Category Archives: China National Cyber Security Strategy

Chinese Military Intent to Defeat US Military Cyber Forces Using the “Thirty-Six” Strategy of Cyber Warfare //中國軍事意圖利用“三十六”網絡戰策略擊敗美國軍事網絡部隊

Chinese Military Intent to Defeat US Military Cyber Forces Using the “Thirty-Six” Strategy of Cyber Warfare //

中國軍事意圖利用“三十六”網絡戰策略擊敗美國軍事網絡部隊

■ cyberspace is easy to attack and defend, traditional passive defense is difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity attacks

■ Improve network security, the defense side can not rely solely on the technology game, but also need to win the counterattack on the concept

The new “Thirty-six” of network security

  ■Chen Sen

点击进入下一页

Fisher

  News reason

  In the information age, cybersecurity has taken the lead in national security. The Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy emphasizes that it should actively adapt to the new changes in the national security situation, new trends in information technology development, and new requirements for strong military objectives, build an information security defense system, and comprehensively improve the ability to win localized information warfare. Cyberspace has become a new field that affects national security, social stability, economic development and cultural communication. Cyberspace security has become an important topic of increasing concern to the international community.

  The United States has clearly declared that cyberspace is a new field of operations, and has significantly expanded its network command and combat forces to continue to focus on cyberspace weapons development. Since entering the summer, the US military network exercises have been one after another, and the invisible wars are filled with smoke. At the beginning of March, “Network Storm 5” took the lead in kicking off the drill; in April, “Network Aegis 2016” completed the fifth-generation upgrade; in June, “Network Defense” and “Network Capture” as the core re-installation of the annual joint exercise Debut.

  The essence of network security lies in the ability to attack and defend both ends. Currently, static, isolated, passive defenses such as firewalls, intrusion detection technologies, and anti-virus software are difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity network attacks. To build a cyberspace security defense line, we need to get rid of the idea of ​​falling behind and win the counterattack on the defensive concept.

New “Thirty-six” mobile target defense

Increase the difficulty of attack by building a dynamic network

  Network attacks require a certain amount of time to scan and research the target network, detect and utilize system “vulnerabilities” to achieve intrusion control purposes. In theory, the attacker has unlimited time to start the scanning and detecting work, and always find the weak point of defense, and finally achieve the purpose of the invasion. To this end, the network pioneer USA is committed to planning and deploying security defense transformation work, striving to break through the traditional defense concept and develop revolutionary technology that can “change the rules of the game”. Mobile target defense is one of them.

  Mobile target defense is called the new paradigm of cyberspace security defense. The technical strategy is to construct a dynamic network through the processing and control of the protection target itself, increasing randomness and reducing predictability to improve the difficulty of attack. If the static cyberspace is likened to a constant “city defense deployment”, it is difficult to stick to it; and the dynamic network configuration can be called the ever-changing “eight squad”, which is difficult to crack. At present, mobile target defense technology has priority in various US government and military research, covering dynamic platform technology, dynamic operating environment technology, dynamic software and data technology. In August 2012, the US Army awarded Raytheon’s “Deformation Network Facility” project to study the dynamic adjustment and configuration of networks, hosts and applications in case the enemy could not detect and predict, thus preventing, delaying or blocking the network. attack.

  As a new idea in the field of cyberspace security, mobile target defense reflects the technological development trend of future network defenses to turn “dead” networks into “live” networks.

The new “Thirty-six” honey cans deceive defense

Reduce cyberattack threats by consuming attacker resources

  Conventional network security protection is mainly to defend against cyber attacks from the front. Although the defensive measures have made great progress, they have not changed the basic situation of cyberspace “easy to attack and defend”. In recent years, the development of “Honeypot Deception Defense” has proposed a new concept of “bypass guidance”, which is to reduce the threat of cyber attacks to the real protection target by absorbing network intrusion and consuming the resources of attackers, thereby winning time. Strengthen protection measures to make up for the shortcomings of the traditional cyberspace defense system.

  Similar to the intentional setting of false positions on the battlefield, honeypot deception defense is to actively use the computer network with lower security defense level to lure all kinds of network attacks, monitor its attack means and attributes, and set corresponding defenses on the target system that needs to be protected. System to stop similar attacks. Honeypots can be divided into two types, product-type honeypots and research-type honeypots. The main purpose of the former is to “attract firepower” and reduce the pressure of defense. The latter is designed for research and acquisition of attack information. It is an intelligence gathering system that not only needs network attack resistance but also strives to monitor powerfully to capture the attack behavior data to the maximum extent.

  In addition to the establishment of a virtual network environment attack and defense laboratory consisting of four sub-networks of gray, yellow, black and green, the US military has also carefully deployed a honeypot decoy system on the Internet. What is certain is that the network defense idea based on deception will be further emphasized, and the technical means to achieve deception will be more and more.

New “Thirty-six Meters” linkage synergy defense

Integrate multiple defense technologies to “reject enemy from outside the country”

  At present, most of the security protection devices and defense technologies are “individually fighting”. The data between network protection nodes is difficult to share, and the protection technologies are not related. As a result, the current defense system is isolated and static, which cannot meet the increasingly complex network security situation. need. The original motivation of the US “Einstein Plan” was that all federal agencies had exclusive access to the Internet, making overall security difficult to guarantee. Through the collaborative linkage mechanism, the relatively independent security protection devices and technologies in the network are organically combined to complement each other and cooperate with each other to defend against various attacks. It has become an inevitable choice for the future development of cyberspace security defense.

  Collaborative collaborative defense refers to the use of existing security technologies, measures and equipment to organically organize multiple security systems that are separated in time, spatially distributed, and work and interdependent, so that the entire security system can maximize its effectiveness. Vertically, it is the coordinated defense of multiple security technologies, that is, one security technology directly includes or links to another security technology through some communication method. For example, the “deep defense” mechanism adopted by the US Navy network defense system targets the core deployment layer protection measures, including flag-based attack detection, WAN security audit, vulnerability alert, etc., and the attacker must break through multiple defense layers to enter the system. Thereby reducing its attack success rate. When a node in the system is threatened, it can forward the threat information to other nodes in time and take corresponding protective measures to adjust and deploy the protection strategy.

  In the past, individual combat operations have been unable to meet the needs of today’s network security defenses, and coordinated collaborative defense will leap into the mainstream of network security. Integrate a variety of defense technologies, establish an organized defense system, and “reject the enemy outside the country” to effectively prevent problems before they occur.

The optimal strategy defense of the new “Thirty-six”

Seeking a balance between cybersecurity risks and investments

  The attacks in cyberspace are more and more complicated. The ideal network security protection is to protect all the weak or attack behaviors. However, from the perspective of defense resources limitation, it is obviously unrealistic to pursue absolute security defense. Based on the concept of “moderate security”, the optimal strategy defense is on the horizon.

  Optimal policy defense can be understood as seeking a balance between cyber security risks and inputs, and using limited resources to make the most reasonable decision defense. As far as investment is concerned, even the strong United States is trying to build a collective defense system for cyberspace. The United States and Australia cyberspace defense alliance agreement, as well as the Japan-US network defense cooperation joint statement, its “share of results” behind the “cost sharing” shadow. From the perspective of risk, the pursuit of absolute security will adhere to the principle of safety supremacy. When formulating relevant strategic objectives and responding to threats, it is easy to ignore the limited and legitimacy of the resources and means available, and it is difficult to grasp the advance and retreat.

  The optimal strategy defense is mainly focused on the “optimal” strategy of game theory, focusing on the research direction of cyberspace security assessment, cost analysis, security defense model construction and evolution. Applying the idea of ​​game theory to cyber attacks and defenses provides a new way to solve the problem of optimal defense decision-making.

The new “Thirty-six” intrusion tolerance defense

Create a “last line of defense” for cyberspace security

  The threats to cyberspace are unpredictable, irresistible, and unpredictable. Protection can’t completely avoid system failure or even collapse. Traditional reliability theory and fault-tolerant computing technology are difficult to meet the actual needs, which has to consider more comprehensive and deeper problems than pure protection. In this context, a new generation of intrusion-tolerance defenses has received increasing attention.

  Intrusion tolerance is the third-generation network security technology, which belongs to the category of information survival technology and is called the “last line of defense” for cyberspace security defense. Unlike traditional cybersecurity defenses, intrusion-tolerant defenses recognize the existence of vulnerabilities and assume that some of them may be exploited by attackers to attack the system. When the target of protection is attacked or even some parts have been destroyed or manipulated, the target system can “kill the tail” like a gecko to complete the healing and regeneration of the target system.

  Intrusion-tolerance technology is no longer based on “defense”, but on how to reduce losses and recover as soon as the system has been damaged. However, intrusion tolerance is an emerging research field. Its cost, cost and benefit will be the next research direction.

Related Links–

Network attack and defense

“Shenzhen”: the pioneer of network physics warfare

点击进入下一页

  In August 2010, Iran built the Bushehr nuclear power plant with the help of Russia. However, the nuclear power plant, which was scheduled to be put into operation in October of that year, was postponed several times. A year later, according to media reports, it was caused by a computer network virus attack of unknown source. More than 30,000 computers were “in the middle”. Thousands of centrifuges in Natans were scrapped. The newly capped Bushehr nuclear power plant had to be taken out. Nuclear fuel was delayed and the Iranian nuclear development plan was forced to shelve. This virus, later named “Shenzhen”, pioneered the control and destruction of entities through the network.

“Flame”: the most powerful spy in history

点击进入下一页

  Network intelligence activities are the most active part of the cyberspace strategy game and security struggle. In 2012, a large amount of data from the Iranian oil sector was stolen and cleared, making it impossible for oil production and exports to function properly. In order to avoid continuing to create hazards, Iran was urgently disconnected from the network of the oil facilities on the Halk Island near the Gulf. After a large-scale investigation, a new virus emerged, which later appeared in the “flame” virus in Israel, Palestine and other Middle Eastern countries. The “Flame” virus combines the three characteristics of worms, backdoors and Trojans. It combines the interception of screen images, recording audio dialogues, intercepting keyboard input, and stealing Bluetooth devices. It has become a new type of electronic company that steals secret information from other countries. spy”.

“Shut”: System breaks

点击进入下一页

  In 2007, in order to kill the Syrian nuclear program in the bud, 18 F-16 fighters of the 69th Fighter Squadron of the Israeli Air Force quietly broke through the advanced Russian “Dor”-M1 air defense deployed by Syria on the Syrian-Israeli border. The system carried out precise bombing of a nuclear facility about 100 kilometers west of the Syrian-Israeli border and about 400 kilometers northeast of Damascus, and returned safely from the original road.

  According to the disclosure, the “Orchard Action” has made the US “Shuter” attack system shine. “Shut” invaded by remote radio, 瘫痪 radar, radio communication system, is the “behind the scenes” to make the Syrian air defense system in a state of failure. As a new type of network power attack system for networked weapon platforms and networked information systems, “Shut” represents the development trend of military technology and combat methods, and is bound to bring a new war landscape.

“Shadow Network”: Invisible Internet

点击进入下一页

  The complicated situation of ideological struggle caused by the Internet has created an alternative channel for information penetration and “colonization” of thought. In the “Jasmine Revolution” in North Africa and the “Arab Spring” in the Middle East, there are “shadow networks”.

  A ghost-like “shadow network” can bypass the traditionally regulated Internet, form an invisible and independent wireless local area network, realize mutual information communication, and access the Internet at any time as needed, and access the network resources “unrestricted”. The New York Times disclosed that the US State Department and the Pentagon have invested heavily in building an independent system in Afghanistan and using a launch tower located in the military camp to transmit signals to protect them from Taliban militants. Subsequently, an “invisible communication system” was established in Iran, Syria and Libya to help local anti-government organizations to communicate with each other or with the outside world.

“X Plan”: To control the network battlefield

点击进入下一页

  Foreign media revealed that the Pentagon is building a 22nd century war plan, the “X Plan.” The “X Plan” is dedicated to building an advanced global computer map. With this “network map” that can be continuously updated and updated, the US military can easily lock the target and make it embarrassing. “If this plan is completed, the US military will be able to control the network battlefield as it controls the traditional battlefield.”

  It is not difficult to foresee that after the deployment of the “X Plan”, it is definitely not just “get rid of the constraints of the keyboard”, but also enables situational awareness and cyber attacks on a global scale.

Original Mandarin Chinese

■網絡空間易攻難守,傳統的被動式防禦難以有效應對有組織的高強度攻擊

■提高網絡安全性,防禦一端不能只靠技術博弈,還需打贏理念上的反擊戰

網絡安全之新“三十六計”

■陳 森

點擊進入下一頁

費雪 繪

新聞緣由

信息時代,網絡安全對國家安全牽一發而動全身。 《國家信息化發展戰略綱要》強調,積極適應國家安全形勢新變化、信息技術發展新趨勢和強軍目標新要求,構建信息安全防禦體系,全面提高打贏信息化局部戰爭能力。網絡空間已經成為影響國家安全、社會穩定、經濟發展和文化傳播的全新領域,網絡空間安全隨之成為國際社會日益關注的重要議題。

美國明確宣稱網絡空間為新的作戰領域,大幅擴編網絡司令部和作戰部隊,持續聚力網絡空間武器研發。進入夏季以來,美軍網絡演習接二連三,隱形戰火硝煙瀰漫。 3月初,“網絡風暴5”率先拉開演練戰幕;4月,“網絡神盾2016”完成第五代升級;6月,“網絡防衛”“網絡奪旗”作為年度聯合演習的核心重裝登場。

網絡安全的本質在於攻防兩端能力較量,目前依賴防火牆、入侵檢測技術和反病毒軟件等靜態的、孤立的、被動式防禦難以有效應對有組織的高強度網絡攻擊。構築網絡空間安全防線,需要革除落伍思想,打贏防禦理念上的反擊戰。

新“三十六計”之移動目標防禦

通過構建動態網絡增加攻擊難度

網絡攻擊行動均需要一定的時間用於掃描和研究目標網絡,探測並利用系統“漏洞”,達到入侵控制目的。從理論上說,攻擊者有無限的時間展開掃描探測工作,總能找到防禦薄弱點,最終達成入侵目的。為此,網絡先行者美國致力於籌劃和部署安全防禦轉型工作,力求突破傳統防禦理念,發展能“改變遊戲規則”的革命性技術,移動目標防禦即是其中之一。

移動目標防禦被稱為網絡空間安全防禦新範式,技術策略上通過對防護目標本身的處理和控制,致力於構建一種動態的網絡,增加隨機性、減少可預見性,以提高攻擊難度。若將靜態的網絡空間比喻為一成不變的“城防部署”,勢難固守;而動態的網絡配置堪稱變幻無窮的“八卦陣”,難以破解。目前,移動目標防禦技術在美國政府和軍方各類研究中均享有優先權,涵蓋動態平台技術、動態運行環境技術、動態軟件和數據技術等方面。 2012年8月,美陸軍授予雷神公司“變形網絡設施”項目,主要研究在敵方無法探測和預知的情況下,對網絡、主機和應用程序進行動態調整和配置,從而預防、遲滯或阻止網絡攻擊。

作為網絡空間安全領域的新思路,移動目標防禦反映了未來網絡防禦將“死”網絡變成“活”網絡的技術發展趨勢。

新“三十六計”之蜜罐誘騙防禦

通過消耗攻擊者的資源減少網絡攻擊威脅

常規的網絡安全防護主要是從正面抵禦網絡攻擊,雖然防禦措施取得了長足進步,但仍未能改變網絡空間“易攻難守”的基本局面。近年來發展的“蜜罐誘騙防禦”則提出了一個“旁路引導”的新理念,即通過吸納網絡入侵和消耗攻擊者的資源來減少網絡攻擊對真正要防護目標的威脅,進而贏得時間以增強防護措施,彌補傳統網絡空間防禦體系的不足。

與戰場上有意設置假陣地相仿,蜜罐誘騙防禦是主動利用安全防禦層級較低的計算機網絡,引誘各類網絡攻擊,監測其攻擊手段和屬性,在真正需要做防護的目標系統上設置相應防禦體系,以阻止類似攻擊。蜜罐可分為兩種類型,即產品型蜜罐和研究型蜜罐。前者主要目的是“吸引火力”,減輕防禦壓力,後者則為研究和獲取攻擊信息而設計,堪稱情報蒐集系統,不僅需要網絡耐攻擊而且力求監視能力強大,以最大限度捕獲攻擊行為數據。

美軍除了建立由灰網、黃網、黑網、綠網4個子網絡組成的虛擬網絡環境攻防實驗室外,還在國際互聯網上精心部署有蜜罐誘騙系統。可以肯定的是,基於誘騙的網絡防禦思想將被進一步重視,實現誘騙的技術途徑也將會越來越多。

新“三十六計”之聯動協同防禦

整合多種防禦技術“拒敵於國門之外”

目前的安全防護設備和防禦技術大都是“各自為戰”,網絡防護節點間的數據難共享,防護技術不關聯,導致目前的防禦體係是孤立和靜態的,已不能滿足日趨複雜的網絡安全形勢需要。美國“愛因斯坦計劃”最初的動因就在於各聯邦機構獨享互聯網出口,使得整體安全性難以保障。通過協同聯動機制把網絡中相對獨立的安全防護設備和技術有機組合起來,取長補短,互相配合,共同抵禦各種攻擊,已成為未來網絡空間安全防禦發展的必然選擇。

聯動協同防禦是指利用現有安全技術、措施和設備,將時間上分離、空間上分佈而工作上又相互依賴的多個安全系統有機組織起來,從而使整個安全系統能夠最大程度地發揮效能。縱向上,是多個安全技術的聯動協同防禦,即一種安全技術直接包含或是通過某種通信方式鏈接另一種安全技術。如美國海軍網絡防禦體係採用的“縱深防禦”機制,針對核心部署層層防護措施,包括基於標誌的攻擊檢測、廣域網安全審計、脆弱性警報等,攻擊方須突破多個防禦層才能進入系統,從而降低其攻擊成功率。當系統中某節點受到威脅時,能夠及時將威脅信息轉發給其他節點並採取相應防護措施,進行一體化調整和部署防護策略。

昔日的單兵作戰已不能適應當今網絡安全防禦的需要,聯動協同防禦將躍升為網絡安全領域的主流。整合多種防禦技術,建立有組織性的防禦體系,“拒敵於國門之外”才能有效防患於未然。

新“三十六計”之最優策略防禦

在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡

網絡空間的攻擊越來越複雜,理想的網絡安全防護當然是對所有的弱項或攻擊行為都做出對應的防護,但是從防禦資源限制等情況考慮,追求絕對安全的防禦顯然是不現實的。基於“適度安全”的理念,最優策略防禦呼之欲出。

最優策略防禦可以理解為在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡,利用有限的資源做出最合理決策的防禦。就投入而言,即便是實力雄厚的美國,也是盡量打造網絡空間集體防禦體系。美國與澳大利亞網絡空間防禦同盟協定,以及日美網絡防禦合作聯合聲明,其“成果共享”背後亦有“成本分攤”的影子。從風險角度看,對絕對安全的追求將會秉持安全至上原則,在製定相關戰略目標和對威脅作出反應時,易忽視所擁有資源和手段的有限性、合法性,難以掌握進退。

最優策略防禦主要圍繞博弈論的策略“最優”而展開,集中在網絡空間安全測評、代價分析、安全防禦模型構建與演化等研究方向上。將博弈論的思想應用到網絡攻擊和防禦中,為解決最優防禦決策等難題研究提供了一種新思路。

新“三十六計”之入侵容忍防禦

打造網絡空間安全 “最後一道防線”

網絡空間面臨的威脅很多是不可預見、無法抗拒和防不勝防的,防護再好也不能完全避免系統失效甚至崩潰的發生。傳統的可靠性理論和容錯計算技術難以滿足實際需要,這就不得不思考比單純防護更全面、更深層次的問題。在此背景下,新一代入侵容忍防禦愈發受到重視。

入侵容忍是第三代網絡安全技術,隸屬於信息生存技術的範疇,被稱作是網絡空間安全防禦“最後一道防線”。與傳統網絡安全防禦思路不同,入侵容忍防禦承認脆弱點的存在,並假定其中某些脆弱點可能會被攻擊者利用而使系統遭到攻擊。防護目標在受到攻擊甚至某些部分已被破壞或被操控時,防護目標系統可以像壁虎一樣“斷尾求生”,完成目標系統的癒合和再生。

入侵容忍技術不再以“防”為主,而是重在系統已遭破壞的情況下如何減少損失,盡快恢復。但入侵容忍畢竟是一個新興研究領域,其成本、代價、效益等將是下一步的研究方向。

相關鏈接——

各顯其能的網絡攻防戰

“震網”:網絡物理戰先驅

點擊進入下一頁

2010年8月,伊朗在俄羅斯幫助下建成布什爾核電站,但這座計劃於當年10月正式發電運轉的核電站,卻多次推遲運行。一年後,據媒體揭秘,是因為遭到來源不明的計算機網絡病毒攻擊,超過3萬台電腦“中招”,位於納坦斯的千台離心機報廢,剛封頂的布什爾核電站不得不取出核燃料並延期啟動,伊朗核發展計劃則被迫擱置。這種後來被冠名為“震網”的病毒,開創了通過網絡控制並摧毀實體的先河。

“火焰”:史上最強大間諜

點擊進入下一頁

網絡情報活動,是網絡空間戰略博弈和安全斗爭最活躍的部分。 2012年,伊朗石油部門大量數據失竊並遭到清除,致使其無法正常進行石油生產和出口。為避免繼續製造危害,伊朗被迫切斷了海灣附近哈爾克島石油設施的網絡連接。大規模的調查後,一種新的病毒浮出水面,即後來又現身於以色列、巴勒斯坦等中東國家的“火焰”病毒。 “火焰”病毒兼具蠕蟲、後門和木馬三重特點,集截取屏幕畫面、記錄音頻對話、截獲鍵盤輸入、偷開藍牙設備等多種數據盜竊功能於一身,成為專門竊取他國機密情報的新型“電子間諜”。

“舒特”:體系破擊露鋒芒

點擊進入下一頁

2007年,為將敘利亞核計劃扼殺於萌芽之中,以色列空軍第69戰鬥機中隊的18架F-16戰機,悄無聲息地突破敘利亞在敘以邊境部署的先進俄製“道爾”-M1防空系統,對敘以邊境以西約100千米、大馬士革東北部約400千米的一處核設施實施精確轟炸,並從原路安全返回。

據披露,讓“果園行動”大放異彩的是美軍“舒特”攻擊系統。 “舒特”通過遠程無線電入侵,癱瘓雷達、無線電通信系統,是使敘防空系統處於失效狀態的“幕後真兇”。作為針對組網武器平台及網絡化信息系統的新型網電攻擊系統,“舒特”代表著軍事技術和作戰方式的發展趨勢,勢必將帶來全新戰爭景觀。

“影子網絡”:隱形國際互聯網

點擊進入下一頁

國際互聯網導致意識形態鬥爭的複雜局面,造成了信息滲透、思想“殖民”的另類通道。在北非“茉莉花革命”和中東“阿拉伯之春”中,均有“影子網絡”踪跡。

像幽靈一樣的“影子網絡”可繞過傳統監管的互聯網,形成隱形和獨立的無線局域網,實現相互間信息溝通,一旦需要又可隨時接入國際互聯網,“不受限制”地訪問網絡資源。 《紐約時報》披露稱,美國國務院和五角大樓斥巨資在阿富汗建造了獨立的系統,並利用設在軍營內的發射塔傳遞信號,以免遭塔利班武裝分子破壞。隨後在伊朗、敘利亞和利比亞設立“隱形通訊系統”,幫助當地反政府組織相互聯繫或與外界溝通。

“X計劃”:欲掌控網絡戰場

點擊進入下一頁

外媒披露,五角大樓正在打造一項22世紀的戰爭計劃,即“X計劃”。 “X計劃”致力於建立先進的全球計算機分佈圖,有了這張能夠不斷升級更新的“網絡地圖”,美軍就可以輕易鎖定目標令其癱瘓。 “如果完成了這個計劃,美軍將能夠像控制傳統戰場那樣控製網絡戰場。”

不難預見,“X計劃”部署後,絕對不只是“擺脫鍵盤的束縛”,更可以實現在全球範圍內進行態勢感知和網絡攻擊。

Original Referring URL: http://www.chinanews.com/mil/2016/08-11/

How Chinese Cyber Warfare Rejects Foreign Intruders Focuses on National Security // 中國網絡戰如何拒絕外國入侵者關注國家安全

How Chinese Cyber Warfare Rejects Foreign Intruders Focuses on National Security //

中國網絡戰如何拒絕外國入侵者關注國家安全

In the information age, cybersecurity has taken the lead in national security. The Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy emphasizes that it should actively adapt to the new changes in the national security situation, new trends in information technology development, and new requirements for strong military objectives, build an information security defense system, and comprehensively improve the ability to win localized information warfare. Cyberspace has become a new field that affects national security, social stability, economic development and cultural communication. Cyberspace security has become an important topic of increasing concern to the international community.

The United States has clearly declared that cyberspace is a new field of operations, and has significantly expanded its network command and combat forces to continue to focus on cyberspace weapons development. Since entering the summer, the US military network exercises have been one after another, and the invisible wars are filled with smoke. At the beginning of March, “Network Storm 5” took the lead in kicking off the drill; in April, “Network Aegis 2016” completed the fifth-generation upgrade; in June, “Network Defense” and “Network Capture” as the core re-installation of the annual joint exercise Debut.

The essence of network security lies in the ability to attack and defend both ends. Currently, static, isolated, passive defenses such as firewalls, intrusion detection technologies, and anti-virus software are difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity network attacks. To build a cyberspace security defense line, we need to get rid of the idea of ​​falling behind and win the counterattack on the defensive concept.

New “Thirty-six” mobile target defense

Increase the difficulty of attack by building a dynamic network

Network attacks require a certain amount of time to scan and research the target network, detect and utilize system “vulnerabilities” to achieve intrusion control purposes. In theory, the attacker has unlimited time to start the scanning and detecting work, and always find the weak point of defense, and finally achieve the purpose of the invasion. To this end, the network pioneer USA is committed to planning and deploying security defense transformation work, striving to break through the traditional defense concept and develop revolutionary technology that can “change the rules of the game”. Mobile target defense is one of them.

