Category Archives: China’s Military Organization – Intelligence

China Faces Challenge of Combat Interpretation of Latest US Military Information Warfare // 中國面臨美軍最新信息戰作戰解讀挑戰中國網絡戰能力

China Faces Challenge of Combat Interpretation of Latest US Military Information Warfare

中國面臨美軍最新信息戰作戰解讀挑戰

中國網絡戰能力

Soure: X

中國網絡戰

中國網絡戰能力

Reaching aspects during Chinese President Xi Jinping’s visit, the two countries to combat cybercrime and promote the development of codes of conduct in cyberspace consensus, developed a number of cooperation initiatives to maintain network security, the formation of some dispute settlement mechanism, it is intended to address global network security issues. However, the US military in cyber warfare, information warfare is a fight, and actively adjust operational concepts, organizational system, forms of organization, operational processes and information culture, accelerate the development of the field of information warfare capabilities to ensure the Navy to get in a confrontation with major combat rival China’s dominance.

First, information warfare establishment of institution-building

In 2013, the US Navy Intelligence and Communication Networks merged unit information superiority by a Deputy Minister of Naval Operations is responsible for matters related to information superiority, with seven officers and some senior civilian fleet, as well as many professionals engaged in information warfare work in the field of change exist between intelligence gathering and fleet operations during the Cold war barriers, the US Navy to ensure safe use of the network environment to support access to information among the various operations. US Navy Fleet at Fort Dmitry set up Cyber ​​Command, the merger of the former Naval Network Warfare Command in Norfolk, Virginia naval base, he served as deputy commander of the Chief of Naval Operations is responsible for the integration of capabilities and resources, is responsible for the network attack and defense, management, operation and defense of the Navy’s network, as well as other activities related to cyber war, as both the US Cyber ​​Command, the Navy branch, to provide information to the US military combat support.

In the army building, the US Navy established the first 10 Fleet responsible for information warfare, information superiority as the US Navy forces, the development and delivery of information superiority capability to support operational requirements of the US Navy and allies, has formed intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, full operational capacity of the network, command and control, communications, intelligence, electronic warfare, aerospace and other aspects of the transition to the information operations after the US Navy intelligence and cyber warfare important step.

From US Navy surface ships, submarines and aviation sector includes allocated funds to ensure the daily operation of the Ministry of information superiority, training, equipment and procurement, taking into account the construction and development of unmanned aerial systems and electronic warfare systems. Although electronic warfare department, said the electronic attack items (such as the next generation of jammers) transferred from the Air Operations Department to the Ministry of information superiority will weaken budgetary support for electronic attack system, but the Navy said it had recognized that strengthening the field of electronic warfare offensive the importance of strengthening investment in the field of electronic warfare.

Second, the “joint information environment” guarantee the right to information system at sea

According to the US Department of Defense in September 2013 issued a “joint information environment implementation strategies”, “joint information environment” (JIE) is by far one of the largest joint military information technology operations, with the goal of network integration within the DoD overall IT footprint and infrastructure costs of the construction of the Ministry of Defence, the “chimney” of information systems development for the flat network of dynamic information system, providing interoperability of cloud-based enterprise network infrastructure and services, reduce to ensure that the US military battlefield obtain control of information, enhance the capacity of the Ministry of Defence to deal with cyber threats in the field.

“Joint Information Environment” construction focus is to strengthen information sharing and cooperation, the establishment of enterprise-class shared security protocol for configuration standardization, optimizing the routing of data, at the time and place needed to deliver confidential voice, data and information, including almost all joint information DoD information technology work. “Joint information environment” universal, global, based on cloud properties, including network operations center, data center and cloud-based applications and services, identity management systems, based data storage and sharing capabilities cloud structure and review computer technical support, allows the use of any device to achieve the edge of the network operator, to accelerate the integration of command and control network nodes, can guarantee the daily operations and administration while reducing the cost of network operation and management.

Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is responsible for technical management of a joint information environment, the development of the overall architecture of the safety standards, access issues and identity management. July 2013, the US European Command in Stuttgart established its first enterprise-class Operations Center (EOC), responsible for managing the access management information environment within the Joint Command of the US system in Europe and Africa, dozens of command and control nodes under the jurisdiction of merger . In 2014, the US Pacific Command, and enterprise-class operations center in the United States have also launched joint information environment “Delta 1” have reached initial operational capability.

US Department of Defense Joint Information Environment has given a total of $ 239 million to ensure funding for the purchase of core routers, optical network equipment, fiber optic, network devices, storage devices, security tools and other infrastructure, management and maintenance of the Defense Information Systems Network. In the context of budget cuts, the US military had more dependent on commercial space field, planned in 2016 by the local company responsible for global broadband communications satellite (WGS) in daily operations. In the civil-military cooperation in space operations, DISA need to focus on the potential threat so bring, make up the vulnerability of the physical transmission layer.

Third, the face of major combat operations rivals Applications

Navy Information Warfare future construction operations targeting China and other major rivals, based on the field of cyberspace under serious threat in the Western Pacific battlefield environment construction and operation of information and operational deployment to focus on the formation of forward-deployed real deterrent. US military flexibility and emphasizes the use of reliable satellite communications, to support joint information environment physical transport layer, especially for mobile and forward-deployed forces, command and control and ISR equipment to deal with the growing threat of space.

The initial stage of “joint information environment” design applications, the US Navy had stressed in its response cyber threats using a single security architecture (SSA) to reduce the Navy’s networks “cyber attack surface,” the US military response in the face of network damage, theft data and other forms of cyber attacks, to ensure that the US military’s combat information through various channels to secure smooth transmission. If the intruder’s goal is simply to prevent or delay transmission of information, there is no need to pursue a unified security architecture and security code.

Optical Fiber Communication Security System Operation Command Decision Support System is another focus of attention Navy. Currently, 99% of international data traffic through submarine cable transmission, optical fiber communication is the US military’s “joint information environment” an important transport route for the United States to protect allies and overseas military bases of communication and contact. Naval activities is the greatest threat to the submarine cable, submarine cable on the other side of the attack is difficult to prevent, once destroyed will take a long time to repair. Therefore, the Defense Information Systems Agency “Network infrastructure requirements” (NIPR) requires operators to repair the damaged cable within three days, the US Navy underwater submarine cable project team is also responsible for the maintenance and repair tasks to ensure safe and smooth optical fiber communication .

Fourth, call our army building appropriate information warfare capabilities

Faced with aggressive information warfare against the US military posture, Chinese military information warfare must face the challenge to build offensive and defensive information warfare system. Recently, Chinese President Xi Jinping has said it will vigorously promote the revolution in military affairs, the development of “information warfare” new strategies, innovative new military doctrine to fulfill the mission requirements of the system and setup, system equipment, strategy and tactics, management mode. Specific to the field of information warfare is to aim at the US military weaknesses, focusing on the development of anti-satellite missiles, land-based electronic jamming of satellite monitoring and control, high-energy laser to attack satellites and space-based weapons killer weapons, improve the ability of information systems most vulnerable to attack opponents nodes, enhanced network integrated Defense level clouds and terminal element transport layer, dependent on the US military “joint information environment” to implement the most damaging effect, in order to gain the initiative in the local military confrontation or war.

