間安全戰略思考與啟示

China Cyberspace Security Strategy and Implications  //

中國網絡空間安全戰略思考與啟示

習近平

General Secretary Xi pointed out that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. Internationally, the United States on security in cyberspace absolute dominance, they establish hegemony, rules, seeking advantage to control the world, to China’s cyberspace poses a severe challenge.
A US cyberspace security strategy revelation
(a) by the US cyberspace security “policy”, “plan” a national strategy to enhance
the United States in cyberspace is a strategic understanding of the development process. First released in 1998, Presidential Decree No. 63 (PDD63) “Clinton administration policy on critical infrastructure protection,” followed in 2000 issued a “national plan for the protection of information system v1.0”. The Bush administration immediately after the September 11, 2001 issued Executive Order No. 13231 “Information Age critical infrastructure protection,” and announced the establishment of “President Critical Infrastructure Protection Committee” on behalf of its government fully responsible for national security in cyberspace . And to study the drafting of a national strategy, in February 2003 formally issued “to protect cyberspace national strategy”, and posting confidential level No. 54 National Security Presidential Decree in 2008, set up a “comprehensive national cybersecurity plan,” the plan in the “Manhattan” (World War II atomic bomb) name, the specific content of the “Einstein” one, two, three composition, aimed at building the federal government and major information systems engineering protection, the establishment of a unified national security posture information sharing and command system.
(Ii) US cyberspace security strategy to further improve
in April 2008, President Bush issued a “44th president submitted the report to protect the network security space,” suggesting how the next US government to strengthen security in cyberspace.
February 2009, the Obama administration after a comprehensive demonstration, announced the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment – Ensuring credible and robust information and communications infrastructure,” the report, the cyberspace security threats as “the most serious faced by the national economy nationwide one of the challenges and safe country “and declared that” digital infrastructure will be considered national strategic asset, the protection of this infrastructure will be a priority of national security “, a comprehensive plan of strategic measures to defend cyberspace.
June 2009, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates issued an order formally establishing the United States “Cyberspace Command” to the harmonization of network security and protection of US forces to carry out cyber warfare and other military operations. The command part of the US Strategic Command, the preparation of one thousand, in May 2010, the US Cyber ​​Command officially start work.
(C) international and cyberspace war strategy
in May 2011, the White House cybersecurity coordinator Schmidt released in the United States “cyberspace international strategy”, its strategic intentions clear, namely to establish hegemony, rules, seeking advantage, control the world ; in July, the US Department of Defense released “cyberspace operations strategy” put forward five strategic measures for defending US interests in cyberspace, making the United States and its allies and international partners can continue to obtain from the innovation in the information age beneficial.
October 2012, Obama signed the “American Action Network Policy” (PDD21), the law gives the US military has carried out non-traditional combat power, clearly spread from network-centric warfare to cyberspace operations and the like.
In February 2013, Obama published Executive Order No. 13636 “Enhanced network security of critical infrastructure,” clearly states that the policy action to enhance the nation’s critical infrastructure and maintain environmental security and resilience.
In April 2013, Obama Ma Xiangguo submit “fiscal year 2014 defense budget priorities and select” proposed to 2016 reorganized into 133 network forces, including the national task force 68, combat task force 25, the network defense forces 40.
February 2014, the US National Institute for Standards and Technology “to enhance critical infrastructure cybersecurity” that “the United States critical infrastructure to enhance network security framework” (V1.0), emphasizing the use of business-driven network security operations guide, and four levels, the organization’s risk management process. According to different levels of network security risk points
of April 23, 2015, the Pentagon released a new version of network security strategy summary, the first public should cyberwarfare as a future military conflict tactical options, an explicit proposal to increase the US military deterrence in cyberspace and offensive capability.
Not only the United States in full swing and the implementation of international cyberspace war strategy, NATO cyberspace security framework, issued recently shows that there are currently more than one hundred countries in the world have a certain network warfare capabilities, the National Cyber ​​Security Strategy published up to as many as 56.
Thus, cyberspace has become after land, sea, air, space is the fifth largest sovereign area of space, but also the evolution of the international strategy in the military field, which is China’s network security posed a severe challenge, we should actively respond, accelerate the construction of network security system, to defend our national sovereignty cybersecurity.
Second, build the active defense technology security system
(a) immunity trusted computing architecture
computer architecture now used in the design calculation when only the pursuit of speed and no safety factor, such as the difficult task of isolating the system, no memory protection, cross-border, this led directly to the presence service network computing environment, a large number of security issues, such as source configuration can be tampered with, it is implanted malicious programs executed by using a buffer (stack) overflow attacks, illegally take over the system administrator permissions.
Trusted Computing is the result of the development of information science, is a novel immune trusted computing model.Trusted computing using parallel computing and defense dual architecture, at the same time to obtain the computation of security protection, so that the calculation result is always as expected, can be measured to calculate the full control, it is not disturbed.
Compare current most network security system, which is mainly by a firewall, intrusion detection and virus prevention and other components, known as the “third kind.” The image of that, these passive blocking killing is a temporary solution, and trusted computing to achieve active immunization computer architecture, and human immunodeficiency as timely identify “self” and “non-self” ingredients, thereby undermining and exclusion of harmful substances into the body, so that there are shortcomings and gaps being exploited by attackers. .
Cloud computing, big data application of new information technology, networking, industrial systems, mobile Internet, virtual dynamic heterogeneous computing environment requires credible immune system as its base support. Construction of triple protection framework trusted security management center security system can be supported by the structure, to ensure operation behavior, resource allocation, data storage cartridge policy management credibility, the attacker reached the entrance, an unauthorized person can not get vital information, theft Confidential information can not read, can not tamper with systems and information system paralysis not work and can not afford to rely on aggressive behavior of protective effect, if there is credible mechanism, “shock web”, “flame”, “heart blood” and other malicious code may since kill off.
(Ii) China Trusted Computing technology innovation
China Trusted Computing in 1992 and officially approved research and large-scale application early (TCG, established in 2000) in the international Trusted Computing Group.
TCG Trusted Computing research program found that the system problems are: (1) the limitations of cryptography: TCG public key cryptography algorithm using only the RSA, SHA1 hash algorithm only supports series, avoided symmetric cryptography, the resulting key design management, key migration and complicated licensing agreement, but also a direct threat to the security of passwords; (2) the system structure is irrational: TPM calls TCG plug is a passive architecture, dynamic initiative measure can not be performed.
China Trusted Computing over a long period of research, not only to solve the above problems TCG, but also the formation of independent innovation system, its innovative points include:
(1) Trusted Computing Platform password innovative programs
using national self-designed algorithm, credible computing a cryptographic module (TCM), with symmetric cipher and asymmetric cryptography combined system, improve the safety and efficiency; dual certificate structure, simplify certificate management, improved usability and manageability of.
(2) trusted platform control module innovation
presented trusted platform control module (TPCM), TPCM self-control as a trusted root node implant trusted source, be trusted root control functions on the basis of TCM, realized with a password based active control and measurement; TPCM prior to startup of the CPU and BIOS to verify, thereby changing the TPM as the traditional idea of passive devices, to achieve TPCM active control of the whole platform.
(3) a credible innovation board
increase in the amount of confidence in the board trusted platform node (TPCM + TCM), plus a host constitutes a credible two-node, to achieve trust transfer of the operating system, providing reliable hardware environment for the upper platform ; implementation of hardware control bus credible level of peripheral resources, power on the CPU front of the Boot ROM TPCM initiative to measure, so that in the chain of trust “powered first time” to start building; and the use of multi-metric agent establishes a chain of trust for dynamic and virtual measures to provide support.
(4) a credible basis to support innovative software
using host-based software system + double trusted software system architecture ,, trustworthy software group is the Trusted Computing Platform Trusted capabilities to achieve the credibility of all software elements, the host software The system provides active protection of the credibility of the amount of storage, and reporting.
(5) Trusted Network Connect innovation
based on three ternary and other trusted connection architecture, access requester, triple control and identification and access control policies arbiter between; ternary centralized management, improve infrastructure security and manageability; and access requester and the access controller to achieve a unified policy management, improve the system overall credibility.
(Iii) core technology controlled by others to solve the problem
(1) China Trusted Computing industrialization conditions are met. “Long-term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-2020)” made ​​it clear “to the development of high trusted network focusing on the development of network security technology and related products, the establishment of network security technology security system”, “five” plan works trusted computing project regarded as the focus of development, the trusted computing standard series of progressive development, and study of more than 40 units, more than 400 participants, the standard of innovation have made ​​technology validation, to declare more than 40 patents. Many units and departments have developed a chip, machine, software, and network connections and other trusted components and equipment in accordance with relevant standards, and has been effectively used in critical systems in the national grid scheduling. April 16, 2014, established the Zhongguancun Trusted Computing Industry Alliance, and vigorously promote the industrialization and marketization.
(2) laying the foundation for the comprehensive alternative to foreign products. April 2014, Microsoft stopped support for Windows XP Service country about 200 million running XP operating system, the terminal will face a situation of no service; and Windows 8 and Vista (2006 Government procurement is not clear) is the same architecture, Windows8 upgrade is not only costly, but also lose control over security and the secondary development rights. Trusted computing innovation reinforcement XP system can easily upgrade existing equipment as a trusted computer system, a credible alternative service patching services, applications do not change the system, to facilitate the application.
Based on open source technology to develop independent operating system is a realistic option. After 20 years of research, we have accumulated considerable reserves in the operating system and key technologies, which is a breakthrough in technology accumulation mainly based on the open source operating system made. From the perspective of inheritance, we need to select the source as a technical route; from a development perspective, the current is too late to re-encode the formation of a completely new operating system, you want to share the wealth of human knowledge, open source is still a realistic option. Independent innovation is not blocking them out safe, but to fully inherited and developed.
To achieve the “five may” “have a”:
understood: open source system to fully grasp the details, there can be confusion unknown code;
editable: should be based on open source code understood completely customize the code;
Reconfigurable: for specific application scenarios and security requirements, based on open source code refactoring, forming a customized new architecture;
credible: to strengthen the independent operating system immunity with trusted computing technology to prevent autonomous system vulnerability system security;
available: applications and operating system to do the adaptation, ensuring independent operating system to replace foreign products.
We have independent intellectual property rights: to own intellectual property rights on the final autonomous operating system, and deal with intellectual property issues are using open source technologies. GPL open source technology to be bound by the agreement, our country based on existing open source operating system has not encountered significant intellectual property disputes, but just because there is no large-scale application of these systems, once I customize the operating system form a climate, will face challenges in this regard.
Meanwhile, in the process of implementation of the localization of alternative strategies, the trusted protection system fully supports localization of hardware, software, although there are more domestic product defects and loopholes can make credible security flaws and vulnerabilities will not be attacked use ensure more secure than foreign products, localization is self-controlled, safe and reliable escort.
  Faced with increasingly severe international cyberspace situation, we should be based on national conditions, innovation-driven, solving the kinds of problems. Adhere to defense in depth, to build a strong network security system, to build China into a world power network security and work hard!

Original Mandarin Chinese:

習近平

習總書記指出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。國際上,美國在網絡空間安全上佔據絕對優勢,他們確立霸主,制定規則,謀求優勢來控制世界,給我國的網絡空間安全提出了嚴峻的挑戰。
一、美國網絡空間安全戰略啟示
(一)美國將網絡空間安全由“政策”、“計劃”提升為國家戰略
美國在網絡空間戰略是一個認識發展的過程。首先是1998年發布的第63號總統令(PDD63)《克林頓政府對關鍵基礎設施保護的政策》,緊接著2000年發布了《信息系統保護國家計劃v1.0》。布什政府在2001年911事件後馬上發布的第13231號行政令《信息時代的關鍵基礎設施保護》,並宣布成立“總統關鍵基礎設施保護委員會”,由其代表政府全面負責國家的網絡空間安全工作。並研究起草國家戰略,於2003年2月正式發布《保護網絡空間的國家戰略》,又於2008年發布機密級的第54號國家安全總統令,設立“綜合性國家網絡安全計劃”,該計劃以“曼哈頓”(二戰研製原子彈)命名,具體內容以“愛因斯坦”一、二、三組成,目的是全面建設聯邦政府和主要信息系統的防護工程,建立全國統一的安全態勢信息共享和指揮系統。
(二)美國網絡空間安全戰略進一步完善
2008年4月,布什總統發布了《提交第44屆總統的保護網絡空間安全的報告》,建議美國下一屆政府如何加強網絡空間安全。
2009年2月,奧巴馬政府經過全面論證後,公佈了《網絡空間政策評估——保障可信和強健的信息和通信基礎設施》報告,將網絡空間安全威脅定位為“舉國面臨的最嚴重的國家經濟和國家安全挑戰之一”,並宣布“數字基礎設施將被視為國家戰略資產,保護這一基礎設施將成為國家安全的優先事項”,全面規劃了保衛網絡空間的戰略措施。
2009年6月,美國國防部長羅伯特.蓋茨正式發布命令建立美國“網絡空間司令部”以統一協調保障美軍網絡安全和開展網絡戰等軍事行動。該司令部隸屬於美國戰略司令部,編制近千人, 2010年5月,美國網絡司令部正式啟動工作。
(三)網絡空間國際和戰爭戰略
2011年5月,美國白宮網絡安全協調員施密特發布了美國《網絡空間國際戰略》,其戰略意圖明顯,即確立霸主,制定規則,謀求優勢,控制世界;同年7月,美國國防部發布《網絡空間行動戰略》,提出5大戰略措施,用於捍衛美國在網絡空間的利益,使得美國及其盟國和國際合作夥伴可以繼續從信息時代的創新中獲益。
2012年10月,奧巴馬簽署《美國網絡行動政策》(PDD21),在法律上賦予美軍具有進行非傳統作戰權力,明確從網絡中心戰擴展到網絡空間作戰行動等。
2013年2月,奧巴馬發布第13636號行政命令《增強關鍵基礎設施網絡安全》,明確指出該政策作用為提升國家關鍵基礎設施並維護環境安全與恢復能力。
2013年4月,奧巴馬向國會提交《2014財年國防預算優​​先項和選擇》提出至2016年整編成133支網絡部隊,其中國家任務部隊68支,作戰任務部隊25支 ,網絡防禦部隊40支。
2014年2月,美國國家標準與技術研究所針對《增強關鍵基礎設施網絡安全》提出《美國增強關鍵基礎設施網絡安全框架》(V1.0),強調利用業務驅動指導網絡安全行動,並為四個等級,組織風險管理進程。按網絡安全風險程度不同分
2015年4月23日,美國五角大樓發布新版網絡安全戰略概要,首次公開要把網絡戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,明確提出要提高美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻能力。
不僅美國緊鑼密鼓執行網絡空間國際和戰爭戰略,最近頒布的北約網絡空間安全框架表明,目前世界上有一百多個國家具備一定的網絡戰能力,公開發表網絡安全戰略的國家達56家之多。
由此可見,網絡空間已經成為繼陸、海、空、天之後的第五大主權領域空間,也是國際戰略在軍事領域的演進,這對我國網絡安全提出了嚴峻的挑戰,我們應積極應對,加快建設我國網絡安全保障體系,捍衛我國網絡安全國家主權。
二、構建主動防禦的技術保障體系
(一)可信免疫的計算體系結構
現在使用的計算機體系結構在設計時只追求計算速度並沒有考慮安全因素,如係統任務難以隔離、內存無越界保護等,這直接導致了網絡化環境下的計算服務存在大量安全問題,如源配置可被篡改、惡意程序被植入執行、利用緩衝區(棧)溢出攻擊、非法接管系統管理員權限等。
可信計算是信息科學發展的結果,是一種新的可信免疫計算模式。可信計算採用運算和防禦並行的雙體系架構,在計算運算的同時進行安全防護,使計算結果總是與預期一樣,計算全程可測可控,不被干擾。
對比當前大部分網絡安全系統,其主要是由防火牆、入侵監測和病毒防範等組成,稱為“老三樣”。形象的說,這些消極被動的封堵查殺是治標不治本,而可信計算實現了計算機體系結構的主動免疫,與人體免疫一樣,能及時識別“自己”和“非己”成份,從而破壞與排斥進入機體的有害物質,使有缺陷和漏洞不被攻擊者利用。 。
雲計算、大數據、物聯網、工業系統移動互聯網、虛擬動態異構計算環境等新型信息技術應用都需要可信免疫體係作為其基礎支撐。構建可信安全管理中心支持下的三重防護框架能夠保障體系結構,確保操作行為、資源配置、數據存儲盒策略管理的可信,達到攻擊者進不去、非授權者重要信息拿不到、竊取保密信息看不懂、系統和信息篡改不了、系統工作癱不成和攻擊行為賴不掉的防護效果,如果有可信機制,“震網”、“火焰”、“心臟滴血”等惡意代碼可不殺自滅。
(二)中國可信計算技術創新
中國可信計算於1992年正式立項研究並規模應用,早於國際可信計算組織(TCG,2000年成立)。
研究TCG可信計算方案發現其體系存在的問題有:(1)密碼體制的局限性:TCG公鑰密碼算法只採用了RSA,雜湊算法只支持SHA1系列,迴避了對稱密碼,由此導緻密鑰管理、密鑰遷移和授權協議的設計複雜化,也直接威脅著密碼的安全;(2)體系結構不合理:TCG的TPM外掛調用是一種被動體系結構,無法執行動態主動度量。
中國可信計算經過長期攻關,不僅解決了TCG的上述問題,還形成了自主創新的體系,其創新點包括:
(1)可信計算平台密碼方案創新
採用國家自主設計的算法,提出了可信計算密碼模塊(TCM),以對稱密碼與非對稱密碼相結合體制,提高了安全性和效率;採用雙證書結構,簡化證書管理,提高了可用性和可管性。
(2)可信平台控制模塊創新
提出了可信平台控制模塊(TPCM),TPCM作為自主可控的可信節點植入可信源根,在TCM基礎上加以信任根控制功能,實現了以密碼為基礎的主動控制和度量;TPCM先於CPU啟動並對BIOS進行驗證,由此改變了TPM作為被動設備的傳統思路,實現了TPCM對整個平台的主動控制。
(3)可信主板創新
在可信平台主板中增加可信度量節點(TPCM+TCM),構成了宿主加可信的雙節點,實現到操作系統的信任傳遞,為上層提供可信硬件環境平台;對外設資源實行總線級的硬件可信控制,在CPU上電前TPCM主動對Boot ROM進行度量,使得信任鏈在“加電第一時刻”開始建立;並利用多度量代理建立信任鏈,為動態和虛擬度量提供支撐。
(4)可信基礎支撐軟件創新
採用宿主軟件系統+可信軟件基的雙系統體系結構,,可信軟件基是可信計算平台中實現可信功能的可信軟件元件的全體,對宿主軟件系統提供主動可信度量、存儲、報告等保障。
(5)可信網絡連接創新
採用基於三層三元對等的可信連接架構,進行訪問請求者、訪問控制者和策略仲裁者之間的三重控制和鑑別;對三元集中控管,提高架構的安全性和可管理性;並對訪問請求者和訪問控制者實現統一的策略管理,提高系統整體的可信性。
(三)解決核心技術受制於人問題
(1)中國可信計算產業化條件具備。 《國家中長期科學技術發展(2006-2020年)》明確提出“以發展高可信網絡為重點,開發網絡安全技術及相關產品,建立網絡安全技術保障體系”,“十二五”規劃有關工程項目都把可信計算列為發展重點,可信計算標準系列逐步製定,研究制定單位達40多家,參加人員達400多,標準的創新點都作了技術驗證,申報專利達40多項。不少單位和部門已按有關標準研製了芯片、整機、軟件和網絡連接等可信部件和設備,並在國家電網調度等重要係統中得到了有效的應用。 2014年4月16日,成立了中關村可信計算產業聯盟,大力推進產業化、市場化。
(2)為全面替代國外產品打基礎。 2014年4月微軟公司停止對Windows XP的服務支持,全國約2億台運行XP操作系統的終端將面臨無人服務的局面;​​而Windows 8和Vista(2006年政府明確不採購)是同類架構,升級為Windows8不僅耗費巨資,還會失去安全控制權和二次開發權。利用自主創新的可信計算加固XP系統可以方便的把現有設備升級為可信計算機系統,以可信服務替代打補丁服務,應用系統不用改動,便於推廣應用。
基於開源技術發展自主操作系統是現實選擇。經過20多年的攻關,我們在操作系統關鍵技術上有相當的積累和儲備,這些技術積累主要是在開源操作系統基礎上取得的突破。從繼承的角度,我們需要選擇開源作為技術路線;從發展的角度,目前也來不及重新編碼形成一套完全新的操作系統,要共享人類知識財富,開源依然是現實選擇。自主創新不是封閉起來搞安全,而是要充分繼承和發展。
要做到“五可”“一有”:
可知:對開源系統完全掌握其細節,不能有不可知代碼的困惑;
可編:要基於對開源代​​碼的理解,完全自主編寫代碼;
可重構:面向具體的應用場景和安全需求,對基於開源技術的代碼進行重構,形成定制化的新的體系結構;
可信:通過可信計算技術增強自主操作系統免疫性,防範自主系統中的漏洞影響系統安全性;
可用:做好應用程序與操作系統的適配工作,確保自主操作系統能夠替代國外產品。
有自主知識產權:要對最終的自主操作系統擁有自主知識產權,並處理好所使用的開源技術的知識產權問題。開源技術要受到GPL協議的約束,目前我國現有基於開源的操作系統尚未遇到知識產權方面的明顯糾紛,但這僅僅因為這些系統尚無規模應用,一旦我自主操作系統形成氣候,必然會面臨這方面的挑戰。
同時,在我國實施國產化替代戰略的過程中,可信防護體系全面支持國產化的硬件、軟件,儘管國產化產品存在更多的缺陷和漏洞,可信保障能使得缺陷和漏洞不被攻擊利用,確保比國外產品更安全,為國產化自主可控、安全可信保駕護航。
面對日益嚴峻的國際網絡空間形勢,我們要立足國情,創新驅動,解決受制於人的問題。堅持縱深防禦,構建牢固的網絡安全保障體系,為我國建設成為世界網絡安全強國而努力奮鬥!

Original Source: X

 

US Cyber ​​Command established to respond to future cyber war // 美軍建立網絡司令部應對未來網絡戰爭

US Cyber ​​Command established to respond to future cyber war //

美軍建立網絡司令部應對未來網絡戰爭

四星上将基斯·亚历山大将出任美国网络司令部的首位司令员

From Zhuhai Security Bureau, People’s Republic of China

May 21, 2010, the US Department of Defense announced that in order to fight hostile countries and hacker attacks, the US Cyber ​​Command was officially launched. The US Air Force Combat Command and the same level of the unit by a former intelligence officer Alexander Keith four-star general in charge. As early as June last month, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates ordered the formation of Cyber ​​Command, after a year of preparation, Cyber ​​Command is now fully operational. This initiative of the US, indicating that the network will be an important piece of the future war position, “cyberwarfare” This unconventional war will be inevitable.

US forces have been brewing for a long time

  The United States as a global network of organizers, was the first country to apply real network, the establishment and operation of its network warfare units already brewing for some time, media reports from the outside world can be roughly about 12.

  First, conventional offensive and defensive team growing. According to the US cyber war years of defense experts Joel Harding assessment, the US Department of Defense has more than 15,000 computer networks in more than 4,000 military bases in 88 countries and regions, a total of more than 5,000 information warfare specialists, 5 ~ 70,000 soldiers involved in cyber warfare, coupled with the original electronic warfare officer, the number of American combat troops should be in the network of about 88700 people, which means that the number of US network warfare units have been the equivalent of 7 101 airborne division, as the network commander establishing unit, I believe that this figure will surge. This force must not only bear the task of network defense, other countries will also network and electronic systems for covert attacks, the United States access to a variety of intelligence information needed, and can quickly invade the enemy in wartime network system paralyzed the enemy command networks and electronic weapons systems.

Second, the unified command superior forces continue to integrate. Currently, the US network warfare units formed by relatively scattered, the armed forces have a certain strength, and has long competition for the services network warfare dominance, competition has been fierce. Such as: in 2002 in Virginia, Naval Network Warfare Command was established, the preparation of 60 people, the Navy Fleet Command Information Warfare Center worldwide, Navy networks and space operations and the Navy Command, computer network defense commando teams cyber warfare units 7,000 officers and men. US Air Force Network Warfare Command Territories 4 NWW, including the famous 67th NWW. The wing has five intelligence brigade, 35 Intelligence Squadron, a total of more than 8000 soldiers, resident in more than 100 locations worldwide, personnel and equipment throughout the “other continents except Antarctica.” US Army from July 2008 officially launched the construction of army battalions network, currently distributed network operations personnel in Iraq, Afghanistan and other places, to assist the local US network warfare activities, cyber warfare experts have thousands of people. Now, the formal establishment of Network Warfare Command, these advantages is to be effective and reasonable integration of forces, the US network warfare units to improve the organizational system, to achieve a high degree of unity of command and management, improve the operational effectiveness.

The third is capable of practical tactics and equipment continue to improve. US troops have been developed more than 2,000 kinds of computer viruses weapons, such as “logic bombs” and “trap door”, etc., hardware, electromagnetic pulse bombs, infrasound weapon system, the kinetic energy interceptor and high-power microwave weapons, other countries can network physical attack vector. According to reports, the US military in 2008 bombed a facility in Syria, on the use of an airborne system, airborne invasion by the enemy and operate network sensors, so that the loss of the enemy early warning function. Over the years, the US military cyber warfare tactics and constantly enrich and improve, from the media point of view, the early offensive tactics “backdoor”, “bomb attack”, in recent years has studied the “botnet”, “cast a wide net” and other . Thus, it is easy to see the US network warfare units “tip of the iceberg”, and its emphasis on cyberwarfare.

Inspiration

US Cyber ​​Command to build us a profound revelation. We should speed up the pace of global military development to adapt to, and actively play and use network advantages, strengthen the network supervision and active defense, to build a network can attack and defend the shield.

A revelation: to clarify understanding. In recent years, not only the United States established a Cyber ​​Command, several countries Israel, Russia, Britain, Germany, France, Japan, South Korea and India have been established or are planning to set up a network command system and mechanisms of war. Allegedly, Taiwan in early 2001 formally established what is known as “Tiger Force” network information warfare units, the main task is to sneak through the network related sites, to collect all kinds of confidential information and intelligence collection and development of various secret computer virus, to create “electronic bomb” attack the target network. Faced with serious challenges, we can only turn pressure into motivation, the real renew our concept, calm response, rapid response, to explore with Chinese characteristics cyberspace to victory as soon as possible.”Scholars Sushi, fitters who cares Junjie,” the army as mighty undefeated division, should be thought of cyberwarfare have a clear understanding of height, to a set of effective countermeasures, have a professional reliable team to adapt to new changes in the new military confrontation in the new situation.

Revelation II: build a strong foundation. Anti-sense of confidentiality between laws and regulations and information security officers are doing the work of the foundation. Really good job between anti-army under the condition of information security work, and the headquarters of the Central Military Commission has formulated a series of laws and regulations of confidentiality from the “People’s Liberation Army Secrets Act” and “the rule of confidentiality ’10 allowed ” to ‘prevention crime Ordinance, “” military computers connected Internet regulations, “and” military regulations on the Internet, “and” strictly guard against network leak ‘ten ban,’ “and so on. Currently, the regulations should integrate our military resources, to build full list of information security regulations, while increasing by between anti-secrecy, to guide the officers and men “correct knowledge network, regulate online” really lay a solid foundation of information security from the end.

Revelation 3: Aggregate talent. In recent years, the CIA and the military attaches great importance to cultivate high-tech talent, and even recruit hackers for their own use, constantly stealing his country’s secret and are ready to do the vanguard of conventional forces, to combat damage other network systems. US National Defense University military historian Daniel Kool noted that the Pentagon’s interest in cyber warfare has reached a degree of “religious fanaticism” in this frenzy, groups of hackers amnesty, are trained to the new professional military hackers. Reserve personnel is a necessary condition to deal with high-tech development, at present, we should actively search for network technicians to build a formal, professional, the strength of the team to respond to current and future needs of the network security cyber war.

Inspiration Four: to strengthen the defense. “Art of War” said: “No it does not rely just sit on there is also pending; it does not rely attack, something I can not rely attack also.” Strong defense against foreign invasion is the most effective means of building a solid sturdy defense can keep the enemy thousands of miles away, which rely on the continuous development of network technology and improve. We should therefore innovation in the development of advanced and useful technology network protection efforts, as I hold up an umbrella network system to ensure the safety and combat consolidated.