Mobile target defense is called the new paradigm of cyberspace security defense. The technical strategy is to construct a dynamic network through the processing and control of the protection target itself, increasing randomness and reducing predictability to improve the difficulty of attack. If the static cyberspace is likened to a constant “city defense deployment”, it is difficult to stick to it; and the dynamic network configuration can be called the ever-changing “eight squad”, which is difficult to crack. At present, mobile target defense technology has priority in various US government and military research, covering dynamic platform technology, dynamic operating environment technology, dynamic software and data technology. In August 2012, the US Army awarded Raytheon’s “Deformation Network Facility” project to study the dynamic adjustment and configuration of networks, hosts and applications in case the enemy could not detect and predict, thus preventing, delaying or blocking the network. attack.

As a new idea in the field of cyberspace security, mobile target defense reflects the technological development trend of future network defenses to turn “dead” networks into “live” networks.

The new “Thirty-six” honey cans deceive defense

Reduce cyberattack threats by consuming attacker resources

Conventional network security protection is mainly to defend against cyber attacks from the front. Although the defensive measures have made great progress, they have not changed the basic situation of cyberspace “easy to attack and defend”. In recent years, the development of “Honeypot Deception Defense” has proposed a new concept of “bypass guidance”, which is to reduce the threat of cyber attacks to the real protection target by absorbing network intrusion and consuming the resources of attackers, thereby winning time. Strengthen protection measures to make up for the shortcomings of the traditional cyberspace defense system.

Similar to the intentional setting of false positions on the battlefield, honeypot deception defense is to actively use the computer network with lower security defense level to lure all kinds of network attacks, monitor its attack means and attributes, and set corresponding defenses on the target system that needs to be protected. System to stop similar attacks. Honeypots can be divided into two types, product-type honeypots and research-type honeypots. The main purpose of the former is to “attract firepower” and reduce the pressure of defense. The latter is designed for research and acquisition of attack information. It is an intelligence gathering system that not only needs network attack resistance but also strives to monitor powerfully to capture the attack behavior data to the maximum extent.

In addition to the establishment of a virtual network environment attack and defense laboratory consisting of four sub-networks of gray, yellow, black and green, the US military has also carefully deployed a honeypot decoy system on the Internet. What is certain is that the network defense idea based on deception will be further emphasized, and the technical means to achieve deception will be more and more.

New “Thirty-six Meters” linkage synergy defense

Integrate multiple defense technologies to “reject enemy from outside the country”

At present, most of the security protection devices and defense technologies are “individually fighting”. The data between network protection nodes is difficult to share, and the protection technologies are not related. As a result, the current defense system is isolated and static, which cannot meet the increasingly complex network security situation. need. The original motivation of the US “Einstein Plan” was that all federal agencies had exclusive access to the Internet, making overall security difficult to guarantee. Through the collaborative linkage mechanism, the relatively independent security protection devices and technologies in the network are organically combined to complement each other and cooperate with each other to defend against various attacks. It has become an inevitable choice for the future development of cyberspace security defense.

Collaborative collaborative defense refers to the use of existing security technologies, measures and equipment to organically organize multiple security systems that are separated in time, spatially distributed, and work and interdependent, so that the entire security system can maximize its effectiveness. Vertically, it is the coordinated defense of multiple security technologies, that is, one security technology directly includes or links to another security technology through some communication method. For example, the “deep defense” mechanism adopted by the US Navy network defense system targets the core deployment layer protection measures, including flag-based attack detection, WAN security audit, vulnerability alert, etc., and the attacker must break through multiple defense layers to enter the system. Thereby reducing its attack success rate. When a node in the system is threatened, it can forward the threat information to other nodes in time and take corresponding protective measures to adjust and deploy the protection strategy.

In the past, individual combat operations have been unable to meet the needs of today’s network security defenses, and coordinated collaborative defense will leap into the mainstream of network security. Integrate a variety of defense technologies, establish an organized defense system, and “reject the enemy outside the country” to effectively prevent problems before they occur.

The optimal strategy defense of the new “Thirty-six”

Seeking a balance between cybersecurity risks and investments

The attacks in cyberspace are more and more complicated. The ideal network security protection is to protect all the weak or attack behaviors. However, from the perspective of defense resources limitation, it is obviously unrealistic to pursue absolute security defense. Based on the concept of “moderate security”, the optimal strategy defense is on the horizon.

Optimal policy defense can be understood as seeking a balance between cyber security risks and inputs, and using limited resources to make the most reasonable decision defense. As far as investment is concerned, even the strong United States is trying to build a collective defense system for cyberspace. The United States and Australia cyberspace defense alliance agreement, as well as the Japan-US network defense cooperation joint statement, its “share of results” behind the “cost sharing” shadow. From the perspective of risk, the pursuit of absolute security will adhere to the principle of safety supremacy. When formulating relevant strategic objectives and responding to threats, it is easy to ignore the limited and legitimacy of the resources and means available, and it is difficult to grasp the advance and retreat.

The optimal strategy defense is mainly focused on the “optimal” strategy of game theory, focusing on the research direction of cyberspace security assessment, cost analysis, security defense model construction and evolution. Applying the idea of ​​game theory to cyber attacks and defenses provides a new way to solve the problem of optimal defense decision-making.

The new “Thirty-six” intrusion tolerance defense

Create a “last line of defense” for cyberspace security

The threats to cyberspace are unpredictable, irresistible, and unpredictable. Protection can’t completely avoid system failure or even collapse. Traditional reliability theory and fault-tolerant computing technology are difficult to meet the actual needs, which has to consider more comprehensive and deeper problems than pure protection. In this context, a new generation of intrusion-tolerance defenses has received increasing attention.

Intrusion tolerance is the third-generation network security technology, which belongs to the category of information survival technology and is called the “last line of defense” for cyberspace security defense. Unlike traditional cybersecurity defenses, intrusion-tolerant defenses recognize the existence of vulnerabilities and assume that some of them may be exploited by attackers to attack the system. When the target of protection is attacked or even some parts have been destroyed or manipulated, the target system can “kill the tail” like a gecko to complete the healing and regeneration of the target system.

Intrusion-tolerance technology is no longer based on “defense”, but on how to reduce losses and recover as soon as the system has been damaged. However, intrusion tolerance is an emerging research field. Its cost, cost and benefit will be the next research direction.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

新聞緣由

信息時代,網絡安全對國家安全牽一發而動全身。 《國家信息化發展戰略綱要》強調,積極適應國家安全形勢新變化、信息技術發展新趨勢和強軍目標新要求,構建信息安全防禦體系,全面提高打贏信息化局部戰爭能力。網絡空間已經成為影響國家安全、社會穩定、經濟發展和文化傳播的全新領域,網絡空間安全隨之成為國際社會日益關注的重要議題。

美國明確宣稱網絡空間為新的作戰領域,大幅擴編網絡司令部和作戰部隊,持續聚力網絡空間武器研發。進入夏季以來,美軍網絡演習接二連三,隱形戰火硝煙瀰漫。 3月初,“網絡風暴5”率先拉開演練戰幕;4月,“網絡神盾2016”完成第五代升級;6月,“網絡防衛”“網絡奪旗”作為年度聯合演習的核心重裝登場。

網絡安全的本質在於攻防兩端能力較量,目前依賴防火牆、入侵檢測技術和反病毒軟件等靜態的、孤立的、被動式防禦難以有效應對有組織的高強度網絡攻擊。構築網絡空間安全防線,需要革除落伍思想,打贏防禦理念上的反擊戰。

新“三十六計”之移動目標防禦

通過構建動態網絡增加攻擊難度

網絡攻擊行動均需要一定的時間用於掃描和研究目標網絡,探測並利用系統“漏洞”,達到入侵控制目的。從理論上說,攻擊者有無限的時間展開掃描探測工作,總能找到防禦薄弱點,最終達成入侵目的。為此,網絡先行者美國致力於籌劃和部署安全防禦轉型工作,力求突破傳統防禦理念,發展能“改變遊戲規則”的革命性技術,移動目標防禦即是其中之一。

移動目標防禦被稱為網絡空間安全防禦新範式,技術策略上通過對防護目標本身的處理和控制,致力於構建一種動態的網絡,增加隨機性、減少可預見性,以提高攻擊難度。若將靜態的網絡空間比喻為一成不變的“城防部署”,勢難固守;而動態的網絡配置堪稱變幻無窮的“八卦陣”,難以破解。目前,移動目標防禦技術在美國政府和軍方各類研究中均享有優先權,涵蓋動態平台技術、動態運行環境技術、動態軟件和數據技術等方面。 2012年8月,美陸軍授予雷神公司“變形網絡設施”項目,主要研究在敵方無法探測和預知的情況下,對網絡、主機和應用程序進行動態調整和配置,從而預防、遲滯或阻止網絡攻擊。

作為網絡空間安全領域的新思路,移動目標防禦反映了未來網絡防禦將“死”網絡變成“活”網絡的技術發展趨勢。

新“三十六計”之蜜罐誘騙防禦

通過消耗攻擊者的資源減少網絡攻擊威脅

常規的網絡安全防護主要是從正面抵禦網絡攻擊,雖然防禦措施取得了長足進步,但仍未能改變網絡空間“易攻難守”的基本局面。近年來發展的“蜜罐誘騙防禦”則提出了一個“旁路引導”的新理念,即通過吸納網絡入侵和消耗攻擊者的資源來減少網絡攻擊對真正要防護目標的威脅,進而贏得時間以增強防護措施,彌補傳統網絡空間防禦體系的不足。

與戰場上有意設置假陣地相仿,蜜罐誘騙防禦是主動利用安全防禦層級較低的計算機網絡,引誘各類網絡攻擊,監測其攻擊手段和屬性,在真正需要做防護的目標系統上設置相應防禦體系,以阻止類似攻擊。蜜罐可分為兩種類型,即產品型蜜罐和研究型蜜罐。前者主要目的是“吸引火力”,減輕防禦壓力,後者則為研究和獲取攻擊信息而設計,堪稱情報蒐集系統,不僅需要網絡耐攻擊而且力求監視能力強大,以最大限度捕獲攻擊行為數據。

美軍除了建立由灰網、黃網、黑網、綠網4個子網絡組成的虛擬網絡環境攻防實驗室外,還在國際互聯網上精心部署有蜜罐誘騙系統。可以肯定的是,基於誘騙的網絡防禦思想將被進一步重視,實現誘騙的技術途徑也將會越來越多。

新“三十六計”之聯動協同防禦

整合多種防禦技術“拒敵於國門之外”

目前的安全防護設備和防禦技術大都是“各自為戰”,網絡防護節點間的數據難共享,防護技術不關聯,導致目前的防禦體係是孤立和靜態的,已不能滿足日趨複雜的網絡安全形勢需要。美國“愛因斯坦計劃”最初的動因就在於各聯邦機構獨享互聯網出口,使得整體安全性難以保障。通過協同聯動機制把網絡中相對獨立的安全防護設備和技術有機組合起來,取長補短,互相配合,共同抵禦各種攻擊,已成為未來網絡空間安全防禦發展的必然選擇。

聯動協同防禦是指利用現有安全技術、措施和設備,將時間上分離、空間上分佈而工作上又相互依賴的多個安全系統有機組織起來,從而使整個安全系統能夠最大程度地發揮效能。縱向上,是多個安全技術的聯動協同防禦,即一種安全技術直接包含或是通過某種通信方式鏈接另一種安全技術。如美國海軍網絡防禦體係採用的“縱深防禦”機制,針對核心部署層層防護措施,包括基於標誌的攻擊檢測、廣域網安全審計、脆弱性警報等,攻擊方須突破多個防禦層才能進入系統,從而降低其攻擊成功率。當系統中某節點受到威脅時,能夠及時將威脅信息轉發給其他節點並採取相應防護措施,進行一體化調整和部署防護策略。

昔日的單兵作戰已不能適應當今網絡安全防禦的需要,聯動協同防禦將躍升為網絡安全領域的主流。整合多種防禦技術,建立有組織性的防禦體系,“拒敵於國門之外”才能有效防患於未然。

新“三十六計”之最優策略防禦

在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡

網絡空間的攻擊越來越複雜,理想的網絡安全防護當然是對所有的弱項或攻擊行為都做出對應的防護,但是從防禦資源限制等情況考慮,追求絕對安全的防禦顯然是不現實的。基於“適度安全”的理念,最優策略防禦呼之欲出。

最優策略防禦可以理解為在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡,利用有限的資源做出最合理決策的防禦。就投入而言,即便是實力雄厚的美國,也是盡量打造網絡空間集體防禦體系。美國與澳大利亞網絡空間防禦同盟協定,以及日美網絡防禦合作聯合聲明,其“成果共享”背後亦有“成本分攤”的影子。從風險角度看,對絕對安全的追求將會秉持安全至上原則,在製定相關戰略目標和對威脅作出反應時,易忽視所擁有資源和手段的有限性、合法性,難以掌握進退。

最優策略防禦主要圍繞博弈論的策略“最優”而展開,集中在網絡空間安全測評、代價分析、安全防禦模型構建與演化等研究方向上。將博弈論的思想應用到網絡攻擊和防禦中,為解決最優防禦決策等難題研究提供了一種新思路。

新“三十六計”之入侵容忍防禦

打造網絡空間安全 “最後一道防線”

網絡空間面臨的威脅很多是不可預見、無法抗拒和防不勝防的,防護再好也不能完全避免系統失效甚至崩潰的發生。傳統的可靠性理論和容錯計算技術難以滿足實際需要,這就不得不思考比單純防護更全面、更深層次的問題。在此背景下,新一代入侵容忍防禦愈發受到重視。

入侵容忍是第三代網絡安全技術,隸屬於信息生存技術的範疇,被稱作是網絡空間安全防禦“最後一道防線”。與傳統網絡安全防禦思路不同,入侵容忍防禦承認脆弱點的存在,並假定其中某些脆弱點可能會被攻擊者利用而使系統遭到攻擊。防護目標在受到攻擊甚至某些部分已被破壞或被操控時,防護目標系統可以像壁虎一樣“斷尾求生”,完成目標系統的癒合和再生。

入侵容忍技術不再以“防”為主,而是重在系統已遭破壞的情況下如何減少損失,盡快恢復。但入侵容忍畢竟是一個新興研究領域,其成本、代價、效益等將是下一步的研究方向。

Original Referring URL:  http://www.81.cn/jskj/2016-08/11/

Core Task of The Chinese Military Winning Localized War under Conditions of Informationization // 打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭是軍隊核心任務

Core Task of The Chinese Military Winning Localized War under Conditions of Informationization //

打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭是軍隊核心任務

2009/01/08 Article source: Liberation Army Daily

Focusing on local wars under the conditions of informatization and vigorously strengthening preparations for military struggle is a successful experience and an important guiding method for army building and a major strategic task for our military. Strategic tasks are numerous. In accordance with the established decision-making arrangements of the Central Military Commission, the People’s Army has made strides toward preparing for a new journey in military struggle.

Take the road of military struggle and prepare for rational development

New China has gone through nearly 60 years of history. For decades, the country once had a strong enemy and a crisis, but it has always stood firm and unyielding. There are many successful experiences. One important one is to prepare for a comprehensive and solid military struggle. It can be said that it is precisely with the people’s army “always ready” that it has built the steel great wall of the motherland’s security, safeguarded the happiness and tranquility of the people, and guaranteed the prosperity and development of the economy and society. Looking back on the stormy journey of preparations for military struggles for decades, behind the glory of achievements, we must also clearly see places that are not scientific enough. For example, many units are preparing for military struggles, overemphasizing specific threats in guiding ideology, relying too much on “situational stimuli”, causing the level of combat readiness to be weak and strong, and the construction of combat effectiveness to be high and low. The preparation for military struggle has not maintained autonomous and healthy. development of.

When things happen, things change, things change. At present, the preparations for military struggle are standing at a new historical starting point. The national security situation has undergone complex and profound changes. On the one hand, the traditional security threats and non-traditional security threats we are facing are increasing. The world’s major powers are increasingly competing in geostrategic competition around the country. The political situation in neighboring countries continues to be turbulent, and there are many hidden dangers in the regional security environment. The domestic separatist forces and their activities are rampant, the instability and uncertainties affecting national security are increasing, and the preparations for military struggle are facing unprecedented challenges. On the other hand, international unilateralism is frustrated, and the financial crisis has delayed global hegemonic expansion. The situation has been significantly eased, my main strategic direction has eased, and the preparations for military struggle are facing unprecedented opportunities. This opportunity is both strategic and historical. How to seize the opportunity, use the opportunity, and take advantage of the momentum is a realistic proposition that needs to be answered in preparation for the current military struggle. After 30 years of reform and development, our military has undergone a qualitative leap, with more comprehensive and informatized units, more technologically intensive and quality-efficiency features, and a wealth of achievements and advances in military struggle preparation. basic condition. Entering the new stage of the new century, President Hu focused on the special requirements of the party for national defense and army building, and endowed the military with the historical mission of “providing three to provide and play one”, emphasizing that “our army must enhance its ability to win local wars under conditions of informationization.” At the core, we are constantly improving our ability to respond to multiple security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks.” This series of major strategic ideas has adjusted the basic point of preparation for military struggle and expanded the task of preparing for military struggle. The establishment of this important guiding principle of the scientific concept of development puts forward higher requirements for the pursuit of military struggle, and is based on comprehensive, coordinated, sustainable development and people-oriented standards. There are still many ideas that need liberation, and many jobs. Innovation is needed and many aspects need to be improved.

In order to advance the preparations for military struggle under the new situation, we must seek changes based on the situation and make decisions based on the situation, and base ourselves on a new starting point for new development. We should strengthen preparations based on threats, strengthen all-round “threat awareness” and “enemy feelings”, fully recognize the grim reality that war is not far away and not only one, and unswervingly push forward preparations for military struggle. The task of the military should be based on the preparation of the task. The fundamental task of the army is to fight and prepare for war. You can not fight for a hundred years, but you can’t relax for a moment. You must comprehensively and systematically advance the preparations for military struggle in accordance with the standards for effectively fulfilling its functional mission. Based on the ability to prepare for the situation, jump out of the passive emergency preparedness mode led by the enemy, actively design the future war, plan and plan to improve the ability to deal with multiple security threats, complete diversified military tasks, and steadily and scientifically advance the preparations for military struggle.

Breaking through key points to improve the quality of military struggle preparation

Without a focus, there is no strategy, and without a focus, it is difficult to break through. Making full use of the important strategic opportunity period and grasping the key content to seek breakthroughs is not only an objective requirement to follow the inherent laws of military struggle preparation, but also an urgent need to comprehensively improve the actual combat capability of the troops.

As the most basic practical activity of the armed forces in peacetime, military training is the basic way to generate and develop combat power and is the most direct and effective preparation for military struggle. It is necessary to further raise the awareness of the importance of military training, effectively put military training in a strategic position, and truly form a new upsurge in the military training and vigorously promote the transformation of training. We should seize the key link in the formation of joint training, strengthen joint consciousness, improve joint quality, improve joint training regulations, improve joint training mechanism, and promote military training from form to substance. Training should be carried out in a complex electromagnetic environment as an important entry point and grasper, actively explore effective methods of organizing command training, combat technical countermeasures training and weaponry operation and use training, and accelerate the military training under the conditions of mechanization under military training conditions. change. We should use the mission subject training as a carrier to actively construct a battlefield environment that is close to actual combat, and explore the main methods of confrontation training, field training and base training, simulation training, and network training, with the test of truth, difficulty, and reality. Standards, taking the test, comparison, and pull as the practical training path of the implementation mechanism, enhance the effectiveness of training. Non-war military operations training should be actively carried out to improve the professional skills of non-war military operations and enhance the ability of the troops to complete diversified military missions.

Man is the most active and active element among the elements of combat effectiveness. Talent preparation is the most important and arduous preparation in the preparation for military struggle. The victory of the war depends on the battlefield, but the link that determines the outcome is in the usual competition, the focus of which is talent. At present, the key is to highlight the two “strategic graspers” of joint operational command talents and high-level professional and technical personnel, and to promote and promote the overall development of the talent team’s capacity building. Highlight the training of joint operations command personnel, focus on establishing and improving the training mode for commanders at the strategic level, focus on improving the training system for joint operations personnel, reform the content and methods of joint operations, increase the rotation and cross-training of commanding officers, and intensify joint operations. Strengthen emergency response and improve the relevant measures. Highlight the cultivation of high-level professional and technical personnel. In accordance with the principle of focusing on the key points, taking into account the general, grasping the leading, and driving the whole, we will focus on cultivating scientific and technological leaders who can organize major projects in interdisciplinary fields, and can guide the promotion of academic and technological innovation and development of top-notch talents, and can solve the complex technical support of equipment. The technical experts of the puzzles provide strong intellectual support for the construction of information technology.

The speed of the soldiers is the iron law of war guidance. Under the conditions of informationization, the “speed advantage” is emphasized. Rapid response capability has become an important indicator of the level of combat readiness and actual combat capability of an army. A sensitive and efficient emergency command mechanism should be improved. On the basis of summarizing the practical experience of our military in completing various military tasks in recent years, we will do a good job in solidifying and transforming relevant results, establish an emergency mechanism, improve laws and regulations, improve institutional setup, formulate response plans, and organize relevant training to ensure that once something happens. Quick response, efficient command, and correct action. An advanced and reliable command information system should be established. According to the requirements of good interoperability, responsiveness, security and confidentiality, and information sharing, an information network with vertical and horizontal to the edge and a comprehensive and simple command system are established, relying on information technology to improve emergency command and rapid response capability. Grasp the characteristics of strategic investment capacity building, focus on the development of strategic transport aircraft (ships), military helicopters and new types of aircraft, take into account the construction of traffic battlefields, explore the establishment of a smooth and efficient command and management mechanism, and promote the strategic transport capacity building as a whole.

Security is also a fighting force. Any combat action in modern warfare is a systemic confrontation, and the requirements for comprehensive guarantees are getting higher and higher. To advance preparations for military struggle, it is necessary to comprehensively improve the comprehensive support capabilities such as operational support, logistics support, and equipment support. Our military has always paid attention to the coordination and promotion of combat forces and the construction of combat support forces. The support capabilities of reconnaissance and early warning, command and communication, surveying and mapping, meteorological and hydrological, and engineering defense have all been simultaneously improved. However, with the development of the situation and the continuous expansion of the battlefield space, the battle support capability system has begun to appear a new “short board”, which must be completed as soon as possible to form the overall advantage of the joint operations of the full-dimensional battlefield. The focus of logistics support is to improve the level of modernization. In accordance with the requirements of the development of the times, we will steadily implement the logistics reform, and promote the security system to the integration, the security mode to the socialization, the security means to the informationization, the logistics management to the scientific transformation, and promote the sound and rapid development of logistics. The focus of equipment support is to strengthen supporting construction. Improve the ability of independent innovation, accelerate the development of new weapons and equipment, and continuously optimize the structure of our military’s weapons and equipment. Pay attention to equipment system support, system support and support construction, improve equipment serialization, generalization, and standardization level, gradually promote equipment into system to form combat capability and support capability, and accelerate the establishment of weapons and equipment for military-civilian integration and military integration. Scientific research and production system and maintenance guarantee system, further improve the way of military and civilian integration and development of equipment.

Adhere to scientific development and innovation, preparation for military struggle

To advance the preparations for military struggle at a new starting point, we must adhere to the scientific development concept as a guide, and effectively use the way of thinking that meets the requirements of the times to explore the development path for the preparation of innovative military struggles.

Continue to emancipate the mind and advance the preparations for military struggle in the tide of military reform. The deeper the preparations for military struggle, the more deep-seated contradictions and problems that touch on development concepts, institutional mechanisms, policies and systems, and the greater the difficulty of advancing. The fundamental way to solve these problems lies in continuing to emancipate the mind and deepen the reform of national defense and army building. The strategic goal of the military reform is to build an information-based army and win an information-based war. This is consistent with the basic point of preparation for military struggle. Preparation for military struggle is the leader and traction of military reform. Military reform is an important content and optimization condition for military struggle preparation. The two goals are consistent and mutually reinforcing. Therefore, in order to advance the preparations for military struggle under the new situation, we must combine the promotion of national defense and military reform, take the improvement of combat effectiveness as the starting point and the foothold of reform, unify the reform thinking with combat effectiveness standards, measure reform measures, test the effectiveness of reforms, and promote reforms. Preparation for military struggle.

Strengthen scientific co-ordination and coordinate the preparations for military struggle in the process of military modernization. The modernization of the military is a big system, and the preparation for military struggle is the key to taking the initiative and moving the whole body. When the military struggle is ready, it will provide clear and specific needs for the overall development of our military’s modernization drive, provide a real grasp and form a huge traction force. We must stand at the height of the overall development of the military’s modernization drive, effectively coordinate the relationship between the primary and secondary, far and near, construction and use, turn the process of preparation for military struggle into a process of strengthening the modernization of the military, and transform the process of military modernization. In order to serve the military struggle preparation process, the two will promote each other and coordinate development.

Adhere to information-led and innovate to advance military struggle preparations in the transformation of combat capability generation mode. At present, information technology is profoundly changing the combat generation model, and it is also changing all aspects of army building. To advance the preparations for military struggle, we must be keenly adapted to this new situation, take the initiative to jump out of the mechanized mindset, strengthen the information-led concept, focus on relying on scientific and technological progress to improve combat effectiveness, and explore innovative military concepts, military technology, military organizations, and military that meet the requirements of informationized warfare. Management, focus on improving the level of informationization of military personnel training, weapon and equipment development, and the best combination of man and weapon, accelerate the transformation of military training, gradually establish an effective mechanism for the formation and improvement of new combat capabilities, and promote the preparation of military struggle to achieve a qualitative leap.