Origianl Mandarin Chinese:

中国国家主席习近平访美期间,中美两国就打击网络犯罪、推动制定网络空间行为准则等方面达成共识,制定了维护网络安全的若干合作举措,形成了某些争端解决机制,意图共同解决全球网络安全问题。然而,美军在网络战、信息战方面正在大动干戈,积极调整作战概念、编制体制、组织形式、作战流程和信息文化,加快发展信息领域作战能力,确保海军能够在与主要作战对手中国的对抗中取得优势地位。

一、信息战编制体制建设

2013年,美国海军将情报部和通信网络部合并成立信息优势部,由一名海军作战部副部长负责信息优势相关事务,配备7名舰队军官和一些高级文职,以及众多的专业人员从事信息战领域的工作,改变了冷战时期情报搜集和舰队作战之间存在的壁垒,保证美国海军利用安全的网络环境获取信息支持各种作战行动之中。美国海军在梅德堡组建了舰队赛博司令部,合并了弗吉尼亚州诺福克海军基地的原海军网络战司令部,由负责能力和资源整合的海军作战部副部长任司令,主要负责网络进攻和防御,管理、运作和保卫海军的网络,以及与赛博作战相关的其它活动,同时作为美军赛博司令部的海军分支,向美军提供信息作战支持。

在部队建设方面,美国海军成立了第10舰队专门负责信息战,作为美国海军的信息优势部队,发展和投送优势信息能力,支援美海和盟军的作战需求,目前已经形成情报监视与侦察、网络、指挥控制、通信情报、电子战、航天等方面的完全作战能力,向信息作战转型之后成为美国海军情报和网络战的重要步骤。

美国海军从水面舰艇、潜艇和航空兵部门划拔经费,保障信息优势部的日常运行、训练、装备和采购,兼顾无人航空系统和电子战系统的建设发展。尽管电子战部门表示将电子攻击项目(如下一代干扰器)从空中作战部门转移到信息优势部将削弱对电子攻击系统的预算支持,但是美国海军表示已经认识到在电子战领域加强攻击性的重要性,加强电子战领域的投入。

二、“联合信息环境”保证海上制信息权

根据美国国防部2013年9月发布的《联合信息环境实施战略》,“联合信息环境”(JIE)是美军迄今为止最大的联合信息技术行动之一,其目标是在国防部范围内进行网络一体化化建设,将“烟囱式”的信息体系发展为扁平网络化的动态信息体系,提供互联互通的基于云的网络基础架构和企业级服务,减少国防部整体的信息技术占用空间和基础设施成本,确保美军获得战场制信息权,提高国防部应对赛博领域威胁的能力。

“联合信息环境”的建设重点是加强信息共享和合作,建立企业级的共享安全协议,实现配置标准化,优化数据路由,在需要的时间和地点交付保密的语音、数据和情报,包括了几乎所有的国防部信息技术工作的联合信息。“联合信息环境”具有通用性、全球性、基于云的特性,包括网络作战中心、数据中心和基于云应用程序和服务的身份管理系统,提供基于云结构的数据存储和共享能力和可回顾的计算机技术支持,允许使用任何设备实现边缘网络操作,加速网络指挥与控制节点的融合,能够保障作战行动和日常行政管理,同时减少网络运行管理成本。

国防信息系统局(DISA)负责联合信息环境的技管理,制定整体架构中的安全标准、准入问题和身份管理等。2013年7月,美军欧洲司令部在斯图加特建立了首个企业级作战中心(EOC),负责管理美国欧洲和非洲司令部内联合信息环境系统的访问管理,合并下辖的几十个指挥和控制节点。2014年,美军太平洋司令部和美国本土的企业级作战中心也相继展开,联合信息环境“增量1”陆续达到初始作战能力。

美国国防部对联合信息环境建设给予了总计2.39亿美元的经费保证,用于采购核心路由器、光网设备、光纤、网络设备、存储设备、安全工具等基础设施,管理维护国防信息系统网。在预算削减的背景下,美军不得不更加倚重商业空间领域,计划在2016年由地方公司负责宽带全球通信卫星(WGS)的日常运营。在军民合作的空间运营中,DISA需要关注因此带来的潜在威胁,弥补物理传输层的脆弱性。

三、面对主要作战对手展开作战应用

美国海军未来信息战建设瞄准中国等主要作战对手,立足赛博领域严重威胁下的西太平洋战场,进行信息环境建设运营和作战部署,以前沿部署为重点形成现实威慑。美军强调使用弹性和可靠的卫星通信,支持联合信息环境物理传输层,特别是对机动和前沿部署的部队、指挥控制和ISR装备,应对日益增加的空间威胁。

“联合信息环境”设计应用的最初阶段,美国海军就强调以其应对赛博威胁,利用单一安全架构(SSA)减少海军网络面临的“赛博攻击面”,应对美军面对的网络破坏、窃取数据等多种形式的赛博攻击,保证美军的作战信息通过各种渠道安全通畅地传输。如果入侵者的目标只是阻止或迟滞信息传输,就没有必要追求统一的安全架构和保密码。

作战指挥辅助决策系统的体系结构光纤通信安全是美国海军关注的另一个重点。目前,99%的国际数据通信通过海底光缆传输,美军的光纤通信是“联合信息环境”的重要传输途径,用来保障美国本土与盟国和海外军事基地的通信联络。舰艇活动对是海底光缆的最大威胁,对方的对海底光缆的攻击很难防范,一旦遭到破坏需要很长时候修复。因此,国防信息系统局的“网络基础设施需求”(NIPR)要求运营商在3天之内修复受损光缆,美国海军水下工程队也担负海底光缆的维护和抢修任务,保证光纤通信安全顺畅。

四、呼唤我军建设相应的信息战能力

面对美军咄咄逼人的信息战对抗姿态,中国军队的信息战也要直面挑战,建设攻防兼备的信息战体系。日前,习近平主席已经表示中国将大力推进军事变革,制定“信息化战争”新战略,创新履行使命要求的新的军事理论、体制编制、装备体系、战略战术、管理模式。具体到信息作战领域,就是要瞄准美军弱点,重点发展反卫星导弹、陆基电子干扰卫星测控、高能激光攻击和天基卫星武器等杀手锏武器,提高攻击对手信息系统最脆弱节点的能力,增强网络云和终端元件传输层的综合攻防水平,对美军依赖的“联合信息环境”实施最大效应的破坏,才能在军事对抗或局部战争中占据主动。

China Military Review of US Cyberspace Development Strategy // 中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評

中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評

发布日期: 2015 – 10 – 15

中國軍方人士

With the dependence on cyberspace continues to improve, the US cyberspace security into national security strategy category, has promulgated the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment”, “Cyberspace International Strategy”, “cyberspace operations strategy” and a series of policy file, accelerate the construction of cyberspace security strategy system, vigorously strengthen the network combat forces, to achieve hegemony in cyberspace control. April 2015, the US Department of Defense has issued “Cyberspace Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “the new cyber strategy”) summary, for the first time publicly that the cyberspace operations as one of the options for future tactical military conflict that the United States has exceeded the network space combat preparation system, weapons and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, forming an effective mode of network attack and defense, has all the ability to launch cyber war.