Revelation five: as active. Although the US Department of Defense stressed that the main task of Cyber ​​Command is defensive operations, but its covert intelligence to steal his country under the surface rhetoric, his country’s intention to attack the essence of network information system, has long been self-evident. During the Iraq war, Iraq top-level domain “.iq” application and analytical work is terminated America, all URLs with “.iq” suffix from the Internet site all evaporated in the Internet can not see any information from Iraq, which the US military quickly and efficiently to win the war in Iraq provides an important prerequisite. Information age, cyber warfare has become a “bear the brunt, full use” in the true sense of the style of warfare, to national security has brought new and unprecedented challenges, we want to provide intellectual support for the safe and stable development of the country and the army, in order to conventional war wartime to provide “security win” a prerequisite for the battle ill-prepared to deal with future networks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

四星上将基斯·亚历山大将出任美国网络司令部的首位司令员

2010年5月21日,美國國防部對外宣布,為了打擊敵對國家和黑客的網絡攻擊,美軍網絡司令部正式啟動。這一與美空軍作戰司令部平級的單位,由情報軍官出身的四星上將基斯·亞歷山大執掌。早在去年6月,美國防部長羅伯特·蓋茨就下令組建網絡司令部,歷經一年的籌備,網絡司令部現已全面開始運轉。美軍的這一舉措,預示著網絡將是未來戰爭中的一塊重要陣地,“網絡戰”這種非常規戰爭將在所難免。

美軍此舉已醞釀多時

美國作為全球網絡化的組織者,是最早將網絡運用於實戰的國家,其網絡戰部隊的建立與運轉早已醞釀多時,從外界媒體的報導大致能夠了解一二。
一是攻守兼備的常規隊伍不斷增強。根據研究美軍網絡戰多年的防務專家喬爾·哈丁評估,美國國防部在全球88個國家和地區的4000多個軍事基地內擁有超過1.5萬個電腦網絡,共有5000餘名信息戰專家,5 ~7萬名士兵涉足網絡戰,再加上原有的電子戰人員,美軍網絡戰部隊人數應該在88700人左右,這意味著美軍網絡戰部隊人數已相當於7個101空降師,隨著網絡司令部的建立,相信這個數字還將激增。這支部隊不但要承擔網絡防禦的任務,還將對別國的網絡和電子系統進行秘密攻擊,獲取美國所需要的各種情報信息,並能在戰時迅速侵入敵方網絡系統,癱瘓敵方的指揮網絡和電子武器系統。
二是統一指揮的優勢力量不斷整合。當前,美軍所形成的網絡戰部隊相對比較分散,在海陸空三軍都有一定的力量,而且長期以來各軍種為爭奪網絡戰的主導權,一直競爭激烈。如:於2002年在弗吉尼亞州成立的海軍網絡戰司令部,編制60人,指揮全球範圍內的海軍艦隊信息戰中心、海軍網絡和太空行動司令部及海軍計算機網絡防禦特攻隊等網絡戰單位的7000名官兵。美空軍網絡戰司令部管轄4個網絡戰聯隊,包括大名鼎鼎的第67網絡戰聯隊。該聯隊有5個情報大隊、35個情報中隊,總計超過8000名官兵,駐地分佈在全球100多個地點,人員和裝備遍及“除南極洲之外的其他大陸”。美陸軍從2008年7月正式啟動陸軍網絡作戰營建設,目前網絡戰人員分佈在伊拉克、阿富汗等地,協助當地美軍進行網絡戰活動,擁有的網絡戰專家也達數千人。現在,正式成立網絡戰司令部,就是要將這些優勢力量進行有效合理的整合,來完善美軍網絡戰部隊的建制,實現指揮和管理的高度統一,提高作戰效能。
三是精幹實用的裝備戰法不斷完善。美軍現已研製出2000多種計算機病毒武器,如“邏輯炸彈”和“陷阱門”等,硬件方面,有電磁脈衝彈、次聲波武器系統、動能攔截彈和高功率微波武器,可對別國網絡的物理載體進行攻擊。據報導,美軍在2008年轟炸敘利亞某設施時,就使用了一種機載系統,通過空降侵入並操作敵方網絡傳感器,使敵方喪失預警功能。這些年,美軍網絡戰戰術不斷豐富和完善,從媒體報導來看,早期的進攻戰術有“後門程序”、“炸彈攻擊”等,近年來又研究了“殭屍網絡”、“廣泛撒網”等。由此,不難看出美軍網絡戰部隊的“冰山一角”,及其對網絡戰的重視程度。

幾點啟示

美軍建立網絡司令部給我們帶來了深刻的啟示。我們應加快適應世界軍事發展的步伐,積極發揮和利用網絡優勢,加強對網絡的監管和主動防禦,構建可攻可守的網絡盾牌。
啟示一:釐清認識。近年來,不僅美國建立了網絡司令部,以色列、俄羅斯、英國、德國、法國、日本、韓國、印度等多個國家都已經建立或正在籌劃建立網絡戰爭的指揮體系和機制。據稱,台灣也早在2001年就正式建立了被稱為“老虎部隊”的網絡信息戰部隊,主要任務就是通過網絡潛入相關網站,蒐集各種機密信息與情報,秘密收集與研發各種電腦病毒,製造“電子炸彈”攻擊目標網絡系統。面對嚴峻挑戰,我們唯有變壓力為動力,真正解放思想、更新觀念、冷靜應對、迅速反應,盡快探索出有中國特色的網絡空間制勝之道。 “儒生俗士,識時務者,在乎俊傑”,我軍作為威武不敗之師,應從思想上對網絡戰有高度清晰的認識,要有一套行之有效的應對之策,要有一支專業的可靠隊伍,以適應新軍事對抗中的新情況新變化。
啟示二:築牢根基。法規制度和官兵的防間保密意識是做好信息安全工作的根基。為切實做好信息化條件下我軍防間保密工作,軍委和總部先後製定出台了一系列保密法規制度,從《中國人民解放軍保密條例》及“保密守則’十不准’”,到《預防犯罪工作條例》、《軍隊計算機連接國際互聯網管理規定》以及“軍人上互聯網的規定”,再到“嚴密防範網絡洩密’十條禁令’”等。當前,應當整合我軍法規資源,構建完整齊備的信息安全保密法規體系,同時通過加大防間保密教育,引導官兵“正確識網、規範上網”,真正從末端打牢信息安全的根基。
啟示三:聚合人才。近年來,美國中央情報局及軍方非常注重培養高科技人才,甚至招募黑客為自己所用,不斷竊取他國秘密並隨時準備為常規部隊做好先鋒隊,打擊破壞對方網絡系統。美國國防大學軍事史專家丹尼爾·庫爾指出,五角大樓對於網絡戰的興趣已經達到了“宗教狂熱”的程度,在這種狂熱下,一批批黑客被招安,被訓練成新的專業軍事黑客。人才的儲備是應對高科技發展的必要條件,當前,我們應積極搜尋網絡技術人才,構建一支正規、專業、有實力的隊伍,以應對現在網絡安全防範和未來網絡戰爭的需求。
啟示四:加強防禦。 《孫子兵法》曰:“無恃其不來,恃吾有以待也;無恃其不攻,恃吾有所不可攻也。”堅強的防範是抵禦外侵最有效的手段,築實一條堅固的防線可以御敵於千里之外,這就要靠網絡技術的不斷發展和提高。因此,我們應當在自主創新研發先進、有用的網絡防護技術上下功夫,為我網絡系統撐起一把保護傘,確保安全和戰鬥力鞏固。
啟示五:主動作為。雖然美國防部強調網絡司令部的主要任務是防禦作戰,但是其隱蔽於表面辭藻之下的竊取他國情報、攻擊他國網絡信息系統的實質意圖,早已不言自明。伊拉克戰爭期間,伊拉克頂級域名“.iq”的申請和解析工作被美國終止,所有網址以“.iq”為後綴的網站全部從互聯網蒸發,在互聯網無法看到來自伊拉克的任何信息,這為美軍迅速高效打贏伊戰提供了重要前提。信息化時代,網絡戰已經成為真正意義上的“首當其衝、全程使用”的作戰樣式,給國家安全帶來了嶄新的、空前的挑戰,我們要為國家和軍隊的安全穩定發展提供智力支撐,為戰時的常規戰爭提供“保打贏”的先決條件,為應對未來網絡攻防戰做足準備。

 

Original Source X

China Information Warfare – China’s Basic Form of a Future War //中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

In the 21st century, the rapid development of high technology and extensive application, and promote the development and evolution of combat weapons and equipment, and promote the transformation and innovation and the development of institutional military doctrine, which triggered a new revolution in military affairs. Information warfare will eventually replace mechanized war, become the basic form of war. Information warfare refers to occur in the information age, information-based, using information technology as a tool of war weaponry of war. Information warfare does not change the nature of war, but the war must take into account the outcome of the mentor and the consequences of war, first in the pursuit of strategic guidance on how to achieve “the enemy without fighting the soldiers,” the strategic victory, the kind of large-scale physical destruction at the expense of traditional warfare will be greatly constraints and limitations.

Knowledge has become the main source of war to destroy the force  on the right in terms of information (quantity and quality) dependence, the past is not any war and information war. In conventional war, the two sides focus more on comprehensive contest on the basis of physical force. Such as mechanized war, mainly for steel contest, contest the whole country is full of large industrial machinery production capacity. Information war contest does not exclude physical force, but more important is the contest of knowledge, innovation ability and speed of innovation contest. Knowledge will become the main source of war to destroy force, “an ounce of effect of silicon computer generated perhaps more than a ton of uranium is also big.”

Firepower, mobility, information, constitute an important part of modern military combat capability, and the ability of information has become the primary indicator to measure the level of combat capability. Information capabilities, performance in terms of information acquisition, processing, transmission, and use of confrontation, to be manifested through information superiority and competition control. Information superiority, in essence, in the understanding of the enemy at the same time prevent the enemy to understand one’s own situation, confrontation is a dynamic process. It has become a fight for air supremacy, command of the sea, land control of the premise of a direct impact on the process and outcome of the war. Of course, people will always be the master of information warfare. Plan and organize and direct the war from people completely dominated increasingly dependent on technology to develop human-machine combination of military quality requirements are higher. Information from the advantages of competition to the final decision superiority into more competitive knowledge and wisdom.

War forces will move toward information, intelligence  forces of war are directly and indirectly referred to the various forces for war, to fight the information war, natural rely heavily on information, intelligence and information technology military weapons and equipment.

The most basic of war, the most significant feature is the use of the most advanced scientific and technological achievements to create the most advanced instruments of war. Information weapons and equipment is developed on the basis of mechanized equipment, such as C4ISR systems, precision-guided weapons, information warfare equipment and various high-tech combat platforms.They are highly knowledge-intensive tools of war, and thus can not be compared with the traditional tools of war performance, functionality, operational capabilities and effectiveness. At the same time, they play to the performance level and the operational level, directly restricted information, information systems and information capabilities.   The army is the army of information technology refers to using information technology to weapons armed with the information age. Its unprecedented level of integration will enhance the overall combat capability more powerful, emphasizing optimal combination of combat capability, the services are just part of joint combat forces. At the same time, the size of the forces become smaller, more flexible and diverse forms of grouping, vertical command structure will also benefit from the tree into a flat network architecture. From the subordinate command relationship changed multilayer horizontal communication, and down one command relationships, delayering, put as many combat units into the same level of information, information sharing, shorten the information flow to meet the real-time command decision Claim.

War mode will tend to systematic, precise  Technological development determines the evolution of tactics. With the development of weapons and equipment, the scale of war is also growing, the most prominent battlefield extended to three-dimensional space from the plane: from land to sea and air space, and then, from the visible to the invisible electromagnetic space and information space, it has formed armed day one dimensional, tangible and intangible space space Blending the new operational environment. This network battlefield is great depth, three-dimensional high, dilute the distinction between front and rear, major changes have taken place in time and space, both traditional air, naval, marine, electronic warfare, and more will be a new web-based attacks information warfare. Rely on the support of information networks, through the orderly flow of information, all combat operations within the space really blending together.

In the past, a new weapon tends to cause relatively large impact, obtain better operational effectiveness. But in the modern battlefield, the two sides are no longer hostile confrontation between a single or a few branches, but not a single weapon system confrontation, but confrontation between systems. In the information war, the extent of such a system of confrontation and even more will not emphasize the operational performance of tanks, aircraft, warships and other single combat platform, but rather to highlight the overall performance of information technology weaponry system, pay attention to multiple armed services, comprehensive combat effectiveness of a variety of weapons and equipment.

Destroy the enemy is an important part of the war. Mechanized warfare, anti-surface fire mostly destroyed, such as fire suppression, carpet bombing, saturation-type attacks. This operational mode corresponding to the extensive mode of production of the industrial age, reflecting the idea of a war of attrition, to victory in that time, space, energy, supplies and other aspects of continuous consumption and weaken the power of the enemy, and finally defeat the enemy. The precision strike in line with the characteristics and requirements of the information age, but also reflects the basic characteristics of information warfare. Intensive production model of the information age emphasizes effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness. Weapons and equipment level of intelligence and combat accuracy was greatly improved, can be done “pinpoint” type of destroyed; also can be accurate, non-physical damage, such as psychological warfare and information warfare. In addition, the precision strike can also significantly reduce collateral damage, so that the development and the process of social civilization synchronization war, war means more conducive to play its unique role.

Course of the war would be short, controlled – the rhythm of information warfare significantly accelerated course of the war will become shorter and shorter, but the intensity is getting high, and humanity as a whole control of the war also significantly enhanced.   Army should pay more attention to the quality of the information age and effectiveness. Winning quality from quantity into winning, it is one of the significant change in the war. Such as the combination of high-tech precision-guided weapons and combat platforms used to enhance the ability of the enemy to combat the standoff embodiment, can greatly reduce the loss of one’s own operations; continually improve the accuracy of the attack, it can greatly reduce the number of weapons consumption. World War II in 9000 to use bombs to blow up a goal, now 1-2 as long as missiles or guided bombs can solve the problem, operational tempo and the natural process will be faster.

Layers of advancing successive war, set small victories, this contact, wire is typical of traditional methods of warfare combat visual feedback. In information warfare, from the contact, non-line operations will be the main form of combat operations will be launched simultaneously in all the whole depth of space combat and battlefield, the primary targets will point directly to the enemy center of gravity. Especially powerful information warfare, even in the enemy without the knowledge of the state, it is possible to make several hacker instant enemy paralyzed economic and social, to quickly achieve the purposes of war.