Highlight the actual combat and accelerate the preparation of military struggles in completing various military tasks. Practice tells us that no matter how the international situation evolves, how the military’s functional mission expands, and how diversified military tasks are, it is always the top priority of our military to contain wars, win wars, and maintain peace. Local war is always the core task of our army. Only with the core military capabilities and a diversified military mission can there be a solid foundation. We must always put the core military capabilities at the forefront, aim at the fundamental functions and promote comprehensive preparations, and do more preparations without “single-on-one”, sorting preparations rather than “one size fits all”, deep preparations instead of “surfaced”, and efforts to make troops Ability to adapt to various conditions, respond to various situations, and complete diverse military tasks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

以打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭為重點,大力加強軍事鬥爭準備,是軍隊建設的一條成功經驗和重要指導方式,是我軍一項重大的戰略任務。戰略任務重千鈞。人民軍隊按照中央軍委既定的決策部署,向著軍事鬥爭準備新征程闊步邁進。

走軍事鬥爭準備理性化發展之路

新中國走過近60年曆程。幾十年來,國家一度強敵環伺、危機四伏,卻始終屹立不屈,不斷生息壯大。成功的經驗有很多,很重要的一條就是靠全面紮實的軍事鬥爭準備。可以說,正是有了人民軍隊“時刻準備著”,才鑄就了祖國安全的鋼鐵長城,守護了人民群眾的幸福安寧,保障了經濟社會的繁榮發展。回顧幾十年軍事鬥爭準備的風雨征程,在成績的榮耀光環背後,我們也要清醒看到不夠科學的地方。比如不少單位抓軍事鬥爭準備,在指導思想上過於強調具體威脅,過度依賴“情況刺激”,造成戰備水平忽強忽弱,戰鬥力建設忽高忽低,軍事鬥爭準備沒有保持自主、健康地持續發展。

時異則事移,事異則備變。當前,軍事鬥爭準備又站在了一個嶄新的歷史起點上。國家安全形勢發生復雜深刻變化,一方面,我們面臨的傳統安全威脅和非傳統安全威脅都在增加,世界主要大國在我周邊地緣戰略競爭不斷加劇,周邊國家政局持續動盪,地區安全環境存在諸多隱患,國內民族分裂勢力及其活動猖獗,影響國家安全的不穩定、不確定因素增多,軍事鬥爭準備面臨前所未有的挑戰;另一方面,國際上單邊主義受挫,金融危機拖延了全球霸權擴張,台海形勢明顯緩和,我主要戰略方向壓力有所減輕,軍事鬥爭準備面臨前所未有的機遇。這個機遇既是戰略性的,也是歷史性的。怎樣抓住機遇、用好機遇、乘勢推進,是當前軍事鬥爭準備需要回答的現實命題。經過30年改革發展,我軍建設出現質的跨越,部隊合成化、信息化程度更高,科技密集型、質量效能型特徵更加明顯,軍事鬥爭準備有了可資利用的豐富成果和推進躍升的基礎條件。進入新世紀新階段,胡主席著眼黨對國防和軍隊建設的特殊要求,賦予軍隊“三個提供、一個發揮”的歷史使命,強調“我軍必須以增強打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭能力為核心,不斷提高應對多種安全威脅、完成多樣化軍事任務的能力”。這一系列重大戰略思想,調整了軍事鬥爭準備的基點,拓展了軍事鬥爭準備的任務內容。科學發展觀這一重要指導方針的確立,對軍事鬥爭準備提出了好中求快的更高要求,按照全面、協調、可持續發展和以人為本的標準來衡量,還有很多思想需要解放,很多工作需要創新,很多方面需要提高。

新形勢下推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須因勢求變、因情定策,立足新的起點,謀求新的發展。應基於威脅抓準備,強化全方位的“威脅意識”和“敵情觀念”,充分認清戰爭並不遙遠且不只一種的嚴峻現實,堅定不移地推進軍事鬥爭準備。應基於任務抓準備,軍隊的根本任務是打仗和準備打仗,仗可以百年不打,但準備一刻也不能放鬆,必須按照有效履行職能使命的標準,全面系統地推進軍事鬥爭準備。應基於能力抓準備,跳出被敵情牽著走的被動應急準備模式,主動設計未來戰爭,有規劃有計劃地提高應對多種安全威脅、完成多樣化軍事任務能力,穩步科學地推進軍事鬥爭準備。

以重點突破提高軍事鬥爭準備質量

沒有重點就沒有戰略,沒有重點就難以突破。充分利用重要戰略機遇期,抓住重點內容謀求突破,既是遵循軍事鬥爭準備內在規律的客觀要求,更是全面提高部隊實戰能力的迫切需要。

軍事訓練作為和平時期軍隊最基本的實踐活動,是戰鬥力生成和發展的基本途徑,是最直接、最有效的軍事鬥爭準備。必須進一步提高對軍事訓練重要性的認識,切實把軍事訓練擺到戰略位置,真正在部隊形成大抓軍事訓練、大力推進訓練轉變的新高潮。應抓住聯合訓練這個戰鬥力生成的關鍵環節,強化聯合意識,提高聯合素質,健全聯訓法規,完善聯訓機制,推動軍事訓練從形式到實質的聯合。應以復雜電磁環境下訓練為重要切入點和抓手,積極探索組織指揮訓練、戰技術對策研練和武器裝備操作使用訓練的有效辦法,加速推進機械化條件下軍事訓練向信息化條件下軍事訓練轉變。應以使命課題訓練為載體,積極構設近似實戰的戰場環境,探索以對抗訓練、野戰化訓練和基地化訓練、模擬化訓練、網絡化訓練等為主要方式,以真、難、實為檢驗標準,以考、比、拉為落實機制的實戰化訓練路子,增強訓練實效。應積極開展非戰爭軍事行動訓練,提高部隊遂行非戰爭軍事行動專業技能,增強部隊完成多樣化軍事任務的能力。

人是戰鬥力諸要素中最積極、最活躍的要素,人才准備是軍事鬥爭準備中最重要、最艱鉅的準備。戰爭勝負決於戰場,但決定勝負的環節卻在平時的競爭之中,其中的重點就是人才。當前,關鍵是要突出聯合作戰指揮人才和高層次專業技術人才兩個“戰略抓手”,牽引和推動人才隊伍能力建設的整體發展。突出聯合作戰指揮人才培養,重點建立健全戰略戰役層次指揮員培養提高模式,圍繞完善聯合作戰人才培訓體系、改革聯合作戰教學內容和方法、加大指揮軍官崗位輪換和交叉培訓力度、加緊聯合作戰指揮人才應急培訓等,加強和完善有關措施。突出高層次專業技術人才培養。按照突出重點、兼顧一般、抓住龍頭、帶動整體的原則,重點培養能夠跨學科領域謀劃組織重大項目攻關的科技領軍人才、能夠指導推進學術技術創新發展的學科拔尖人才、能夠解決裝備技術保障複雜難題的技術專家人才,為信息化建設提供強有力的智力支撐。

兵貴神速是戰爭指導的鐵律,信息化條件下更強調“速度優勢”。快速反應能力已成為衡量一支軍隊戰備水平和實戰能力的重要標誌。應健全靈敏高效的應急指揮機制。在總結梳理近年我軍完成多樣化軍事任務實踐經驗的基礎上,抓好相關成果的固化和轉化,建立應急機制,健全法規制度,完善機構設置,制定應對預案,組織相關研練,確保一旦有事能快速反應、高效指揮、正確行動。應建立先進可靠的指揮信息系統。按照互操作性好、反應靈敏、安全保密和信息共享的要求,建立縱向到底、橫向到邊的信息網絡和綜合一體、層級簡捷的指揮系統,依靠信息技術提高應急指揮與快速反應能力。把握戰略投送能力建設的特點規律,重點發展戰略運輸機(艦)、軍用直升機和新型航行器,統籌考慮交通戰場建設,探索建立順暢高效的指揮管理機制,整體推進戰略輸送能力建設。

保障也是戰鬥力。現代戰爭中的任何一次作戰行動,都是體系的對抗,對綜合保障的要求越來越高。推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須全面提高作戰保障、後勤保障和裝備保障等綜合保障能力。我軍歷來注重協調推進作戰力量與作戰保障力量建設,偵察預警、指揮通信、測繪導航、氣象水文、工程防化等保障能力總體實現了同步提高。但隨著形勢的發展變化和戰場空間的不斷拓展,作戰保障能力體系開始出現新的“短板”,必須盡快補齊,以形成全維戰場的聯合作戰整體優勢。後勤保障重點是提高現代化水平。按照時代發展要求,穩步實施後勤改革,將保障體制向一體化推進、保障方式向社會化拓展、保障手段向信息化邁進、後勤管理向科學化轉變,推動後勤建設又好又快發展。裝備保障重點是加強配套建設。提高自主創新能力,加快新型武器裝備建設發展,不斷優化我軍武器裝備結構體系。注重裝備的體系配套、系統配套和保障配套建設,提高裝備系列化、通用化、標準化水平,逐步推進裝備成系統成建制形成作戰能力和保障能力,加快建立軍民結合、寓軍於民的武器裝備科研生產體系和維修保障體系,進一步完善軍民融合發展裝備的路子。

堅持科學發展創新軍事鬥爭準備路徑

在新的起點上推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須堅持以科學發展觀為指導,切實運用符合時代要求的思維方式,探索創新軍事鬥爭準備的發展路徑。

繼續解放思想,在軍隊改革大潮中整體推進軍事鬥爭準備。軍事鬥爭準備越深入,觸及發展理念、體制機制、政策制度等方面的深層次矛盾和問題就越多,推進的難度也越大。解決這些問題的根本出路,在於繼續解放思想、深化國防和軍隊建設改革。軍隊改革的戰略目標是建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭,這與軍事鬥爭準備的基點是一致的。軍事鬥爭準備是軍隊改革的龍頭和牽引,軍隊改革則是軍事鬥爭準備的重要內容和優化條件,二者目標一致、互為促進。因此,新形勢下推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須與推進國防和軍隊改革結合起來,把提高戰鬥力作為改革的出發點和落腳點,用戰鬥力標準統一改革思想,衡量改革措施,檢驗改革成效,在改革中推進軍事鬥爭準備。

加強科學統籌,在軍隊現代化建設進程中協調推進軍事鬥爭準備。軍隊現代化建設是個大系統,軍事鬥爭準備則是牽一發而動全身的關鍵。軍事鬥爭準備做好了,就能為我軍現代化建設整體發展提供明確具體的需求,提供實實在在的抓手,形成巨大的牽引力量。必須站在軍隊現代化建設發展全局的高度,切實統籌好主與次、遠與近、建與用等關係,把軍事鬥爭準備的過程變成加強軍隊現代化建設的過程,把軍隊現代化建設的過程變成服務軍事鬥爭準備的過程,使二者互為促進,協調發展。

堅持信息主導,在戰鬥力生成模式轉變中創新推進軍事鬥爭準備。當前,信息技術正在深刻改變著戰鬥力生成模式,也在改變著軍隊建設的方方面面。推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須敏銳地適應這個新形勢,主動跳出機械化思維定勢,強化信息主導觀念,注重依靠科技進步提高戰鬥力,探索創新適應信息化戰爭要求的軍事理念、軍事技術、軍事組織和軍事管理,著力提高軍事人才培養、武器裝備發展、人與武器最佳結合的信息化水平,加快推進軍事訓練轉變,逐步確立新型戰鬥力生成與提高的有效機制,推動軍事鬥爭準備實現質的躍升。

突出實戰牽引,在完成多樣化軍事任務中加速推進軍事鬥爭準備。實踐告訴我們,無論國際局勢如何演變、軍隊的職能使命如何拓展、多樣化軍事任務多麼繁重,遏制戰爭、打贏戰爭、維護和平始終是我軍職能的重中之重,打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭永遠是我軍的核心任務。只有具備了核心軍事能力,完成多樣化軍事任務才有堅實基礎。必須始終把提高核心軍事能力放在首要位置,瞄準根本職能推進全面準備,做到多手準備而不“單打一”,分類準備而不“一刀切”,深入準備而不“表面化”,努力使部隊具備適應各種條件、應對各種情況、完成多樣化軍事任務的能力。 (趙立德)

Original Referring URL:  http://www.china.com.cn/military/txt/2009-01/08/

Maintaining Chinese Cyber & Network Security Launching the People’s Fifth Space War //维护中國网络安全,打响第五空间人民战争

Maintaining Chinese Cyber & Network Security Launching the People’s Fifth Space War

//维护中國网络安全,打响第五空间人民战争

President Xi clearly pointed out at the symposium on cybersecurity and informatization: “Network security is for the people, network security depends on the people, and maintaining network security is the common responsibility of the whole society. It requires the government, enterprises, social organizations, and the majority of netizens to participate together. Network security defense. ” 
Maintening China’s network security is an important measure to coordinate and promote the comprehensive construction of a well-off society, comprehensively deepen reforms, comprehensively govern the country according to law, and comprehensively and strictly manage the party’s strategic layout. It is to achieve the goal of “two hundred years” and achieve The important guarantee for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream of the Chinese nation.Please pay attention to the report of the “Liberation Army Daily” today –

 

Breaking through the online and offline boundaries, the security situation is severe and complicated

An inconspicuous “worm” has caused an uproar in the world – in May this year, cyberattacks initiated by criminals through tampering with the “eternal blue” program in the National Security Agency arsenal made most of Europe Countries and regions have successively recruited and affected important infrastructures including government, banks, power systems, communication systems, energy companies, airports, and other computer systems in many hospitals in the United Kingdom, resulting in some patients not being able to undergo surgery in time.

Behind this ransomware incident is the escalating confrontational conflict in cyberspace. Zhao Zhiguo, director of the Network Security Administration of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said that only this year, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology organized the industry forces and coordinated the handling of many attacks against the network and important systems, covering viruses, Trojans, vulnerabilities, traffic attacks and other types, involving network infrastructure public. Systems, important information systems and terminals. “It can be said that cyberattacks are still in a high-risk situation, showing that the threshold is constantly decreasing, the objects are more extensive, and the means are more diverse.”

The data shows that as of the first half of this year, the number of Internet users in China reached 751 million, and the Internet penetration rate reached 54.3%. “When the scale of the Internet is getting bigger and bigger, the challenges facing network security are becoming more and more serious.” In the view of Wu Jianping, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a professor at Tsinghua University, the field of network security is constantly expanding. From a global perspective, the threat of cyberattacks is infiltrating into the industrial Internet sector, and industrial Internet security incidents are frequent. In December 2015, a large-scale organized and premeditated directed cyber attack in Ukraine caused a continuous power outage in nearly one-third of the territory. At present, the key infrastructure of various countries has become the target of cyber attacks. Once attacked, it will cause immeasurable damage to national security and social stability.

“The tentacles of cyber attacks extend to all aspects of society, and they are highly integrated online and offline. Network security is becoming the core issue of global security.” Zhou Hongyi, chairman of Qihoo 360, believes that after more than 20 years of development, the Internet is no longer An industry that is increasingly integrated with society as a whole. Coupled with the development of the Internet of Things, the Internet of Vehicles, and the Industrial Internet, the boundaries between the real physical world and the virtual world of the Internet are broken, and the online and offline are integrated. In this context, the attacks in the online world begin to spread to our real world. .

To be sure, the forms of cyber attacks are diverse and complex, and the cyber security situation is still grim. Global cybersecurity has gradually entered a era of security involving national security, national defense security, social security, industrial security, infrastructure security and even personal security.

There is no battlefield for smoke, and cyber war has never died.

There is a term in the software development industry called “Thousand Line Code Defect Rate”, which means the vulnerability rate in a thousand lines of code. There is probably a vulnerability in every thousand lines of code in most software companies. According to calculations, the code size of the most commonly used Windows operating system is about 50 million lines, and the Android system is about 12 million lines. The loopholes can be imagined.

“There are only two systems in the world, one is a system that has been known to be broken, and the other is a system that has been broken but not yet known.” The first US Army commander Alexander at the 2015 China Internet Security Conference The speech was impressive, and his point was that there was no safe system in front of the attackers.

“Any network system in the real world, even if the design is more sophisticated, the structure is more complicated, there will be loopholes without exception.” Zhou Hongyi pointed out that the 360 ​​community patching vulnerability response platform discovered more than 80,000 holes a year. These vulnerabilities may become the soft underbelly of the system suffering from cyber attacks.

The 360 ​​Threat Intelligence Center found that among the many advanced sustainable threats they monitored, the attackers had mostly infiltrated or lurked for a long time and concealed themselves through various means.

There are examples to prove. The Bushehr nuclear power plant, located 100 kilometers south of the Iranian capital Tehran, was a secret target guarded by the National Defence Force. In July 2010, it was attacked by a new type of network virus called “Seismic Network”. The 8000 centrifuges working in the nuclear power plant suddenly In the event of a failure, computer data was lost in a large area, and thousands of units were physically damaged. In 2014, internal documents of two nuclear power plants in South Korea were leaked, including personal information of nearly 10,000 employees of nuclear power plants, operating instructions for nuclear power plants, air conditioning and cooling systems. Design drawings, valve design drawings, etc. A US government report said that since May this year, hackers have been infiltrating the computer networks of US nuclear power plants and other energy equipment companies.

Unlike traditional warfare, which has a clear beginning and end, cyber warfare is constantly being declared. In this sense, the world has entered the era of cyber warfare. On the battlefield where there is no smoke, the planes and artillery that people paid attention to in the past have disappeared, and the new network virus has already appeared on the scene.

“The cyberattacks on critical infrastructure can even surpass the war in the traditional sense. It is almost impossible for nuclear states to use nuclear weapons, but cyber attacks are currently close to being unconstrained.” Cyberspace Security and Security Liu Weijun, a professor at the Center for Rule of Law, said that even worse than the destruction of the Ukrainian power system, nuclear power plants were attacked, directly threatening national security.

Relying on the people is the key path to building a network power

In September this year, with the theme of “Network Security for the People, Network Security Relying on the People”, a feature film “Fifth Space” became popular.

“People are always the most important factor. Network security is not a matter of purchasing and deploying a batch of network security equipment and stacking some products. It also requires a large number of professionals to analyze, judge, respond and dispose of.” Zhou Hongyi said It is necessary to play every network user so that everyone can actively play their role.

It is understood that since 2014, China has continuously held national network security publicity activities, popularized network security knowledge, strengthened network security education, and promoted a good atmosphere in which the whole society attaches importance to network security. “National cybersecurity propaganda should enhance the awareness of cyber security among all people, pay attention to the improvement of cyber security prevention capabilities, and let the broad masses of people have the awareness and ability to maintain their own network security. They can use the network like water, electricity, and fire. Qin An, director of the China Cyberspace Strategy Institute and director of the Internet Policy and Law Research Center of Tianjin University, said that cybersecurity depends on the people. Only relying on the people is the key path to building a network power.

“To maintain network sovereignty, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of defense forces in cyberspace and enhance the self-defense capabilities of cyberspace.” Qin An pointed out that the “Network Security Law” was officially implemented on June 1 this year, and one of its core objectives is to maintain cyber sovereignty. At the same time, the “International Cooperation Strategy for Cyberspace” promulgated on March 1 this year, in the third chapter of the strategic objectives to maintain sovereignty and security, for the first time to define the national definition of defensive forces in cyberspace, the construction of cyberspace defense forces as China’s national defense and military modernization Important content of construction.

The national defense white paper “China’s Military Strategy” clearly states that it is necessary to speed up the construction of cyberspace forces, improve the cyberspace situational awareness, cyber defense, support national cyberspace struggles and participate in international cooperation, curb major cyberspace crisis, and safeguard national networks and Information security, safeguarding national security and social stability.

Safety is the premise of development, and development is the guarantee of security. Building a network power, the nation’s awareness of improving network security is the foundation. At present, China is accelerating its march from a big network country to a network power. More than 1.3 billion Chinese people really enjoy the new achievements brought about by the development of the Internet. For the realization of the goal of “two hundred years”, the strategy of network power will play a role. More and more important support.

Construct an unbreakable security line

■ Li Yang

In the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, President Xi proposed to strengthen the application of basic research, expand the implementation of major national science and technology projects, highlight key common technologies, leading-edge technologies, modern engineering techniques, and subversiveness. Technological innovation provides strong support for building a strong country in science and technology, a country with strong quality, a strong country in space, a network power, a powerhouse, a digital China, and a smart society. Among them, the strategy of network power is once again mentioned, exciting and inspiring. In line with the development trend of the times, comprehensive maintenance of cyberspace security is the only way to build a network power.

The Cong listened to the silence, and the Ming was seen in the shape. With the rapid development of the information revolution, the network space consisting of the Internet, communication networks, computer systems, automation control systems, digital devices and their applications, services and data has profoundly affected the historical development of human society and comprehensively changed people’s production. lifestyle. Especially in the current global economic integration and internationalization of professional division of labor, cyberspace security is characterized by soft activity, border flexibility, diversification of means, domain widening and diversification of power, and is increasingly expanding to The mixed complex confrontation between the state, the military, and various purpose-oriented organizations and individuals implies a mixed risk of defamation of productivity, culture, and combat effectiveness.

The person in charge of the relevant department of the Central Network Office said that the five years since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China was the fastest five years of cyberspace security development and five years of brilliant achievements in the field of cyberspace security. The “China Internet Station Development Status and Safety Report (2017)” shows that the tampering websites and government websites in China fell by 31.7% and 47.9% respectively last year. The overall level of government website security protection has been greatly improved; DDoS attacks of more than 1G have dropped by 60%.

The results are gratifying, but they should also be soberly aware that there are still many problems in the actual work that cannot keep up with the ideological concepts, and that there are consensuses that are difficult to implement. The implementation of cyberspace security measures is not in place or even “hanging the gap”. Cyberspace security is a holistic security. If a link is broken, it may lead to the collapse of the entire network. We can’t be lucky and slack, we must start from the various aspects of technology, equipment, personnel, management, etc., and build and deploy according to the road map of “laying up positions, deploying capabilities, and forming systems”. Practice, actively discover vulnerabilities, eliminate potential threats, continuously improve the security of cyberspace, and achieve new developments at a new starting point.

The construction of cyberspace security is a long-term, complex system engineering, which is not easy to beat and drum. To achieve this goal, there is not only a slap in the face, but also the tenacity of “do not relax”. It must be step by step, gradually promoted and implemented. Only in this way can we build an unbreakable security line.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习主席在网络安全和信息化工作座谈会上明确指出:“网络安全为人民,网络安全靠人民,维护网络安全是全社会共同责任,需要政府、企业、社会组织、广大网民共同参与,共筑网络安全防线。”
维护我国网络安全,是协调推进全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党战略布局的重要举措,是实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的重要保障。请关注今日《解放军报》的报道——

维护网络安全,打响第五空间人民战争

■何楚洋

突破线上线下界限,安全形势严峻复杂

一只不起眼的“蠕虫”,竟然在全球引起了轩然大波——今年5月,由不法分子通过篡改美国国家安全局武器库中的“永恒之蓝”程序而发起的网络攻击,使大多数欧洲国家和地区相继中招,波及到包括政府、银行、电力系统、通信系统、能源企业、机场等重要基础设施,如英国多家医院的电脑系统瘫痪,导致部分病人无法及时接受手术。

这起勒索病毒事件的背后,是网络空间日益升级的对抗冲突。工信部网络安全管理局局长赵志国表示,仅今年工信部就组织行业力量,相继协调处置多起针对网络和重要系统的攻击事件,涵盖病毒、木马、漏洞、流量攻击等多种类型,涉及网络基础设施公共系统、重要信息系统和终端。“可以说网络攻击仍处于高发态势,呈现出门槛不断降低,对象更加广泛,手段更加多样。”

数据显示,截至今年上半年,我国网民规模达7.51亿,互联网普及率达54.3%。“当互联网的规模越来越大,网络安全面临的挑战也是日趋严峻的。”在中国工程院院士、清华大学教授吴建平看来,网络安全的领域正在不断延伸。从全球角度来看,网络攻击威胁正向工业互联网领域渗透,工业互联网安全事件频发。2015年12月,乌克兰发生了一次影响巨大的有组织、有预谋的定向网络攻击,致使乌境内近三分之一的地区持续断电。目前各国的关键基础设施已成为网络攻击的对象,一旦被攻击导致瘫痪,将给国家安全、社会稳定造成不可估量的伤害。

“网络攻击的触手延伸到社会各个方面,线上与线下高度融合,网络安全正在成为全球安全的核心问题。”奇虎360公司董事长周鸿祎认为,经过20多年的发展,互联网已经不再是一个行业,它与整个社会的结合越来越紧密。加上现在物联网、车联网、工业互联网的发展,真实物理世界和网络虚拟世界的界限被打破,线上线下连成一体,在这样的背景下,网络世界的攻击开始蔓延到我们的真实世界。

可以肯定的是,网络攻击形式多样复杂,网络安全形势依然严峻,全球网络安全逐渐进入到涉及国家安全、国防安全、社会安全、产业安全、基础设施安全甚至人身安全的大安全时代。

没有硝烟的战场,网络战从未偃旗息鼓

软件开发行业里有个名词,叫“千行代码缺陷率”,意思是一千行代码中的漏洞率。绝大部分软件公司的每一千行代码就有可能存在一个漏洞。据计算,最常使用的Windows操作系统的代码量是5000万行左右,安卓系统大概是1200万行,其中的漏洞可想而知。

“世界上只有两种系统,一种是已知被攻破的系统,一种是已经被攻破但自己还不知道的系统。”美国首任网军司令亚历山大在2015年的中国互联网安全大会上的发言让人印象深刻,他的观点是,在攻击者面前,没有任何安全的系统。

“现实世界中的任何网络系统,即使设计再精巧,结构再复杂,无一例外都会有漏洞。”周鸿祎指出,360社区补天漏洞响应平台一年发现的漏洞数就超过了8万个。这些漏洞,都有可能成为系统遭受网络攻击的软肋。

360威胁情报中心发现,他们监测到的多个高级可持续威胁事件中,攻击者大都已经渗透或者潜伏了很长时间,并且通过各种手段隐匿自己。

有例为证。位于伊朗首都德黑兰以南100公里的布什尔核电站是由国防军守卫的机密目标,在2010年7月被一种名为“震网”的新型网络病毒侵害,核电站里正在工作的8000台离心机突然出现故障,电脑数据大面积丢失,上千台被物理性损毁;2014年,韩国2座核电站的内部文件遭到泄露,包括核电站近万名员工的个人信息、核电站程序运行说明、空调和冷却系统设计图、阀门设计图等。美国政府的一份报告称,自今年5月以来,黑客一直在渗透美国核电站和其他能源设备公司的计算机网络。