  First, the US Cyberspace Strategy Evolution
  Cyberspace security strategy of the United States began in the late 20th century, at the Clinton and the Bush administration has been further strengthened and developed, eventually forming a “national strategy for cyberspace security.” Since 2009, the Obama administration has issued a series of strategic documents for the United States constructed a three-dimensional network security strategy system, international politics and international security situation had a significant impact.
  (A) in the Clinton and the Bush administration, cyberspace into context of US national security strategy, issued its first “cyberspace national strategy.”
  The Clinton administration information industry as an emerging pillar industries and vigorously support, promote the rapid development of the Internet, but also to the United States to rely on the network rose to an unprecedented degree, the information industry has become the largest industry in 1995 – growth in the US economy during 1998 The actual contribution rate of more than 35%. Published by the end of 1999, “US National Security Strategy Report” for the first time defined the US cyberspace security interests that network security threats to US national security posed challenges presented initial ideas to prevent security risks of cyberspace through international cooperation and other means. In early 2000 the introduction of “defending America’s cyberspace – to protect the national information system plan”, became the first programmatic document of the United States to maintain network security space. Release of this document is another important motivation is the US government tried to develop new rules of the game, to ensure American power distribution of wealth in cyberspace, to build a strong, growing and innovative US economy.[12]
  The Bush administration since the “September 11” incident, the United States has changed the concept of security, network spatial development strategy adjustment from “development priority” to “Security First”, and promulgated the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” in 2003. The strategy identifies strategic position cyberspace security, cyberspace is defined as “to ensure the nation’s critical infrastructure properly functioning ‘nervous system’ and the national control systems,” the security situation in cyberspace to make a new judgment, that the new situation combined with the hostile forces of terror and information technology to pose a serious threat to US national security, will clearly improve cyberspace security to national security strategic level. “US National Security Strategy,” the strategy report issued in 2002, “Homeland Security National Strategy” and other reports, constituted after the “9.11” incident the new US national security strategy system. [12]
  (B) The Obama administration efforts to build US cyberspace security strategy stereo system, and actively seek a higher degree of cyberspace world hegemony, to ensure that the three core interests prosperity, security, the US government values ​​determined in cyberspace
  President Obama took office, started the 60-day cyberspace security assessment, and in May 2009, issued a “cyberspace policy review.” In the report published ceremony, Obama delivered an important speech entitled “to protect the American network infrastructure”, specifies the development of new national cyberspace security strategy, led by the National Security Council, the integrated use of diplomatic, military, economic, intelligence and law enforcement “four in one” means ensuring security in cyberspace, so that the strategic concept of cyberspace Obama administration’s horizon.
  1, cyberspace security threats as an excuse to network infrastructure as a national strategic asset, by all means to protect the security of cyberspace
  US cyberspace strategy document, the threat is the highest frequency vocabulary appears. The United States believes in cyberspace Chiang Kai-shek himself facing a new invisible smoke of war, and has been at a disadvantage, worried about the future possible outbreak of “Network Pearl Harbor” or “medium” 9/11 “incident [10]. To this end, Obama came to power after repeatedly stressed, should the network security as part of national security strategy, the network infrastructure will be increased to protect national strategic asset. March 2009, the US Center for Strategic and International Studies, submitted to “ensure the new presidency cyberspace” first report’s recommendations is that the network is an important wealth of the country, “the United States will not hesitate to use all means of national power ensuring security in cyberspace. issued “cyberspace policy assessment report” in May 2009 that day, Obama said in a speech, cyber threats are “one of the most serious challenges to US economic and national security faced” network infrastructure will be regarded as a strategic national facility “to protect the facility will become a national security priority issue.” We can say that all US cyberspace strategy and policy documents are as a starting point.
  2, to improve leadership and command system as the focal point, accelerate the construction of cyberspace deterrence systems and to build capacity-building network attacks.
  Obama believes the US government cyberspace security agencies there strategic center of gravity is unknown, job functions overlap, lack of coordination and other issues, it is necessary to implement the leadership from the top, the overall coordination of network security mechanism. May 2009, the White House announced the formation of cyberspace security office, the president is responsible for the policy decision to provide cyberspace security, coordinate government policies and activities. A month later, the Defense Department announced the creation of Cyberspace Command, responsible for coordinating the US military deployment strategy and network security, unified US military command network warfare, network warfare forces to enter the United States so that harmonized development of the “fast track.” Thus, the United States to create an integrated and comprehensive national cybersecurity leadership system. Published in July 2011, “cyberspace operations strategy”, as the United States Department of Defense first report on cyberspace operations and comprehensive strategy to more effectively carry out military operations in cyberspace provides guidelines and a roadmap, marking the US military operations in cyberspace who has been officially transferred deployment and implementation phase. In 2012, US National Cyber ​​Range officially delivered military trial. In 2013, the United States Cyber ​​Command expanded from 900 people to 4900 people, announced the expansion of 40 network warfare units within three years. 2014, the US Department of Defense released the “Quadrennial Defense Review Report,” clearly put forward the “expansion of investment in new network capabilities, network building 133 task force.” It is noteworthy that from 2013 to the year 2014, the US declared war forces expansion of the network more than three times. Meanwhile, the US also increased efforts to carry out research and development of cyber weapons, arms only reached 2,000 kinds of viruses, and has already entered the US Weapon series. This series of actions that the objective to reach the US military in cyberspace than just ensure its own security in cyberspace, but to build a network to enhance deterrence system through cyberspace attack, towards the consolidation of its “system net power” in cyberspace . [2]
  3, in order to emphasize international cooperation in cyberspace as a means to change and influence the political system and values ​​of other countries, and strive to maintain US hegemony
  In May 2011 the United States issued “Cyberspace International Strategy”, the first time its foreign policy goals combined with cyberspace strategy, marking its focus has been disclosed by the ball itself will be extended to the entire range, while its output cyberspace has become an American an important platform for political models and values. Former Defense Secretary Robert Gates has publicly declared that the network is a “huge strategic American assets in favor of other countries to help promote democracy.” Since then the Department of Defense issued “cyberspace operations strategy” is the introduction of “collective defense” concept, showing the United States to establish a new military alliance in cyberspace intent. Obama Government has been changed over the years, the United States resisted, highly publicized international cooperation in cyberspace, partly because it recognizes that even a superpower like the United States, can not single-handedly solve the problems exist in cyberspace and, more importantly, the United States wants to use its strong network resources, through international action in cyberspace cyberspace control global leadership development, change and affect the political system and values ​​of other countries, to consolidate its hegemony in cyberspace . [4]
  Second, the US Department of Defense the main features of the new cyber strategy
  April 2015, the new cyber strategy US Department of Defense released a continuation of the Obama administration’s strategic vision of cyberspace, for the first time publicly that one should cyberwarfare as a future military conflict tactical options, an explicit proposal to improve cyberspace deterrence and offensive capability, put on active defense and deterrence posture initiative, reflects the next few years, the US space power network construction and distinctive features of related actions, highlighting the US attempts to dominate in cyberspace.
  (A) exaggerated the threat facing the United States in cyberspace, cyberspace has continued to spread fear destruction, wanton shaping cyberspace at the national level enemy
  The new cyber strategy with a larger strategic context described space, repeatedly stressed that the United States risks inherent in cyberspace environment, deliberately exaggerating the threat of cyberspace activities faced constantly looking for new threats, new enemy is the United States to shape the mindset of decision logic and tradition dictates . In the strategy paper publicly available, the “risk” and “threat” were two words appear up to 31 times and 46 times, claiming that the new cyber strategy risks and threats from both the basic structure of the Internet’s inherent ability to handle risks, but also from the interests of the enemies of the United States coveted American networks, systems and data intrusion and malicious damage. The new cyber strategy will be mainly determined by the previous target to prevent extremist network technology and combined adjusted to focus on the national level opponent, Russia, China, Iran, North Korea and other countries as the United States may constitute a threat to the network [1]. These presets national level opponents, both in order to show the necessity of the introduction of the new cyber strategy, but also the threat of the proliferation of network attacks fear of public opinion, and thus eliminate barriers for “Snowden” event generated between the private sector and , dilute the new cyber strategies on social interests and personal privacy violations, to further consolidate public support for DoD and government policies. This judgment with ideological bias and arbitrariness, high-handed and is a very dangerous act. In fact, the United States ahead of the field of security in cyberspace, no one country can be formed a fundamental threat to the United States.
  (B) expressly DoD cyberspace strategic tasks and objectives, publicly cyberspace operations as a future military conflict tactical options, highlighting the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture.
  The new cyber strategy identifies the Department of Defense “three major tasks” and “five strategic objectives,” first proposed to launch a cyber attack when US national interests are threatened, and asked the US Department of Defense “Developing viable network options into the DoD term plan “for the US president or secretary of defense to provide” full spectrum “of options, when it comes to their national interest to make a variety of decisions.Compared with 2011 the first release version of cyberspace emphasize defensive action by the major network security operations to “offensive action network” changes, and the new cyber strategy frequent word “deterrence”, a total appears 29 times, that the United States has gradually freedom “with precision-guided physical damage to cope with asymmetric means to deal with cyber attacks” on US deterrence into network attacks to protect US national cybersecurity strategy, squeezing US major strategic competitors cyberspace policy choices available. At the same time, the new cyber strategy first proposed holding cyberspace operations as a tactical option, option to control the use of network operations escalation of the conflict, create conflict environment. Visible, the new cyber strategy has been the traditional means of fighting the physical space and virtual cyberspace means of integration, clearly convey to the world the determination of the American retaliation and sufficient network capacity to implement retaliation, far beyond the active defense category, highlighting the United States will protect cyberspace, attacks and confrontation blend of deterrence and offensive posture. [1] [8]
  (Iii) strengthen the integration with traditional combat power, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, with the power to launch cyber warfare system