Source: http://www.china001.com/

Original Mandarin Chinese:

進入21世紀,高技術的迅猛發展和廣泛應用,推動了武器裝備的發展和作戰方式的演變,促進了軍事理論的創新和編制體制的變革,由此引發新的軍事革命。信息化戰爭最終將取代機械化戰爭,成為未來戰爭的基本形態。信息化戰爭是指發生在信息時代、以信息為基礎、以信息化武器裝備為戰爭工具的戰爭。信息化戰爭不會改變戰爭的本質,但戰爭指導者必須考慮到戰爭的結局和後果,在戰略指導上首先追求如何實現“不戰而屈人之兵”的全勝戰略,那種以大規模物理性破壞為代價的傳統戰爭必將受到極大的約束和限制。

知識成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源

就對信息(數量和質量)的依賴程度而言,過去的任何戰爭都不及信息化戰爭。在傳統戰爭中,雙方更注重在物質力量基礎上的綜合較量。如機械化戰爭,主要表現為鋼鐵的較量,是整個國家機器大工業生產能力的全面競賽。信息化戰爭並不排斥物質力量的較量,但更主要的是知識的較量,是創新能力和創新速度的競賽。知識將成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源,“計算機中一盎司矽產生的效應也許比一噸鈾還大”。

火力、機動、信息,是構成現代軍隊作戰能力的重要內容,而信息能力已成為衡量作戰能力高低的首要標誌。信息能力,表現在信息獲取、處理、傳輸、利用和對抗等方面,通過信息優勢的爭奪和控制加以體現。信息優勢,實質就是在了解敵方的同時阻止敵方了解己方情況,是一種動態對抗過程。它已成為爭奪制空權、制海權、陸地控制權的前提,直接影響著整個戰爭的進程和結局。當然,人永遠是信息化戰爭的主宰​​者。戰爭的籌劃和組織指揮已從完全以人為主發展到日益依賴技術手段的人機結合,對軍人素質的要求也更高。從信息優勢的爭奪到最終轉化為決策優勢,更多的是知識和智慧的競爭。

戰爭力量將走向信息化、智能化

戰爭力量是可直接和間接用於戰爭的各種力量的統稱,打信息化戰爭,自然離不開信息化、智能化的武器裝備和信息化軍隊。

戰爭最基本、最顯著的特徵,就是利用當時最先進的科學技術成果製造最先進的戰爭工具。信息化武器裝備是在機械化裝備基礎上發展起來的,如C4ISR系統、精確制導武器、信息戰裝備和各種高技術作戰平台等。它們都是知識高度密集型的戰爭工具,因而具備傳統戰爭工具無法比擬的性能、功能、作戰能力和效果。同時,它們作戰效能的高低和發揮程度,直接受到信息、信息系統和信息能力的製約。

信息化軍隊是指用信息化武器裝備武裝起來的信息時代的軍隊。其一體化程度將空前提高,整體作戰能力更強大,強調作戰能力的優化組合,各軍種都只是聯合作戰力量的一部分。同時,兵力規模將趨於小型化,編組形式更加靈活多樣,指揮體制也將從垂直樹狀結構轉變為扁平網絡結構。即從上下級多層指揮關係改為橫向溝通、上下一體的指揮關係,減少層級,把盡可能多的作戰單元納入同一個信息層次,實現信息共享,縮短信息流程,以滿足實時化指揮決策的要求。

戰爭模式將趨於體系化、精確化

技術的發展決定著戰術的演變。隨著武器裝備的發展,戰爭規模也在日益擴大,突出表現為戰場從平面向立體空間擴展:由陸地到海洋再到空中和太空,從有形空間到無形的電磁和信息空間,已形成了陸海空天四維一體、有形空間與無形空間相互交融的新型作戰環境。這種網絡化戰場是大縱深、高立體的,前後方區別淡化,時空觀都發生了重大變化,既有傳統的空戰、海戰、陸戰、電子戰,更會出現全新的以網絡攻擊為主的信息戰。依靠信息網絡的支撐,通過信息的有序流動,所有作戰空間內的作戰行動真正地融合為一體。

過去,一件新式武器往往會造成比較大的影響,獲得較好的作戰效果。但在現代戰場上,敵對雙方已不再是單一或少數軍兵種之間的對抗,更不會是單一武器系統的對抗,而是體係與體系的對抗。在信息化戰爭中,這種體系化對抗的程度更甚,將不再強調坦克、飛機、軍艦等單件作戰平台的作戰性能,而是突出信息化武器裝備體系的整體效能,注重發揮多個軍種、多種武器裝備的綜合作戰效能。

消滅敵人是戰爭的重要內容。在機械化戰爭中,火力摧毀主要是面殺傷,如火力壓制、地毯式轟炸、飽和式攻擊等。這種作戰方式對應於工業時代的粗放型生產模式,反映了消耗戰的思想,制勝之道在於從時間、空間、能源、補給等方面不斷消耗和削弱敵人的力量,最後戰勝敵人。而精確打擊符合信息時代的特徵和要求,也反映了信息化戰爭的基本特點。信息時代的集約型生產模式講求效能、效率、效益。武器裝備的智能水平和打擊精度也獲得極大的提高,可做到“點穴式”的摧毀;同時還可以進行精確的非物理性毀傷,如心理戰、信息戰等。另外,精確打擊還可以大幅度降低附帶毀傷,使戰爭的發展與社會文明進程同步,更有利於戰爭手段發揮其獨特作用。

戰爭進程將是短暫的、可控的

信息化戰爭的節奏明顯加快,戰爭進程將變得越來越短,但強度卻越來越高,而人類對戰爭的整體控制能力也在顯著增強。

信息時代的軍隊更注重質量和效能。由數量製勝轉變為質量製勝,是戰爭發生的顯著變化之一。如精確制導武器和高技術作戰平台的結合使用,增強了從敵人防區外實施打擊的能力,可大大降低己方的作戰損失;攻擊精度的不斷提高,可大大減少武器消耗數量。第二次世界大戰中要用9000枚普通炸彈才能炸毀一個目標,現在只要1-2枚導彈或製導炸彈就可以解決問題,作戰節奏和進程自然會越來越快。

層層推進,逐次交戰,集小胜為大勝,這種接觸式、線式作戰是傳統作戰方法的典型直觀反映。而在信息化戰爭中,脫離接觸式、非線式作戰將成為主要形式,作戰行動將在所有作戰空間和戰場全縱深同時展開,首要打擊目標將直接指向敵人重心。尤其是信息戰威力巨大,甚至在敵人毫不知情的狀態下,幾個黑客頃刻間就有可能令敵國經濟和社會陷入癱瘓,從而迅速達成戰爭目的。

2016 Development of China’s Network Security Law & Revised National Security Legislation // 中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

2016年03月10日01:40 北京晨报

NPC Standing Committee work report of the Standing Committee Zhang Dejiang as the National People’s Congress. Xinhua News Agency issued

  Zhang Dejiang chairman of the NPC Standing Committee work report for

Second session of the Fourth Session of the 9th National People’s Congress held its second plenary meeting in the afternoon in the Great Hall, commissioned by the National People’s Congress, Zhang Dejiang chairman to report to the General Assembly. Conference and heard presentations on the draft law of charity. Xi Jinping, Li Keqiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan, Zhang Gaoli, etc. on the rostrum. Executive meeting presided over by the President of the General Assembly, the Executive Chairman Zhang Ping.

2015

We have done what?

Zhang Dejiang said in the report, over the past year, the Standing Committee formulated five laws, and a decision to change the law on legal issues 37, decided to submit to the National People’s Congress for consideration a through decisions on legal issues 8 ; law enforcement inspection six cases heard and deliberated the State Council, the supreme people’s Procuratorate 17 report on the work carried out three times and three thematic inquiry special investigations by two resolutions; consideration of the motion on behalf of the outcome of the review by the special committee 8 report, the report of the Credentials Committee on behalf of the eligible individual representatives of six decided to approve the treaty between China and foreign states, international agreements and conventions to join 11, a number of decisions and approve the appointment and removal of state organs and the like.

In the area of ​​national security-related legislation, the Criminal Law Amendment (ix) by the five terrorist-related activities included in the Criminal Responsibility range.Legislation in the field of people’s livelihood, be revised Population and Family Planning Law, the implementation of “comprehensive two-child” policy since January 1, 2016.

Second session of the Third Session of the NPC Standing Committee to determine the tasks have been completed, the Standing Committee all aspects of work have made new progress, new results.

2016

General Rules of Civil developing market economy amend the Securities Act

Chairman Zhang Dejiang said in the report, 2016 will be legislation, supervision is the key. By 2016, the NPC Standing Committee will improve the socialist market economy legal system, including modifying the Securities Act, SME Promotion Law and the like. April 2015 and 12th National People’s Congress of the fourteenth session of the draft amendments to the Securities Act conducted the first consideration.

Report, focus of the market play a decisive role in the allocation of resources and better play the role of government, focus on improving the level of economic and social development of the rule of law and market economy. General Rules of Civil develop and improve basic civil legal system. Developing an environmental tax, tonnage tax, tobacco tax law, food law, asset valuation method, modify the Securities Act, SME Promotion Law and the like.

“Adhere to green development, promote the construction of ecological civilization, to build the most stringent environmental protection system, modify the Water Pollution Control Act, the Marine Environment Protection Law, Wildlife Law and other.” The report said.

Social and cultural development of network security law revision Red Cross Society

2016, the NPC Standing Committee will coordinate development of legislation in the field of social, cultural, etc., making medicine law, Community Corrections Act, modify Private Education Promotion Law, the Red Cross method.

Report, in terms of deepening the reform, the development of public cultural services security law, the promotion of the film industry and the like. To promote civil-military integration depth development, deepen reform of national defense and the armed forces, the development of national defense transportation law, amend law on military officers and so on. In promoting anti-corruption legislation, the development of international criminal judicial assistance law, revise study Administrative Supervision Law. Develop overseas NGO management method, network security law.

In addition, the report proposes reform of the authorization decision to do related work.

The implementation of the supervision and inspection of food safety inspection method

Zhang Dejiang said in the report, in 2016, the NPC Standing Committee will strengthen the supervision of the implementation of the law and check the implementation of the Food Safety Law and other six laws.

This six laws include: Food Safety Law, Water Law, promote scientific and technological achievements into law, the Environmental Protection Act, the Road Traffic Safety Law, Production Safety Law.

Meanwhile, the NPC Standing Committee will consider combining food safety law enforcement inspection report carried out three Environmental Protection Act, Production Safety Law and other topics upon request. Strengthen tracking supervision, to consider the report of the State Council to listen to feedback on research process rights of the elderly security law, food safety law enforcement inspection report and deliberations on the situation. Listen to consider the report of the State Council on the implementation of the Exit and Entry Management Law.Water Pollution Control Act to carry out the implementation of special investigations.

New initiative to review the filing and examination of administrative regulations

  By 2016, the NPC Standing Committee will strengthen the filing and examination of the development of new administrative regulations and judicial interpretations active review examined piece by piece.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

2016年03月10日01:40 北京晨报

全国人大常委会委员长张德江作全国人民代表大会常务委员会工作报告。新华社发

张德江委员长作全国人大常委会工作报告

十二届全国人大四次会议9日下午在人民大会堂举行第二次全体会议,受全国人大常委会委托,张德江委员长向大会报告工作。会议并听取了关于慈善法草案的说明。习近平、李克强、俞正声、刘云山、王岐山、张高丽等在主席台就座。会议由大会主席团常务主席、执行主席张平主持。

2015年

都做了啥?

张德江在报告中说,一年来,常委会制定5部法律,修改37部法律和1个有关法律问题的决定,决定提请全国人民代表大会审议的法律案1件,通过有关法律问题的决定8个;检查6部法律实施情况,听取审议国务院、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院17个工作报告,开展3次专题询问和3项专题调研,通过2个决议;审议通过专门委员会关于代表议案审议结果的报告8个、代表资格审查委员会关于个别代表的代表资格的报告6个,决定批准我国与外国缔结的条约、协定以及加入的国际公约11件,决定和批准任免一批国家机关工作人员等。

在国家安全领域相关立法方面,通过的刑法修正案(九)中将五种恐怖相关活动列入刑事追责范围。在民生领域立法方面,及时修改人口与计划生育法,自2016年1月1日起实施“全面两孩”政策。

十二届全国人大三次会议确定的常委会各项任务已经完成,常委会各方面工作都取得了新进展、新成效。

2016年

将要做啥?

市场经济修改证券法制定民法总则

张德江委员长在报告中说,2016年将以立法、监督为重点。2016年,全国人大常委会将完善社会主义市场经济等方面法律制度,其中包括修改证券法、中小企业促进法等。2015年4月,十二届全国人大常委会第十四次会议对证券法修订草案进行了第一次审议。

报告提出,紧紧围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,着力提高经济社会发展和市场经济运行的法制化水平。制定民法总则,健全民事基本法律制度。制定环境保护税法、船舶吨税法、烟叶税法、粮食法、资产评估法等,修改证券法、中小企业促进法等。

“坚持绿色发展、促进生态文明建设,构建最严格的生态环境保护制度,修改水污染防治法、海洋环境保护法、野生动物保护法等。”报告中说。

社会文化制定网络安全法修改红十字会法

2016年全国人大常委会将统筹推进社会、文化等领域立法工作,制定中医药法、社区矫正法,修改民办教育促进法、红十字会法。

报告提出,在深化文化体制改革方面,制定公共文化服务保障法、电影产业促进法等。在促进军民融合深度发展、深化国防和军队改革方面,制定国防交通法,修改现役军官法等。在推进反腐败立法方面,制定国际刑事司法协助法,研究修改行政监察法。制定境外非政府组织管理法、网络安全法。

此外,报告提出做好改革试点授权决定相关工作。

监督检查检查食品安全法实施情况

张德江在报告中说,2016年,全国人大常委会将加强对法律实施情况的监督,检查食品安全法等6部法律的实施情况。

这6部法律包括:食品安全法、水法、促进科技成果转化法、环境保护法、道路交通安全法、安全生产法。

同时,全国人大常委会将结合审议食品安全法、环境保护法、安全生产法等3个执法检查报告开展专题询问。加强跟踪督办,听取审议国务院关于研究处理老年人权益保障法、食品安全法执法检查报告及审议意见情况的反馈报告。听取审议国务院关于出境入境管理法执行情况的报告。开展水污染防治法实施情况专题调研。

备案审查主动审查研究新的行政法规

2016年,全国人大常委会将加强备案审查工作,对新制定的行政法规、司法解释逐件进行主动审查研究。

中國今年制定网络安全法 修证券法

2016年03月10日01:40 北京晨报

China Military Space Power: War to Seize Commanding Heights // 中國網絡戰爭太空力量:抢占战争制高点

中國網絡戰爭太空力量:抢占战争制高点

With the continuous development of space technology, space, military applications increasingly widespread, more and more countries joined the ranks of the space race –

Source:
Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China
 Author: Zhang Zhi Time: 2016-01-29

 

    “Who controls the universe, whoever controls the earth; who controls the space, whoever controls the initiative in war.” Former US President John F. Kennedy is determined to promote the development of American space technology, space will also be incorporated into the great power game and competition category. With the development of space technology and space forces, military space is used widely in shaping the international strategic pattern, pushing the world’s new revolution in military affairs, and played a key role.

    Two-hegemony, the main purpose of the service strategy

July 1961, the United States has just successfully developed the use of “Samos” satellites, captured Soviet SS-7 and SS-8 deployed intercontinental ballistic missile tests, the Soviet Union opened a “missile gap” truth became the third the key Berlin crisis resolved smoothly, marking the space support forces boarded the stage of history.

Since then, the United States, the two superpowers, the Soviet Union from the strategic objective of global hegemony starting to build a more complete support for space power systems.

Since an important strategic position, it has been solely responsible for the construction of satellites by the US intelligence community, in order to facilitate confidential. US Department of Defense is leading the “Defense Satellite Communications System,” “Fleet Satellite Communication”, “Military Star” three communications satellite system construction, on this basis, build a “Air Force satellite communications” system for the US national command structure and strategic nuclear forces provided between the safe, reliable, high viability of the global two-way communications capability. Meanwhile, the US Department of Defense has also developed strategies for the deployment of ballistic missile early warning “Defense Support Program” satellite navigation for nuclear submarines “TRANSIT” satellite for global meteorological observation “DMSP” and other systems, the formation of a relatively complete system.

In order to compete with the United States, the Soviet Union launched a comprehensive space forces, from the development of “Zenith”, “amber” reconnaissance satellite “Lightning” communications satellite, “sail” navigation satellite, the “eye” early warning satellites and “Meteor” weather as the representative of satellite space power system.

Throughout the Cold War, the role of the US-Soviet space power is mainly reflected at the strategic level, both the use of near-real-time reconnaissance and early warning satellites to detect each other’s strategic dynamic use of communication satellites and navigation satellites for command and control of strategic nuclear forces, formation of an effective nuclear deterrence combat system, a profound impact on the world strategic pattern of the Cold war.