不同于传统战争有明显的开始和结束,网络战时时刻刻都在不宣而战。从这层意义上说,全世界已经进入网络战时代。而在这片不见硝烟的战场上,过去人们关注的飞机、大炮不见踪影,新型的网络病毒就已经粉墨登场了。

“对关键基础设施的网络攻击,其破坏效果甚至能超越传统意义上的战争。有核国家几乎不可能动用核武器,但是网络攻击在目前却接近于不受任何约束。”公安大学网络空间安全与法治协创中心教授刘为军表示,与乌克兰的电力系统遭到破坏相比,更可怕的是核电站遭到攻击,直接威胁着国家安全。

依靠人民,才是建设网络强国关键路径

今年9月,以“网络安全为人民,网络安全靠人民”为主题的第四届网络安全周上,一部专题片《第五空间》迅速走红成为人们热议的焦点。

“人永远是最重要的因素,网络安全不是购买并部署一批网络安全设备、堆砌一些产品就能防得住的,还需要大量的专业人员来做分析、研判、响应和处置。”周鸿祎说,要把每一个网络用户发挥起来,让每一个人都能积极发挥自己的作用。

据了解,我国自2014年起,开始连续举办国家网络安全宣传活动,普及网络安全知识,加强网络安全教育,推动形成全社会重视网络安全的良好氛围。“国家网络安全宣传要在提升全民网络安全意识的同时,重视网络安全防范能力的提升,让广大人民群众既有意识又有能力维护自身网络安全,能够像用水、用电、用火一样用好网络。”中国网络空间战略研究所所长、天津大学互联网政策与法律研究中心主任秦安表示,网络安全依靠人民,只有依靠人民,才是建设网络强国关键路径。

“维护网络主权,就要加强网络空间国防力量建设,提升网络空间的自卫能力。”秦安指出,《网络安全法》于今年6月1日起正式实施,其核心目标之一就是维护网络主权。同时,今年3月1日颁布的《网络空间国际合作战略》在第三章战略目标维护主权与安全部分,首次明确网络空间国防力量的国家定义,将网络空间国防力量建设作为我国国防和军队现代化建设的重要内容。

国防白皮书《中国的军事战略》明确提出,要加快网络空间力量建设,提高网络空间态势感知、网络防御、支援国家网络空间斗争和参与国际合作的能力,遏控网络空间重大危机,保障国家网络与信息安全,维护国家安全和社会稳定。

安全是发展的前提,发展是安全的保障。建设网络强国,全民提升网络安全意识是基础。当前,我国正在加速从网络大国向网络强国迈进,13多亿中国人民实实在在享受到互联网发展带来的新成果,为着“两个一百年”奋斗目标的实现,网络强国战略将发挥着越来越重要的支撑作用。

构筑牢不可破的安全防线

“善其谋而后动,成道也。”习主席在党的十九大报告中提出,加强应用基础研究,拓展实施国家重大科技项目,突出关键共性技术、前沿引领技术、现代工程技术、颠覆性技术创新,为建设科技强国、质量强国、航天强国、网络强国、交通强国、数字中国、智慧社会提供有力支撑。其中,网络强国战略再次被提及,令人振奋,鼓舞人心。顺应时代发展趋势,全面维护网络空间安全,就是建设网络强国的必由之路。

聪者听于无声,明者见于未形。伴随信息革命的飞速发展,由互联网、通信网、计算机系统、自动化控制系统、数字设备及其承载的应用、服务和数据等组成的网络空间,深刻影响人类社会历史发展进程,全面改变人们的生产生活方式。尤其是在当前全球经济一体化、专业分工国际化的大环境下,网络空间安全呈现出活动软性化、边境弹性化、手段多样化、范畴全域化和力量多元化的特征,并且日益扩展为国家、军队及各种目的性组织和个人之间的混合复杂对抗,蕴含着毁瘫生产力、文化力、战斗力的混合风险。

中央网信办相关处室负责人表示,党的十八大以来的五年,是网络空间安全发展最快的五年,也是网络空间安全领域取得辉煌成绩的五年。《中国互联网站发展状况及其安全报告(2017)》显示,去年我国境内被篡改网站与政府网站分别下降31.7%和47.9%。政府网站安全防护水平整体得到了很大提高;1G以上DDoS攻击事件下降60%。

成绩固然喜人,但也应当清醒地看到,实际工作中还存在着思想观念跟不上、有共识难落实等诸多问题,网络空间安全措施执行不到位甚至“挂空挡”情况依然存在。网络空间安全,是整体性安全,一个环节被攻破,就可能导致全网的崩溃。我们不能心存侥幸和懈怠,必须扎扎实实地从技术、装备、人员、管理等各个环节入手,按“布设阵地、配置能力、形成体系”的路线图进行建设和部署,真刀真枪地开展演练,主动发现漏洞,消除潜在威胁,不断提升网络空间安全保障能力,在新的起点上实现新发展。

网络空间安全的构建是一项长期、复杂的系统工程,绝非敲锣打鼓、轻轻松松实现的。实现这一目标,既少不了一鸣惊人的霹雳手段,更需要有“咬定青山不放松”的韧劲,必须一步一个脚印,逐步推进,落地落实。惟有如此,才能构筑牢不可破的安全防线。

Original referring URL:  http://www.81.cn/jskj/2017-11/29/

What is the main reason for US military network warfare? // 美军网络战主要干什么?

What is the main reason for US military network warfare? //

美军网络战主要干什么?

Source: PLA Daily Author: Chen Hanghui Editor: Yao Yuan

Recently, the US military has been “big move” in the field of cyber warfare. On October 24th, the US Department of Defense announced in a high-profile manner that the network task force directly under the US Cyber ​​Command has the initial operational capability to perform basic cyber warfare tasks. From wielding the “cyber weapon stick” to the announcement of major progress in the construction of network forces, the United States intends to send a message to the outside world – the US military has basically built a network warfare power system and strives for the hegemonic position of the “fifth space.”

Strategic guidance –

Create a network action force system

As the creator of the Internet, the US military was the first to plan the formation of a cyber warfare army. As early as 1995, the US National Defense University trained 16 network warriors who relied on computers for information confrontation. From the development history of the past 20 years, strengthening strategic guidance and doing a good overall planning is a basic experience for the rapid development of the US military’s cyber warfare forces.

In 2002, the then President Bush signed the “National Security Order No. 16” and asked the Ministry of Defense to take the lead in formulating a cyberspace action strategy. In December of the same year, the US Navy took the lead in setting up the Cyber ​​Command, and the Air Force and the Army also quickly followed up to form a service network force. In March 2005, the US Department of Defense issued the “Defense Strategy Report,” which defined the strategic position of cyberspace and characterized it as the fifth-dimensional space that is as important as land, sea, air, and sky. The development of US cyber warfare forces is ushered in. The first wave of climax. In general, in the early stage of development, although the development speed of the US military’s cyber warfare forces was fast, it lacked overall planning, and the various military cyber warfare units were stacked in flames and failed to form a joint force.

After President Obama, who relied on the Internet to win the general election, took the stage, he focused on strengthening the strategic guidance for cyber warfare capacity building from two aspects. On the one hand, in May 2010, the network headquarters of the entire army was established to coordinate the cyber warfare forces of various services and strengthen the command and control of cyberspace operations. On the other hand, in 2011 and 2015, two strategic reports, the Cyberspace Action Strategy and the DoD Network Strategy, were launched. The former explained the five pillars of the US military’s cyberspace operations, and the latter clarified the mission of cyber warfare forces. Mission and construction goals.

At present, the US military cyber warfare power system has basically taken shape. At the heart of the system is a network mission force directly under the US Cyber ​​Command, which plays a key role in the US cyber warfare operations. As of the end of October 2016, the number of US military network task forces has reached 5,000, and all of the 133 network task forces compiled have initial operational capabilities, of which nearly half have full operational capabilities. According to the US Department of Defense program, by September 30, 2018, the number of network missions will increase to 6,187, with full operational capability.

Practical traction –

Conduct cyberspace attack and defense drills

In recent years, as cyber warfare has moved from behind the scenes to the front of the stage as an independent warfare style, the US military’s cyberspace action strategy has shifted from “precaution-based” to “attack and defense”, and improving the cyberspace combat capability has become the focus of the US military. At present, the US military mainly promotes network training under actual combat conditions from four aspects.

Open online courses according to actual needs and lay a solid foundation for cyber warfare skills. In response to the new situation in the field of cyberspace, the US military major military academies have added online courses. In 2012, the US Air Force Ordnance Academy launched its first offensive cyber action course, focusing on how to combine network capabilities with traditional combat methods. In 2014, West Point Military Academy established the Army Cyber ​​Warfare Academy to train network elites. In the past few years, military colleges such as the West Point Military Academy and the Naval Academy have conducted network offensive and defensive drills with the “Red Cell” team composed of experts from the US National Security Agency to cultivate the backbone of future cyber warfare.

Develop a general-purpose network warfare training platform to improve the comprehensive benefits of training. At the Department of Defense, led by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the “National Network Shooting Range” was developed to simulate the cyberspace attack and defense operational environment, test network weaponry, and test new operational concepts. At the military level, a virtual environment was developed that could serve as a network range or test platform for testing, planning, and evaluating cyberspace operations. For example, the network virtual city built by the US Air Force can be used to conduct network attack and defense tactics; the naval development of the “tactical network shooting range” can extend network training to the radio frequency physical environment, achieving efficient integration of joint firepower and information advantages.

Conduct integrated network warfare exercises to improve the actual combat capability of network forces. In early 2016, the US Department of Defense’s Office of Combat Test and Evaluation recommended in a report to Congress that, in view of the fact that the US military will perform its tasks under the violent confrontation of cyberspace, it should regularly organize network offensive and defensive units and combat units to jointly conduct operations. drill. Since the beginning of this year, the US Army has conducted a number of exercises using network squadrons such as “Network Exploration” and “Network Flash Battle”, focusing on the actions of network detachments to support combat troops under field conditions. In April of this year, the US Army’s 25th Infantry Division and the 7th Communications Command Network Protection Brigade jointly held a “Network Flash Battle” exercise to test the feasibility of multi-sectoral interdisciplinary collaboration such as communication, network, and firepower.

Organize comprehensive cyber war exercises to strengthen military and network joint network operations capabilities. The US military believes that “the strategic war in the industrial era is a nuclear war, and the strategic war in the information age is mainly a cyber war.” Only by implementing the overall network war of the military and the land can we win the future cyber war. Since 2012, the US Army Network Command has jointly led the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to jointly organize a “Network Guardian” military joint exercise to strengthen information sharing between the US Department of Defense and other federal government agencies and private companies. In the “Network Guardian-2016” exercise held in June this year, more than 100 organizations and more than 800 organizations from government, academia, industry and allies participated in the exercise, focusing on the response to large-scale blackouts, oil refinery oil spills, and ports. Close other network attack scenarios.

Built with one –

Exploring the use of network forces

The United States was the first country to propose the concept of cyber warfare and the first country to use cyber forces for actual combat. As early as 2007, the National Security Agency used computer viruses to infect militants’ mobile phones and laptops, deceiving the enemy by sending false information, and even introducing the enemy into the US ambush to assist the US military in its operations.

After the establishment of the network mission force in 2012, in order to maintain the first-mover advantage in the field of cyberspace, the US military has followed the principle of “building and using, building and integrating” and actively explored and promoted the operational use of network forces. At the end of 2012, the US Army Network Command took the lead in deploying a network mission detachment with full operational capabilities at the Central Command to support US military operations in Syria and Iraq. In October 2015, US Naval Network Task Force Commander Paul Nakaso revealed at the seminar of the Center for Strategic and International Studies that although it had not yet been formed, the network task force had begun to participate in actual military operations. According to reports, from January to October 2015, the US military network task force participated in seven major military operations.

In April this year, under the direction of Defense Minister Carter, the US Cyber ​​Command publicly announced a cyberattack against the “Islamic State” terrorist organization and became the “first show” of the US military network forces. In the course of the operation, the US military network forces focused on the communication network, publicity websites, and social networking websites of the “Islamic State”, and downgraded the information, issued instructions, recruited new people, and paid electronic payments through network downgrades and false orders. ability.

With the increasingly prominent role of cyberspace operations in US military joint operations, the US military has focused on the construction of the network force command and control architecture. After the completion of the US Cyber ​​Command in 2010, the US Army, Sea, and Air Forces established the Service Network Command. In May 2012, the US military formed a “Joint Network Center” at each theater headquarters to serve as a link between the theater command and the US Cyber ​​Command to better use the network mission force to support theater operations. At present, the US military executives are actively promoting the upgrading of the Cyber ​​Command to an independent combatant command. Once this vision becomes a reality, the command relationship of the US military network forces will be clearer and the chain of command will be more efficient.

(Author: Nanjing Army Command Academy) 

Picture: Yang Lei

Original Mandarin Chinese:

近段時間,美軍在網絡戰領域“大招”頻出。 10月24日,美國國防部高調宣布,直屬於美國網絡司令部的網絡任務部隊已具備初始作戰能力,能夠執行基本的網絡戰任務。從揮舞“網絡武器大棒”到公佈網絡部隊建設重大進展,美國意在向外界傳遞一個訊息——美軍已基本建成網絡戰力量體系,全力謀求“第五空間”的霸權地位。

戰略引導——

打造網絡行動力量體系

作為互聯網的締造者,美軍是最早籌劃組建網絡戰部隊的軍隊。早在1995年,美國國防大學就培養了16名依托計算機從事信息對抗的網絡戰士。從過去20年的發展歷程看,強化戰略指導、搞好統籌規劃是美軍網絡戰力量快速發展的一條基本經驗。

2002年,時任總統布什簽署“國家安全第16號總統令”,要求國防部牽頭制定網絡空間行動戰略。同年12月,美國海軍率先成立網絡司令部,空軍和陸軍也迅速跟進,組建軍種網絡部隊。 2005年3月,美國國防部出台《國防戰略報告》,明確了網絡空間的戰略地位,將其定性為與陸、海、空、天同等重要的第五維空間,美軍網絡戰力量發展迎來第一波高潮。總體而言,在發展初期,美軍網絡戰力量發展速度雖快,但缺乏統籌規劃,各軍種網絡戰部隊煙囪林立,未能形成合力。

依靠互聯網贏得大選的奧巴馬總統上台後,重點從兩方面強化對網絡戰能力建設的戰略引導。一方面,於2010年5月建成統管全軍的網絡司令部,統籌各軍種網絡戰力量,強化網絡空間行動指揮控制。另一方面,分別於2011年和2015年推出《網絡空間行動戰略》和《國防部網絡戰略》兩份戰略報告,前者闡述了美軍網絡空間行動的五大支柱,後者明確了網絡戰力量的使命任務和建設目標。

目前,美軍網絡戰力量體系已基本成型。位於該體系中心的是直屬於美國網絡司令部的網絡任務部隊,其在美軍網絡戰行動中扮演關鍵角色。截至2016年10月底,美軍網絡任務部隊人數已達5000人,編制的133個網絡任務組全部具備初始作戰能力,其中近一半具備了完全作戰能力。根據美國國防部計劃,到2018年9月30日,網絡任務部隊規模將增至6187人,具備完全作戰能力。

實戰牽引——

開展網絡空間攻防演練

近年來,隨著網絡戰作為獨立作戰樣式從幕後走向台前,美軍網絡空間行動策略由“以防為主”向“攻防兼備”轉變,提升網絡空間實戰能力成為美軍的練兵重點。當前,美軍主要從4方面推進實戰條件下的網絡訓練。

根據實戰需求開設網絡課程,打牢網絡戰技能基礎。為應對網絡空間領域新情況,美軍各大軍事院校紛紛增設網絡課程。 2012年,美國空軍軍械學院首次開設進攻性網絡行動課程,重點講授如何將網絡能力與傳統戰斗方式有機結合;2014年,西點軍校成立了陸軍網絡戰研究院,負責培養網絡精英。過去幾年,西點軍校、海軍軍官學院等軍事院校每年都會與由美國國家安全局專家組成的“紅細胞”隊進行網絡攻防演練,培養未來的網絡戰骨幹力量。

開發通用型網絡戰訓練平台,提高訓練綜合效益。在國防部層面,由國防高級研究項目局牽頭,開發了“國家網絡靶場”,用於模擬網絡空間攻防作戰環境,測試網絡武器裝備,檢驗新型作戰概念。在軍種層面,研發了可作為網絡靶場或測試平台的虛擬環境,用於測試、規劃和評估網絡空間行動。例如,美國空軍打造的網絡虛擬城市,可用於演練網絡攻防戰術;海軍開發的“戰術網絡靶場”可以將網絡訓練拓展到射頻物理環境,實現聯合火力與信息優勢的高效集成。

開展集成性網絡戰演練,提升網絡部隊實戰能力。 2016年初,美國國防部作戰測試與評估辦公室在向國會提交的一份報告中建議,考慮到美軍將在網絡空間領域激烈對抗的條件下執行任務,應定期組織網絡攻防部隊和作戰部隊聯合開展作戰演練。今年以來,美國陸軍已開展“網絡探索”“網絡閃擊戰”等多場運用網絡分隊的演習,重點演練網絡分隊在野戰條件下支援作戰部隊的行動。今年4月,美國陸軍第25步兵師和第7通信司令部網絡防護旅聯合舉行了“網絡閃擊戰”演習,檢驗了通信、網絡、火力等多部門跨專業協同的可行性。

組織綜合性網絡戰演習,強化軍地聯合網絡行動能力。美軍認為,“工業時代的戰略戰是核戰爭,信息時代的戰略戰主要是網絡戰”,只有實施軍地聯合的網絡總體戰,才能打贏未來網絡戰爭。 2012年以來,美軍網絡司令部每年都與國土安全部和聯邦調查局聯合牽頭組織“網絡衛士”軍地聯合演習,以便加強美國國防部與其他聯邦政府機構和私營企業之間的信息共享。在今年6月舉行的“網絡衛士-2016”演習中,來自政府、學界、業界和盟國的100多個組織、800多人參加了演習,重點演練了應對大面積停電、煉油廠漏油、港口關閉等網絡襲擊場景。

建用一體——

探索網絡部隊作戰運用

美國是第一個提出網絡戰概念的國家,也是第一個將網絡部隊用於實戰的國家。早在2007年,美國國家安全局就曾使用電腦病毒感染武裝分子的手機和筆記本電腦,通過發送虛假信息欺騙敵方,甚至將敵引入美軍埋伏圈,協助美軍開展行動。

2012年開始組建網絡任務部隊後,為保持在網絡空間領域的先發優勢,美軍遵循“邊建邊用、建用一體”的原則,積極探索和推進網絡部隊的作戰運用。 2012年底,美軍網絡司令部率先在中央司令部部署擁有完全作戰能力的網絡任務分隊,支持美軍在敘利亞和伊拉克的軍事行動。 2015年10月,美軍網絡任務部隊指揮官保羅·納卡索在參加戰略與國際研究中心研討會時透露,雖然尚未組建完畢,但網絡任務部隊已經開始參與實際軍事行動。據報導,僅2015年1月至10月,美軍網絡任務部隊就參與了7次重大軍事行動。

今年4月,在國防部長卡特的授意下,美國網絡司令部公開宣布對“伊斯蘭國”恐怖組織發動網絡攻擊,成為美軍網絡部隊的“首秀”。行動中,美軍網絡部隊以“伊斯蘭國”組織的通信網絡、宣傳網站、社交網站賬號為主要目標,通過網絡降級、發布虛假指令等方式,削弱其傳遞信息、下達指示、招募新人和電子支付等能力。

隨著網絡空間作戰在美軍聯合作戰中的作用日益突出,美軍重點推進了網絡部隊指揮控制架構建設。 2010年建成美國網絡司令部後,美國陸、海、空三大軍種相繼成立了軍種網絡司令部。 2012年5月,美軍在各戰區總部組建“聯合網絡中心”,作為連接戰區司令部與美國網絡司令部的紐帶,以便更好地使用網絡任務部隊支援戰區作戰。當前,美軍高層正積極推動將網絡司令部升格為獨立的作戰司令部,一旦該設想成為現實,美軍網絡部隊的指揮關係將更加清晰,指揮鏈運轉將更加高效。

(作者單位:南京陸軍指揮學院)

圖片資料:楊 磊

Referring URL:  http://www.81.cn/jskj/2017-03/

China analysis for winning mechanisms of victory on the cyberspace battlefield // 中國對網絡空間戰場胜利機制的分析

China analysis for winning mechanisms of victory on the cyberspace battlefield //

中國對網絡空間戰場胜利機制的分析

2017年04月17日 15:xx:xx

If the First World War was a chemist’s war and the Second World War was a physicist’s war, then the 21st century war would undoubtedly become a game between informatics. The cyberspace war has moved from the background to the front. From the supporting role to the protagonist, become a new battlefield and combat platform. With the gradual emergence of the cyber warfare deterrent effect, countries have introduced network strategies and formed “cyber warfare forces”. The global network arms race has shown its tempo. At present, more than 20 countries have established “cyber warfare forces”. Committed to the application of network technology to war, the “seismic network” incident and the “hacker door” incident fully proved the remarkable power of cyber warfare in the new generation of war mode.

    We must profoundly understand the new forms of war reflected by these events and actively respond to the threats and challenges brought by cyber sovereignty, network defense, network frontiers, and cyber warfare, because whoever masters the new war winning mechanism will be able to Win the initiative in the round of war.

Network Sovereignty: A New Dimension

  

  The world today is moving rapidly toward informationization, and cyberspace has become the “fifth largest territory” beyond land, sea, air and sky. The original sovereignty is the sovereignty of physical space, while the network sovereignty is the sovereign space of network electromagnetic space; national sovereignty is a concept that expands with the expansion of human activity space. Network sovereignty is a new content and an important part of national sovereignty.

    (1) Cyber ​​sovereignty has become the “commanding height” of national sovereignty. The network carries a large amount of content such as politics, economy, military, culture, transportation and social, and becomes the basic platform for the efficient operation and accelerated progress of the entire society. Once the cyber sovereignty is lost, the network public opinion orientation will be out of control. The national industrial, transportation, energy and other national economic lifeline industry control systems and military information networks will be out of control, just as sea power challenges land rights and air rights challenges sea power and land rights. The latecomers of cyber sovereignty have become the “commanding heights” of national sovereignty, directly affecting the security and stability of all areas of the country.

    (2) The violation of cyber sovereignty will directly affect the “heart” of the country. Compared with traditional physical space, the existence and defense of cyberspace sovereignty is not only easily overlooked, but also vulnerable to violations. The network hinges the information nodes on the earth that are thousands of miles apart. Through it, it can be easily and easily moved from one country to the heart of another country to the heart. A keystroke can surround the Earth for two weeks in a period of 0.3 seconds, and the attack is difficult to locate.

    (3) The use of “combination boxing” is required to defend the cyberspace sovereignty. In the Google turmoil in 2010, the Chinese government categorically rejected Google’s request for “freedom” beyond Chinese legal management, which is a firm defense of cyber sovereignty. For any violation of the cyber sovereignty of our network, we must not only resist and counterattack in the cyberspace, but also play a “combination boxing” of politics, economy, and diplomacy to counterattack if necessary.

Network Frontiers – A New Border of National Security

    China’s Internet users have reached 731 million. In this context, the network frontier far surpasses the status of the Great Wall in history and has become an important “warning line” for national security in the information age.

    (1) Fully recognize the “new situation” of the network frontier. The first is the lack of network protection awareness among the people. Many systems have the same firewall, the network security problem is serious, and the cyber crime is increasing. Secondly, the network security products and security equipment in key areas rely on imports. The mainstream firewall technology and anti-virus technology are mostly from abroad, and they can control themselves independently. The lack of high-tech network security products; the third is that as China is increasingly connected to the world, the introduction of technology and equipment network remote services increases, the foreign party can monitor the operation and production of the equipment in real time, making me “portal opening”; finally In actual network operations, Western network powers monopolize a large number of network resources. For example, most of the world’s online information comes from or passes through the United States.

    (2) Accurately define the “new boundary” of cyberspace. On the one hand, we must correctly understand the essential meaning of the network frontier. A country’s network infrastructure, state-specific Internet domain names and their domains, as well as financial, telecommunications, transportation, energy and other national core network systems in the national economy and the people’s livelihood should be regarded as an important part of the national network frontier, and no vandalism is allowed. On the one hand, we must correctly understand the importance of guarding the network frontier. Watching the network frontier is actually an authorization relationship, that is, it must meet the requirements and be allowed to enter. Otherwise, it cannot enter. For example, national financial, power, transportation and other systems of protection measures, firewalls and bank card cryptosystems are the “watchers” of the network frontier.

    (3) Focus on creating a “new sword” that guards the frontiers of the network. The frontiers of guarding the network must be supported by powerful technical means. Various firewalls, cryptosystems, etc. are equivalent to building thick lines on the frontiers of the network, but this is not enough to resist external “invasion”, but also requires “patrol sentinels” and “frontier forces” to detect “intrusion” in a timely manner. In 2003, the US Einstein Plan for monitoring abnormal traffic at government agencies and institutional networks was the world’s first intrusion detection system. By the end of 2008, the Einstein system had been deployed in 600 government agency website systems, forming an intrusion detection system that supports dynamic protection.

Network Defense – The New Great Wall of National Defense

    Sovereignty without armed protection is a fragile sovereignty, and frontiers without defense and defense are endangered frontiers. Therefore, people have a strong sense of border defense, coastal defense, and air defense.

    (1) Firmly establishing a network defense concept is a “premise.” The countries of the world, especially the western developed countries, have not only woke up early, got up early, but also ran fast in the construction of network defense. Among them, the United States is both the creator of the Internet and the country that first paid attention to the construction of network security protection. The United States not only took the lead in formulating a series of policy documents such as the National Strategy for Ensuring Cyberspace Security, but also established a strong “net army” and a strong network defense.

    (2) Vigorously building the network’s national defense force is a “trend.” The United States, Britain, Japan, Russia and other countries, as well as Taiwan, have formed cyber warfare units and command agencies. Strengthening the construction of cyber security forces and improving the national cyber defense capabilities are both the general trend and the successful practices of all countries in the world. They are also an urgent task for safeguarding China’s national security.