  US military cyberspace operations following the fifth field of land, sea, air, space after the new cyber cyberspace operations strategy requires the option into the Defense Department plans to ensure that all areas of military operations in cyberspace and physical space Action Action coordinated. The new cyber strategy proposed to mobilize all forces, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, including the Ministry of Defence led government departments, between government and enterprises and international concerted action. The new cyber strategy breakthrough in Cyberspace “civil-military separation” trend strategy, Cyberspace Command, National Security Agency, the organic integration of the Central Security Agency, the Ministry of Defence is responsible for network forces combat training and guidance to the intelligence network functions and network operations functions are distinguished by the Defense Department-led combat troops network. One important goal of the new cyber strategy is to build a 2018 offensive and defensive, flexible forms of cyberspace forces, including 133 teams from the 6200 Department of Defense and the military soldiers, civilian and contract employees and other components. Among them, 13 responsible for the national infrastructure network protection mandate national task forces and eight country support teams; 27 to assume the task of attacking the enemy’s network operations task force and 17 combat support units; 68 responsible for the protection of the United States Department of Defense and the military network protection force network and system security tasks. These actions show that the US military has been resolved cyberspace warfare establishment system, apparatus and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, explore the formation of an effective mode of generating combat capabilities of network attack and defense, with the power to launch cyber warfare system. [7]
  (Iv) continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, consolidate US leadership in the world in the field of network information for its dominate cyberspace to provide technical support.
  For a long time, the US military has the advantage of science and technology as an important part of the national security strategy, and always will be technological innovation as the key to maintaining US military strength and capacity. As a network of information technology and the birthplace of the leader, the United States Department of Defense to maintain and expand the leading edge technologies that will continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, technology continues to improve deterrence and offensive capabilities in cyberspace. The new cyber strategy proposed, the Defense Department must build and command and control systems to increase investment, continues to accelerate technological innovation in the field of cyberspace, vigorously carry out research and development with significant advantages over the technology, focusing on staff training to improve cyberspace, effective organization basic research and applied research capacity for action needed to fully develop the required DoD cyberspace capabilities. In recent years, the United States looks to shape the full spectrum cyberspace operations capability can cope with all types of threats in the successful development of “chute”, “Fire” and “shock web” more than 2,000 kinds of network warfare weapons on the basis of increasing network space war frontier technology investment, and actively develop a new generation of network technology and virtual battlefield assault weapons, and network warfare weapons and conventional weapons integration, in order to achieve a variety of battlefield environment flexible ways to combat.The new cyber strategy conference selection in the birthplace of Silicon Valley Stanford University, in person at the Secretary of Defense Carter, will seek to show that the Ministry of Defence and a new mechanism between the private sector and research institutions, technology, people and information and cooperation, and develop a wide range of industries channel sector R & D cooperation, greatly enhance the ability to act in cyberspace, to provide a solid technical support for the United States to expand the network space interests, safeguarding cyberspace hegemony. [7]
  Third, the construction of cyberspace security forces Inspiration
  The new US Defense Department cyber strategy highlights the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture, releasing its attempt hegemony in cyberspace danger signal, and to our country as one of its main rivals in cyberspace, cyberspace is bound for China safety and national security have a profound impact. Faced with the threat of US cyberspace strategy, China should accelerate the pace of construction of power networks, and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty interests in cyberspace, safeguard national cyberspace security.
  (A) firmly established Cyberspace Security Strategy in national security, strengthen national security in cyberspace top-level design, in line with China’s national conditions to speed up the formation of a military cyberspace security strategy system
  President Xi pointed out that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. This important exposition, clear cyberspace strategic position for the construction of the security forces of cyberspace provided a powerful impetus.Currently, the national cyberspace security forces involved in military dress, especially after fighting equipment sector, and national industry, finance, energy, transportation, education and other sectors. Therefore, we should focus on promoting the interdisciplinary, multisectoral cyberspace security system construction, the formation of strong guidance, perfect features, dynamic evolution of cyberspace security strategy system. National Cyberspace Security Strategy should carry out national cyberspace security situation assessment, clarify the department’s own cyberspace security policy, as well as the main tasks and the division of responsibilities in national security in cyberspace, military and civilian science linkage design, comprehensive coverage, responsive network space security forces system, organizational system and institutional system. Cyberspace military strategy should focus on military operations security, the implementation of self-defense and homeland defense needs collaboration, scientific planning cyberspace “reconnaissance, attack, defense, control” forces, specifically the construction of military use of cyberspace timing, principles and tasks, as well as synergies with local forces. Cyberspace International Strategy should focus oppose hegemony in cyberspace, cyberspace governance rights and fight for the right to speak, and resolutely safeguard national cyberspace sovereign interests and development interests, and actively promote the peaceful development and common prosperity of the international cyberspace.
  (Ii) accelerate the construction of an appropriate scale, combined offensive and defensive cyberspace security forces, and constantly improve the network space combat capability, to provide strategic support for the maintenance of national security in cyberspace
  To effectively respond to threats in cyberspace main rival joint operations and information technology support to high-quality compound talents as the main body, accelerate the construction of electricity network integration, hardware and software combination, both offensive and defensive cyberspace power system, focusing on the development of intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities, integrated attack, defense capabilities and affect the control system capacity to effectively meet the security and defense tasks require effective counterattack. At present, shall be in accordance with the strategic and operational level, based on the national and military security and electronic warfare forces network-based, command, reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” and six security forces to focus the power of the network set up directly under the army’s troops and the attachment of various branches / departments of strategic and security reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” four network power forces the enemy to achieve the Internet, critical infrastructure, national defense information network, information systems and other defense battlefield combat. Technical support base in accordance with cyberspace security needs, the establishment of core technology research and development equipment, offensive and defensive range, a number of joint combat exercises and other technical support base, to provide technical support for the network equipment research, development, testing and evaluation.
  (C) to strengthen cyberspace theoretical research, and actively explore cyberspace mode of generating combat, and strive to improve the combat capability of our army cyberspace
  In the process of the evolution of the war, military battlefield Game by plane, three-dimensional multi-dimensional virtual battlefield to battlefield extended form, combat and operational means of war is undergoing revolutionary change, to win victory in future wars but no longer rely on bullets and explosives byte strings and no longer rely on the military but on the scale of the number of botnets, will nurture and birth of a new doctrine. Accelerate innovation in cyberspace combat theory, system analysis of the historical evolution of human warfare, to find common characteristics and laws of war, exploring new ideas that may occur in the military field, the new theory, in-depth study of cyberspace doctrine, doctrine, combat styles, and elements cyberspace power system composed of the elements of its own scientific judgment and changes in the relationship between the shape of cyberspace changes and evolution. Increased interdependence cyberspace winning mechanism, system analysis cyberspace and physical space constraints and mutual enhancement of mutual relations, in-depth mechanism, attack and defense mechanism, the mechanism of the effect of war in cyberspace right, and the mechanism of self-organizing collaborative research, and actively explore cyberspace winning new mechanisms and new ways. Actively explore cyberspace combat formation mechanism, focusing on national cyberspace security strategies to enhance the combat effectiveness of troops starting point, the system analyzes cyberspace combat formation structure, composition and structure analysis of the interaction between the various elements of the fighting, a network of scientific space combat effectiveness the new model provides a solid theoretical innovation for our military in cyberspace can fight to win the war.
  (D) seize the new round of technological change information network a major opportunity, and vigorously promote the development of self-control cyberspace security core technology and key equipment, consolidate our network security space technology base.
  For a long time, the United States use of network information technology security threat to other countries, for the recent implementation of high-performance computing technology embargo, indicating that it will not easily give up the leading international cyberspace security right to speak. After the “Prism” incident, the world is generally recognized that there is no core technology, key equipment and self-controlled, cyberspace will be the lifeblood of the hands of others, have increased self-controlled information network construction. Currently, a new round of worldwide information network technology is ushering in a new wave of development, the development of large data, networking, quantum information, cutting-edge cloud computing and other emerging technologies are driving traditional information network technology to enter the replacement stage, to promote the network basis for, the system shape and space technology security mechanism profound changes. Should make full use of information network technology upgrading precious “time window”, to focus the forefront of key technologies in the emerging field of security basic, global impact of cyberspace, increase their own information network technology and independent information industry development efforts continue promoting the “nuclear high base” of major projects, and actively create the ecological environment of self-control application, determined to get rid of cyberspace security key technologies the kinds of passive situation, the lifeblood of the national cyberspace security technology and industrial development firmly in control of their own hands.
  (E) give full play to the advantages of our system, promote China’s cyberspace security forces and civilian integration development, to build military and civilian science linkage, peacetime and wartime national cyberspace security system
  Cyberspace has a “peacetime and wartime, civil-military one” determined by the characteristics of cyberspace security system must take military and civilian integration development model.Important features of the new US Department of Defense cyberspace security strategy is to mobilize the army of human, technical and industrial resources, accelerate the formation of cyberspace prominent military and technological superiority. China should give full play to the advantages of the system and network advantages of a big country, and actively promote the cyberspace combat forces military and civilian integration, fully absorb the military, local professional and technical strength and nurture talent in the private sector network attack and defense, national parties formed a unified command under the system of ” power system main force “and” guerrilla “a combination of; by improving the organization and leadership to build civil-military integration, program planning, collaborative innovation and industrial development at the national cyberspace security system, and promote the development of dual-use network information technology to optimize civil-military dual network information industry layout, accelerate the formation of “galloping market can not only battle-hardened” information technology industrial base; establish and improve civil-military integration network defense mobilization system, a clear linkage military and civilian cyberspace security system and operation mechanism, promote the integration of military and civilian network space action joint exercises, and actively explore how to play the power of the people’s war in cyberspace, condensed balance enemies, against tremendous energy hegemony, the realization of China’s power network by the network power to leap.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
隨著對網絡空間的依存度不斷提​​高,美國將網絡空間安全納入到國家安全戰略範疇,先後頒布《網絡空間政策評估》、《網絡空間國際戰略》、《網絡空間行動戰略》等一系列政策性文件,加快構建網絡空間安全的戰略體系,大力加強網絡作戰力量建設,以實現對網絡空間控制的霸權地位。 2015年4月,美國防部又發布《網絡空間戰略》(下文簡稱“新版網空戰略”)概要,首次公開表示將網絡空間行動作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,表明美國已突破了網絡空間作戰的編制體制、武器裝備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,形成了網絡攻防的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的全部能力。