With space development focus to shift from military spacecraft launch vehicles, various military satellite systems gradually have the ability to use large-scale, the Soviet Union began to build a dedicated space forces command structure. In 1985, the US military set up a joint Space Command. Administration of the Soviet spacecraft in 1982, the formerly strategic rocket forces, responsible for the development of space power transfer scribe to support the Department of Defense, and later upgraded to bureau director of the spacecraft, so space support force directly under the arms of the Soviet Union became the Department of Defense.

    Pack and play, to expand the role of tactical action

The 1991 Gulf War, the US military space forces operations provided critical reconnaissance, early warning, communications, navigation, meteorological services, marking the beginning of space support from the strategic level into the tactical level.

Subsequently, the US military began to develop better able to support tactical space combat support forces launched a large-scale construction of various types of military satellites and upgrading. “Global Positioning System” fully completed “keyhole -12” “Future Imagery Architecture”, “space-based infrared system” and “Global Broadband Satellite Communication”, “Advanced Extremely High Frequency”, “Mobile User Objective System” and other new generation of satellites have been put into use. 2003 Iraq war, the total number up to 167 US satellite. By the end of 2015, US satellites in orbit nearly 400, of which more than 120 pieces of military satellites, forming a powerful space support operations capabilities.

In strengthening the power of construction, the US military in 2002, the Joint Space Command Strategic Command incorporated, unified management of the armed forces Space Command, in order to better organize and direct the power of space support strategic, operational and tactical military operations at all levels. The military services also formed their own space support forces and support the preparation of models to successfully achieve tactical level space support.

Russia’s lack of independence early strength, inherited the former Soviet space support force can maintain normal, resulting in a sharp decline in the number of satellites in orbit, and only 97 in orbit until 2002. In view of this situation, the Russian military space forces carried out the reform, the establishment of an independent space force in 2001, began to recover and rebuild its military satellite system. After the start of the “new look” reform, the Russian space force in 2011 to form the basis of the air and space defense troops, again in 2015 and the Air Force air and space defense troops merge to form air and space forces, responsible for the Russian spacecraft control, missile warning management system attacks and space monitoring system operation.

After the reform and adjustment, all kinds of Russian satellite system gradually restored. By the end of 2015, Russian satellites in orbit nearly 130, of which nearly 80 military satellites. But Russian military believes that blow from the air and space will be the main threat facing Russia, decide the future of air and space warfare has become the key to victory in the field, and therefore the full development of the Russian aerospace defense forces, space support forces in a subordinate position or service. In the previous reform, satellite surveillance, satellite communications, satellite navigation and other space support system construction management still the Russian Defense Ministry and General Staff Operations Department under the relevant commitment, the services are generally lacking space support personnel, operational and tactical levels than use low. During the Russia-Georgia war of 2008, the Russian military satellite reconnaissance had revealed not timely, satellite communication services and poor.

While the US and Russia to develop space forces, more and more countries joined the ranks of the space race. India announced in 2007 to establish the “Aerospace Defense Command”, to manage India’s national space assets, and space warfare weapon concept study, the Indian Air Force has been established aerospace brigade. Japan in 2009 adopted the “Basic Law Aviation”, the Japanese Air Self Defense Force to take advantage of space resources, and expand research-related policy formulation and planning to lay the legal basis for future space operations. Some other countries have also expressed varying degrees of military commitment to the development and use of space and plans.

    Defense against US efforts to seize the initiative

As more and more countries enter the field of space, space security environment has undergone significant changes. Especially in the US view, the space has a non-former “safe harbor.” US Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2013 edition of “space war” doctrine stated that the commander must take into account a malicious adversary action may be taken, and can continue to maintain military capability in the case of space capabilities downgrade. For this purpose, a step the US took the lead in the field of space, launched a series of offensive and defensive measures.

– Improve space surveillance capability. February 2015, the US Air Force and Lockheed – Martin launched the new “Space Fence” radar system construction work. The system can be monitored for the first time all over the United States via satellite from the master satellite elapsed time, attitude and orbit, etc., can also detect low orbit target as small as 10 cm in diameter, thereby greatly enhancing the US space situational awareness ability.The US Air Force ground-based photovoltaic system and deep space exploration systems, missile warning and space surveillance radar network system together constitute from low earth orbit to deep space orbit space surveillance systems perspective.

– Improve the existing space forces invulnerability. 2013 US military issued a “survivability and distributed space systems architecture” white paper proposes the use of structural separation, functional decomposition, load carrying, decentralized multi-track, multi-domain decomposition operations and other measures to improve the survivability of space systems support.

– Emphasis on the integrated use of space technology and traditional techniques. 2014 US release of “Towards a new strategy to offset the” proposed in the report, the US needs to soaring losses caused by the loss of the base system, the measures include accelerating the development of alternative GPS system, equipped with long endurance and / or aerial refueling capability. ” mixed level “intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance UAVs.

– The establishment of the development model construction space forces and civilian integration. US military plans to use leased wartime civil and commercial space systems and services, carrying a military payload on a commercial satellite, direct purchase of advanced commercial or commercial systems to the military, etc., to supplement the existing space support capabilities.

– By conducting military exercises in the development of space power construction using the theory. US Joint Staff, Air Force, Navy and Army space support operations in both the theme of military exercises. In 2001 the US Air Force Space Command began to dominate “Schriever” space war military exercises have been organized nine times.

– Strengthening Space Operations organization and command. September 2015, the US Defense Department and intelligence community established an inter-agency Joint Space Operations Center, responsible for the integration of satellite reconnaissance data, strengthening space reconnaissance capability, military satellite monitoring operation, to prevent potential adversaries to attack US space assets.

– Strengthening Space offensive forces. May 2015, the US X-37B flight test for the fourth time. Although the Americans called it “Orbital Test Vehicle,” but it remained silent on key information. Speculation, X-37B has the ability to take military action including control, capture and destroy enemy spacecraft, military reconnaissance on the enemy. In this sense, X-37B is likely to be the first human space fighter. In addition, the United States has stepped up the construction of space attack power laser, microwave, anti-satellite missiles, hoping to keep the lead in the space race in the future, continue to maintain its dominance.

    Overall, the world’s military powers have attached great importance to space support the construction and development of power, but the situation near several local wars, the only United States and Russia have a more comprehensive strategic, operational and tactical levels of space capabilities, other countries space is still the main force in the strategic use of the service. In the new space, the security situation, the US military has launched a new round of space forces change the face of the future US military space forces are likely to be a qualitative change occurs, information warfare appearance may therefore profoundly changed.

Original Manadrin Chinese:

随着太空技术不断发展,太空军事应用日益广泛,越来越多的国家加入了太空竞争行列

“谁控制了宇宙,谁就控制了地球;谁控制了空间,谁就控制了战争的主动权。”美国前总统肯尼迪的判断,推动了美国太空技术的发展,也将太空纳入了大国博弈和竞争的范畴。随着太空技术和太空力量的不断发展,太空军事应用日益广泛,在塑造国际战略格局、推动世界新军事变革等方面发挥了关键性作用。

    两强争霸,主要服务战略目的

1961年7月,美国利用刚刚研制成功的“萨莫斯”侦察卫星,拍摄到苏联SS-7和SS-8洲际弹道导弹试验部署情况,揭开了美苏“导弹差距”真相,成为第三次柏林危机顺利解决的关键,标志着太空支援力量登上了历史舞台。

此后,美、苏两个超级大国从全球争霸的战略目的出发,建起了较为完备的太空支援力量体系。

由于战略地位重要,侦察卫星的建设一直由美国情报界独立负责,以利保密。美国国防部则主导了“国防卫星通信系统”“舰队卫星通信”“军事星”三大通信卫星系统建设,在此基础上构建了“空军卫星通信”系统,为美国国家指挥机构和战略核部队之间提供安全、可靠、高存活性的双向全球通信能力。同时,美国国防部还研制部署了用于战略弹道导弹预警的“国防支援计划”卫星、用于核潜艇导航的“子午仪”卫星、用于全球气象探测的“国防气象卫星”等系统,形成了较为完备的体系。

为了与美国抗衡,苏联也开展了全面的太空力量建设,发展起以“天顶”“琥珀”侦察卫星、“闪电”通信卫星、“帆”导航卫星、“眼睛”预警卫星及“流星”气象卫星等为代表的太空力量体系。

整个冷战期间,美苏太空力量的作用主要体现在战略层面,双方利用侦察卫星和预警卫星近实时侦测对方的战略动态,利用通信卫星和导航卫星进行战略核部队指挥控制,形成了有效的核威慑作战体系,深刻影响了冷战时期的世界战略格局。

随着航天发展重点由运载火箭向军用航天器转变,各种军用卫星系统逐渐具备规模化运用能力,美苏开始组建专门的太空力量指挥机构。1985年,美军成立了联合太空司令部。苏联则于1982年把原属战略火箭军、负责发展太空支援力量的航天器总局转隶给国防部,而后又升格为航天器主任局,使太空支援力量成为了苏联国防部的直属兵种。

    群雄并起,作用向战役战术行动拓展

1991年的海湾战争中,太空力量为美军作战行动提供了关键的侦察、预警、通信、导航、气象等服务,标志着太空支援开始从战略层次进入到战役战术层次。

随后,美军开始大力发展能够更好地支持战役战术作战的太空支援力量,启动了各类军用卫星的大规模建设和升级换代。“全球定位系统”全面建成,“锁眼-12”“未来成像体系结构”“天基红外系统”“宽带全球卫星通信”“先进极高频”“移动用户目标系统”等新一代卫星相继投入使用。2003年的伊拉克战争中,美国使用卫星总数达167颗。截至2015年底,美国在轨卫星近400颗,其中军用卫星120余颗,形成了强大的太空支援作战能力。

在加强力量建设的同时,美军于2002年把联合太空司令部并入战略司令部,统管三军太空司令部,以更好地组织指挥太空支援力量战略、战役、战术各层次的军事行动。各军种也形成了各自的太空支援力量编制和支援模式,以顺利实现战役战术层次的太空支援。

俄罗斯独立初期国力不足,所继承的前苏联太空支援力量也无法正常维系,导致在轨卫星数量急剧下降,到2002年为止只有97颗在轨运行。针对这种局面,俄军进行了太空力量改革,于2001年成立了独立的航天兵,开始恢复和重建其军用卫星系统。“新面貌”改革开始后,俄于2011年以航天兵为基础组建了空天防御兵,2015年又把空军和空天防御兵合并组建了空天军,负责俄航天器发射控制、导弹预警袭击系统与太空监视系统的管理运行。

经过改革调整,俄各类卫星系统逐渐得到恢复。截至2015年底,俄在轨卫星近130颗,其中军用卫星近80颗。但俄军认为,来自空天的打击将是俄面临的主要威胁,空天已成为决定未来战争胜负的关键领域,因此俄全力发展空天防御力量,太空支援力量处于从属或服务地位。在历次改革中,卫星侦察、卫星通信、卫星导航等太空支援系统的建设管理仍由俄国防部及总参谋部下属的相关业务局承担,各军种也普遍缺乏太空支援人才,战役战术运用水平较低。在2008年俄格战争期间,俄军就曾暴露出卫星侦察不及时、卫星通信服务差等问题。

在美俄大力发展太空力量的同时,越来越多的国家加入了太空竞争的行列。印度2007年宣布要筹建“航空航天防御司令部”,以管理印度全国的空间资产,并对太空战武器进行概念研究,印度空军已经成立了航空航天大队。日本于2009年通过了《航空基本法》,使日本航空自卫队得以利用太空资源,并展开相关政策的研究、制定和规划,为未来太空行动奠定法理基础。其他一些国家也不同程度表达出军事开发和利用太空的决心和计划。

    攻防对抗,美国着力抢占先机

随着越来越多的国家进入太空领域,太空安全环境发生了显著变化。特别是在美军看来,太空已非昔日的“安全港”。美军参联会在2013年版《太空作战》条令中指出,指挥官必须考虑到敌对方可能采取的恶意行动,并能够在太空能力降级的情况下继续保持军事能力。为达到这一目的,美军率先一步,在太空攻防领域推出了一系列措施。

——提高太空监视能力。2015年2月,美空军和洛克希德-马丁公司启动了新型“太空篱笆”雷达系统建设工作。该系统可在第一时间监控到所有从美国上空经过的卫星,掌握卫星经过的时间、姿态和轨道等,还可探测直径小至10厘米的中低轨道目标,从而大大增强美国的太空态势感知能力。该系统与美空军陆基光电深空探测系统、导弹预警雷达网和太空监视系统共同构成从近地轨道到深空轨道的立体空间目标监视系统。

——提高现有太空力量的抗毁性。2013年美军发布了《抗毁性与分散式太空系统体系结构》白皮书,提出采用结构分离、功能分解、载荷搭载、多轨道分散、多作战域分解等措施,来提高太空支援系统生存能力。

——重视太空技术与传统技术的综合使用。2014年美发布的《迈向新抵消战略》报告中提出,美国需要对冲天基系统丧失所带来的损失,措施包括加快研发GPS替代系统、装备具有长持久力和/或空中加油能力的“高低混合”情报监视与侦察无人机等。

——建立军民融合的太空力量建设发展模式。美军计划采用战时租用民用与商用太空系统服务、在商业卫星上搭载军用载荷、直接购买先进的民用或商业系统转为军用等方式,补充现有太空支援能力的不足。

——通过开展军事演习发展太空力量建设运用理论。美军联合参谋部、空军、海军和陆军都有以太空支援作战为主题的军事演习。2001年美空军太空司令部开始主导“施里弗”太空战军事演习,迄今已举办9次。

——强化太空作战组织指挥。2015年9月,美国防部与情报界成立了机构间联合太空作战中心,负责整合卫星侦察数据、强化太空侦察能力,监控美军卫星运行情况,防范潜在对手攻击美国太空资产。

——加强太空进攻力量建设。2015年5月,美国X-37B进行了第四次飞行试验。虽然美国人将之称为“轨道试验飞行器”,但在关键信息上却三缄其口。外界猜测,X-37B有能力采取的军事行动包括控制、捕获和摧毁敌国航天器,对敌国进行军事侦察等。在这个意义上,X-37B很可能将是人类首架太空战斗机。此外,美国还加强了激光、微波、反卫星导弹等太空攻击力量的建设,希望在未来的太空竞赛中保持先机,继续维持其霸主地位。

总的看来,世界军事强国都高度重视太空支援力量的建设和发展,但就近几次局部战争情况来看,只有美、俄具备了较为完备的战略、战役和战术层次太空能力,其他国家的太空力量仍主要服务于战略运用。在新的太空安全形势下,美军又发起了新一轮太空力量变革,未来美军太空力量的面貌有可能会发生质的变化,信息化战争面貌也可能因此而发生深刻改变。

New Progress States space forces

    United States–

    Get rid of the GPS “dependency syndrome”

    Currently, almost all US military combat platforms and systems rely on GPS or GPS-based navigation system. However, GPS navigation presence signal is weak, poor penetration, vulnerable to interference, vulnerable to cyber attacks and other defects. To avoid huge risks due to excessive reliance GPS brought the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in recent years have launched the “micro-positioning, navigation, timing and technology”, “adaptive navigation system,” “Quantum Perception and auxiliary readout technology “” ultrafast laser Science and Engineering “,” get in the fight against environmental space, time, and location information “and does not rely on GPS navigation, positioning, timing and technology research projects.