    (III) Overall planning of network defense construction is “key”. The overall strategic concept should be proposed for the current cyberspace struggle, and the “three hands” should be highlighted in the top-level design: that is, to compete as a “flag-bearer” in public opinion, to select “hands-on” in the construction focus, and to stay on the struggle strategy. There is a “backhand”.

Cyber ​​Warfare: A New Battlefield for the Game of Great Powers

    In today’s world, the globalization of network battlefields, the normalization of network attack and defense, and the white-hotness of network attacks have made it possible to scientifically and effectively control cyberspace and occupy cyberspace, and become a new battlefield for strategic games of big countries.

    The first is to regard the cyberspace situational awareness as the core of the power system. The four capabilities of “network security, situational awareness, network defense, and network deterrence” are the core capabilities for comprehensively promoting the construction of the cyberspace capability system. The war first requires the commander to grasp and understand the enemy’s and his own situation, make correct decisions based on the real-time situation, and the ever-changing characteristics of the network situation determine the success or failure of the network operation. Therefore, network situational awareness has become the primary capability of the cyberspace combat confrontation system.

    The second is to use offensive operations as the main way to seize the initiative of cyberspace. The US military has strategically considered the cyberspace attacks as aggression in real space and has been attacked by the military. At present, the US military has built 100 teams to operate in cyberspace. In cyberspace operations, the offensive and defensive subjects have a certain degree of separation, and the offensive and defensive effects have asymmetry. The key to seizing the initiative in cyberspace operations is to use the offensive action to contain enemy attacks and ensure my stability.

    The third is to establish a cyberspace defense force system with national co-ordination and military-civilian integration. To attack and defend, not to ignore the defense. Therefore, in accordance with the idea of ​​“optimizing the overall existing strength, developing the gap to fill the gap, and building a new mechanism to protect the forces”, the company will build a professional, support and reserve based on the requirements of “moderate scale, structural optimization, integration of technology and warfare, and complementary functions”. The new cyberspace security defense force system composed of other forces will enhance the national network counterattack capability and form a network deterrent. (Li Yiyang: School of Secondary School Affiliated to Renmin University of China; Li Minghai: Deputy Director, Network Space Research Center, National Defense University) 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

如果說第一次世界大戰是化學家的戰爭,第二次世界大戰是物理學家的戰爭,那麼,21世紀的戰爭無疑將成為信息學家之間的博弈,網絡空間戰已從後台走向前台,從配角轉向主角,成為新的戰場和作戰平台隨著網絡戰威懾效果的逐步顯現,各國紛紛出台網絡戰略,組建“網絡戰部隊”,全球網絡軍備競賽呈燎原之勢 – 目前已有20多個國家組建了“網絡戰部隊”,各國都致力於將網絡技術運用於戰爭“震網”事件,“黑客門”事件充分證明了網絡戰在新一代戰爭模式中的顯著威力。

我們必須深刻認識這些事件所折射出來的新的戰爭形態,積極應對網絡主權,網絡國防,網絡邊疆,網絡戰爭帶來的威脅和挑戰,因為,誰掌握新的戰爭制勝機理,誰就能在下一輪戰爭中贏得主動。

網絡主權 – 國家主權的新維度

當今世界正在向著信息化快速邁進,網絡空間成為繼陸,海,空,天之外的“第五大疆域”原有的主權均為物理空間的主權,而網絡主權是網絡電磁空間主權。國家主權是一個隨著人類活動空間的拓展而不斷拓展的概念,網絡主權是國家主權的全新內容和重要組成部分。

(一)網絡主權已成為國家主權的“制高點”。網絡承載了政治,經濟,軍事,文化,交通和社交等大量內容,成為整個社會高效運轉和加速進步的基本平台。一旦喪失網絡主權,網絡輿情導向將會失控,國家工業,交通,能源等國民經濟命脈行業控制系統和軍事信息網絡都將會失控,如同海權挑戰陸權,空權挑戰海權與陸權一樣,網絡主權後來者居上,成為國家主權的“制高點”,直接影響國家各領域的安全穩定。

(二)網絡主權的侵犯將直逼國家的“心臟”。與傳統實體空間相比,網絡空間主權的存在與捍衛不僅易被忽視,而且易遭侵犯。網絡把地球上相距萬里的信息節點鉸鏈為一體,通過它可以悄無聲息,輕而易舉地從一國進入另一國腹地直至心臟部位。一次擊鍵0.3秒時間內即可環繞地球兩週,而且,攻擊很難被定位。

(三)捍衛網絡空間主權需用“組合拳”。2010年谷歌風波中,中國政府斷然拒絕谷歌要求超越中國法律管理的“自由”,就是對網絡主權的堅決捍衛。對於任何侵犯我網絡主權的行為,不僅要在網絡空間予以抵制和反擊,必要時還可打出政治,經濟,外交等“組合拳”給予還擊。

網絡邊疆 – 國家安全的新邊界

中國網民已達7.31億,在這個背景下,網絡邊疆遠超歷史上萬里長城的地位,成為信息時代國家安全的重要“警戒線”。

(一)充分認清網絡邊疆的“新形勢”首先是民眾缺乏網絡防護意識,很多系統的防火牆形同虛設,網絡安全問題嚴重,網絡犯罪日益增加;其次是網絡安全產品和關鍵領域安全設備依賴進口,主流防火牆技術和殺毒技術大都來自國外,自主可控,高技術含量的網絡安全產品匱乏;第三是隨著我國日益與世界接軌,引進技術設備的網絡遠程服務增加,外方能實時監控設備運轉和生產情況,令我自身“門戶洞開”;最後是在實際網絡運營上,西方網絡大國壟斷著大量網絡資源,比如,全球大多數網上信息發自或經過美國。

(二)準確界定網絡空間的“新邊界”。一方面,要正確理解網絡邊疆的本質內涵。一個國家的網絡基礎設施,國家專屬的互聯網域名及其域內以及金融,電信,交通,能源等關係國計民生領域的國家核心網絡系統都應視為國家網絡邊疆的重要組成部分,不允許肆意破壞;另一方面,要正確認識值守網絡邊疆的重要性值守網絡邊疆,其實是一種授權關係,即必須符合要求,得到允許才能進入,否則,不能進入。比如,國家金融,電力,交通等系統的防護措施,防火牆以及銀行卡密碼系統等都是網絡邊疆的“值守者”。

(三)著力打造守護網絡邊疆的“新利劍”。守護網絡邊疆必須以強大的技術手段為支撐。各種防火牆,密碼系統等相當於在網絡邊疆上建起了粗線條的籬笆,但這不足以抵禦外來“入侵”,還需要“巡邏哨兵”和“邊防部隊”及時檢測“入侵”行為。2003年,美國用於監測政府部門和機構網絡關口非正常流量的“愛因斯坦計劃”,就是世界上第一個入侵檢測系統。到2008年年底,愛因斯坦系統已部署在600個政府機構網站系統中,形成了一個支撐動態保護的入侵檢測系統。

網絡國防 – 國家防禦的新長城

沒有武裝保護的主權是脆弱的主權,沒有國防捍衛的邊疆是瀕危的邊疆。因此,人們才產生了強烈的邊防,海防,空防意識。

(一)牢固樹立網絡國防理念是“前提”。世界各國,尤其是西方發達國家在網絡國防建設上,不僅醒得早,起得早,而且跑得快。其中,美國既是互聯網的締造者,也是最早關注網絡安全防護建設的國家。美國不僅率先制定了“確保網絡空間安全的國家戰略”等一系列政策文件,而且建立了強大的“網軍”和強大的網絡國防。

(二)大力建設網絡國防力量是“勢趨”。美國,英國,日本,俄羅斯等國以及中國台灣地區,紛紛組建了網絡戰部隊和指揮機構。加強網絡安全力量建設,提高國家網絡防衛能力,這既是大勢所趨,也是世界各國的成功做法,更是維護我國國家安全的一項緊迫任務。

(三)整體統籌網絡國防建設是“關鍵”應針對當前網絡空間鬥爭實際提出總體戰略構想,並在頂層設計上突出“三手”:即在輿論造勢上爭當“旗手”,在建設重點上選好“抓手”,在鬥爭策略上留有“後手”。

網絡戰爭 – 大國博弈的新戰場

當今世界,網絡戰場的全球化,網絡攻防的常態化,網絡攻心的白熱化等突出特點,使得科學高效地管控網絡空間,佔領網絡空間,成為大國戰略博弈的新戰場。

一是把網絡空間態勢感知能力作為力量體系建設核心。“網絡安全保障,態勢感知,網絡防禦,網絡威懾”四大能力,是全面推進網絡空間能力體系建設的核心能力。戰爭首先需要指揮員能夠掌握和理解敵方,己方態勢,根據實時態勢作出正確決策,網絡態勢瞬息萬變的特點決定了網絡作戰的成敗。因此,網絡態勢感知能力就成為網絡空間作戰對抗體系的首要能力。

二是將攻勢作戰作為奪取網絡空間主動權的主要方式。美軍在戰略上已將網絡空間的攻擊行為視為現實空間的侵略行為,並予以軍事打擊。目前美軍已建成100個小組在網絡空間活動。網絡空間作戰,攻防主體具有一定的分離性,攻防效果具有不對稱性。奪取網絡空間作戰的主動權,關鍵在於以攻勢行動遏制敵攻擊,保證我穩定。

三是建立國家統籌,軍民融合的網絡空間防禦力量體系。以攻助防,不是忽視防禦。因此,需要按照“優化整體現有力量,發展填補空白力量,組建新機理防護力量”的思路,依據“規模適度,結構優化,技戰一體,功能互補”的要求,構建由專業,支援和預備役等力量構成的新型網絡空間安全防禦力量體系,提升國家網絡反擊能力,形成網絡威懾力(李昊洋:中國人民大學附屬中學分校;李明海:國防大學網絡空間研究中心副主任)

Original Referring URL:  http://www.cac.gov.cn/2017-04/

Chinese Military Cyber Warfare Capacity Building Achieving Situational Awareness in Cyberspace // 中國軍事網絡戰能力建設在網絡空間實現態勢感知

Chinese Military Cyber Warfare Capacity Building Achieving Situational Awareness in Cyberspace //

中國軍事網絡戰能力建設在網絡空間實現態勢感知

2017/05/20

Cyberspace has become a new territory alongside land, sea, air and space, and it is also the most extensive territory. Since the birth of the computer, computer and network-based information systems have gradually developed, and the software and resources on it have been continuously enriched, eventually forming a network space.

With the continuous development of the US military’s weapons and equipment and combat theory, the “cyberspace warfare” began to move from reality to reality. Compared with the traditional “platform center warfare”, the role of the command and control system “combat multiplier” in “cyberspace warfare” will be more prominent, and the impact on combat will be even greater. In the future modern war, in cyberspace Command and control should have its own characteristics and concerns.

In theory, cyberspace is synonymous with the digital society of all available electronic information and networks. The United States “National Security Presidential Decree No. 45 and General Homeland Security Order No. 23” defines cyberspace as: information technology infrastructure and interdependent networks, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and processors in key industries. And the controller, usually also includes the information virtual environment and the interaction between people.

Cyberspace has four elements: communication devices and lines; computers; software; data communication and resource sharing. Communication equipment and lines: It is one of the infrastructures of network space, including routing/switching equipment, wired/wireless communication equipment, cables, and so on. Computer: One of the infrastructures of cyberspace with computing, storage, and data processing capabilities. Software: It is the core supporting part of cyberspace, and software systems running various functions in communication devices and computers. Data communication and resource sharing: It is the basic capability of cyberspace, providing the required information for users at all levels.

Commanding operations in the vast new territory of cyberspace will inevitably require the linkage of multiple arms and services. First, it should have security protection capabilities, provide multiple levels of security, and secondly must master the battlefield situation. In addition, it must have resource scheduling capabilities, etc. Provide support for integrated joint operations.

Security protection refers to the protection of data in the hardware, software and systems of network systems by using various technologies and management measures so that they are not damaged, falsified or leaked due to accidental or malicious reasons, so that the system can continue Reliable and normal operation, network services are not interrupted.

In the cyberspace command operation, the whole process of generating, storing, transmitting and using all kinds of allegations is faced with one or the other security threats. The traditional form of conflict has been extended to cyberspace.

Security protection technology and attack technology have been developing together. The contest between “spear” and “shield” has existed since ancient times. Although the US military has consistently expressed its position through various channels, it claims that the “core of the US military’s cyberspace operations is to defend against cyberattacks, and defensive capabilities are the basis of all other combat capabilities.” However, a little analysis shows that the US military must achieve this in cyberspace. The goal is to combine attack and defense, build a network deterrent system, and consolidate its own “networking rights” in the military. US Deputy Defense Secretary Lynn has made it clear that the US will retain the right to respond to serious cyber attacks and will make a commensurate and legitimate military response at the time and place we choose. Former Defense Secretary Panetta has pointed out: “Now we live in a completely different world and face the cyberspace attack that can be compared with Pearl Harbor.” “We must be prepared to deal with it. In cyberspace, we have to Have a good network attack and network defense capabilities.” These speeches fully demonstrate that the US military pays attention to the deterrent effect of cyberspace, emphasizes the combination of attack and defense in cyberspace, and takes the initiative to launch cyberattacks when necessary. Its military goal is not only to ensure its own network security, but to discourage by improving its cyber attack capabilities. And deterrence all cyberattacks that are not conducive to oneself, to achieve its absolute freedom, absolute superiority and absolute security in cyberspace.

In the cyberspace, the offensive and defensive drills between the state and the country have never stopped. In July 2008, Russia used a covert injection of attack software to launch a comprehensive cyberattack against Georgia, causing the network to collapse. In December 2011, Iran declared that its “electronic warfare force” used a “hacker hijacking” method to cause an American RQ-170 stealth drone to leave the route and land in Iran. The “super flame” virus discovered in May 2012 spread widely in the Middle East, hiding in the computer and stealing data. In March 2014, the official website of the Russian president suffered a cyber attack. From the previous cyberattacks, the cyber attack is as good as the fire of conventional weapons. The security of cyberspace is the security of the country, and cyberspace has become a space in the field of national sovereignty.

Security protection in cyberspace should employ multiple levels of security mechanisms. At the national strategic level, it is a national-level network security protection; in key areas, there are network security protections in the military, government, and economic fields; in large enterprises, there are network security protections of state-owned and private enterprises and institutions; There are network security protections for individuals and families. Among them, the national level of security protection mainly includes border network security and backbone network security; enterprise-level (and military) security protection mainly includes border network security and intranet security; personal computer security protection mainly includes computer terminal security, terminal software security and terminal Data Security. At different levels of security, the content of protected information varies from national strategic planning to development routes to personal privacy and bank passwords. The leakage of information will undoubtedly have a blow and negative impact on the survival and development of the country, enterprises and individuals, and even undermine the security and stability of the country.

Situational awareness is the perception, understanding and prediction of environmental factors under certain time and space conditions. In 1988, Endsley divided situational awareness into three levels of information processing: perception, understanding, and prediction. In 1999, TimBass first proposed the concept of network situational awareness, and pointed out that “convergence-based network situational awareness” will become the development direction of network management.

“Know yourself and know each other, there is no war.” In the new battle space of cyberspace, how can we be confidant and know each other? It is necessary to grasp the situation of the battlefield and have the ability to sense the situation, that is, to acquire, understand and present the key factors that can cause changes in the state of the enemy and the enemy, and to predict the future development trend.

The battlefield situation in cyberspace has the characteristics of wide coverage, huge amount of information, and extremely complicated conditions. For all levels of commanders, they hope to clearly understand and master the current cyberspace operations from the situation map, so that they can make decisions quickly and issue correct command orders.

To gain insight into the state and situation of cyberspace battlefield development, it must have the ability to collect, transmit, store, monitor, analyze, and present state data. In the key position of the network space, the detection points are laid, the network running status is detected, and the state data is collected. Based on various state data, network posture, security situation, spectrum situation, etc. are formed. Then, it is transmitted to the node with data analysis and processing capability through various communication means to analyze the situation data, including situational integration, situation assessment and situation prediction. The results of the analysis and processing are transmitted to the command posts at all levels, and the battlefield situation is presented to the commanders at all levels in a layered, multi-dimensional, on-demand manner. The basic process of situational awareness is consistent with the traditional approach, but each process is different.

The battlefield situation of cyberspace should be layered, global, and partial, which puts higher demands on the situation. With the continuous development of rendering technology, simple planar situational maps can no longer meet the operational needs, especially in the cyberspace combat environment, the demand for stereoscopic and multidimensional situations is prominent. Even if you are in the command post, the commander should be able to understand the battlefield situation and face the real opponent through the situation map. In the American war movie, you can often see the stereoscopic, touchable electronic sandbox, and the multi-dimensional display of the real-time battlefield situation enables the commanding function to make quick and accurate decisions and improve command and control capabilities. The battlefield environment of cyberspace is extremely complex, network environment, equipment operation, software operation… Many places need to have clear and intuitive display. In order to improve the user experience and shorten the decision time, the cyberspace situation should have multi-dimensional dynamic characteristics, and can support multi-screen display, multi-screen linkage and so on. From the top-level situation map, you can understand the whole picture of the war. From the local situation map, you can understand the status of the combat units at all levels. The commanders at different levels can view different situation maps as needed based on their own authority.

As a new type of combat space, cyberspace has objective differences with traditional physical space, and there are special requirements for command and control of cyberspace. However, cyberspace command and control still faces many other problems, such as how to integrate cyberspace command and control with traditional physical space command and control systems, and how to conduct cyberspace command and control effectiveness evaluation.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡空間已成為與陸地、海洋、空中、太空並列的一片新疆域,也是覆蓋面最廣的疆域。從計算機誕生之日起,以計算機和網絡為基礎的信息系統就逐漸發展起來,其上的軟件和資源也不斷豐富,最終形成了網絡空間。

隨著美軍武器裝備和作戰理論的不斷發展,“網絡空間戰”從設想開始走向現實。與傳統的“平台中心戰”相比,在“網絡空間戰”中指揮控制系統“戰鬥力倍增器”的作用將更加突出,對作戰的影響也更加巨大’在未來的現代化戰爭中,網絡空間中的指揮控制應有它自身的特點和關注點。

從理論上講,網絡空間是所有可利用的電子信息、網絡構成的數字社會的代名詞。美國《第45號國家安全總統令暨第23號國土安全總令》中將網絡空間定義為:信息技術基礎設施和相互依存的網絡,包括互聯網、電信網、電腦系統以及重要產業中的處理器和控制器,通常還包括信息虛擬環境以及人與人之間的互動。

網絡空間具有四個要素:通信設備和線路;計算機;軟件;數據通信與資源共享。通信設備和線路:是網絡空間的基礎設施之一,具體包括路由/交換設備、有線/無線通信設備、線纜等。計算機:是網絡空間的基礎設施之一,具有計算、存儲和數據處理等能力。軟件:是網絡空間的核心支撐部分,通信設備和計算機中均運行著各種功能的軟件系統。數據通信與資源共享:是網絡空間具備的基本能力,為各類各級用戶提供所需的信息。

在網絡空間這一遼闊的新疆域中指揮作戰,必然需要多個軍兵種聯動,首先應當具備安全防護能力,提供多級安全保障,其次必須掌握戰場態勢,另外還必須具有資源調度能力等,能夠為一體化聯合作戰提供支撐。

安全防護是指通過釆用各種技術和管理措施,保護網絡系統的硬件、軟件及系統中的數據,使其不因偶然的或者惡意的原因而遭受到破壞、篡改、洩露,使得系統能夠連續可靠正常地運行,網絡服務不中斷。

網絡空間指揮作戰中,各類指控信息的產生、存儲、傳輸和使用的全過程,均面臨著這樣或那樣的安全威脅,傳統的衝突形式已擴展到網絡空間。

安全防護技術和攻擊技術一直在共同發展著,“矛”與“盾”的較量自古就有。雖然美軍不斷通過各種渠道表態,宣稱美軍網絡空間行動的“核心是防禦網絡攻擊行為,防禦能力是其他一切作戰能力的基礎”,但稍加分析即可看出,美軍在網絡空間要達成的目標是:攻防結合,構建網絡威懾體系,在軍事上鞏固自己的“製網權”。美國國防部副部長林恩曾明確表示,美方將保留回應嚴重網絡攻擊的權利,會在“我們選擇的時間和地點做出相稱且正當的軍事回應”。前任國防部長帕內塔曾指出:“現在我們生活在一個完全不同的世界裡,要面對可與珍珠港比擬的網絡空間攻擊”,“我們必須做好應對準備,在網絡空間,我們要同時擁有良好的網絡進攻與網絡防禦能力”。這些講話充分顯示了美軍注重網絡空間威懾效應、在網絡空間強調攻防結合、必要時不惜主動發動網絡攻擊的心態,其軍事目標絕不僅僅是保證自身網絡安全,而是要通過提升網絡攻擊能力勸阻和威懾所有不利於己的網絡攻擊行為,實現其在網絡空間的絕對自由、絕對優勢和絕對安全。

在網絡空間中,國家與國家之間的攻防演練也從來沒有停止過。 2008年7月,俄羅斯利用攻擊軟件的隱蔽注入,對格魯吉亞實施了全面的網絡攻擊,導致網絡癱瘓。 2011年12月,伊朗宣稱其“電子戰部隊”用“黑客劫持”的方法使得美國的一架RQ-170隱形無人機脫離航線,降落在伊朗境內。 2012年5月被發現的“超級火焰”病毒在中東大範圍傳播,在計算機內隱蔽駐留、竊取數據。 2014年3月,俄羅斯總統官網遭遇網絡攻擊。從歷次的網絡攻擊事件來看,網絡攻擊效果不亞於常規武器的火力打擊。網絡空間的安全,就是國家的安全,網絡空間已成為國家主權領域空間。

網絡空間中的安全防護應採用多級安全保障機制。在國家戰略層面,是國家級網絡安全防護;在關鍵部位,有軍隊、政府、經濟等領域的網絡安全防護;在大型企業中,有國有、私有等企事業單位的網絡安全防護;在局部,有個人、家庭等範圍的網絡安全防護。其中,國家層面的安全防護主要包括邊界網絡安全和骨幹網絡安全;企業級(及軍隊)安全防護主要包括邊界網絡安全和內網安全;個人計算機安全防護主要包括計算機終端安全、終端軟件安全及終端數據安全。在不同的安全級別上,保護的信息內容各不相同,大到國家戰略規劃、發展路線,小到個人隱私、銀行密碼等。信息的洩漏,無疑會對國家、企業、個人的生存和發展帶來打擊和負面影響,甚至會破壞國家的安全和穩定。

態勢感知是在一定的時間和空間條件下,對環境因素的感知、理解以及對其發展趨勢的預測。 1988年,Endsley把態勢感知分為感知、理解和預測三個層次的信息處理。 1999年,TimBass首次提出了網絡態勢感知的概念,並且指出,“基於融合的網絡態勢感知”必將成為網絡管理的發展方向。

“知己知彼,百戰不殆。”在網絡空間這一新型作戰空間中,如何才能做到知己和知彼?必須掌握戰場態勢,具有態勢感知能力,即對能夠引起敵我狀態發生變化的關鍵因素進行獲取、理解和呈現,並能夠預測未來的發展趨勢。

網絡空間中的戰場態勢具有覆蓋面廣、信息量巨大、情況異常複雜等特點。對於各級指揮員來說,都希望能夠從態勢圖上清晰地了解和掌握當前網絡空間作戰狀況,以便能夠快速地進行決策,下達正確的指揮作戰命令。

要洞察網絡空間戰場發展的狀態和形勢,必須具備狀態數據釆集、傳輸、存儲、監控、分析處理和展現的能力。在網絡空間的關鍵位置,佈設檢測點,對網絡運行狀態進行檢測,並採集狀態數據。基於各類狀態數據,形成網絡態勢、安全態勢、頻譜態勢等。再通過各種通信手段傳輸到具有數據分析處理能力的節點上,進行態勢數據分析,主要包括態勢融合、態勢評估和態勢預測等。分析處理的結果再傳輸到各級指揮所,並以分層、多維、按需等方式將戰場態勢呈現給各級指揮員。態勢感知的基本流程與傳統方式一致,但每個處理環節都有不同之處。

網絡空間的戰場態勢應該是分層的,有全局的,也有局部的,這對態勢呈現效果提出了更高的要求。隨著呈現技術的不斷發展,簡單的平面態勢圖已不能滿足作戰需求,尤其是在網絡空間作戰環境下,立體、多維的態勢呈現需求凸顯。就算身在指揮所內,通過態勢圖,指揮員也應能洞悉戰場態勢,直面真正的對手。在美國戰爭大片中,經常能夠看到立體的、可觸控的電子沙盤,實時的戰場態勢多維展現,使得指揮官能快速準確決策,提高指揮控制能力。網路空間的戰場環境異常複雜,網絡環境、設備運行情況、軟件運行情況……很多地方都需要有清晰直觀的展現。為了提高用戶體驗,縮短決策時間,網絡空間態勢呈現應具有多維動態特性,並能支持多屏顯示,多屏聯動等。從頂層態勢圖能了解戰爭全貌,從局部態勢圖能了解各級作戰部隊的狀態;不同級別的指揮員基於自身的權限,能夠按需查看不同的態勢圖。

網絡空間作為一種新型的作戰空間,存在和傳統物理空間的客觀差異,網絡空間的指揮控制也存在特殊的需求。然而,網絡空間指揮控制還面臨著其他諸多問題,t匕如如何將網絡空間指揮控制與傳統物理空間指揮控制的體系互相融合、以及如何進行網絡空間指揮控制的效能評估等,這些都是有待進.

Referring url:  http://www.81.cn/

 

 

China’s One Belt One Road Justification for PLA Expeditionary Deployment // 中國解放軍遠征部署的一帶一路理由

China’s One Belt One Road Justification for PLA Expeditionary Deployment // 中國解放軍遠征部署的一帶一路理由

By National Defense University Professor Lieutenant General Qiao Lang 責任編輯︰姜紫微

“One Belt, One Road” cannot open up safety awareness

The Chinese have a problem, they like to talk about strategy, they don’t like to talk about strategies; they like to talk about goals, they don’t like to talk about indicators, so the final result is big and big. If there is no strategy, there is no possibility that this strategy will be realized. If there are targets and no indicators, then to what extent is this goal achieved? This time, the “One Belt and One Road” was proposed. The most worrying thing is that the thunder is loud and the rain is small. The talk is vigorous and vigorous, and finally it is gone. We have done this kind of thing many times, I hope this time is not. Because if the “Belt and Road” fails, it can be a very heavy blow to the revival of the Chinese economy and even the Chinese nation.