一、美國網絡空間戰略演變
美國網絡空間安全戰略思想發端於20世紀中後期,在克林頓與布什政府時期得到進一步充實和發展,最終形成了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。自2009年奧巴馬政府以來,先後發布了一系列戰略文件,為美國建構了一個立體的網絡安全戰略體系,對國際政治和國際安全局勢產生了重大影響。
(一)在克林頓及布什政府時期,網絡空間安全進入到美國國家安全戰略範疇,頒布了首份《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。
克林頓政府將信息產業作為新興支柱產業大力扶持,推動了互聯網的高速發展,也使美國對於網絡的依賴上升到了前所未有的程度,信息產業成為美國最大的產業,1995-1998年期間對美國經濟增長的實際貢獻率達35%以上。 1999年底公佈的《美國國家安全戰略報告》首次界定了美國網絡空間安全利益構成,認為網絡安全威脅對美國國家安全構成挑戰,提出了通過國際合作等方式防範網絡空間安全風險的初步設想。 2000年初出台《保衛美國的網絡空間——保護信息系統的國家計劃》,成為美國維護網絡空間安全的第一份綱領性文件。推出這份文件的另一個重要動因是美國政府試圖通過制定新的遊戲規則,確保美國在網絡空間中分配財富的權力,建立強大的、不斷增長的創新型美國經濟。 [12]
布什政府自“9·11”事件後,改變了美國的安全觀,將網絡空間發展戰略從“發展優先”調整為“安全優先”,並於2003年頒布了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。該戰略明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,將網絡空間定義為“確保國家關鍵基礎設施正常運轉的’神經系統’和國家控制系統”,對網絡空間安全形勢做出了新的判斷,認為新形勢下恐怖敵對勢力與信息技術的結合對美國國家安全構成嚴峻威脅,明確將網絡空間安全提高到國家安全的戰略高度。該戰略報告與2002年頒布的《美國國家安全戰略》、《美國國土安全國家戰略》等報告,構成了“9·11”事件後美國新的國家安全戰略體系。 [12]
(二)奧巴馬政府著力打造美國網絡空間安全立體戰略體系,積極謀求更高程度的網絡空間世界霸權,確保美國政府在網絡空間所確定的繁榮、安全、價值觀三大核心利益
奧巴馬總統上任伊始,就啟動了為期60天的網絡空間安全評估,並於2009年5月,發布了《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​。在該報告的發布式上,奧巴馬發表了題為《保護美國網絡基礎設施》的重要講話,指定由國家安全委員會牽頭制定新的國家網絡空間安全戰略,綜合運用外交、軍事、經濟、情報與執法“四位一體”的手段確保網絡空間安全,從而使奧巴馬政府的網絡空間戰略構想初露端倪。
1、以網絡空間安全威脅為藉口,把網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產,將不惜一切手段保護網絡空間安全
美國網絡空間戰略文件中,威脅是出現頻率最高的詞彙。美國認為,自己在網絡空間中正面臨著一場新的看不見硝煙的戰爭,且已處於劣勢,擔心未來可能爆發“網絡珍珠港”或是“網上‘9·11’”事件[10]。為此,奧巴馬上台後不斷強調,應把網絡安全作為國家安全戰略的一部分,將網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產加以保護。 2009年3月,美國戰略與國際問題研究中心提交的《確保新總統任內網絡空間安全》報告提出的第一條建議就是,網絡是國家的重要財富,“美國將不惜動用一切國家力量之手段確保網絡空間安全。在2009年5月發布《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​的當日,奧巴馬發表講話稱,網絡威脅是“美國經濟和國家安全所面臨的最嚴重的挑戰之一”,網絡設施將被視為戰略性國家設施“保護該設施將成為國家安全的優先課題”。可以說,美國所有網絡空間戰略及相關政策文件都是以此為出發點。
2、以完善領導指揮體係為著力點,加快構建網絡空間威懾體系,著力打造網絡攻擊能力建設。
奧巴馬政府認為,美國政府網絡空間安全機構存在著戰略重心不明、工作職能重疊、缺乏協調配合等問題,因此必須從最高層實施領導,全面協調網絡安全機制。 2009年5月,白宮宣布組建網絡空間安全辦公室,負責為總統提供網絡空間安全方面的決策方針,協調政府相關政策與活動。一個月後,國防部宣布創建網絡空間司令部,負責協調美軍網絡安全策略及部署,統一指揮美軍網絡戰,使得美國網絡戰力量進入統一協調發展的“快車道”。由此,美國打造了一體化的綜合性國家網絡安全領導體制。 2011年7月公佈的《網絡空間行動戰略》,作為美國防部首份有關網絡空間作戰行動的綜合戰略,更為美軍有效開展網絡空間行動提供了指南和路線圖,標誌著美軍網絡空間軍事行動已正式轉人部署與實施階段。 2012年,美國家網絡靶場正式交付軍方試用。 2013年,美網絡司令部由900人擴編到4900人,宣布3年內擴建40支網絡戰部隊。 2014年,美國防部發布《四年防務評估報告》​​,明確提出“投資新擴展的網絡能力,建設133支網絡任務部隊”。值得關注的是,從2013年到2014年一年中,美軍宣稱網絡戰部隊擴編3倍以上。與此同時,美國還加大力度開展網絡武器的研發,僅病毒武器就達2000多種,且早已進入美軍武器序列。這一系列動作表明,美軍在網絡空間要達成的目標絕不僅僅是保證自身網絡空間安全,而是要通過提升網絡空間攻擊能力構建網絡威懾體系,實現鞏固其在網絡空間的“製網權” 。 [2]
3、以強調國際網絡空間合作為手段,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,力求維護美國霸權地位
2011年5月美國出台《網絡空間國際戰略》,首次將其外交政策目標與網絡空間戰略結合在一起,標誌著其關注重點已公開由自身擴展到整個球範圍,同時網絡空間也成為其輸出美式政治模式和價值觀的重要平台。原國防部長蓋茨曾公開宣稱,網絡是“美國巨大的戰略資產,有利於幫助其他國家推進民主”。此後出台的國防部《網絡空間行動戰略》更是引入“集體防禦”理念,展現了美國要在網絡空間建立新軍事同盟的意圖。奧巴馬政府之所以一改美國多年來的抵制態度,高調宣傳網絡空間國際合作,一方面是因為它認識到,即使是美國這樣的超級大國,也不可能憑一己之力解決網絡空間存在的種種問題,更重要的是,美國希望利用自己雄厚的網絡資源,通過在網絡空間的國際行動掌控全球網絡空間發展領導權,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,鞏固自身在網絡空間的霸權地位。 [4]
二、美國防部新版網空戰略主要特點
2015年4月,美國防部發布的新版網空戰略,延續了奧巴馬政府對網絡空間的戰略構想,首次公開表示要把網絡戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,明確提出要提高網絡空間的威懾和進攻能力,擺出積極防禦和主動威懾的姿態,折射出未來數年美軍網絡空間力量建設和相關行動的鮮明特點,彰顯了美國在網絡空間稱霸的圖謀。
(一)誇大美網絡空間面臨的威脅,不斷擴散網絡空間遭受破壞的恐懼,恣意塑造網絡空間國家層級的敵人
新版網空戰略用較大篇幅描述戰略背景,反復強調美國網絡空間環境蘊含的風險,蓄意誇大網絡空間活動面臨的威脅,不斷尋找新威脅、塑造新敵人是美國思維定勢和決策邏輯的傳統使然。在公開發布的戰略文件中,“風險”和“威脅”兩詞分別出現高達31次和46次,新版網空戰略聲稱這些風險和威脅既源於互聯網基本架構防範風險能力的先天不足,也源於覬覦美國利益的敵人對美國網絡、系統和數據的惡意入侵和破壞。新版網空戰略將主要目標確定由此前以防範網絡技術與極端主義結合為重點調整為國家層級的對手,將俄羅斯、中國、伊朗、朝鮮等列為可能對美國構成網絡威脅的國家[1]。預設這些國家層級的對手,既是為了顯示推出新版網空戰略的必要性,也是在公共輿論中擴散對網絡攻擊威脅的恐懼,進而消除因“斯諾登”事件與私營企業之間產生的隔閡,淡化新版網空戰略對社會利益和個人隱私的侵害,更進一步鞏固公眾對國防部和政府政策的支持。這種判斷帶有主觀隨意性和意識形態偏見,是一種霸道和非常危險的行徑。事實上,美國在網絡空間安全領域遙遙領先,沒有哪一個國家能對美國形成根本性威脅。
(二)明確國防部網絡空間戰略任務和目標,公開把網絡空間作戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項,凸顯了美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻態勢。
新版網空戰略明確了國防部“三大任務”和“五項戰略目標”,首次提出美國國家利益受到威脅時可發動網絡攻擊,並要求美國防部“開發可行的網絡選項,融入國防部各項規劃”,為美國總統​​或者國防部長提供“全頻譜”的選擇方案,以便其在涉及國家利益的時候能夠做出各種決策。與2011年首次發布版本相比,網絡空間行動由主要強調防禦性的網絡安全行動向“採取進攻性網絡行動”轉變,並且新版網空戰略中頻繁出現“威懾”一詞,共出現29次,表明美國已經逐漸將“用精確制導的物理毀傷來應對網絡攻擊的不對稱應對手段”,納入到威懾對美國網絡攻擊、保障美國國家網絡安全戰略、擠壓美國主要戰略競爭對手的網絡空間行動自由的策略選擇之中。同時,新版網空戰略第一次提出將保持網絡空間行動作為戰術選項,運用網絡行動選項控制衝突升級,塑造衝突環境。可見,新版網空戰略已將傳統的物理空間作戰手段與虛擬的網絡空間作戰手段相融合,向世界清晰地傳遞了美國進行網絡報復的決心和實施報復的足夠能力,遠遠超出了主動防禦的範疇,凸顯了美國將網絡空間的保護、攻擊和對抗融為一體的威懾和進攻態勢。 [1] [8]