    Russia –

    Restart “satellite killer” program

    Russia has shelved the case in the official anti-satellite weapons program, the “satellite killer” plan, but the Russian side the key technology in the field has never been completely lost. According to media reports, the Russian military had for launch in 2013, code-named “2014-28E” (also known as the Universe 2499) of the mysterious object. The object was observed using a series of non-normal but the engine very precise orbit maneuver, it seems have the ability to be able to sneak up on other satellites.

    Japan –

    Establishment of space surveillance units

    August 28, 2014, Japan’s defense ministry revised the “development and utilization of the basic principle of the universe,” clearly pointed out that Japan will set up a special space surveillance forces of the universe and garbage run dynamic satellite tracking and analysis, in order to gradually strengthen the perception of space ability. The move aims to strengthen the Japan-US cooperation in space, to deal with weapons to attack from satellites will strengthen the capacity to collect pictures from space using satellites for ballistic missile launch early monitoring and analysis, to enhance early warning capabilities.

    India –

    Construction of Regional Satellite Navigation System

    March 28, 2015, India’s fourth-navigation satellites successfully launched India’s regional satellite navigation system gradually formed. India according to plan, the work of the network system will be divided into two steps: The first step is to launch geostationary satellites covering the whole territory of India’s regional satellite navigation system, the second step is from regional satellite navigation systems to the Indian version of the global satellite positioning system forward. The system will provide civilian and military both services.

 各国太空力量建设新进展

    美国——

    摆脱GPS“依赖症”

    目前,美军几乎所有的军用系统和作战平台都依靠GPS或基于GPS的组合导航系统。但是,GPS导航存在信号较弱、穿透能力差、易受干扰、易受网络攻击等缺陷。为避免由于过度依赖GPS而带来的巨大风险,美国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)近年来陆续开展了“微型定位、导航、授时技术”“自适应导航系统”“量子辅助感知与读出技术”“超快激光科学与工程”“在对抗环境下获得空间、时间和定位信息”等不依赖GPS的导航、定位、授时技术研究项目。

    俄罗斯——

    重启“卫星杀手”计划

    俄罗斯曾在官方场合搁置了反卫星武器计划,即“卫星杀手”计划,但俄方在该领域的关键技术从未完全丢失。据媒体报道,俄军方曾于2013年发射代号为“2014-28E”(或称宇宙2499)的神秘物体。该物体被观测到使用发动机进行一系列非正常但非常精准的机动变轨,似乎具备能悄悄接近其他卫星的能力。

    日本——

    设立太空监视部队

    2014年8月28日,日本防卫省修改了《宇宙开发利用基本方针》,明确指出,日本将成立专门的太空监视部队,对宇宙卫星和垃圾的运行动态进行跟踪和分析,以逐步加强太空感知能力。此举旨在加强日美在太空的合作,应对来自卫星的武器攻击,将加强从太空收集图片的能力,利用人造卫星对弹道导弹的发射进行早期的监控和分析,增强早期预警能力。

    印度——

    构建区域卫星导航系统

    2015年3月28日,印度第四颗导航卫星发射成功,印度区域卫星导航系统逐渐成形。按照印度的计划,该系统的组网工作将分为两大步骤:第一步是发射地球同步卫星组成覆盖印度全境的区域卫星导航系统,第二步是从区域卫星导航系统向印度版全球卫星定位系统迈进。该系统将提供民用和军用两种服务。

Libya war action in space
■ Wang Pingping

Libya is the second war in Afghanistan and the US-led war in Iraq is not a scale but the high degree of information technology local war, preparations for war, initiated and progression to reconnaissance, navigation, communications support for the core space power to effectively support the multinational force and strategic campaign decisions to protect the fine planning and real-time command and control task.
Before the war, the US-led NATO military operations on the basis of the need for a full assessment on the strength of existing space system was substantial adjustment, built up by the imaging and electronic reconnaissance, maritime surveillance and missile warning, command and communications, space support system navigation, meteorological observation system consisting of satellites and satellite systems for civil use functionally complement in individual areas. In addition, according to operational needs, with fast access to space capability supplementary firing several satellites.
Libyan war, the multinational force to implement the diversification of space support operations.
Access to information on the battlefield, the multinational force by the imaging reconnaissance spacecraft, aerospace electronic reconnaissance means supplemented by special reconnaissance and surveillance network means, Libya’s strategic target architecture, an important goal distribution, composition and deployment of air defense systems, command and control relationship , means of communication and frequency distribution of a comprehensive reconnaissance. War is in progress, the multinational force by aerospace electronic reconnaissance and avionics reconnaissance combining means, real-time capture and analysis of radiation target operating parameter Libyan army, master Libyan army air defense system deployment adjustment, dynamic intelligence command and communications work full time monitoring Libya’s mobile communications and satellite communications, intelligence screening important clues.
In terms of battlefield information distribution, multinational force operations in front of more than 1100 kilometers wide, over a wide area of ​​more than 600 kilometers in depth expansion; air force were deployed in the war zone from 700 to more than 2800 km range and nearly 20 airports on aircraft carriers, a variety of information through a wide range of command and control, high-speed, high-capacity, high security satellite communications system to distribute real-time data sharing within the multinational force, for a variety of combat forces and the overall offensive and defensive operations provide linkage strong support.
In terms of navigation and positioning, navigation and positioning information needed for precision air strike all provided by space power, accuracy of less than meter-level positioning information to ensure effective control of collateral damage when clearing precision strike urban targets.
Throughout the war in Libya, the space forces to the multinational force to provide 80% of the intelligence information to help them achieve battlefield transparent way, firmly grasp the battlefield initiative. There are pre-prepared in the intelligence area, the US military to grasp the dynamics of the battlefield and complete the property identified in less than 5 minutes. Space power efficient support from discovery, to combat identification, evaluation precision air strike chains. Combat action against Gaddafi fled from Sirte, that is, by the space surveillance system to grasp the dynamics and guide warplanes and drones successful wars against the blockade.

利比亚战争中的太空行动

■王平平

    利比亚战争是继阿富汗和伊拉克战争之后美国主导的一场规模不大但信息化程度很高的局部战争,战争的准备、发起和进展过程,以侦察情报、导航定位、通信保障为核心的太空力量,有效支持了多国部队的战略与战役决策,保障了精细任务筹划和实时指挥控制。

战前,以美国为首的北约在对军事行动需要进行充分评估的基础上,对既有的太空力量体系进行了充实调整,构建起了由成像及电子侦察、海洋监视及导弹预警、指挥通信、导航定位、气象观测等卫星系统构成的太空支援体系,并利用民用卫星系统在个别领域进行功能性补充。此外,根据作战的需要,利用快速进入太空能力补充发射数颗卫星。

利比亚战争中,多国部队实施了多样化的太空支援行动。

在战场信息获取方面,多国部队通过航天成像侦察、航天电子侦察手段,辅之以特种侦察和网络侦察手段,对利比亚境内的战略目标体系结构、重要目标分布、防空体系构成及部署、指挥控制关系、通信手段及频率分布情况进行全面的侦察。战争进行过程中,多国部队通过航天电子侦察与航空电子侦察相结合的手段,实时截获和分析利比亚军队的辐射目标工作参数,掌握利比亚军队防空系统部署调整、指挥通信工作的动态情报,全时段监控利比亚的移动通信及卫星通信,筛选重要情报线索。

在战场信息分发方面,多国部队的作战行动在正面宽1100余千米、纵深600余千米的广阔区域内展开;空中力量分别部署在距战区700~2800余千米范围内近20个机场及航空母舰上,指挥控制的各种信息通过大范围、高速度、大容量、高保密性的卫星通信系统实时分发,在多国部队内部实现数据共享,为各种作战力量及攻防作战行动的整体联动提供有力支持。

在导航定位方面,空中精确打击所需要的导航定位信息全部由太空力量提供,精度小于米级的定位信息确保了对城区目标进行空地精确打击时有效控制附带损伤。

整个利比亚战争中,太空力量为多国部队提供了80%的情报信息,帮助其实现战场单向透明,牢牢掌握战场主动。在有预先情报准备的区域内,美军掌握战场动态情况并完成属性识别的时间小于5分钟。太空力量高效支持了从发现、识别到打击、评估的空中精确打击链。对从苏尔特出逃的卡扎菲进行的打击行动,就是由太空侦察系统掌握动态情况,并引导战机和无人机进行阻滞打击的成功战例。

Source:
Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China
 Author: Zhang Zhi Time: 2016-01-29

People’s Republic of China Enters Global Governance Era

來源:中國信息安全

Source: China Information Security

China

Faced with a global network of new space, new areas, new home, how to learn the basis of Western Internet technology as the driving force of the traditional advantages of Internet governance model, to insist upon the sovereignty of the network, network security, network continue to promote economic prosperity and the need to fully reflect the General secretary Xi “four principles, five advocate” contains Chinese wisdom. For this reason, we face the reality of network threats, adherence to the “network of global governance China is entering the era of” road confidence is to make the network power of dreams and the vision to build a common destiny in cyberspace interconnection important ideological foundation.

Wuzhen successful conclusion of the summit, the global Internet governance is being used by Western values-based, rule the West as the main rule, Western Internet technology as the driving force of traditional Internet governance model, to insist on the sovereignty of the network, network security and economic prosperity as the basic network-oriented China mode steering. This shift was marked by the construction of the Internet learning General Secretary of the five propositions. These five ideas ranging from the physical aspects of China Unicom, cultural communication, trade exchange and network security, summed up in three fundamental characteristics, namely security, prosperity and globalization.

First, the general secretary Xi five ideas, to enhance network security and Internet freedom both status. This is a development of the Internet during ultra-liberal favorable correction of flooding. In human society entered the globalization and modernization of the historical background of a higher stage, the Internet has gone beyond the scope of technology, business and even exchange on the state of human life made for a global state. The living conditions of globalization try to mankind so far carried out in other areas, as both benefit from the freedom, innovation and diversity, but also trapped in dangerous disorder brought pluralism and deconstruction of the conflicts caused confusion . If in the early stages of development of the Internet, people can also use the price of liberty to defend the Internet out of order, then in this case, today’s Internet life is closely related to the direct and real life, it has been found that the “price of freedom “not only heavy and expensive, and in many cases even have constituted for economic security, political security and social security of all-round challenge.

Such challenges are mainly in three aspects, first, transnational crime is using Internet technology to achieve a new global distribution and the ability to upgrade the crime, and international judicial cooperation system is still unable to effectively respond to this challenge. In addition to traditional money laundering, smuggling, drug trafficking and other transnational criminal activities is the “Internet +” vision beyond the restructuring, the Internet itself is a breeding ground for its unique form of high-tech crime, such as hacking, virus, virtual currency black market, etc. . Although countries the judiciary had a hard struggle, but due to unity, flexibility, vastly more complex than the effectiveness of cooperation among countries of the Internet world, this fragmented country anchored to the Internet security system there are still serious failure. Second, among the increasingly fierce national competition, confrontation and ideological cultural conflict, so that the Internet has become a virtual battleground possible. If in reality, due to multiple brutal war mankind has accumulated a number of how much the bottom line with consensus, then in such a new field of Internet, the human consensus is still quite limited. Some countries and groups act in the Internet has been a serious violation of international rules and the reality of national sovereignty, and even loss of human ethics basic respect. The Internet has become the espionage, subversion and extreme battlefield behavior, the imperialists, hegemony, extremists and terrorists are turning to the name of freedom, the basic values ​​of human society and order challenge. Third, the Internet has brought economic opportunities are increasingly reflect the complex multi-faceted, excessive trade liberalization on economic security are new challenges. On the one hand, the “Internet +” is indeed able to promote the rational allocation of resources, to break the monopoly and information asymmetry, to facilitate transactions occur frequently, but on the other hand, the Internet economy has a serious impact on many traditional offline trading patterns, exacerbated protection of intellectual property rights dilemma, enlarged attention economy bubble. In this case, the security of the Internet has become the common interests of China and around the world essential.

Secondly, the development of the online world is inseparable from the real world support. E-commerce, network attention economy is becoming the world’s most important material basis, and this basis in fact. The stability is closely related to the real economy. In the world economy, there are many uncertainties, sluggish Western economies today, only continued prosperity of China’s economy can continue to provide opportunities for the development of the global Internet economy, only China is leading the world in order to build the basis for a global network to maximize. During the “Twelve Five”, China’s Internet industry to flourish. China Internet Network Information Center show that China’s industrial development of the Internet show a continued increase in industrial scale, “Twelve Five” period, expanding the audience, and gradually optimize the characteristics of technical facilities. “Twelve Five” period, the economic growth rate of China’s Internet significantly improved, the Internet economy in the proportion of GDP continues to rise. In 2014, the rate of contribution to the GDP of the Internet industry of 7% over the same period the United States. China is the world’s largest network of retail trading market, trading volume and user scale ranked first in the world.

And promote the common development of the global Internet economy in the West embarrassment structure of vested interests, to fully release the potential of the Internet can not be compared, the greater the intensity and commitment to reform, the reality of China’s Internet economy less bound themselves not only to achieve the turn to overtake, but already has strength.It is particularly worth mentioning is that, with the advancement of initiatives along the way, along the way to integrate e-commerce in global e-commerce is becoming a hot spot. Unicom physical, smooth e-commerce business will provide a vast space on the upgrade along the way.

Finally, the general secretary Xi five not trying to advocate a traditional concept of sovereignty to limit the development of the modern Internet, but on the basis of security, freedom and prosperity on both raised the times of global Internet governance ideas. This is because, on the one hand, the reform and opening up has always been China’s basic national policy, including any area, including the Internet field, it is impossible to challenge the policy. China’s Internet development in China’s economy as a result of integration into the world rather than isolated from the world. On the other hand, Internet issues facing China and local issues facing the global community as to promote closer cooperation of all concerned to build a just and rational order of the Internet, almost the only solution. The problem is that, for the purposes of some developed countries have technological advantages and disorderly state has given them much brought some problems, but it also brings technical advantages of the abuse of privilege. In this case, the responsibility and conditional responsibility, perhaps only China, which is the biggest beneficiary because on the one hand, China is both Internet freedom and prosperity, but also the largest Internet chaos and crime victims.