Many officials now talk about the “Belt and Road” without talking about security issues, nor about political issues, and no one talking about military issues. Some officials even emphasized that the “Belt and Road” has no political appeals and no ideological appeals. It is entirely an economic behavior. This kind of statement, if it is propaganda to countries along the line, is ok, because strategic intentions always have to be concealed. You say to others that I came with political intentions, with ideological intentions, who? Still accepting you? This is very necessary from the external publicity. However, if this becomes the consciousness of our officials, it is a big mistake. External propaganda said that we have no political demands, no ideological appeals, no military appeals, no geopolitical demands. Our only consideration is to develop the economy, mutual benefit and win-win. It is not wrong to use it as a propaganda, but it must not become our own consciousness. . 

Now I feel that some officials really want to exclude these things. When he says these words, he has already excluded the political demands that are inevitable in the “One Belt, One Road” strategic concept in his own consciousness, especially geopolitics. Appeals, as well as security claims and ideological appeals. In fact, no matter whether you are prepared to “export revolution”, President Xi has repeatedly said that China does not export revolutions, but since we now emphasize Chinese values, there is no doubt that you will export your values ​​through the “Belt and Road”. Then, this value output is actually an ideology output. In addition, in the process of advancing the “Belt and Road”, if you do not have political appeals, you do not have political binding with countries along the route, which will put you in an insecure state. In particular, the “one belt” of the land is accompanied by a very complicated factor, the so-called “Ottoman Wall”. That is, in the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, and its enormous empire became the “Ottoman Wall” that blocked the East and West. 300 years later, with the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and the “Ottoman Wall” collapsed, but if you follow this path, the places along the way are all Islamic worlds. This means that the implied “Ottoman Wall” is still there. How to break through this invisible wall? Your values ​​are different from those of the Islamic world. Don’t expect that you can completely tie everyone together by simply bundling economic interests. You know, those Islamic countries may just want to make a profit, and then take advantage of it before you open it. What should I do at that time? The biggest lesson for Chinese companies to go out is that after economic cooperation with those countries, people will open us after they have benefited, or they may not open our intentions subjectively, but the objective situation has changed. For example, in Sudan, we invested in it.

The West has to give us trouble. Then there are people in the local area who messed up with us. We bite our heads and start to fail to make a big impact on us. We should earn the money we earned. At this time, the Americans are paying their salaries and turning the Sudan into a North and South Sudan. We are dumbfounded. Your investment is in North Sudan, and the oil field is in South Sudan. At this time, you must suffer losses. However, we Chinese have a very strong ability, which is the ability to “engage” relations. Although the Sudan has split, we have “taken the way” to win South Sudan. It is said that the North and South Sudan will let you take it, should it be able to settle? But the United States has provoked the civil war in South Sudan, and the final goal is to make your investment in this place squander. This is just one example. In fact, our cooperation with all countries, the United States that the United States does not participate in, must oppose. The final outcome is that we have lost in many places, which is why we lacked the necessary security awareness from the beginning.

Original Mandarin Chinese :

“一帶一路”不能甩開安全意識

中國人有一個毛病,喜歡談戰略,不喜歡談策略;喜歡談目標,不喜歡談指標,這樣談來談去最後的結果就都是大而化之。有戰略沒有策略,這個戰略就沒有實現的可能性,有目標沒有指標,那這個目標實現到什麼程度算是實現?這次提出“一帶一路”,最擔心的就是雷聲大、雨點小,談得轟轟烈烈,最後不了了之。這樣的事情我們已經干過多次,但願這次不是。因為如果“一帶一路”失敗的話,那對于中國經濟甚至中華民族的復興都可能是非常沉重的打擊。

現在有很多官員談“一帶一路”都不談安全問題,也不談政治問題,更沒有人談軍事問題。甚至有些官員專門強調,“一帶一路”沒有政治訴求,沒有意識形態訴求,完全是一種經濟行為。這種說法,如果是對沿線國家的宣傳,是可以的,因為戰略意圖總是要有隱蔽性的,你對人家說我是帶著政治意圖來的,帶著意識形態意圖來的,那誰還接受你?這從對外宣傳上講是非常必要的。但是,假如這成了我們官員的自身意識,就大錯特錯了。對外宣傳說我們沒有政治訴求,沒有意識形態訴求,沒有軍事訴求,沒有地緣訴求,我們唯一的考慮就是發展經濟,互利共贏,把它作為一個宣傳口徑沒有錯,但是絕對不能變成我們自身的意識。現在感覺有些官員是真的要排除這些東西,當他說出這些話的時候,就已經在自己的意識中排除“一帶一路”戰略構想中不可避免地內含著的政治訴求,特別是地緣政治訴求,以及安全訴求、意識形態訴求。實際上,不管你準不準備“輸出革命”,習主席多次講到,中國不輸出革命,可是既然我們現在強調中國價值觀,毫無疑問你會通過“一帶一路”輸出自己的價值觀。那麼,這個價值觀輸出其實就是一種意識形態輸出。另外,在推進“一帶一路”的進程中,如果你沒有政治訴求,你沒有與沿線國家的政治綁定,這將使你處于不安全狀態。尤其是陸路的“一帶”,幾乎全程伴有一個非常復雜的因素,就是所謂的“奧斯曼牆”。即15世紀奧斯曼帝國攻克拜佔庭首都君士坦丁堡,使其龐大的帝國之軀成了阻斷東西方的“奧斯曼牆”。300年後,隨著第一次世界大戰的結束,奧斯曼帝國解體,“奧斯曼牆”轟然倒塌,但是如果你沿這條路走下去,沿途所經之地,全都是伊斯蘭世界。這就意味著隱含的“奧斯曼牆”還在。如何去突破這個隱形之牆?你的價值觀和伊斯蘭世界的價值觀不同,不要指望僅僅靠經濟利益的捆綁,就能把大家完全拴在一起。要知道,那些伊斯蘭國家也可能只想獲利,獲了利之後再把你踹開。那個時候怎麼辦?中國企業走出去,我們最大的教訓,就是跟那些國家進行經濟合作之後,人家得利後把我們甩開,或者人家主觀上可能並沒有甩開我們的意圖,但是客觀情況發生了變化。比如蘇丹,我們投資進去了,西方要給我們搗亂,然後當地也有人給我們搞亂,我們硬著頭皮頂住,開始沒給我們造成太大的影響,我們該掙的錢還是掙到了。這時美國人釜底抽薪,把蘇丹變成南北蘇丹,我們傻眼了,你的投資在北蘇丹,而油田在南蘇丹,這個時候,你肯定要受損失。但我們中國人有一項很強的能力,就是攻無不克的“搞關系”的能力,雖然蘇丹分裂了,但是我們“想辦法”把南蘇丹也拿下。按說,南北蘇丹都讓你拿下,應該能擺平了吧?可美國又挑起了南蘇丹的內戰,最後的目標就是讓你在這個地方的投資打水漂。這只是其中一例。實際上我們與所有國家的合作,凡是美國沒有參與的美國都要反對。最後的結局是我們在很多地方都鎩羽而歸,這是我們一開始就缺乏必要的安全意識所致。

“One Belt” is the main one, and “One Road” is the supplement.

Now, we have started a new round of “going out” strategic action. I have suffered so much in the past. Should I accept some lessons?

How to go “One Belt, One Road”? The author believes that we should take a multi-pronged approach, and we should let politics and diplomacy go ahead and the military back. Rather than letting the company go out on its own, it is almost impossible for the company to go out alone. 

From now on, the “Belt and Road” seems to be a two-line attack, both sides. In fact, the “band” is the main one, and the “road” is secondary. Because you want to take the “road” as the main direction, you will die. Because of the sea route, a scholar from the American War College recently wrote an article saying that they have found a way to deal with China, that is, as long as the sea passage is cut off, China will die. Although this statement is somewhat large, it cannot be said that there is absolutely no reason at all, because the United States now has this capability from the military. This also confirms from the opposite side that in the choice of the primary and secondary direction of the “Belt and Road”, we should determine who is the main road and who is the auxiliary road. If the “Belt and Road” is likened to a combat operation, then “all the way” is the auxiliary direction, and the “one belt” is the main direction.

Therefore, for us, what really matters in the future is how to manage the “one area” problem, rather than the “one way” problem. Then, the operation of the “Belt” will first face a relationship with the countries along the route, that is, how to first open up the relationship with the countries along the route. Judging from our current practice, it is obviously not enough to ensure the smooth and smooth operation of the “Belt and Road”. why? We used to always like to deal with the government, like to deal with the ruling party, like to deal with the rich people in this country, who is dealing with who is in position, who has money to deal with who. In this case, it will be difficult to succeed. In fact, what is the work we are going to do? It is necessary to deal with the government, with the ruling party, with the opposition party, and more importantly, with the tribal elders in the entire “Belt”. These tribal elders are often much more influential than the opposition parties and the ruling party. What we can do in the Taliban-occupied areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan is almost always achieved through tribal elders, and basically nothing can be done through the government. Therefore, our foreign ministry and our enterprises cannot ignore the important relationships in these regions.

Why not Latin America and Japan “take in”?

“One Belt, One Road” has another problem that no one has touched until today. It is the question in some people’s hearts. Does China want to use the “Belt and Road” to exclude the United States? There is no doubt that the United States plays a chaotic role in almost all international organizations and international operations in which it does not participate. As long as it doesn’t play a leading role, even if it’s not the initiator, it will give you trouble. Take a look at APEC. Why is there a TPP after APEC? It is because the United States finds itself unable to play a leading role in APEC, it must do another set and start a new stove. If the “Belt and Road” completely excludes the United States, it will make the United States spare no effort to suppress it, and since the United States is not in it, it will not be scrupulous if it is suppressed, because it has no interest in it, so it will be unscrupulous and unscrupulous when it is suppressed. Soft hands.

Therefore, the author believes that China’s “Belt and Road” should skillfully include the United States. It should allow US investment banks, US investment institutions, and American technology to play a role in the “Belt and Road” to complete the “Belt and Road” approach to the United States. Bundle. After completing this bundle, the United States will vote for it when it starts. Take a look at China and the United States to fight for economic shackles and trade, why do they end up every time? It is because the economic interests of China and the United States are very closely tied to each other. Every time the United States wants to impose sanctions or punishment on a certain industry or enterprise in China, there must be a related out-of-hospital system in which the United States and our enterprise are bound together. The group went to Congress to lobby and finally let it die. Therefore, we must let the United States enter this interest bundle. In terms of capital and technology, the “Belt and Road” should not only exclude the United States, but also pull it in and complete the bundling of it.

From this I think that we can’t even exclude Japan. Can’t think that who is not good with us, make trouble with us, I will set aside to open you up. In fact, this is not good for the other side, and it is not good for yourself. Once you open it, it will be unscrupulous when you hit it. Only when its interests are in it, it will only be scrupulous when it hits you, and it will be careful to protect its interests. And if the benefits are completely tied, it can’t be picked up, so I think this is something we must consider.

“One Belt, One Road” to lead the reform of the Chinese army

Up to now, there is no precise strategic positioning for our country, and the national strategy is somewhat vague. As a result, various so-called “strategies” emerge in an endless stream. What is most screaming in 2014 is not the “Belt and Road”. What is it? It is China’s desire to become a major ocean power and to launch China’s marine development strategy. What kind of marine development strategy do you want? Some people say that they have to break through the three island chains and go out to the Pacific. What are you going to the Pacific Ocean? Have we thought about it? Think through it? If you don’t think through it, you shouldn’t put forward a strategy that is extremely hard to burn and has no results. Now that we have proposed the “Belt and Road”, we suddenly discovered that what we need more is the Army’s expeditionary ability. So what is our Army today? The Chinese closed their doors and thought that the Chinese Army was the best in the world. The British military leader Montgomery said that whoever wants to play against the Chinese army on land is a fool. The Americans’ conclusion from the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea is that the Chinese must not tolerate the military boots of American soldiers on the land of China. This is no problem. The Chinese Army has no problem with its existing capabilities to protect the country. However, once faced with the “Belt and Road”, the task of the Chinese Army is not to defend the country, which requires you to have the ability to display the land expedition along the way. Because the light is on land, there are 22 countries that can count. This requires us to have to go to the sword. Instead of invading others, we must be able to protect our own national interests across borders.

The last point is how to focus on the development of military power. If we have made it clear that the “one belt” is the main direction, it is not just an effort to develop the navy. The Navy must of course develop according to the needs of the country, and the problem that is now emerging is precisely how to strengthen the Army’s expeditionary capabilities. There are no more problems in China’s more than one million army, and there is no problem in defending the country. Is there any problem in going abroad to fight? Are we now in the right direction for the Army? Is it reasonable? When the world is now abandoning heavy tanks, we are still proud of the heavy tanks we have just produced. In what areas will these things be used in the future? In the entire “one belt” road, heavy tanks have no room for development. The heavy tanks of the former Soviet Union allowed the guerrillas to knock casually in Afghanistan. Why? Where can you go in all the ravines? The tank can’t fly anymore. In the end, the people take the rocket launcher and aim at one. It is all one, and it will kill you all. Therefore, the Army’s combat capability must be re-enhanced, that is, to strengthen its long-range delivery capability and long-range strike capability. In this regard, the author thinks that we are far from realizing it, and it is even more impossible. If the Army does not have the ability to go abroad, in the future, in any “one area”, if there is civil strife or war in any country, China needs support, and we need to protect our facilities and interests along the way, the Army can go, Is it useful? This is a question we must think about today.

So what should the Army do? The author believes that the Chinese Army must fly and must achieve aviation aviation, which means a revolution in the entire Chinese Army. Today, when we talk about the reform of the military system, if you don’t know the country’s strategy at all, don’t know the country’s needs, and close the door to reform, what kind of army will you reform? What is the relationship between this army and national interests? If you don’t start from the national interests and needs, just draw your own scoops like the US military’s gourd, take it for granted that you should be an army, but the country does not need such an army, but needs a development demand with the country. Match the army, what do you do then? Therefore, if we don’t understand what the country’s needs are, and don’t know where the country’s interests are, we will close the door to carry out reforms. What kind of army will this change? The author believes that the “Belt and Road” is a huge drag on the reform of the Chinese military with national interests and needs. It is through the strategic design of the “Belt and Road” that the country has determined its strategic needs for the military. The conclusion is: China must have a stronger army, and a navy and air force that can work together and act in concert, an army, navy, and air force that can cross the country’s expedition, and still have thousands of miles away. With sufficient support and combat capability of the Expeditionary Force, we can make the “Belt and Road” truly secure in terms of security, thus ensuring the ultimate realization of this ambitious goal.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“一帶”為主,“一路”為輔

現在,我們又開始新一輪的“走出去”戰略行動了,前面吃了那麼多苦頭,總該接受點教訓吧?

“一帶一路”怎麼走? 筆者認為應該多管齊下,應該讓政治、外交先行,軍事做後盾。而不是讓企業自己單打獨斗走出去,凡是企業單獨走出去的幾乎就沒有能夠全身而退的。

從現在來看,“一帶一路”好像是兩線出擊,雙路並舉。其實,“帶”是主要的,“路”是次要的。因為你要是以“路”為主攻方向,你就死定了。因為海路這一條,美國戰爭學院的一個學者最近專門撰文,說他們已經找到了對付中國的辦法,就是只要掐斷海上通道,中國就死定了。這話雖然說的有些大,但也不能說完全沒有一點道理,因為美國眼下從軍事上講確有這個能力。這也從反面印證,在“一帶一路”主次方向的選擇上,我們應確定誰為主路,誰為輔路。如果把“一帶一路”比喻成一次作戰行動,那麼,“一路”是輔攻方向,“一帶” 則是主攻方向。

所以說,對于我們來講,將來真正重要的是如何經營“一帶”的問題,而不是經營“一路”的問題。那麼,經營“一帶”首先就面臨一個與沿途國家的關系問題,即如何先把與沿途國家的關系全部打通。從我們現在的做法來看,顯然不足以保證“一帶一路”的順利通暢和成功。為什麼呢?我們習慣上總是喜歡跟政府打交道,喜歡跟執政黨打交道,喜歡跟這個國家的有錢人打交道,誰在位跟誰打交道,誰有錢跟誰打交道。這樣的話,要想成功就很難。實際上我們要做的工作是什麼呢?既要跟政府、跟執政黨打交道,還要跟在野黨打交道,而更重要的是,跟整個“一帶”上的部落長老們打交道。這些部落長老往往比在野黨和執政黨的影響力大得多。我們在阿富汗、巴基斯坦的塔利班佔領地區能辦成什麼事,幾乎都是通過部落長老去實現,通過政府基本上干不成什麼事情。所以,我們的外交部、我們的企業,都不能忽略這些區域內的重要關系。

何不拉美日“入伙”?

“一帶一路”還有一個到今天都沒有人去觸及的問題,就是一些人心中的疑問︰中國是否想用“一帶一路”排斥美國?毫無疑問,美國幾乎在所有它沒能參與的國際組織和國際行動中,都會扮演搗亂的角色。只要它起不了主導作用,甚至只要它不是發起人,它就會給你搗亂。看一看APEC。APEC之後為什麼會出現TPP?就是因為美國發現自己在APEC中不能起主導作用,它就一定要另搞一套,另起爐灶。如果“一帶一路”完全排斥美國,那將使美國不遺余力地打壓它,而且由于美國不在其中,它打壓起來就沒有顧忌,因為它沒有利益在里邊,所以它打壓起來就會無所顧忌、毫不手軟。

所以筆者認為,中國的“一帶一路”應該巧妙地把美國納入進來,應該讓美國的投行、美國的投資機構,以及美國的技術,在“一帶一路”中發揮作用,完成“一帶一路”對美國的捆綁。完成了這個捆綁之後,美國在它下手的時候就會投鼠忌器。看一看中國和美國打經濟仗、打貿易仗,為什麼每一次都無疾而終?就是因為中國和美國的經濟利益互相捆綁得非常緊密,每一次美國要對中國的某一個行業或企業進行制裁或者是懲罰的時候,一定會有美國和我們這個企業綁定在一起的相關的院外集團跑到國會去游說,最後讓其胎死腹中。所以,一定要讓美國進入這個利益捆綁。“一帶一路”在資金上、技術上,不但不應排斥美國,還要把它拉進來,完成對它的捆綁。

由此筆者想到,我們甚至也不能排斥日本。不能認為誰不跟我們好,跟我們鬧,我就另外搞一套把你甩開,其實這于對方不利,對自己同樣不利。你一旦甩開了它,它打你也就無所顧忌,只有當它的利益也在其中的時候,它打你才會有所顧忌,它才會小心翼翼,保護它那一份利益。而如果利益完全捆綁的話,它想摘都摘不清,所以筆者覺得這一點也是我們必須考慮的。

“一帶一路”牽引中國軍隊改革

到現在為止,就是對我們國家沒有精確的戰略定位,國家戰略有些模糊。結果,各種所謂的“戰略”層出不窮。2014年喊得最響的不是“一帶一路”,是什麼呢?是中國要成為海洋大國,要推出中國的海洋發展戰略。你要什麼樣的海洋發展戰略?有人說要突破三條島鏈,走出去,走向太平洋。到太平洋去干什麼?我們想過嗎?想透了嗎?如果沒想透,就不宜提出那些遠水不解近渴的極度燒錢又不見成果的戰略。現在提出“一帶一路”,我們突然發現,我們更需要的是陸軍的遠征能力。那今天我們的陸軍究竟如何?中國人關起門來認為中國陸軍天下第一。英國人蒙哥馬利說,誰要在陸上跟中國的陸軍交手,誰就是傻瓜。而美國人由抗美援朝戰爭得出的結論是︰中國人絕對不能容忍美國大兵的軍靴踏到中國的陸地上。這都沒問題,中國陸軍以它現有的能力保家衛國一點問題都沒有。可是一旦面對“一帶一路”,中國陸軍擔負的任務就不是保家衛國,這就需要你具備在沿途展示陸上遠征的能力。因為光是陸上,能夠數出來的就有22個國家。這就需要我們必須劍到履到。不是去侵略別人,而是要有能力跨境保護我們自己的國家利益。

最後一點,就是如何有側重地發展軍事力量的問題。如果我們明確了以“一帶”為主攻方向,那就不僅僅是要努力發展海軍的問題。海軍當然要根據國家的需求去發展,而現在凸現的問題,恰恰是如何加強陸軍的遠征能力。中國100多萬陸軍,保家守土沒有問題,跨出國門去作戰有沒有問題?我們現在陸軍的發展方向正確嗎?合理嗎?當現在全世界都開始放棄重型坦克的時候,我們卻還在以剛剛生產出來的重型坦克為榮,這些東西將來準備用在什麼地區作戰?在整個“一帶”這條路上,重型坦克根本沒有施展余地。前蘇聯的重型坦克在阿富汗讓游擊隊隨便敲,為什麼?在所有的山溝溝里,你還能往哪走?坦克又不能飛,最後人家拿火箭筒瞄準一輛就是一輛,全部給你干掉。所以說,陸軍的作戰能力必須重新提升,就是加強它的遠程投送能力和遠程打擊能力。這方面,筆者覺得我們遠遠沒有認識到,更不可能做到。如果陸軍沒有能力走出國門,將來在這“一帶”上,任何一個國家發生了內亂或戰爭,需要中國的支援,而且更需要我們出手保護自己在沿途的設施和利益時,陸軍能走得出去、派得上用場嗎?這是我們今天必須思考的問題。

那麼,陸軍要怎麼辦?筆者認為中國陸軍必須飛起來,必須實現陸軍航空化,這意味著整個中國陸軍的一場革命。今天,當我們談軍隊編制體制改革的時候,如果你根本不知道國家的戰略,也不知道國家的需求,關起門來搞改革,你會改革出一支什麼樣的軍隊來?這支軍隊和國家利益有什麼關系?如果你不從國家利益和需求出發,僅僅比照美軍的葫蘆畫自己的瓢,想當然地認為自己應該是怎樣一支軍隊,可是國家不需要這樣一支軍隊,而是需要一支與國家的發展需求相匹配的軍隊,那時你怎麼辦?所以說,不了解國家的需求是什麼,不知道國家的利益在哪里,就關起門來搞改革,這將會改出一支什麼樣的軍隊?筆者認為,“一帶一路”就是國家利益和需求對中國軍隊改革的一個巨大牽引。國家正是通過“一帶一路”的戰略設計,確定了對軍隊的戰略需求。結論是︰中國必須有一支更強大的陸軍,以及一支能與之聯合作戰、協同行動的海軍和空軍,一支能夠跨出國門遠征的陸軍、海軍和空軍,組成在千里萬里之外仍然有足夠的保障和戰斗能力的遠征軍,我們才可能使“一帶一路”真正在安全上獲得可靠的保障,從而確保這一宏偉目標的最終實現。

Referring url: http://www.81.cn/big5/

Chinese Military Analysis of Cyber Space Deterrence – Important Strategic Points // 淺析網絡空間威懾的特徵、類型和運用要點

Chinese Analysis of Cyber Space Deterrence – Important Strategic Points

淺析網絡空間威懾的特徵、類型和運用要點

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Academy of Military Sciences Yuan Yi

January 04, 2016    

Editor’s note: When both opposing parties have the ability to ensure intrusion and damage to the other party’s network, they can bring about two-way network containment, making the two parties obliged to comply with the game rules that do not attack each other’s network under certain conditions, forming an invisible safety valve. Even international conventions or conventions that do not attack each other’s networks will be formed. The cyberspace has thus become a strategic area that can produce a huge deterrent effect. After the deterrence of cyberspace followed by nuclear deterrence, it began to enter the strategic vision of big country politicians and military strategists. Studying the characteristics, types, and points of use of cyberspace deterrence must be taken into consideration and necessary action by the Internet powers and the cyber force.

With the increasing dependence of human society on cyberspace, cyberspace has become the “second type of living space” for human production and life and the “fifth-dimensional combat space” for military confrontation. Countries around the world have fiercely competed for the dominant rights, control rights, and discourse power of cyberspace. The competition in the cyberspace has reached the level of human survival, national destiny, and success or failure of military struggles. Thinking about cyberspace deterrence capacity building has great practical and theoretical value.

First, analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of cyberspace deterrence

Cyberspace deterrence refers to the actions and actions taken in the cyberspace to demonstrate and control enemy cyberspace, and to control the enemy’s physical space through cross-domain cyberspace, so as to achieve the goal of destroying enemy forces, stopping the enemy, blocking the enemy, and preventing deterrence. A form of strategic deterrence for the enemy’s purpose. Compared with the physical space, the “virtual and real duality” of network space and the uniqueness of network warfare compared with traditional combat styles have determined that the advantages and disadvantages of cyberspace deterrence are very obvious.

(A) The advantages of cyberspace deterrence

The advantages of cyberspace deterrence are mainly reflected in the following: First, the deterrence approach has become more civilized and humane. Compared with nuclear, chemical, and chemical weapons based on physical, biological, and chemical killing mechanisms, the direct killing and destructive effects of cyber warfare weapons are much smaller than the former. Normally, they will not cause permanent damage and pollution to the natural environment, nor will they cause large numbers of people. Casualties and humanitarian disasters. Second, deterrence costs are inefficient. The network warfare weapons are dominated by viruses, Trojans and other software. The costs are relatively low, and the technical threshold is low. The destructive effects are rather alarming. The network defense points are multi-faceted, and they are hard to prevent. To increase the level of network security by one level, the input cost will increase exponentially. The contrast between the low cost of cyber offense and the high cost of cyber defense makes the offensive and defensive performance of the network a feature of “spirit shield”, and the cyber warfare weapon is thus called “the atomic bomb of the poor country”. The third is that deterrence methods are diverse and practical. The variety of cyber warfare weapons and the multiple goals of cyber attacks have determined that there are diversified cyberspace deterrent methods to choose from. The effects of cyberattacks are recoverable to a certain extent. As long as the application is properly implemented, the risk of causing war and escalating the war is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrence value of nuclear weapons is far greater than the value of actual combat, and cyber warfare weapons are both practical values ​​and deterrence values. Fourth, the use of repeatability and deterrence is strong. Once the “nuclear threshold” crosses, a full-scale nuclear war will erupt, and the two sides at the nuclear balance will fall into a state of mutual destruction. The easy implementation of nuclear deterrence, especially nuclear deterrence against non-nuclear countries, will also be condemned by international public opinion. These factors are all The use of nuclear deterrence is greatly limited. The deterrence of software and hardware and the controllable characteristics of cyberspace deter- mine the flexibility and control of deterrence in light of the changes and needs of the military struggle. It can be used in advance, used throughout, and used repeatedly. It has strong flexibility.