(三)加強與傳統作戰力量融合,構建全方位聯合作戰體系,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系
網絡空間是美軍繼陸地、海洋、天空、太空後的第五作戰領域,新版網空戰略要求把網絡空間行動選項融入到國防部計劃中,確保軍事行動的所有領域中網絡空間行動與物理空間行動協調一致。新版網空戰略提出要動員各方力量,​​構建全方位的聯合作戰體系,包括由國防部主導政府部門間、政企間和國際間的協同行動。新版網空戰略突破了網絡空間戰略“軍民分隔”的態勢,將網絡空間司令部、國家安全局、中央安全署有機融合,由國防部負責網絡部隊的作戰訓練和指導,從而將網絡情報職能與網絡作戰職能進行區分,由國防部主導網絡作戰部隊。新版網空戰略的重要目標之一是至2018年建成一支攻防兼備、形式靈活的網絡空間部隊,包括由6200名國防部和軍事部門的軍人、文職人員和合同員工等組成的133支小組。其中,13支擔負國家基礎設施網絡防護任務的國家任務部隊和8支國家支援小組;27支擔負攻擊敵網絡系統任務的作戰任務部隊和17支作戰支援部隊;68支擔負保護美國國防部及軍隊網絡和系統安全任務的網絡保護部隊。這些動作表明,美軍已經解決了網絡空間戰的編制體制、裝備設備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,探索形成了網絡攻防戰鬥力生成的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系。 [7]
(四)繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,鞏固美在網絡信息領域的世界領先優勢,為其稱霸網絡空間提供技術支撐。
長期以來,美軍一直將科學技術優勢作為國家安全戰略的重要組成部分,始終將科技創新作為維持美軍作戰優勢能力的關鍵。作為網絡信息技術的發源地和引領者,美國防部為保持和擴大技術領域的領先優勢,將繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,不斷提升網絡空間的技術威懾和進攻能力。新版網空戰略提出,國防部必須在人員培訓、有效組織構建和指揮控制系統方面加大投入,繼續加速網絡空間領域的技術創新,大力開展具有重大優勢的跨越性技術的研發,聚焦提高網絡空間行動能力所需的基礎研究和應用研究,全面發展國防部所需的網絡空間作戰能力。近年來,美國著眼塑造可應對各類威脅的全頻譜網絡空間作戰能力,在成功研發“舒特”、“火焰”和“震網”等2000多種網絡戰武器的基礎上,不斷加大網絡空間作戰前沿技術投入,積極研發虛擬戰場技術和新一代網絡攻擊性武器,並將網絡戰武器與傳統武器進行整合,以實現在戰場環境中靈活的多種打擊方式。新版網空戰略發布會選擇在矽谷發源地的斯坦福大學進行,國防部長卡特親自前往,表明國防部將尋求與私營部門和研究機構間技術、人員和信息聯繫與合作的新機制,廣泛拓展與工業部門合作研發的渠道,大力提升網絡空間行動能力,為美國拓展​​網絡空間利益、維護網絡空間霸權提供堅實的技術支撐。 [7]
三、對我國網絡空間安全力量建設的啟示
美國國防部新版網空戰略凸顯了美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻姿態,釋放出其圖謀網絡空間霸權的危險信號,並把我國列為其網絡空間的主要對手之一,必將對我國網絡空間安全乃至國家安全帶來深刻影響。面對美國網絡空間戰略威脅,我國應加快網絡強國建設步伐,堅決捍衛國家網絡空間主權利益,維護國家網絡空間安全。
(一)牢固確立網絡空間安全在國家安全中的戰略地位,加強國家網絡空間安全的頂層設計,加快形成符合我國國情軍情的網絡空間安全戰略體系
習主席指出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。這一重要論述,明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,為我國網絡空間安全力量建設提供了強大動力。當前,國家網絡空間安全涉及軍隊軍政後裝尤其是作戰、裝備部門,以及國家工業、金融、能源、交通、教育等部門。為此,應著眼推進跨領域、多部門網絡空間安全體系構建,形成指導有力、要素完善、動態演化的網絡空間安全戰略體系。國家網絡空間安全戰略應深入開展國家網絡空間安全態勢評估,明確各部門自身網絡空間安全策略,以及在國家網絡空間安全中的主要任務和職責分工,科學設計軍民聯動、覆蓋全面、反應敏捷的網絡空間安全力量體系、組織體系和製度體系。網絡空間軍事戰略應著眼軍事行動安全、實施自衛反擊和協同國土防禦需要,科學規劃網絡空間“偵、攻、防、控”力量建設,明確網絡空間軍事力量建設運用的時機、原則和任務,以及與地方力量的協同關係。網絡空間國際戰略應著眼反對網絡空間霸權、爭奪網絡空間治理權和話語權,堅決維護國家網絡空間主權利益、發展利益,積極推動國際網絡空間的和平發展和共同繁榮。
(二)加快建設一支規模適度、攻防結合的網絡空間安全力量,不斷提高網絡空間實戰能力,為維護國家網絡空間安全提供戰略支撐
著眼有效應對網絡空間主要對手威脅和支撐信息化聯合作戰,以高素質複合型人才隊伍為主體,加快構建網電一體、軟硬結合、攻防兼備的網絡空間力量體系,重點發展情報偵察能力、綜合攻擊能力、體系防禦能力和影響控制能力,有效滿足安全防禦和有效反擊任務需要。當前,應按照戰略和戰役層次,立足國家和軍隊網絡安全和電子對抗力量基礎,以指揮、偵察、攻擊、防禦、“三戰”和保障六支力量為重點,設置直屬全軍的網絡力量部隊和配屬各軍兵種/戰略和安全部門的偵察、攻擊、防禦、“三戰”四支網絡力量部隊,能夠實現對敵國際互聯網、關鍵基礎設施、國防信息網、戰場信息系統等進行防禦作戰。技術保障基地按照網絡空間作戰保障需要,建立核心裝備技術研發、攻防靶場、聯合作戰演練等若干技術保障基地,為網絡裝備研究、開發、試驗與評估提供技術支撐。
(三)加強網絡空間作戰理論研究,積極探索網絡空間戰鬥力生成模式,著力提高我軍網絡空間作戰能力
在戰爭發展演變的進程中,軍事博弈已由平面戰場、立體戰場向虛擬多維戰場延伸,戰爭的形態、作戰方式和作戰手段正發生革命性變革,贏得未來戰爭勝利不再依靠子彈和炸藥而是字節和字符串,不再依靠軍隊規模而是依靠殭屍網絡的數量,必將孕育和催生新的作戰理論。加快網絡空間作戰理論創新研究,系統分析人類戰爭的歷史演變,尋找戰爭的共同特點和規律,探索軍事領域可能出現的新思想、新理論,深入研究網絡空間作戰理論、作戰原則、作戰樣式,以及網絡空間作戰的力量體系的要素組成,科學判斷各要素自身及相互關係的變化對網絡空間作戰形態的變化和演進。加強網絡空間作戰制勝機理研究,系統分析網絡空間與物理空間的相互依存、相互制約和相互增強等關係,深入開展網絡空間制權機理、攻擊與防禦機理、作戰效果機理、自組織協同機理等方面的研究,積極探索網絡空間作戰制胜新機理、新途徑。積極探索網絡空間戰鬥力生成機理,著眼國家網絡空間安全戰略,以提高部隊戰鬥力為基點,系統剖析網絡空間戰鬥力生成結構,分析結構中各戰鬥力要素的組成和相互作用關係,科學形成網絡空間戰鬥力生成的新模式,為我軍在網絡空間能打仗打勝仗提供堅實的創新理論。
(四)抓住新一輪信息網絡技術變革重大機遇,大力推動網絡空間安全核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控發展,夯實我國網絡空間安全的技術基礎。
長期以來,美國利用網絡信息技術優勢對別國進行安全威脅,近期針對我國高性能計算實施技術禁運,表明其不會輕易放棄主導國際網絡空間安全的話語權。 “棱鏡”事件後,世界各國普遍意識到,沒有核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控,網絡空間安全的命脈就會掌握在別人手裡,紛紛加大自主可控信息網絡建設力度。當前,世界範圍內新一輪信息網絡技術正迎來新的發展浪潮,大數據、物聯網、量子信息、雲計算等新興前沿技術的發展,正推動傳統信息網絡技術進入更新換代階段,推動網絡空間的技術基礎、系統形態和安全機理髮生深刻變化。應充分利用信息網絡技術更新換代的寶貴“時間窗”,聚焦前沿新興領域中對網絡空間安全具有基礎性、全局性影響的核心關鍵技術,加大自主信息網絡技術和自主信息產業發展力度,持續推進“核高基”重大專項,積極營造自主可控應用的生態環境,下決心擺脫網絡空間安全核心關鍵技術受制於人的被動局面,將國家網絡空間安全的技術和產業發展的命脈牢牢掌控在自己手中。
(五)充分發揮我國製度優勢,推進我國網絡空間安全力量軍民融合式發展,科學構建軍民聯動、平戰結合的國家網絡空間安全體系
網絡空間具有“平戰結合、軍民一體”的特點,決定了網絡空間安全體系必須採取軍民融合發展模式。美國國防部新版網絡空間安全戰略的重要特點,就是廣泛動員軍民人力、技術和產業資源,加快在網絡空間形成突出的軍事和技術優勢。我國應充分發揮制度優勢和網絡大國的優勢,積極推動網絡空間作戰力量的軍民融合發展,充分吸納軍隊、地方專業技術力量以及孕育在民間的網絡攻防人才,形成國家統一指揮體制下的各方“主力軍”和“游擊隊”相結合的力量體系;通過完善構建軍民融合的組織領導、規劃計劃、協同創新和產業發展的國家網絡空間安全體系,推動軍民兩用網絡信息技術的發展,優化軍民兩用網絡信息產業佈局,加快形成“既能馳騁市場又能決戰沙場”的信息科技產業基礎;建立完善軍民融合網絡國防動員體系,明確網絡空間安全軍民聯動體制和運行機制,推動軍民融合的網絡空間行動聯合演習,積極探索如何在網絡空間中發揮人民戰爭威力,凝聚制衡強敵、反對霸權的巨大能量,實現我國由網絡大國向網絡強國的飛躍。