More importantly, the rise of China and indeed eager to have a field to lead the world to practice their own ideals. In the online world, the Chinese have the opportunity to turn to overtake. Indeed, in an increasingly global political unrest, economic stagnation appetite, the reality of an increasingly negative energy dispersive historical juncture, the online world has never been so urgently needs Chinese wisdom, Chinese programs and Chinese forces.China likely to extraordinary efforts to lead the world digital economy, out of the mire of stagnation. China advocates the concept may lead the online world hegemony from the digital world into the jungle community of destiny.The Chinese also need to grasp this opportunity, as compared to large countries, vested interest structure is highly curable realities of the international community, in the digital global society, China has more space and more opportunities to show himself as a modern powers to govern, to get a feeling of authority in the world should have a big country, and this authority will eventually radiated by the network to reality.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

面对全球一网的新空间、新领域、新家园,如何在汲取以西方互联网技术为动力的传统互联网治理模式优点的基础上,坚持网络主权、网络安全,持续推动网络经济繁荣,需要充分体现习总书记“四项原则、五大主张” 蕴含的中国智慧。为此,直面现实网络威胁,坚持“网络全球治理正在进入中国时代”的道路自信,是让网络强国梦想与构建网络空间命运共同体愿景互联互通的重要思想基础。

乌镇峰会顺利结束,全球互联网治理正在由以西方价值观为基础、以西方规则为主要规则、西方互联网技术为动力的传统互联网治理模式,向坚持网络主权、网络安全与网络经济繁荣为基本导向的中国模式转向。这个转向的标志就是习总书记提出的互联网建设五大主张。这五大主张涵盖了从物理联通、文化沟通、贸易互通以及网络安全等多个方面,归纳起来有三个根本的特征,即安全、繁荣与全球化。

首先,习总书记的五大主张,将网络安全提升到与网络自由并重的地位。这是对互联网发展过程中极端自由主义泛滥的有利纠治。在人类社会进入全球化、现代化更高阶段的历史背景下,互联网已经超越了技术、商务乃至交流上的范畴,而成为了一种人类全球化状态下的生活状态。这一生活状态与人类迄今为止在其他领域内进行的全球化尝试一样,既受益于自由、创新与多元,也受困于无序带来的危险、多元带来的冲突与解构带来的混乱。如果说在早期的互联网发展阶段,人们还可以用自由的代价来对互联网的失序进行辩护,那么在今天这种互联网生活直接与现实生活密切相关的情况下,人们已经发现这种“自由的代价”不仅沉重且昂贵,而且在很多时候甚至已经构成了对于经济安全、政治安全与社会安全的全方位挑战。

这种挑战主要表现在三个方面,其一,跨国犯罪正在利用互联网技术,实现全新的全球化布局与犯罪能力升级,而国际司法合作体系尚无法有效回应这一严峻挑战。除了传统的洗钱、偷渡、贩毒等跨国犯罪活动正在以“互联网+”的视野进行重组之外,互联网本身也滋生出其特有的高科技犯罪形态,比如黑客攻击、病毒传播、虚拟货币黑市等等。尽管各国司法机关进行了艰苦的斗争,但是由于互联网世界的一体性、灵活性、复杂性远远超过各国合作的有效性,这种以碎片状的国家为基点的互联网安全体制仍然存在着严重的失灵。其二,日益激烈的国家间竞争、意识形态对立以及文化冲突,让互联网有成为虚拟战场的可能。如果说在现实社会中,人类由于多次残酷的大战还多少积累了一些底线与共识,那么在互联网这样一个全新的领域中,人类的共识还相当有限。一些国家与群体在互联网中的行径已经严重侵犯了现实中的国际规则与国家主权,甚至丧失了对于人类道德伦理的基本尊重。互联网成为了间谍行为、颠覆行为与极端行为的战场,帝国主义者、霸权主义者、极端主义者与恐怖主义者正在借助自由的名义,对人类社会的基本秩序与价值进行挑战。其三,互联网带来的经济机遇正在越来越体现出复杂的多面性,过度的贸易自由正在对经济安全提出新的挑战。一方面,“互联网+”的确能够促进资源的合理配置,打破信息的垄断与不对称,便于交易的频繁发生,但是另一方面,互联网经济也严重冲击了许多传统的线下交易模式,加剧了知识产权保护的困境,放大了注意力经济中的泡沫。在这种情况下,互联网的安全已经成为中国与全球各国至关重要的共同利益。

其次,网络世界的发展离不开现实世界的支撑。电子商务、注意力经济正在成为网络世界最重要的物质基础,而这个基础的牢固与否其实与实体经济的发展密切相关。在世界经济存在诸多不确定因素、西方经济低迷不振的今天,只有持续繁荣的中国经济能够为全球互联网经济的发展提供持续的机遇,也只有中国的引领才能最大限度地构筑全球网络世界的基础。“十二五”期间,中国的互联网产业蓬勃发展。中国互联网络信息中心的报告显示,“十二五”期间我国的互联网产业发展呈现产业规模持续增加、受众群体不断扩大、技术设施逐步优化的特点。“十二五”期间,中国互联网对经济增长的贡献率显著提升,互联网经济在GDP中的占比持续攀升。2014年,互联网行业对GDP的贡献率达到7%,超过了美国的同期水平。中国更是拥有全球最大的网络零售交易市场,交易额和用户规模位居世界首位。

与西方困窘于既得利益集团结构,无法充分释放互联网潜力相比,改革决心与力度更大,现实束缚更少的中国互联网经济不仅自己实现了弯道超车,而且已经具备了带动全球互联网经济共同发展的实力。尤其值得一提的是,随着一带一路倡议的推进,电子商务在一带一路上的集成正在成为全球电子商务的热点。物理上的联通,贸易上的畅通将为电子商务在一带一路上的升级提供广阔的空间。

最后,习总书记的五项主张并不是试图以一种传统的主权观念去限制现代互联网的发展,而是在安全、自由、繁荣并重的基础上提出的与时俱进的互联网全球治理思路。这是因为,一方面,改革开放始终是中国的基本国策,包括互联网领域在内的任何领域,都不可能挑战这一政策。中国的互联网发展与中国的经济一样,是融入世界而非隔离于世界的结果。另一方面,中国所面临的互联网问题与当地全球社会面临的问题一样,推动有关各方的密切合作,构建一个公正、合理的互联网秩序,几乎是唯一的解决办法。问题在于,对于一些拥有技术优势的发达国家而言,无序的状态虽然给它们多少带来了一些困扰,但是也带来了滥用技术优势的特权。在这种情况下,能够负起责任的,有条件负起责任的,也许只有中国,这是因为一方面,中国既是互联网自由与繁荣的最大受益者,也是互联网混乱与犯罪最大的受害者。

更重要的是,崛起中的中国也的确渴望能有一块场域来实践自己对于引领世界的理想。在网络世界中,中国更有机会弯道超车。事实上,在全球政治日益动荡、经济停滞不振,现实中的负能量日益弥散的历史关口,网络世界从未如此迫切地需要中国智慧、中国方案和中国力量。中国不凡的努力有可能引领世界数字经济发展,走出发展停滞不前的泥潭中。中国倡导的理念可能引领网络世界从霸权的丛林世界变为数字化的命运共同体。而中国也同样需要把握这样一个机会,因为相比于大国林立、既得利益结构高度固化的现实国际社会,在数字化的全球社会中,中国拥有更大的空间与更多的机遇去展现自己作为一个现代化大国的治理才能,去获得一个具有天下情怀大国应有的权威,而这个权威也终将由网络辐射到现实之中。

來源:中國信息安全

Source: China Information Security

China’s National Network Security is in Their Own Hands

Source: China National Defense News

来源:中国国防报-国防特刊

Chinese “White Hat Hacker Corps” has become an important force in Chinese national cybersecurity”

習近平

◆ General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. Power network construction, China must have her own technology, excellent technology.

◆ Free security software “China model” to create a network security field, the “Chinese miracle.” The Chinese Dream…

◆ In the network security has risen to national security background, should consciously create a good development space for China’s own “white hat Legion” of hackers, while cautioning against a number of organizations or enterprises affected by outside forces controlled competition Chinese security market, and then to depth strategic goals of China’s core security.

After September 17, the US Senate Armed Services Committee issued a report called China network intrusion, causing great concern at home and abroad media.Chinese Foreign Ministry and the Defense Ministry spokesman, speaking one after another, the report noted that the United States is purely fabricated, deliberately fabricated entirely untenable. Defense Ministry spokesman Geng Yansheng solemnly pointed out that the Chinese government and armed forces have never engage in or support any network attacks and theft activities. China has always resolutely opposed and crack down on criminal activities related to network attacks. China faces a serious threat of cyber attacks is one of the world’s leading hacking victim. For network hacker attacks from abroad, we have sufficient evidence.

The United States is China’s largest Internet security threats

Geng Yansheng said that needs to be emphasized is that the “Prism” incident exposed more than a year, the United States should its foreign dignitaries, business, personal theft and network monitoring, monitoring the behavior of reflection to the Chinese side and the international community to make clear explanation . We urge the US to do more to contribute to peace and tranquility in cyberspace thing, rather than the opposite.

In fact, the attacks from the United States is China’s largest Internet security threats.

National Internet Emergency Center recently released “2013 China Internet Network Security Report” revealed that in 2013, China’s government websites frequently suffer outside hackers attacks, including national organized network attacks have increased significantly. China’s government websites, especially the local government website, is under attack “disastrous.”

According to monitoring, in 2013, our country has been tampered with the number of sites is 24,034, an increase of 46.7% compared with 2012, in which the number of government websites has been tampered with 2430, an increase of 34.9% compared with 2012; our territory to be implanted backdoors number of sites for the 76160, compared with 45.6% growth in 2012, has been tampered with and implanted in the back door of government websites, more than 90 per cent below the provincial and municipal local government Web site. Overseas hackers frequently attack government websites in China. In 2013, offshore “anonymous”, “Algerian hacker” and other hackers had attacked government websites in China. Among them, the “hacker anti-communist” organization more active, sustained launched against the territory of government agencies, universities, enterprises and institutions and well-known social organization site of the attack in 2013 on the organization of the territory of more than 120 government websites embodiment tampering. They use pre-implantation site vulnerability backdoor, then attacked the site after the implementation of control, at least the current invasion of the territory of more than 600 sites, an average of every three days publish tampering incident in their social networking sites.

In these networks from outside attacks, the national network of organized attacks increased significantly on China’s network security and information systems pose a serious threat and challenge. Since June 2013, Snowden exposure “Prism Plan” US National Security Agency and a number of network monitoring projects, the disclosure of US intelligence agencies in many countries and people in long-term implementation and monitor network penetration attacks, including multinational monitoring target politicians, diplomatic system, media networks, large enterprise networks and international organizations. Our focus on listening and belong to their targets, national security and Internet security is facing a serious threat to users’ privacy.

According to monitoring found only in 2013, there are 31,000 foreign hosts through a back door to China 61000 Website implement remote control, which ranks first in the United States hosts a total of 6215 hosts in control of our 15,349 sites. Phishing attacks against China in terms of attack from the United States the same primacy. Trojan zombie network connection, our country hosts more than 1090 are outside the control server control, which is located in the United States control server control our country hosts 448.5 million, accounting for 41.1% of the total, ranking the first place ……

Original mandarin Chinese:

核心提示

◆习近平总书记强调指出,没有网络安全就没有国家安全,没有信息化就没有现代化。建设网络强国,要有自己的技术,有过硬的技术。

◆免费安全软件的“中国模式”创造了网络安全领域的“中国奇迹”。

◆在网络安全已经上升到国家安全的大背景下,应当有意识地为中国自己的“白帽子军团”创造良好的发展空间,同时警惕一些受境外势力控制的组织或企业争夺中国安全市场,进而达到深入我国核心安全领域的战略目的。

9月17日,美国参议院军事委员会发表所谓中国网络入侵报告后,引起海内外媒体的高度关注。中国外交部和国防部新闻发言人相继发言,指出美方报告纯属无中生有,蓄意捏造,完全是站不住脚的。国防部新闻发言人耿雁生严正指出,中国政府和军队从未从事或支持任何网络攻击和窃密活动。中方一贯坚决反对并依法打击网络攻击等相关犯罪活动。中国面临着网络攻击的严重威胁,是世界上最主要的黑客攻击受害国之一。对于来自境外的网络黑客攻击行为,我们掌握有充分证据。

美国是中国网络安全最大的威胁

耿雁生表示,需要强调的是,“棱镜门”事件曝光一年多了,美方应就其对外国政要、企业、个人进行网络窃密和监听、监控的行为进行反思,向中方和国际社会作出清楚解释。我们敦促美方多做有利于网络空间和平与安宁的事,而不是相反。

实际上,来自美国的网络攻击是中国网络安全最大的威胁。

国家互联网应急中心最新发布的《2013年中国互联网网络安全报告》披露,2013年,我国政府网站频繁遭受境外黑客组织的攻击,其中国家级有组织网络攻击行为显著增多。我国的政府网站,尤其是地方政府网站,是遭受攻击的“重灾区”。

据监测,2013年,我国境内被篡改网站数量为24034个,较2012年增长46.7%,其中政府网站被篡改数量为2430个,较2012年增长34.9%;我国境内被植入后门的网站数量为76160个,较2012年增长45.6%,在被篡改和植入后门的政府网站中,超过90%是省市级以下的地方政府网站。境外黑客组织频繁攻击我国政府网站。2013年,境外“匿名者”“阿尔及利亚黑客”等多个黑客组织曾对我国政府网站发起攻击。其中,“反共黑客”组织较为活跃,持续发起针对我国境内党政机关、高校、企事业单位以及知名社会组织网站的攻击,2013年该组织对我国境内120余个政府网站实施篡改。他们利用网站漏洞预先植入后门,对网站实施控制后遂发起攻击,目前至少入侵600余个境内网站,平均每3天在其社交网站发布一起篡改事件。

在这些来自境外的网络攻击中,国家级有组织网络攻击行为显著增多,对我国的网络安全和信息系统带来严重威胁和挑战。2013年6月以来,斯诺登曝光“棱镜计划”等多项美国家安全局网络监控项目,披露美国情报机构对多个国家和民众长期实施监听和网络渗透攻击,监控对象包括多国政要、外交系统、媒体网络、大型企业网络和国际组织等。我国属于其重点监听和攻击目标,国家安全和互联网用户隐私安全面临严重威胁。

据监测发现,仅在2013年,境外有3.1万台主机通过植入后门对我国6.1万个网站实施远程控制,其中位于美国的主机居首位,共有6215台主机控制着我国15349个网站。在针对中国的网络钓鱼攻击方面,来自美国的攻击同样居于首位。在网络木马僵尸方面,我国境内1090万余台主机被境外控制服务器控制,其中位于美国的控制服务器控制了我国境内448.5万余台主机,占总数的41.1%,仍居首位…

Who will guard China’s network security?

China ushered in the Internet age is the tide of reform and opening up.Chinese Internet users surf the initial means of the Internet, whether hardware or software, mostly imported from overseas to domestic.

八一解放軍

This “borrowed boat” mode, while promoting the development of China’s high-speed network, but also to China’s network security left a great security risk. We use the Internet browser is someone else’s, you’ve seen what page, others see that; our search engine to find the problem is someone else’s, for what you are interested in something, it will be automatically recorded in a database outside in ……

We use the operating system as others in the system hidden “back door” through overseas. After the United States, according to media reports, the world’s largest user coverage Microsoft “Windows” operating system, found loopholes in the system, it will first notify the US intelligence agencies, will then inform the user, provide patches fix vulnerabilities. This means that, in someone else’s “window”, we almost “transparent”. Even more serious is that Microsoft in order to protect its own commercial interests, has designed a mandatory upgrade marketing strategy.For example, in order to promote Win8 operating system, on April 8 to forcibly stop the official service XP system, the millions of Chinese users directly discarded in molar sucking blood before hackers. Domestic media pointed out in a review of Microsoft XP stop taking event, which is an important event once the impact of China’s Internet security. This is not only related to the large number of individual users, but also is related to the key sectors involved in the national economy. Network security system, China must rely on its own security vendors innovation and action.