(B) Defects in cyberspace deterrence

The deterrence of cyberspace is mainly reflected in: First, the credibility of the deterrence effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, as of now, the real network war has not really exploded. People’s astonishing destructive power over cyber warfare is more of a speculation and worry. The real power of cyber warfare can only be convincing after being tested by actual combat. Second, the reliability of deterrence measures is not very high. Network warfare is a dynamic process of continuous offensive and defensive interaction between the two sides of the enemy and me. The characteristics of network confrontation and technicality determine that the network warfare attack has greater uncertainty and may not achieve the desired operational objectives, which will greatly reduce the effectiveness of deterrence. . For example, when the enemy performs cyberspace deterrence, if the enemy takes various effective defense measures in a timely manner, it will increase the difficulty of its own cyber attack and reduce the damage, and even lead to the failure of the attack. Third, the controllability of deterrence scope needs further improvement. As one of the important weapons of cyber warfare, viral weapons have strong dissemination, poor controllability, and a wide range of influence. It is difficult to launch targeted and targeted attacks on enemy computers and networks. If it can’t control its effective scope, it will spread to third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim. As a result, the use of virus weapons suffers from the use of “imposed rats.” The fourth is the selective limitation of deterrence objects. Nuclear deterrence is clear and effective for any country, and the effectiveness of cyberspace deterrence has a lot to do with the level of informatization of enemy countries. Cyberspace deterrence is extremely effective for countries with a high degree of informatization, and for those underdeveloped countries with weak information infrastructure and weak network dependence, it is difficult for them to exert results, or even completely ineffective. Fifth, the organization of deterrence is relatively complicated. All nuclear powers in the world implement centralized and unified management of strategic nuclear forces. Command and control powers are highly centralized. When organizations implement nuclear deterrence operations, they can accurately control each combat unit, and the organization is well-executed. The implementation of the deterrence of cyberspace involves many forces such as investigation, control, defense, and control. It has many personnel and large scales and is scattered among different departments and units in the military and the military. It is very complicated to organize and it is difficult to form a synergy.

Second, the main types of cyberspace deterrence

The cyberspace deterrence includes four types: cyberspace technology test deterrence, cyberspace equipment demonstration deterrence, cyberspace operational deterrence deterrence, and cyberspace operational deterrence. Among them, the first three are demonstrative deterrence, and the latter is actual deterrence.

(A) Cyberspace Technology Test Deterrence

The cyberspace technology test deterrence is a field in the field of cyber warfare. It constantly conducts preliminary exploratory experiments on new concepts of warfare, new experiments on the effectiveness of attack mechanisms and tactics, and practical experiments on the weaponization of new technologies. The outside world is disclosed to demonstrate its strong strength in the basic research of information technology and its enormous potential for transforming it into a cyber warfare capability to achieve deterrence. At present, network offensive and defensive technology is still developing rapidly. A breakthrough in a key technology will often have a significant impact on cyberspace security and operations, and even lead to revolutionary changes. Whoever preempts the strategic commanding heights of the network offensive and defensive technology, who will be able to achieve a clear advantage in the future of network warfare.

(B) Cyberspace Equipment Demonstration

The demonstration of cyberspace equipment deterrence is the development of network warfare equipment development planning, technology development, target testing, stereotyped production and other development stages. According to the needs of the appropriate disclosure of network warfare equipment models, performance, characteristics, parameters and development schedule, etc. Reach the purpose of deterring opponents. There are two main ways: one is through public disclosure in official media such as national defense white papers, diplomatic bulletins, and newspapers, periodicals, and large-scale websites; and the other is through online social media or other unofficial. The channel has deliberately leaked equipment-related information and implemented hidden deterrence. The cyber space equipment demonstrates deterrence. On the one hand, it can invent new cyber-warfare equipment with new mechanisms and new concepts and render its unique combat capabilities. On the other hand, it can deliberately exaggerate the operational effectiveness of existing cyber warfare equipment. There are facts in the virtual reality, there is something in the real, and the implementation of fuzzy policies, so that the other party can not understand their true situation and strength, resulting in fear and jealousy. For example, the U.S. military’s “Shuute” on-board network power system has been put into practical use several times and poses a serious threat to the air defense systems of its hostile countries. However, its basic principles, working mechanisms, and combat technical indicators have not been publicly disclosed. It has not been completely mastered by other countries and has remained in a state of secrecy. It is difficult to distinguish between reality and reality and has played a very good deterrent effect.

(3) Deterrence in cyberspace operations exercises

The deterrence of cyberspace operations exercises is to conduct drills in cyberspace through virtual or virtual methods, and use various media channels to show potential war opponents their own cyber warfighting capabilities, strengths and determinations in order to achieve deterrence. Cyberspace operations can be divided into two kinds: actual drills and virtual exercises. The former is usually carried out nationwide or in alliance with allies, and is generally based on the joint exercise of military space and space defense operations. In recent years, the United States and its allies have held “Network Storm” series of cyber warfare exercises and “Shriver” series of space-network space exercises, which have demonstrated the mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of cyber warfare. Determination. The latter is usually held at the national large-scale network integrated shooting range, and is generally based on the offensive actions of the military professional cyber warfare forces.

(D) Deterrence in cyberspace operations

The deterrence of cyberspace operations is the actual deterrence of attacking specific opponents by deterring opponents with certain attacks. There are two opportunities for its use: First, when one’s own side is aware that the enemy is about to wage a war on one’s own side, one’s own choice of the key cyber targets of the enemy’s key defenses will be targeted to combat them, and preventive and deterrent deterrence will be implemented; When the Party initiates a tentative cyber attack on its own side and implements cyberspace deterrence, it must immediately conduct effective retaliatory and disciplinary deterrence. There are many types of cyber warfare operations that have deterrent effects. For example, infiltrate the enemy’s telecommunications network, send a large number of anti-war messages to the enemy’s citizens, and attack the enemy’s power grid, resulting in a short-term blackout of major cities in the enemy’s power; attacking the enemy’s broadcast television networks and inserting their own broadcasts during prime time. Special video programs; etc.

Third, the use of cyberspace deterrence points

The general requirements for the use of cyberspace deterrence are: combination of wartime and warfare, with strength, actual display capability, and determination, strive to demonstrate deterrence with small battles, ensure deterrence with strikes, and achieve deterrence with a small price. Specifically, the following points should be achieved.

(A) Combination of peacetime and long-term preparation

“Frozen feet, not a cold day.” Successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence requires a combination of peacetime and warfare, and we must fully and carefully prepare for peacetime. The first is to conduct comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires the combination of spying, reconnaissance and technical reconnaissance, wireless reconnaissance, and cable reconnaissance. Conduct long-term and continuous network reconnaissance of enemy network targets, gradually understand the basic conditions of the enemy’s network, draw a picture of its network topology, and in particular analyze and find all kinds of soft enemies. Hardware system vulnerabilities. The second is to conduct a large number of effective strategic presets. Using hacking methods, secretive infiltrate all types of networks through the use of system vulnerabilities or password cracking, leaving the back door, setting up a springboard machine, and laying down logic bombs and Trojans to set a breakthrough for launching cyber attacks in the future. The third is to conduct pre-prepared cyber defenses. When deterring cyberspace deterrence against the enemy, one must adjust the deployment of network defenses in advance, make the enemy’s pre-designed attack path, anticipate the use of system loopholes, and plan to implement an attack plan that is difficult to implement, or the effect of implementation is greatly reduced to minimize the enemy’s Losses caused by cyber retaliation.

(B) careful decision-making, control strength

Sun Tzu said: “The Lord must not anger and raise a teacher. Cyberspace deterrence is a strategic game behavior between countries, especially with deterrence and sensitivity. It must be rational, beneficial, and tangible. It must not be abused because of the low threshold of deterrence. Otherwise, its effect may be counter-productive. . Cyberspace deterrence has a high requirement for combat intensity control. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, the enemy’s government and people will not have fear and will not achieve the deterrent effect they deserve. The other party may also use the same methods to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontational escalation and deterring one’s own deterrence. On the other hand, if it is too strong, it will cause huge economic losses and casualties to the enemy countries. This will cause the condemnation of the international community and the hatred of the enemy governments and people. It may trigger the enemy’s use of conventional forces to carry out large-scale revenge. Nuclear countries may even Nuclear power may be used. This will not only stop the war but will also play a role in warfare.

(III) Unified command and careful organization

The implementation of the deterrence of cyberspace requires centralized command, unified planning, and good coordination. The first is meticulous organization of strength. Uniformly organize the four forces of military investigation, attack, defense, and control, and actively coordinate the strength of the cyber warfare forces of all parties to form a joint force. In particular, it is necessary to organize and coordinate the strength of civil non-professional cyber warfare, especially patriotic hacking, so that there can be no phenomenon of “blindness” so as to avoid triggering friction, escalating fire, causing an escalation of cyber warfare, or prematurely exposing attack intentions and giving people a handle. , leading to uncontrollable situations or failure of operations. The second is to select the target. Should choose a wide range of influence, easy to produce a clear deterrent effect of the goal. For example, broadcast television channels with the highest ratings, portals with a large number of visitors, and wireless communication networks with numerous users. It is not possible to choose attacks that are irrelevant, insignificant, and indifferent to the target. They can easily be mistaken for cybersecurity incidents created by ordinary hackers and do not achieve the desired deterrent effect. In addition, we must also consider the constraints of international law and war laws. We must not choose targets that are easy to cause humanitarian disasters. We should try our best not to select the network goals of railways, aviation, finance, and medical departments so as not to arouse condemnation and resentment from the international community and the people of the other side. The third is the precise control of the process. Prior to the deterrent strikes in cyberspace, it is necessary to publicize the momentum through extensive public opinion, issue warnings to the enemy countries, and declare the justice of their actions to the world in order to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. In order to highlight the deterrent effect, one can highly announce the target of the enemy’s network to be attacked, break through the enemy’s layered network defenses, and implement a resolute and effective cyber attack. If necessary, the network attack effect can be resumed regularly to show its superiority. The cyber attack technology and means make the enemy’s decision makers and the public have a sense of frustration that is hard to defend and difficult to parry, thus forming a strong shock effect.

(4) Combining actual situation with actual situation, focusing on strategy

The grandson said that “it is not possible to show and not to use it,” and it is used to deter online space. Its main points are summarized as “showing without propaganda, advocating without showing.” “Indicating nothing” means that it is difficult to track and locate using cyber attacks and conduct cyber attacks on specific targets. However, it is not done for others to announce that they are doing their own thing. It not only demonstrates their own capabilities, but also makes the enemy’s suspicion of doing their own thing. However, there is no evidence and it cannot be pursued. “Proclaiming but not showing” is the publicity or inadvertent disclosure of the type, performance, and characteristics of the advanced cyber warfare equipment developed or fabricated by the company, deliberately exaggerating its combat effectiveness, falsifying facts, and integrating facts and facts, so that the enemy can’t understand its true strength. , resulting in a deterrent effect. The cyber warfare operations have the characteristics of difficulty in tracking and traceability and complexity in forensics. The initiating party can either admit or deny it, or push the responsibility to civil hacker organizations. (Source: China Information Security).

Original Communist Mandarin Chinese:

編者按:當敵對雙方都具有確保侵入破壞對方網絡的能力時,就可以帶來雙向網絡遏制,使得雙方不得不在一定條件下,遵守互不攻擊對方網絡的遊戲規則,形成一個無形的安全閥,甚至國際上也會形成互不攻擊對方網絡的慣例協議或公約,網絡空間由此成為可以產生巨大威懾效應的戰略領域。網絡空間威懾繼核威懾之後,開始進入大國政治家和軍事家的戰略視野。研究網絡空間威懾的特徵、類型和運用要點,成為網絡強國、網絡強軍的必須考量和必要行動。

隨著人類社會對網絡空間依賴程度的不斷加深,網絡空間成為人類生產生活的“第二類生存空間”和軍事對抗的“第五維作戰空間”。世界各國圍繞網絡空間的主導權、控制權、話語權展開了激烈的爭奪,網絡空間的競爭已達到與人類生存、國家命運和軍事鬥爭成敗休戚相關的程度。思考網絡空間威懾能力建設,具有重大現實和理論價值。

一、網絡空間威懾的優劣分析

網絡空間威懾,是指在網絡空間採取各種行動,展示癱瘓控制敵方網絡空間,並通過網絡空間跨域控制敵方實體空間的決心和實力,從而達到懾敵、止敵、阻敵、遏敵目的的一種戰略威懾形式。網絡空間與實體空間相比所具有的“虛實二相性”,網絡戰與傳統作戰樣式相比所具有的獨特性,決定了網絡空間威懾的優缺點都非常明顯。

(一)網絡空間威懾的優點

網絡空間威懾的優點,主要體現在:一是威懾方式更趨文明和人道。與基於物理、生物、化學殺傷機理的核生化武器相比,網絡戰武器的直接殺傷和破壞效應要遠小於前者,通常不會對自然環境造成永久性破壞和污染,也不會造成大量的人員傷亡,並引發人道主義災難。二是威懾成本低效費比高。網絡戰武器以病毒、木馬等軟件為主,成本相對低廉,技術門檻較低,而造成的破壞效果卻相當驚人。網絡防禦點多面廣,防不勝防,要網絡安全程度每提高一個等級,投入成本會呈指數級增加。網絡進攻的低成本與網絡防禦的高成本對比鮮明,使得網絡攻防呈現“矛尖盾薄”的特點,網絡戰武器因而被稱為“窮國的原子彈”。三是威懾手段多樣實用性強。網絡戰武器多種多樣,網絡攻擊目標多元,決定了有多樣化的網絡空間威懾手段可供選擇。網絡攻擊效果在一定程度上是可恢復的,只要運用實施得當,引發戰爭和促使戰爭升級的風險相對較小。從某種意義上講,核武器的威懾價值遠大於實戰價值,而網絡戰武器則是實戰價值與威懾價值兼具。四是威懾運用可重複靈活性強。 “核門檻”一旦跨過就會爆發全面核戰爭,處於核均勢的雙方將陷入相互摧毀狀態,輕易實施核威懾特別是對無核國家進行核威懾,還會招致國際輿論的譴責,這些因素都極大地限制了核威懾手段的使用。而網絡空間威懾軟硬結合、威力可控的特點,決定了其可根據軍事鬥爭形勢的變化和需要,適時調控威懾強度,先期使用、全程使用、反複使用,具有很強的靈活性。

(二)網絡空間威懾的不足

網絡空間威懾的不足,主要體現在:一是威懾效果的可信性未得到充分驗證。核威懾的可信度已在實戰中得到了驗證。然而,截止目前,真正意義上的網絡大戰還沒有真正爆發過。人們對網絡戰驚人的破壞力,更多的只是一種猜測和擔憂,網絡戰的真實威力只有經過實戰檢驗後,才能真正令人信服。二是威懾手段的可靠性不太高。網絡戰是敵我雙方網絡攻防持續互動的動態過程,網絡對抗複雜、技術性強的特點,決定了網絡戰攻擊效果具有較大的不確定性,有可能達不到預期作戰目的,使威懾效果大打折扣。例如,對敵實施網絡空間實戰威懾時,敵方若及時採取各種有效防御手段,就會增加己方網絡攻擊的難度和降低破壞效果,甚至導致攻擊行動的失敗。三是威懾範圍的可控性需進一步改善。病毒武器作為網絡戰的重要武器之一,其傳播性強、可控性較差、影響範圍比較廣,很難針對敵國計算機和網絡發動專門性、針對性極強的攻擊。如果不能控制其有效作用範圍,就會波及第三方中立國家,甚至使自身也成為受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威懾對象的可選擇性受限。核威懾對任何國家都是明確而有效的,而網絡空間威懾的效果與敵國的信息化程度有很大關係。網絡空間威懾對信息化程度高的國家極為有效,而對那些信息基礎設施薄弱,網絡依賴性不強的不發達國家,則很難發揮效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威懾實施的組織相對複雜。世界各個核國家無不對戰略核力量實施集中統管,指揮控制權高度集中,組織實施核威懾行動時可以準確控製到每一個作戰單元,組織實施十分周密。而網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要涉及偵、控、防、控等多支力量,人員多、規模大,且分散在軍地不同部門和單位,組織起來非常複雜,形成合力不易。

二、網絡空間威懾的主要類型

網絡空間威懾主要有網絡空間技術試驗威懾、網絡空間裝備展示威懾、網絡空間作戰演習威懾和網絡空間作戰行動威懾四種類型。其中,前三種是示形威懾,後一種是實戰威懾。

(一)網絡空間技術試驗威懾

網絡空間技術試驗威懾,是在網絡戰領域,經常性地進行新作戰概念的先期探索性試驗、新攻擊機理和戰術的效果印證性試驗、新技術的實用化武器化試驗等,並通過媒體向外界披露,以展現本國雄厚的信息技術基礎研究實力,以及轉化為網絡戰能力的巨大潛力,以達到威懾對手的目的。當前,網絡攻防技術仍在快速發展,一項關鍵性技術的突破,往往會對網絡空間安全和作戰產生重大影響,甚至引發革命性變化。誰搶先佔領了網絡攻防技術的戰略制高點,誰就能在未來網絡戰中取得明顯優勢。

(二)網絡空間裝備展示威懾

網絡空間裝備展示威懾,是在網絡戰裝備發展規劃制定、技術開發、打靶試驗、定型生產等各個發展階段,根據需要適當披露網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點、參數以及研製進度等情況,以達到威懾對手的目的。其方式主要有兩種:一種是通過在國防白皮書、外交公報以及報紙、期刊、大型網站等權威媒體從官方渠道公開披露,實施顯性威懾;另一種是通過網絡社交媒體或其他非官方渠道,刻意洩露裝備相關情況,實施隱性威懾。網絡空間裝備展示威懾,一方面可以虛構新機理、新概念的新型網絡戰裝備,並渲染其獨特的作戰能力;另一方面可以刻意誇大已有網絡戰裝備的作戰效能。虛中有實、實中有虛,實施模糊政策,使對方摸不清己方真實情況和實力,產生恐懼和忌憚心理。例如,美軍的“舒特”機載網電一體攻擊系統已多次投入實戰使用,對其敵對國家的防空體系構成了嚴重威脅,但其基本原理、工作機制、戰技指標既沒有公開披露,也沒有被他國完全掌握破解,一直處於保密狀態,令人虛實難辨,起到了很好的威懾作用。

(三)網絡空間作戰演習威懾

網絡空間作戰演習威懾,是以實兵或虛擬的方式在網絡空間展開演習活動,並藉助各種媒體渠道,向潛在作戰對手展現本國網絡戰能力、實力與決心,以達到威懾對手的目的。網絡空間作戰演習可分為實兵演習和虛擬演習兩種。前者通常在全國范圍內或與盟國聯合進行,一般以演練軍地聯合網絡空間防禦行動為主。近幾年來,美國及盟國多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列網絡戰演習,以及“施里弗”系列太空-網絡空間演習,很好展現了網絡戰的動員實力、整體防禦水平,以及實施網絡戰的決心。後者通常在國家大型網絡綜合靶場舉行,一般以演練軍隊專業網絡戰力量的進攻行動為主。

(四)網絡空間作戰行動威懾

網絡空間作戰行動威懾,是指對特定的網絡目標實施攻擊,以確信的攻擊效果來威懾作戰對手的一種實戰性威懾。其運用的時機有兩個:一是當己方覺察敵方即將對己方發動戰爭時,己方選擇敵方重點防禦的關鍵性網絡目標進行針對性打擊,進行預防性、遏制性威懾;二是當敵方通過對己方發起試探性網絡攻擊,實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應立即進行有效的報復性、懲戒性威懾。具有威懾效果的網絡戰行動有多種。例如,對敵電信網滲透破壞,向敵國民眾手機大量發送宣傳反戰短信;對敵電力網進行攻擊,造成敵重要城市短時間的大面積停電;對敵廣播電視網進行攻擊,在黃金時段插播己方特製的視頻節目;等等。

三、網絡空間威懾的運用要點

網絡空間威懾總的運用要求是:懾戰結合,以實力、實戰展示能力和決心,力求以小戰體現威懾、以精打確保威懾,以較小的代價實現威懾目的。具體說來,應做到以下幾點。

(一)平戰結合,長期準備

“冰凍三尺,非一日之寒”。成功實施網絡空間威懾,需要平戰結合,在平時就要進行充分細緻的準備。一是要進行全面周密的網絡偵察。要求諜報偵察與技術偵察、無線偵察與有線偵察相結合,對敵網絡目標進行長期持續的網絡偵察,逐步摸清敵網絡基本情況,繪製其網絡拓撲結構圖,尤其是分析查找出敵各種軟硬件系統的漏洞。二是要進行大量有效的戰略預置。採用黑客手段,通過利用系統漏洞或口令破譯等辦法,秘密滲透進入敵各類網絡,留下後門,設置跳板機,埋設邏輯炸彈和木馬,為未來發動網絡攻擊預留突破口。三是進行預有準備的網絡防禦。在對敵實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應提前調整網絡防禦部署,使敵預先設計的攻擊路徑,預期利用的系統漏洞,預定執行的攻擊方案難以實施,或實施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敵網絡報復造成的損失。

(二)慎重決策,控制強度

孫子曰:“主不可以怒而興師,將不可以慍而致戰”。網絡空間威懾是國家之間的戰略博弈行為,尤其是實戰威懾,敏感性強,必須做到有理、有利、有節,決不能因為威懾“門檻”較低而濫用亂用,否則其效果可能會適得其反。網絡空間實戰威懾對作戰強度控制的要求很高。一方面,若強度太小,敵國政府和民眾不會產生畏懼心理,起不到應有的威懾效果,對方還可能採取同樣的手段實施反威懾,最終導致對抗升級,使己方威懾失效。另一方面,若強度過大,給敵國造成巨大的經濟損失和人員傷亡,引起國際社會的譴責和敵國政府、民眾的仇恨心理,就可能引發敵國運用常規力量進行大規模報復,有核國家甚至可能會動用核力量,這樣不但不能懾止戰爭,反而會起到戰爭導火索的作用。

(三)統一指揮,周密組織

網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要集中指揮,統一籌劃,搞好協同。一是精心組織力量。統一組織軍隊偵、攻、防、控四支力量,積極協調軍地各方網絡戰力量形成合力。尤其是要組織和協調好民間非專業網絡戰力量特別是愛國黑客,不能出現“盲動”現象,以免引發磨擦,擦槍走火,引起網絡戰的升級,或過早暴露攻擊意圖,授人以柄,導致局勢不可控或行動失敗。二是精當選擇目標。應選擇影響面廣,易產生明顯威懾效果的目標。例如,收視率排名靠前的廣播電視頻道、訪問量巨大的門戶網站、用戶眾多的無線通信網絡等。不能選擇無關痛癢、影響面小、民眾漠不關心的目標進行攻擊,易被誤認為是普通黑客製造的網絡安全事件,起不到應有的威懾效果。此外,還要考慮國際法和戰爭法約束,不能選擇易造成人道主義災難的目標,盡量不選取鐵路、航空、金融、醫療等部門的網絡目標,以免激起國際社會和對方民眾的譴責和反感。三是精確控制進程。實施網絡空間威懾性打擊之前,要通過廣泛的輿論宣傳造勢,向敵國發出打擊警告,並向全世界宣告己方行動的正義性,以爭取國際輿論的理解和支持。為突出威懾效果,己方可以高調宣布要攻擊的敵國網絡目標,再突破敵方層層網絡防禦,實施堅決有效的網絡攻擊,必要時最後還可對網絡攻擊效果進行定時恢復,以展現己方高超的網絡攻擊技術和手段,讓敵方決策者和民眾產生防不勝防、難以招架的心理挫折感,從而形成強烈的震懾效果。

(四)虛實結合,注重謀略

孫子所說的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,運用到網絡空間威懾,其要點概括起來就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。 “示而不宣”,就是利用網絡攻擊難以追踪定位這一點,對特定目標實施網絡攻擊,但不對外宣布是己方所為,既展示了己方能力,又使得敵方雖然懷疑是己方所為,但沒有證據,無法追究。 “宣而不示”,就是公開宣傳或不經意透露己方研製或虛構的先進網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點,刻意誇大其作戰效能,虛虛實實,虛實結合,使敵摸不清己方真實實力,從而產生威懾效果。網絡戰行動具有追踪溯源困難、取證複雜的特點,發起方既可以承認,也可以矢口否認,或把責任推給民間黑客組織。 (來源:中國信息安全)

Original URL:

Informationized Warfare : Chinese Military to Focus on Winning the Whole War via A New People’s War // 信息化作战政治工作:着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版

信息化作战政治工作:着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版

Informationized Warfare : Chinese Military to Focus on Winning the Whole War via A New People’s War

The military field is the most dynamic field. Innovation is the most important and the most conservative. Facing the transformation of war formation, combat methods, command mode, and winning mechanism under informatized conditions, the in-depth exploration of the mechanism of the informatized warfare political work is not only an important content and concrete embodiment of the theme of practicing political work, but also a focus on playing the role of lifeline. Reality needs and urgent tasks.

The Practical Challenges in the Political Work of Informatization Warfare

With the rapid development of information technology, modern warfare has accelerated to “information + intelligence”, and the battlefield environment, combat strength, and combat methods have undergone profound changes. Our military’s political work has embraced a broad arena of innovation and development, and has also encountered many new era issues.