China Military Review: Special Operations Forces: The “strategic dagger” of US Foreign Military Operations // 中國軍事評論特种作战部队:美对外军事行动的“战略尖刀”

中國軍事評論特种作战部队:美对外军事行动的“战略尖刀”

来源:解放军报   Since World War II, special operations on its unique flexibility, efficiency, asymmetry, is increasingly becoming an important means to safeguard the strategic interests of the United States the way to deal with the threat of challenges. In recent years, the US military special operations forces is the task type from traditional warfare to expand the area of ​​non-traditional field of battle, much to replace conventional forces to become the protagonist of battlefield information, acts as a US foreign military operations “strategy knife” of the situation.

    War sharpening “of the United States Blade”

Although modern special operations began in World War II, but its position fully aware of the role of the US military and is widely used in the practice of war after World War II. In almost all previous local wars and regional conflicts in the United States to intervene, or can be hidden or US Special Operations Forces found the figure, during record and failure of innovation and development have become the US military special operations “grindstone” so special operations the “United States of Blade,” the increasingly sharp.

Vietnam War can be said that the US large-scale, long the first attempt of special operations. During the war, US special operations forces are widely assumed to wipe out the guerrillas, special reconnaissance, sabotage attack, trainers and other “counter-insurgency” operations, and implementation of the attack, such as Vietnam prisoner of war camps Shanxi operations. Although the injustice of war and strategic guidance mistakes, tactical advantage the US has never been able to get the special operations strategy into a winning situation, sadly had to withdraw troops from Vietnam, but special operations forces in the war revealed adaptability, mobility, concealment, but be sure to get high-level US military, and has been the focus used in subsequent wars and armed conflicts.

In 1980, in order to rescue the detained American Embassy in Iran, more than 60 staff, 97 US special operations long-range raid from Cairo to Tehran. Since the aircraft suddenly encountered sandstorms and failures in the course of action, combined with ill emergency plan, the US military was forced to cancel plans. But the US military did not lose heart, but pay more attention to the lessons learned on the basis of a strong push development of special operations. April 1987, the US Special Operations Command was officially established, special operations forces govern the land, sea and air belongs marks SOF as an independent fighting force officially on the United States in war.

Subsequently, the invasion of Panama in 1989 action, the 1991 Gulf War, the war in Afghanistan in 2001, the 2003 Iraq war and the 2011 war in Libya, the US military will be more and more frequently used for special operations forces and strategic direction of the main season for completion one by one “mission impossible.” Especially in the war in Afghanistan, with the help of advanced information technology tools, the US special operations forces to work independently, creatively objective guidance, penetration strike, buy com collapse, US forces defeated the Taliban regime in a short time to achieve the purposes of war.

US special operations forces continue to promote the development, almost “every battle will be special,” The reason is: First, responsive, compiled capable, able to quickly respond to local emergencies and asymmetric threats; the second is action concealed, sudden strong often the enemy unexpectedly, with minimal resources quickly achieve strategic goals, action to reduce the risk; Third flexible means of warfare, as campaign “global strike” strategic concept important choice; four is better able to fight with other forces joint operations, conventional and unconventional forming closely integrated combat system.

 Great support system under the “sword easy road”

With the evolution of new military revolution in depth, US Special Operations increasingly showing the non-contact combat, to fight the elite fighting from the contact-scale operations, from strategic weapons platform support to support the system, from traditional areas to new areas of the rapidly evolving situation, special combat troops because it can carry out specific tasks to perform conventional forces should not be difficult to complete or to become military to defeat the enemy “killer.”

Trend direct command and control strategy. US Special Operations command and control consists of national and theater-level combat troops and three grade levels. Under normal circumstances, the national command authorities, Special Operations Command, Command theater, theater of military services under the command or function Command commander level performed by operational control. With the mandate of privacy, sensitivity continues to improve, more and more stressed by the US military strategic level special operations were “direct” type vertical command, enhanced controllability operational flexibility. For example, in 2011, and the residence of the US military in Pakistan killed Osama bin Laden raid, Obama and his decision-making team thousands of miles away from the White House situation room, through remote video, real-time synchronization command. This action fully reflects the strategic nature of special operations.