Network security experts pointed out that China’s current network security system is set up in technology research and development on the basis of the United States, not to mention technology, cloud security technology in the field of key technologies such as a CPU, communications and data transmission encryption and decryption system in the field art networking technology and so on. If you play a very appropriate analogy, just as the Chinese network security gate, he stood an American security.

Network security is a core protection capability of the modern state in cyberspace, the party and state leaders highly concerned about network security issues. February 27, the central network security and information technology leading group was established. CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping himself as a centralized network security and information technology group leader, he delivered an important speech at the first meeting of the leading group, pointed out that China has become a big country network, network security and information technology is a matter of national security and national development, major strategic issues related to the broad masses of working life, starting from the domestic and international trend, the overall layout of the parties to co-ordinate, innovation and development, and strive to build China into a powerful network.

General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. Power network construction, have their own technology, excellent technology.

General Secretary earnest expectation, explicit requirements for China’s domestic network security vendors, it is the direction of future efforts.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

谁来守护中国的网络安全?

中国是在改革开放大潮中迎来网络时代的。中国网民最初冲浪国际互联网的手段,无论是硬件还是软件,大多是从海外进口到国内的。

这种“借船出海”的模式,在促进中国网络高速发展的同时,也给中国的网络安全留下了极大的安全隐患。我们上网用的浏览器是别人的,你看过什么网页,别人一看就知道;我们查找问题的搜索引擎是别人的,你对什么东西感兴趣,会被自动记录在境外的数据库里……

我们用的操作系统也是别人的,系统中暗藏的“后门”直通海外。据美国媒体披露,全球覆盖用户最多的微软“视窗”操作系统,发现系统漏洞后,会首先通知美国的情报部门,而后才会告知用户,提供修补漏洞的补丁。这就意味着,在别人的“视窗”里,我们几乎是“透明”的。更为严重的是,微软为了保护自身的商业利益,设计了一套强制升级的营销战略。例如为了促销Win8操作系统,于4月8日强行停止XP系统的官方服务,把无数中国用户直接丢弃在磨牙吮血的黑客面前。国内媒体在评论微软XP停服事件时指出,这是一次影响中国网络安全的重要事件。这不仅关系到为数众多的个人用户,更是关系到涉及国计民生的关键行业。网络系统的安全保障,必须依靠中国自己的安全厂商的创新与行动。

网络安全专家指出,我国当前的网络安全体系,是在美国研发的技术基础上建立起来的,更不要说CPU等核心关键技术,通信数据传输方面的加密和解密系统领域技术,云安全技术领域和物联网技术领域技术等等。如果打一个不太恰当的比喻,就如同中国网络安全的大门前,站了一个美国保安。

网络安全是现代国家网络空间的核心防护能力,党和国家领导人高度关注网络安全问题。2月27日,中央网络安全和信息化领导小组成立。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平亲自担任中央网络安全和信息化领导小组组长,他在领导小组第一次会议上发表重要讲话,指出中国已成为网络大国,网络安全和信息化是事关国家安全和国家发展、事关广大人民群众工作生活的重大战略问题,要从国际国内大势出发,总体布局,统筹各方,创新发展,努力把我国建设成为网络强国。

习近平总书记强调指出,没有网络安全就没有国家安全,没有信息化就没有现代化。建设网络强国,要有自己的技术,有过硬的技术。

总书记的殷殷期望,是对中国本土网络安全厂商的明确要求,更是未来努力的方向。

“China model” to create a “China miracle”

Rivers and lakes of the network can be divided into decent and Xiepai.Commonly known as “black hat” hackers manufactured by Trojan, the use of computers, mobile phone operating system vulnerabilities to attack, steal private data, illegally obtained personal interests. The guardian of network security “white hat” on the contrary, they take the initiative to find a computer, mobile phone operating system vulnerabilities, provide technical repair programs, research and development of security software and hardware products, build a firewall against hackers, for individuals, society and the country’s network security add a layer of protective cover, active in the first line of network security guard.

China’s domestic network security vendors are on their market growth and competition from foreign giants up security. Rely on a strong sense of social responsibility and familiarity with national conditions, China’s network security vendors gradually grow from a little foreign magnates recapture market, has won vitality. Many users still remember those familiar names: Kingsoft, Rising, Jiangmin ……

China’s network security vendors not only by virtue of their own efforts to win the market, but also creatively launched the network security field, “China model” completely rewritten the pattern of China’s network security industry.Traditional network security software are used charging mode, charge more than $ 200 a year on average. Because of the higher price threshold, resulting in many who do not want to use security software. The absence of security software, also led to the Trojan virus on the network as a scourge, such as CIH, panda, etc., hundreds of millions of infected computers, sensational news events.

Introduced in 2005, 360 free security software, once the user uses the threshold down to zero. Along with other local network security vendors follow-up, only less than 10 years, Chinese security software PC penetration rate has risen to 99%. In 2013, Microsoft released a security report, the Chinese computer malware infection index of 0.6 per thousand, the global average is only 1/10 of the world’s countries with the lowest infection rates of malware. In 2014, Microsoft re-released a report, a detailed summary of the data in the world’s more than 100 countries and regions, more than 10 million computers after malware statistics pointed out that China is the world’s lowest 4.4, far below the world average of 18.

360 free security software model, Wall Street interpreted as “Chinese model”: the core layer on the basis of free goods and services, to build browser applications open platform and two basic platforms, and refine the site navigation, buy navigation, navigation games, search, open platform and mobile open platform and other services, these services through advertising and internet value-added services realized profits. Such an innovative “China model” will not only China’s network security software penetration is significantly improved, and the R & D investment by increasing safety, security personnel and gather technical team, making China’s network security technology continues to improve and is widely used by foreign counterparts and learn from the followers of the world’s security technology security technology leader, but also created the Eastern Hemisphere strongest Chinese “white hat Legion.”

In this sense, the free security software “China model” to create a network security field, “Chinese miracle.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“中国模式”创造“中国奇迹”

网络的江湖中也分正派和邪派。俗称“黑帽子”的网络黑客靠制造木马病毒、利用电脑、手机操作系统漏洞等进行攻击,窃取隐私、数据,非法获得个人利益。而守护网络安全的“白帽子”正好相反,他们主动发现电脑、手机操作系统的漏洞,提供技术修补方案,研发安全软件硬件产品,对黑客的攻击建立防火墙,为个人、社会乃至国家的网络安全加上一层防护罩,活跃在守护网络安全的第一线。

中国本土的网络安全厂商,是在自己的市场上与国外安全巨头的竞争中成长起来的。依靠强烈的社会责任感和对国情的熟悉,中国网络安全厂商逐步发展壮大,从外国巨头手中一点点夺回市场,赢得了生机。很多网民都还记得那些熟悉的名字:金山、瑞星、江民……

中国的网络安全厂商不但凭借自己的努力赢得了市场,还创造性地推出网络安全领域的“中国模式”,彻底改写了中国网络安全行业的格局。传统的网络安全软件都采用收费模式,平均一年收费超过200元。由于较高的价格门槛,导致很多用者不愿使用安全软件。安全软件的缺位,也导致了网络上的木马病毒像洪水猛兽,如CIH、熊猫烧香等,动辄感染上千万台电脑,成为轰动一时的新闻事件。

2005年推出的360免费安全软件,一下子把用户使用门槛降到了零。随着其他本土网络安全厂商的跟进,只用了不到10年的时间,中国个人电脑的安全软件普及率已经上升至99%。2013年,微软发布安全报告称,中国电脑的恶意软件感染率指标为千分之零点六,仅是全球平均水平的1/10,是全球恶意软件感染率最低的国家。2014年,微软再度发布报告,在汇总了全球100余个国家和地区10亿余台计算机的详尽数据后,指出中国恶意软件统计数据为世界最低的4.4,远低于世界平均水平的18。

360的免费安全软件模式,被华尔街解读为“中国模式”:在核心免费产品服务层基础上,构建浏览器平台与应用开放两大基础平台,然后细化为网址导航、团购导航、游戏导航、搜索、应用开放平台和移动开放平台等服务,将这些服务通过广告与互联网增值服务变现实现盈利。这样一个创新的“中国模式”不但将中国的网络安全软件普及率大幅提高,而且通过不断增加安全研发投入,集聚安全人才和技术团队,使得中国网络安全技术不断提升,被国外同行所广泛应用和借鉴,从安全技术的追随者成为世界安全技术的领先者,也造就了东半球最强的中国“白帽子军团”。

从这个意义上说,免费安全软件的“中国模式”创造了网络安全领域的“中国奇迹”。

Chinese “White Hat Hacker Corps” has become an important force in Chinese national cybersecurity

June 2013, “Prism” incident broke out. Former National Security Agency employee Edward Snowden would disclose secret documents US intelligence agencies monitor the project to the media, in one fell swoop depth reflection triggered a global information security issues. April 2014, suffered more than the major global Internet exploits of attacks: Open SSL “heart bleeding loophole”, IE browser’s “zero-day vulnerabilities”, Struts vulnerability, Flash vulnerability, Linux kernel vulnerability, Synaptics Touchpad Driver Vulnerability and other important vulnerabilities have been found to be. An attacker can exploit to achieve complete control of the target computer, steal confidential information.

The current world, hacking has become the most important network security threats, and network security threats has become a major threat to social security, national security. Cyber ​​attacks not only can disrupt the normal operation of enterprises and social institutions, but also can easily destroy a country’s operational command system and livelihood facilities, network security has become an important part of a national security defense system.

The current network security situation simmering, a turbulent, especially the “prism door” incident has exposed a series of deep-seated problems, showing security threats overseas hostile forces in the formation of China’s network security is growing. After the “Prism” incident, security products and related overseas smartphone products through the back door to steal the core data set of events repeatedly been exposed, and other international security software giant Symantec is also exposed the existence of a backdoor, domestic users lose confidence, exclusion in addition to government procurement list.

At these foreign security software lose confidence forced to withdraw from the Chinese market, the Chinese “white hat Legion” With long-term accumulation of technology and product innovation, and take up more than 600 million Internet users security guard duties. China’s domestic network security vendors have become a priority in government procurement national security products. Information security person in charge of a large state-owned enterprises, said they not only many major projects builders, but also the construction of a number of the world’s top-class large-scale projects. For such a large state-owned enterprises, each security flaw is thrilling security risks. Select the security products must be cautious, not only in respect of corporate security, national interests even more solidarity and public safety. In this context, they would prefer to secure key, handed the hands of their own people.

The rapid development of the network economy, so China’s network security is facing new challenges. The grim reality requires Chinese “white hat Corps” must quick response, China’s network security as a good “gatekeeper.”

The current domestic network ecosystem is very complex, a lot of important Internet companies have the background of foreign capital, which also makes the competitive Internet market, often there will be some market factors outside.Recently, for example, 360 to prosecute the “Daily Economic News” reported a case of alleged false in Shanghai Xuhui District People’s Court formally sentenced.Commenting on the domestic public opinion at the time of the court, and not just limited to commercial disputes, but through the appearance of the event, focusing on national cybersecurity issues. Many network security field and legal experts pointed out that, in the network security has risen to national security background, should be conscious of China’s own “white hat Corps” to create a good development space, while cautioning against a number of foreign forces in control of the organizations or enterprises for China’s security market, thus achieving further core areas of our strategic security purposes.

China’s network security depends on our own. This is not just a question of national pride, not just a confidence issue, but a matter of extreme cases, if there are areas of our security problems backdoor planted by hostile forces.Therefore, we should focus on in recent years in areas such as security, foreign hostile forces controlled by Chinese companies through the acquisition of M & I and other ways to penetrate the security field behavior.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中国“白帽子军团”成为国家网络安全的重要力量

2013年6月,“棱镜门”事件爆发。美国国家安全局前雇员爱德华·斯诺登将美国情报机构监听项目的秘密文档披露给了媒体,一举引发了全球对于信息安全问题的深度反思。2014年4月,全球互联网遭遇多起重大漏洞攻击事件袭击:Open SSL的“心脏出血漏洞”、IE浏览器的“零日漏洞”、Struts漏洞、Flash漏洞、Linux内核漏洞、Synaptics触摸板驱动漏洞等重要漏洞被相继发现。攻击者利用漏洞可实现对目标计算机的完全控制,窃取机密信息。

当前世界范围内,黑客攻击已经成为最主要的网络安全威胁,而网络安全威胁成为社会安全、国防安全的重要威胁。网络攻击不仅能够破坏企业和社会机构的正常运行,还能够轻易地摧毁一个国家的作战指挥系统和民生设施,网络安全已经成为一个国家安全防御体系的重要组成部分。

当前网络安全形势暗流涌动、波谲云诡,尤其是“棱镜门”事件暴露出的一系列深层次问题,显示境外敌对势力在网络安全领域对中国形成的安全威胁越来越大。“棱镜门”事件之后,境外相关安全产品和智能手机类产品通过设置后门窃取核心数据的事件屡屡被曝光,赛门铁克等国际安全软件巨头也被曝光存在后门,失去国内用户信任,被排斥在政府采购名单之外。

就在这些国外的安全软件失去信任被迫退出中国市场之际,中国的“白帽子军团”凭借长期技术积累和产品创新,担负起守护6亿多网民安全的职责。中国本土网络安全厂商也成为国家政府采购安全产品的优先考虑。一家大型国有企业的信息安全负责人表示,他们不但是国内许多重大工程的建设者,还承建了世界上多个顶尖级大型工程项目。对于这样的大型国有企业来说,每个安全漏洞都是惊心动魄的安全隐患。选择安全产品必须慎之又慎,这不但关乎企业的安全,更与公共安全甚至国家利益休戚相关。在这种背景下,他们更希望把安全的钥匙,交到自己人手上。

网络经济的飞速发展,使中国网络安全面临着全新的挑战。严峻的现实要求中国“白帽子军团”必须快速反应,为中国的网络安全当好“守门人”。

当前国内的网络生态十分复杂,很多重要的互联网企业都有境外资金的背景,这也使得网络市场的竞争中,往往会出现一些市场之外的因素。例如近日360起诉《每日经济新闻》涉嫌虚假报道一案在上海徐汇区人民法院正式宣判。国内舆论在评论这次法院判决的时候,并不仅仅局限于商业纠纷,而是透过事件的表象,关注国家网络安全的问题。多位网络安全领域的专家和法律专家指出,在网络安全已经上升到国家安全的大背景下,应当有意识地为中国自己的“白帽子军团”创造良好的发展空间,同时警惕一些受境外势力控制的组织或企业争夺中国安全市场,进而达到深入我国核心安全领域的战略目的。

中国的网络安全要靠我们自己。这不仅仅是一个民族气节问题,也不仅仅是一个信心问题,而是一个关乎极端情况下,我们的安全领域是否存在敌对势力安插的后门问题。因此,应重点关注近年来在安全等领域,敌对势力通过外资控制中国公司,通过收购并购等方式向我安全领域渗透的行为。

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