The purpose of the strategic game is limited, and there are more political considerations. In today’s era, the multipolarization of the world, economic globalization, and the development of social informatization have made in-depth development. The international community has increasingly become the community in which you and I have you. Restricted by multiple factors such as international conventions, international public opinion, and moral norms, conflicts and confrontations that occur worldwide are tend to be decentralized and localized. Information-based warfare is no longer a “zero-sum” game in which you died in the past. The center of strategic guidance is to control the war situation and achieve political goals; it is no longer the same as the mechanized war that uses all the armed forces to accomplish one battle, fight or not, and when to fight. How to fight, to what extent, must be subordinated to serving political needs.

Deep application of information technology, the connotation of quality requirements is more extensive. The use and development of information technology does not and can not change people as the decisive factor of war, and the quality of the personnel involved in the war is increasing. The adversary’s high-tech weapons are even more advanced, and there will be “dead spots” on their own. How to accurately find their “Achilles’ heel” and strike the system’s vitals requires the commander to have superb strategic wisdom. The informationization of weapons and equipment is even higher, and it is impossible for them to spontaneously display their abilities. How to realize the integration of man-machine and the maximum effectiveness of the weapons in their hands requires the combatants to have excellent information literacy. High-intensity confrontation and high-intensity damage have brought great shocks to the mind and body of the combatants. How to deal with calmness and countermeasures, and the need for officers and soldiers to have a stable psychological quality.

The use of diversity in the strength of participating in the war is aggravating the task of concentrating on God. The “platform center” for future operations gives way to the “system center,” and integrated joint operations have become the basic form. Only when all combat elements, units, and systems are “finished by fists” can the system’s operational effectiveness be exerted. The “physical space” of land, sea, and air and the “intangible space” of the network’s electromagnetic cognition coexist and coexist, presenting a “multidimensional space + point battlefield” form. Only with the overall situation and linkage between the two cities, can localized advantage be the battlefield. It is difficult and difficult to coordinate the military, operational elements, and command levels. Only by enhancing the “adhesion” between combat modules can a comprehensive performance of 1+1>2 be achieved.

The belligerence of warring targets is even harder to achieve. Under the conditions of informatization, an important symbol of victory in war is to conquer the will of the opponent. This is not only a confrontational contest in the morale of the military, but also a struggle for the influence of political opinion and public opinion. No one, no sound, and intangible are becoming the main forms of informatized warfare. Unmanned combat forces gradually replace the living forces on the battlefield. Invisible weapons such as electromagnetic guns and laser bombs gradually replace traditional firearms that use chemical gunpowder energy as a damage mechanism. Far away from long-range strikes, they gradually replaced near-meeting fighters, and the two sides of the battle rarely saw face to face. It can be foreseen that in the future battles, public opinion contests, psychological confrontation, and jurisprudential competition will increasingly become the “second battlefields” in real terms, and both the importance and the difficulty will be increased.

Accurate and quick combat operations, follow-up service requirements are higher. Breakthroughs in major technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and quantum cryptography have enabled combat to evolve from a “technical decision tactic” to a “technical decision strategy.” Under the support of intelligence, reconnaissance, and communications, “one missile Destruction of a command building system breaks into reality; “attack window” or “engagement opportunity” sensitivity is measured in minutes and seconds. “1 minute decides the battle outcome, 1 hour decides the outcome of the battle, and 1 day determines the national destiny” . In the past, the tactics of “human sea tactics”, “melee night warfare” and “permanent warfare” that were often used in warfare were difficult to display, and the corresponding traditional methods of wartime political work were not improved. There is no way out.

The Inherent Requirements for the Implementation of Informationized Political Work Organization

Compared to mechanized warfare, informatized warfare, the most significant and most fundamental change in the win-win mechanism lies in the informatization of technological forms, the combat warfare systemization, and the convergence of information flow to dominate the energy flow of material flows. As an integral part of the military system, our military’s political work must adapt to the objective needs of the change in the winning mechanism of war, and carry out innovative changes from the concept of command, organizational form to operational mechanisms, methods and means, and promote the highly integrated traditional advantages and information technology, and use data. The chain reinforces the lifeline and strengthens vitality with information.

To adapt to the characteristics of information-based operations and political constraints and multi-party linkages, political work must take care of the overall situation and the control bureau in planning guidance. The political attributes of war fundamentally restrict the military objectives, the scale of forces, the choice of strategies, and the development of the war situation. Our military’s political work in wartime is the ideological work and organization work of the Party during its military operations. The fundamental task is to ensure the implementation of the strategic intentions of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission in combat operations. The first thing in organizing political work is to strengthen the political consciousness, overall awareness, command awareness of the officers and men, especially the commanders at all levels, and insist on the realization of the strategic intentions of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, and the Chairman Xi as the highest goals, and implement the Chairman of the Executive Committee. The command orders of the Central Military Commission and the Central Military Commission are fundamental requirements, and are resolutely obeying the strategic goals of serving the party and the country. They call the fight, stop, and stop. They do not blindly pursue pure military results, open a good game, control a good game, and collect a good game.

To adapt to the characteristics of confrontation and element integration in the informationized combat system, political work must be integrated into the system and implemented as one. Information warfare relies on information networks to integrate all types of combat elements, units, and systems, and its ability to form depends on the degree of coupling of the architecture. Only when the political work is integrated into the big system and combines, permeates, and penetrates into the entire process of warfare, can it play a better role. It is necessary to strengthen the “combination” of structural functions, adapt to the requirements of the flat modularization synthesis, and achieve convergence with the joint operations command organization; strengthen the “combination” of decision-making and commanding, and change the decision of relatively independent and self-contained systems in the past. Command mode, synchronized with the military command research, deployment and deployment; strengthen the organization’s implementation of the “melting”, close to combat tasks and processes, so that the task is released, the situation together feedback, plans to adjust together, performance one And assess it to ensure that it interacts and interacts with military operations and complements each other.

To adapt to the characteristics of information-based combat information leadership and network integration, political work must be based on networks and data support. The core of successful informatization operations is to seize the right to information. In the era of big data, we must explore the formation of a new model of “political work + information network” and strive to achieve a transformation from “under the net political work” to “online political work”, occupy the main position of the information network, and seize the commanding heights of the network political work; “Transformation to “Information and Political Work”, good at relying on information means to carry out political work, with the help of information network automatic retrieval, intelligent identification, auxiliary decision-making and other functions to quickly obtain, analyze and process ideological information; from “extensive political work” to “precise political work”, Emphasize the development and application of combat data in political work, dynamically update and improve the operational database, real-time understanding of the ideological and psychological responses of officers and men, supplementation of battle wounds, and implementation of battlefield disciplines, so as to provide a scientific and reliable reference for decision-making and commanding.

To adapt to the three-dimensional, intangible, and unbounded nature of information-based operations, political work must expand its scope and leverage efficiency in content and means. The warfare space for informatized warfare has changed from “three-dimensional” to “multi-dimension,” and the scope of the battlefield has expanded from the “physical domain” to the “cognitive domain.” It is necessary to intensify the idea of ​​big political work, and to establish an organic unified, full-dimensional global coverage of the dot and line surface. Political work network. It is necessary to form a joint force for the main body and open up the link of political work command, organization, and coordination at all levels and levels to achieve vertical penetration, horizontal interaction, and overall linkage; to form a joint force for all personnel, to exert the “adhesion” role of the joint command mechanism, and to launch action battles. The Party, cadres and other elements of intelligence, reconnaissance, early warning, and safeguarding work together to carry out ideological and political work; form a joint force between the military and the land, and link forces, families, and society through sound policy systems, clear responsibilities in the military, and perfect coordination mechanisms. Gather the positive energy of the same direction.

To adapt to the characteristics of instantaneous warfare and rapidity in informationized operations, political work must be changed from time to time in time and effect. The combat under mechanized conditions is “big eating,” and the battle in the information age is “fast eating.” Future operations, especially the sea-air battles, will have fast time-to-space transitions, rapid changes in offensive and defensive rhythms, and rapid development of the battlefield. The key to “winning and winning” lies in “first-in-class” and the opportunity to seize opportunities. It is necessary to fully pre-research the premise, analyze the complex and difficult situations that may occur in the trial and combat operations according to the overall operational objectives, study and formulate countermeasures for prevention and decisive treatment, optimize the work flow, use the command network platform function, and strengthen the up-and-down linking and left-right contact. Reducing the level and streamlining the texts and electricity; paying attention to the command of the front, the political cadres deep in the battle position, in-depth officers and soldiers, the integration of zero, see the pin, timely and effective disposal of critical situations, resolve contradictions.

Informationized Warfare Political Work Service to Guarantee the Fighting Force

By interpreting the winning mechanism of modern warfare, we can more clearly recognize that the excellent tradition of political work that our army has formed in the war years and the practice of building the military is still an important guarantee for winning the victory of informationized operations; at the same time, we must follow the characteristics of informationized warfare. We must seize the key factors that affect the ability to control the system’s operations, identify the path of action, and give meaning to the times, strengthen the unique political advantage of our party and our army, and increase the contribution rate to combat effectiveness.

Focus on the joint victory to enhance the leadership of the party committee. The leadership of party committees is not only a concrete embodiment of the party’s absolute leadership over the army in combat, but also an important guarantee for winning the battle. The key to adhering to and exerting this institutional advantage lies in transforming information into decision-making power, cohesion into systemic power, and innovating ways and means of improvement. To strengthen the authority of unified leadership, all major issues concerning the directionality and overall orientation of warfare must be collectively studied and decided by the party committee. In particular, the joint party committee should be given leadership over all actions and personnel in the war to ensure that the order of military order is unimpeded. Strengthen the scientific nature of the deliberative decision-making, pay attention to improving the party members’ information literacy, fully absorb the opinions and suggestions of the commanders and technical experts of the armed forces, and in particular, strengthen the dynamic control of military affairs, public opinion, and public opinion so as to ensure that the decision-making conforms to the combat operations and the actual conditions of the army. Strengthen the timeliness of implementation, the first time to organize the transmission of higher order instructions, follow up the implementation of the armed forces to implement the situation, in particular, according to operational needs to give front-line commanders the right to dispose, to ensure that in case of accidents can respond quickly and properly.

Focus on the will to win the battle to improve the effectiveness of the incentive. “One is not afraid of suffering and the other is not afraid of death” is the revolutionary background and spiritual business card of our military. To win informatized warfare, we must reflect on the mental and physical characteristics and realistic thinking of the new generation of officers and men and work hard to build an inseparable “spiritual Great Wall.” Concerning the quality of connotation, we adhere to the unity and unity of unconsolidated operations, focusing on strengthening the education of revolutionary heroism and inspiring the bloody nature of the “one man, one shot, and fighting in the end.” They also pay attention to guiding officers and men to strengthen their awareness of intellect, scientific attitudes, and collaborative concepts. The wisdom and enthusiasm to play the maximum effectiveness of system operations. In terms of behavioral norms, we insist on unification of education counseling and discipline, not only focusing on well-targeted education and ideological work on one person but one thing, but also on strict battlefield rules and regulations to ensure that all parties, regardless of adversity or adversity, can be loyal and dedicated. Policy-oriented, adhere to the unity of spiritual rewards and material comfort, not only focus on activities such as the creation of meritorious service, fire line into the party and other activities, stimulate the sense of responsibility of defending national interests, but also pay attention to solve the actual problems of officers and soldiers to lift the worries of the future.

Focus on intelligence to improve the accuracy of manpower deployment. Adhere to the individual allocation and group deployment, commanding key and technical experts, both internal potential and leveraging local complementary, so that ahead of the pre-positioning, positioning positioning, rapid supplementation, in order to win the battle to provide a strong support of personnel. Focusing on the needs of the system’s operational capability, in accordance with the principle of matching people’s positions, we attach importance to the backbone of operational forces and front-line military cadres, and also attach importance to the essential elements of safeguard elements and reserve force cadres to ensure that each combat system, operational unit, and operational element are fully occupied. member. Focusing on the needs of key combat elements, we will continue to focus on focusing on key forces. In particular, we must match the combatants and technical backbones of some key and critical positions and use the best steel in cutting edge. Focusing on the needs of combat support, we will use well-reserved talents around the joint deployment of forces, and focus on the integration of military and civilian security personnel as needed. We will use local intelligence to effectively leverage local high-end talents to achieve the integration of wartime military and human resources.

Focus on moral accomplishment and make a good political attack. Public opinion warfare The psychological warfare legal war runs through every aspect of strategy, battle, and battle, permeates all aspects of politics, economy, and diplomacy, and becomes a special combat style for the confrontation of the informatized war system. In the future operations, we must carry forward the good traditions of our military’s essay attacking and fighting against the armed forces. We must emphasize both the will to convey and the moral interpretation in terms of content. We must focus on both the heavy blows and the people’s hearts to fight for the target. We must take the initiative and make heavy moves in the tactics. In order to fully publicize the just legitimacy of our military operations, we should create a world-famous international and domestic public opinion situation, use war laws and international laws to guide the international public opinion and public opinion, actively seize public opinion, morality, and legal system, ensure the military There is no point in political victory.

Focus on the overall victory to build an upgraded version of the People’s War. The people’s war has always been an important magic weapon for our army to defeat the enemy. Under the new situation, we should focus on the characteristics of the intensification of large-scale informatization and warfare, and based on all-dimensional support, we must do a good job of mobilizing for participation in the war. Change from spontaneous support to legal support, coordinate local party committees and governments, supervise agencies at all levels, social organizations, economic entities, and citizens, fulfill their obligation to participate in warfare in accordance with the law, and do a good job of recruiting people, collecting materials, and expropriation of equipment and facilities. . From direct support to forward network transformation, China will have hundreds of millions of Internet users, mobile Internet users, and Weibo users. We will organize the masses to carry out economic warfare and cultural warfare in information warfare, and invite relevant experts to conduct long-distance consultations on technical support. . From material support to advance science and technology support, and around combat support requirements such as operational reconnaissance and early warning, command communications, and meteorological and hydrological resources, mobilize all kinds of scientific and technological forces to cooperate with information operations, assist in the maintenance of weapons and equipment, and military installations, and lay a strong science and technology potential in the private sector. Turn into war power. (General Political Department Organization Department)

Original Mandarin Chinese:

军事领域是最具活力的领域,最需创新,最忌保守。面对信息化条件下战争形态、作战方式、指挥模式和制胜机理的嬗变,深入探究信息化作战政治工作作用机理,既是践行政治工作时代主题的重要内容和具体体现,也是聚焦打仗发挥生命线作用的现实需要和紧迫任务。

  信息化作战政治工作面临的现实挑战

随着信息技术迅猛发展,现代战争加速向“信息化+智能化”演进,战场环境、作战力量和作战方式发生深刻变化。我军政治工作既迎来创新发展的广阔舞台,也遇到许多新的时代课题。

战略博弈目的有限,政治考量因素更多。当今时代,世界多极化、经济全球化、社会信息化深入发展,国际社会日益成为你中有我、我中有你的命运共同体。受国际公约、国际舆论、道德准则等多重因素制约,世界范围内发生的冲突与对抗趋于分散化、局部化。信息化战争不再是过去你死我活的“零和”博弈,战略指导的重心在于控制战局、达成政治目的;不再像机械化战争那样动用全部武装力量毕其功于一役,打还是不打、什么时候打、怎么打、打到什么程度,都要服从服务于政治需要。

信息技术深度应用,素质需求内涵更广。信息技术的运用和发展,没有也不可能改变人是战争的决定性因素,而对参战人员的素质需求越来越高。对手的高新武器再先进,自身也会存在“死穴”,如何准确找到其“阿喀琉斯之踵”、击其体系要害,需要指挥员具有高超的谋略智慧。武器装备信息化程度再高,也不可能自发其能、自显其威,如何实现人机一体、发挥手中武器的最大效能,需要战斗员具有过硬的信息素养。高强度对抗、高烈度毁伤,给参战人员身心带来巨大震撼,如何做到冷静应战、不自乱阵脚,需要官兵具有稳定的心理素质。

参战力量运用多元,凝神聚力任务更重。未来作战“平台中心”让位于“体系中心”,一体化联合作战成为基本形式。只有把各作战要素、单元和系统“攥指成拳”,才能发挥体系作战效能。陆海空天“有形空间”与网络电磁认知“无形空间”交织并存,呈现出“多维空间+点战场”形态,只有整体布势、联通联动,才能化局部优势为战场胜势。参战军种、作战要素、指挥层级之间协同要求高、难度大,只有增强作战模块之间的“粘合度”,才能实现1+1>2的综合效能。

交战对象隐身遁形,攻心夺志致效更难。信息化条件下,战争制胜的重要标志就是征服对方意志,不仅是军心士气的对抗较量,还体现在对政情民意和社会舆论的影响争取。无人、无声、无形正在成为信息化战争的主要形态,无人化作战力量逐步取代战场上的有生力量,电磁炮、激光炸弹等隐形兵器逐步取代以化学火药能为毁伤机理的传统火器,超视距远程打击逐步取代近战搏击,作战双方几乎见不到面。可以预见,未来作战中舆论较量、心理对抗、法理争夺日益成为名副其实的“第二战场”,重要性与艰难度都空前加大。

作战行动精准快捷,跟进服务要求更高。大数据、云计算、物联网、量子密码等重大技术的突破,使作战由“技术决定战术”发展为“技术决定战略”;在情报、侦察、通信等各要素的支撑下,“1枚导弹摧毁1栋指挥大楼”式体系破击成为现实;“攻击窗口”或“交战机会”时敏性以分秒计算,“1分钟决定战斗结局,1小时决定战局胜负,1天决定国家命运”。过去战争中经常运用的“人海战术”“近战夜战”“持久作战”等战法难以施展,相应形成的战时政治工作传统做法不加以改进,未来作战中就可能陷入融不进、跟不上、够不着的困境。

信息化作战政治工作组织实施的内在要求

信息化战争相对机械化战争,制胜机理最显著最本质的变化在于技术形态信息化、作战对抗体系化,信息流聚合主导物质流能量流。我军政治工作作为军事系统的有机组成部分,必须适应战争制胜机理变化的客观需要,从指挥观念、组织形式到运行机制、方法手段等进行创新变革,推动传统优势与信息技术高度融合,用数据链加固生命线,以信息力强化生命力。

适应信息化作战政治制约、多方联动的特点,政治工作在筹划指导上必须关照全局、把向控局。战争的政治属性,从根本上制约着军事目的、力量规模、策略选择和战局发展。我军战时政治工作是党在军队作战期间的思想工作和组织工作,根本任务是保证党中央、中央军委战略意图在作战行动中的贯彻落实。组织开展政治工作第一位的是,强化官兵尤其是各级指挥员的政治意识、全局意识、号令意识,坚持把实现党中央、中央军委和习主席战略意图作为最高目的,把贯彻执行习主席和军委命令指示作为根本要求,坚决服从服务于党和国家战略目标,叫打就打、叫停就停,不盲目追求单纯军事效果,开好局、控好局、收好局。

适应信息化作战体系对抗、要素集成的特点,政治工作在组织指挥上必须融入体系、一体实施。信息化作战依托信息网络融合各类作战要素、单元和系统,其能力的形成依靠于体系结构的耦合度。政治工作只有融入大体系,结合、贯穿、渗透到作战各领域全过程,才能更好地发挥作用。要强化结构功能上的“融”,适应扁平化模块化合成化要求,做到与联合作战指挥机构相契合相衔接;强化决策指挥上的“融”,改变以往相对独立、自成体系的决策指挥模式,做到与军事指挥同步研究、部署和展开;强化组织实施上的“融”,紧贴作战任务和进程,做到任务一并下达、情况一并反馈、计划一并调整、绩效一并评估,保证与军事行动交融交互、相辅相成。

适应信息化作战信息主导、网聚效能的特点,政治工作在运行方式上必须基于网络、数据支撑。信息化作战制胜的核心在于夺取制信息权。在大数据时代,必须探索形成“政治工作+信息网络”的新模式,努力实现由“网下政工”向“网上政工”转变,占领信息网络主阵地,抢占网络政治工作制高点;由“传统政工”向“信息政工”转变,善于依托信息手段开展政治工作,借助信息网络自动检索、智能识别、辅助决策等功能快速获取、分析和处理思想信息;由“粗放政工”向“精确政工”转变,重视政治工作作战数据开发运用,动态更新完善作战数据库,实时掌握官兵思想心理反应、战伤战损补充、战场纪律执行等情况,为决策指挥提供科学可靠参考。

适应信息化作战全维立体、无疆无界的特点,政治工作在内容手段上必须拓展领域、借力增效。信息化战争作战空间由“三维立体”向“多维一体”转变,战场范围由“物理领域”向“认知领域”延伸,需要强化大政工理念,构建点线面有机统一、全维全域覆盖的政治工作网络。要形成主体合力,打通各层级各部位政治工作指挥、组织、协调等环节链路,实现纵向贯通、横向交互、整体联动;形成全员合力,发挥联合指挥机制“粘合”作用,发动作战、情报、侦察、预警、保障等各要素党员干部,齐心协力开展思想政治工作;形成军地合力,通过健全政策制度、明确军地职责、完善协调机制等方式,把部队、家庭、社会衔接起来,汇聚同心同向的强大正能量。

适应信息化作战瞬时交战、以快制快的特点,政治工作在时机时效上必须因时而动、以变应变。机械化条件下的作战是“大吃小”,信息化时代的作战则是“快吃慢”。未来作战特别是海空交战,时空转换快,攻防节奏变化快,战场态势发展快,“胜一筹”关键在于“先一筹”,把握良机重在抢占先机。应当充分预研预置,根据总体作战目标,分析研判作战中可能发生的复杂困难情况,研究制定预防和果断处置的对策措施;优化工作流程,利用指挥网络平台功能,加强上下贯通、左右联系,减少层级、精简文电;注重靠前指挥,政治干部深入战位、深入官兵,化整为零、见缝插针,及时有效地处置危急情况、化解矛盾问题。

信息化作战政治工作服务保证战斗力的实现途径

透析现代战争制胜机理,可以更加清晰地认识到,我军在战争年代和建军实践中形成的政治工作优良传统,仍然是赢得信息化作战胜利的重要保证;同时要遵循信息化作战的特点规律,抓住影响制约体系作战能力的关键因素,找准作用路径、赋予时代内涵,强固我党我军特有政治优势,提高对战斗力的贡献率。

着眼联合制胜增强党委领导驾驭力。党委领导作战,既是党对军队绝对领导在作战中的具体体现,也是夺取作战胜利的重要保证。坚持和发挥这一制度优势,关键是围绕信息力转化为决策力、内聚力转化为体系力,创新改进方式方法。强化统一领导的权威性,凡属有关作战方向性、全局性的重大问题,必须由党委集体研究决定,尤其要赋予联合党委对作战中一切行动和人员的领导权,确保政令军令畅通。强化议事决策的科学性,注重提高党委成员信息化素养,充分吸纳部队指挥员和技术专家的意见建议,尤其要加强对军情、民意和社会舆论的动态掌握,确保决策符合作战行动和部队实际。强化贯彻执行的时效性,第一时间组织传达上级命令指示,跟进掌握部队贯彻落实情况,尤其要根据作战需要赋予一线指挥员临机处置权,确保遇有意外情况能够快速反应、妥善应对。

着眼意志制胜提高战斗激励实效性。“一不怕苦、二不怕死”,是我军的革命底色和精神名片。打赢信息化战争,必须针对新一代官兵身心特征和现实思想反映,着力构筑牢不可摧的“精神长城”。内涵特质上,坚持孤胆作战与团结协作相统一,既注重加强革命英雄主义教育,激发“一人一枪、战斗到底”的军人血性,又注重引导官兵强化智谋意识、科学态度、协同观念,靠集智聚力发挥体系作战的最大效能。行为规范上,坚持教育疏导与纪律约束相统一,既注重搞好针对性教育和一人一事的思想工作,又注重严明战场法纪,确保无论顺境还是逆境都能忠贞不渝、献身使命。政策导向上,坚持精神奖励与物质抚慰相统一,既注重通过开展立功创模、火线入党等活动,激发捍卫国家利益的责任感荣誉感,又注重关心解决官兵实际问题,解除后顾之忧。

着眼智力制胜提升人力配置精确度。坚持个体配置与群体调配相适、指挥骨干与技术专家并重、内部挖潜与借力地方互补,做到超前预置、定岗定位、快速补充,为赢得作战胜利提供强有力的人才支持。紧盯体系作战能力需求,按照人岗相宜的原则,既重视作战部队、一线部队干部骨干配备,也重视保障要素、后备力量干部骨干配备,确保每个作战系统、作战单元、作战要素齐装满员。紧盯关键作战要素需求,坚持重点力量重点配备,尤其要把一些关键要害岗位的战斗员、技术骨干配强,把好钢用在刀刃上。紧盯伴随作战保障需求,围绕力量联动编配使用好预备役人才,着眼军地联保按需引进综合保障人才,立足智力联用有效借力地方高端人才,实现战时军地人才资源一体共享。

着眼道义制胜打好政治攻势主动仗。舆论战心理战法律战,贯穿于战略、战役和战斗各个层面,渗透到政治、经济、外交各个方面,成为信息化战争体系对抗的一种特殊作战样式。未来作战中,要发扬我军文攻武战的好传统,内容上既重意志传达又重道义阐释,对象上既重兵心打击又重民心争取,战法上既重主动出招又重见招拆招,全面宣传我军事行动的正义性合法性,营造师出有名的国际与国内舆论态势,巧用战争法、国际法,引导国际民心和舆论走向,积极抢占舆论、道义和法理制高点,确保军事上打得赢、政治上不失分。

着眼整体制胜打造人民战争升级版。人民战争始终是我军克敌制胜的重要法宝。新形势下,应着眼信息化战争大体系大纵深大消耗的特点要求,立足全维支援抓好参战支前动员。由自发支前向依法支前转变,协调地方党委政府,督导各级机关、社会组织、经济主体和公民,依照法律规定履行参战支前义务,做好人员征召、物资征集、装备设施征用等工作。由直接支前向网络支前转变,发挥我国拥有几亿网民、手机网民和微博用户的庞大资源,组织人民群众开展信息战中的经济战文化战,邀请有关专家对技术保障进行远程难题会诊。由物质支前向科技支前转变,围绕作战侦察预警、指挥通信、气象水文等战斗力保障需求,动员各种科技力量配合信息作战、协助维修武器装备和军事设施,把蕴藏在民间的强大科技潜力转化为战争实力。(总政治部组织部)

Original Post Here:

http://military.people.com.cn/n/2015/1113/