Special blitz highlighting system support. “Tactical operations, strategic support; elite action, system support; local action, global support” has become a significant feature of the US military special operations. Still killed Osama bin Laden, “Neptune Spear” raid, for example, in this battle, on the surface of the US military deployed only four helicopters, 24 “Seal” commandos, it took less than 40 minutes to kill al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden summit. But behind both heaven 35 satellites and more than 40 aircraft to provide a strong information security, there collusion aircraft carrier battle groups at sea, on land as well as support for two military bases in Central Asia, as well as various support ten thousand security personnel. This is a typical “large system support elite action” reflects the profound new form of war in the information age.

Towards a comprehensive joint operations. The US military believes, “joint” is one of the special nature of warfare requires the full participation of the military services and the depth of collaboration. Currently, the US Special Operations not only achieved with the Air Force from the “sensor to shooter” joint, greatly improving its “spike” combat capability, but also to break the union with CIA covert operations, the CIA intelligence-gathering capabilities and special operations forces strike capability combine complementary advantages. Especially after Afghanistan “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US military special operations but will work with conventional forces from the joint campaign sink to the level of the tactical level, to achieve integrated operations teams level. According to statistics, code-named “Mountain Storm” military implementation of the 2004 crackdown, the US special operations troops with conventional forces conducted 62 joint tactical operations, 40 of which action is implemented in the company level, in action 22 battalion level performed.

The effect of a strike action to pursue the enemy. US Special Operations always attached importance to a direct attack on the enemy’s high-value targets in an attempt to speed up the process of speedy combat strategic objectives. From the recent local wars practice, often other US Special Operations Leadership Summit and pre-emphasis as targets, the implementation of the so-called “decapitation attack” by the sudden rapid surprise attacks, to “lock on”, a hit enemy’s strategic effect. For the first time on the war in Iraq from Saddam to use such tactics, the war in Libya Gaddafi trick, while not directly reach the goal, but the US military special operations against enemy decision-making psychological shock is immeasurable, greatly shaken each other’s will to resist, played a “strike hard” and “soft kill” double effect. It is envisioned that the US military this “sword pay” type of special operations will also continue to unfold.

 Efforts to forge “global power”

Currently, the US has special operations, combat drones and network operations as of great importance for the future operations of the “New Trinity” power, to focus on building, hoping to build a responsive, both small and hard, multi-dimensional and multi-functional special war “global power.”

Strengthening overseas deployment, to expand the number scale. Recently, the US significantly reduced military presence overseas, but the number of overseas US Special Operations forces have been continuously increased, but also a significant increase in the deployment of the number of countries and regions. According to reports, the end of the Bush administration, the US Special Operations Forces deployed in about 60 countries worldwide, to increase to 75 by 2010. As of 2015, the United States Special Operations Forces have been deployed to the world’s 135 countries. To meet the growing demand of the task, in the various branches of the background of widespread layoffs, the US special operations forces increased rather than decreased, the number from 2001 to 2014, 3.3 million to nearly 70,000 people, an increase of about one times, of which 80% deployed overseas. American executives believe scale special operations forces deployed abroad, will significantly improve the ability of US military intervention in global affairs in particular to respond to emergencies.

Optimizing operational grouping, build new units. In order to meet the diverse nature of the war on terror style, US special operations forces structure adjustment pace has accelerated noticeably. In recent years, the focus adjustment is: narrow special operations group size to achieve power “downsizing”; to add a new task forces have been established in the Civil Command, irregular warfare and psychological warfare wing brigade, enhance the combat capability of non-traditional areas, to achieve carry out the task “diversity”; optimization special operations units grouped according to the type of task, we will act flexibly experts, communications specialists, psychologists, explosives experts and other personnel mixed grouping of different expertise, improve the ability to adapt to complex battlefield, combat units to achieve “synthesis of . ”

Comprehensive update equipment, enhance the quality of new combat capability. In recent years, the US military continued to increase investment, research and development of new special operations equipment: First, “Individual Combat System”, mainly by the laser range finder, cameras, environmental sensors, ballistic computer and target tracking device component, with automatic transmission and shielding against was behind the target function, improve the combat capability independent of man; the second is a remote delivery tool to improve special operations MC-130H aircraft and purchase V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft, airborne accurate terrain-following radar, navigation systems and high-speed aircraft resistance, enhance special operations forces behind enemy lines and remote mobile penetration; the third is a new concept weapons, the main enemy is the destruction of electronic equipment computer viruses, electromagnetic pulse weapons. These new weapons once the troops will enable the US military special operations means richer, more diverse mission areas.XX

Not every commandos wore green berets

– Special Forces decryption

Chronicles Dazhaoweibin

In American terms, “special operations forces” (Special Operation Forces) and the “Special Forces” (Special Forces) are two concepts exist simultaneously. The former US Special Operations Command is under the jurisdiction of all forces referred to, including the Army Special Forces, 75 commandos, Navy Seals, “Delta” Force and SEAL Team 6; the latter refers specifically to the Army Special Forces, known as “Green Beret hat “forces. The force is due to Kennedy personally authorized to wear with other branches of the military are not the same Green Beret named.

It has a long history with the CIA origins very well. In 1952 the US created its first “Green Beret” troops, is to OSS (the predecessor of the CIA), “Jed fort” under the leadership of troops as a template. During World War II, “Jed fort” team was ordered to enter the territory of France, Belgium and the Netherlands were occupied, providing weapons and supplies for the resistance groups area, and act as the Supreme Allied Command with contact channels. Responsible for the formation of the force, Colonel Allen Burbank was a veteran of the Office of Strategic Services, the CIA after playing for, has a wealth of experience in covert operations. The task force was originally given is: Suppose the Soviet occupation of Western Europe, they will remain in the Soviet front organization behind the unconventional war. So far, unconventional warfare remains one of the core tasks of the Special Forces.Since the task often requires secrecy in times of peace or war before it started to prepare, and execute peacetime area of ​​responsibility belongs to the CIA’s covert operations mission, so often we need to work with the CIA when the Special Forces carry out such tasks or simply placed under the leadership of the CIA. CIA Special Operations agents are often recruited from the Special Forces veterans, it is not surprising.

Clear division of responsibility area worldwide. “Green Beret” troops now compiled five active duty brigades and two by the National Guard usually responsible for the supervision of trained reserve brigade. Five active-duty brigade Total Posts a million people, are responsible for the Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, the Americas and Europe in five regions, corresponding to the formation of the US theater setting.According to their topography, political ecology, military deployment, the local language and customs of their respective areas of responsibility, etc., to carry out targeted training.Some troops were deployed in a long-term task of the region belongs to the friendly countries to better combat environment where the familiar. Under the big division, and each brigade has a very fine internal division of labor. A Special Forces squad as the basic combat unit, and its 12 members are familiar with the operations, intelligence, weapons, engineering, medical, communications expertise in one of the six, and by cross-training to master one to two additional expertise.

Ability comprehensive, one play multiple roles. Compared to the commando skills to the extreme to show “Delta” force and “SEAL Team 6”, “Green Beret” troops skill players is more comprehensive and balanced, they not only have excellent commando skills, but also possess a the US military called a “diplomatic warrior” skills that language and culture skills, interpersonal skills and political sensitivity. Due to the wide implementation of anti-terrorism, reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, unconventional warfare task, they have to play a role not only heroic commandos, more mature, alert and flexible intelligence agents, coaches and diplomats. In the recruitment process, the “Green Berets” force requirements should recruit must go through foreign language skills tested, along with social communication, military training, weapons, operational and organizational aspects of directing talent. Taking into account the language and cultural skills through short-term training is difficult to obtain, often targeting special forces in recruiting those with an ethnic minority background or appearance, with skilled foreign language ability. Shortlisted players to accept the harsh physical and fighting skills, while also learning psychological warfare course and language intensive training to ensure that they are trained to play multiple comprehensive ability and quality possible.

Frequent use of the name rarely made public. Since the formation of the “green beret” troops will be frequently used, but in view of the confidentiality of their duties, as well as its inherent low profile style, the message about these tasks rarely made public, it is difficult to see in newspapers. For example, in the late 1950s, they have been sent to Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, South Korea, Indonesia and other places, for the training of local forces; in 1967 was sent to Bolivia, Bolivian Army responsible for training camp do not move, and to assist them killed the central figure of the Cuban revolution, Che Guevara; in 1989 a large-scale invasion of Panama participated in the “just cause” to overthrow Noriega regime. After the Cold War, the United States authorities for their use continues unabated. “Desert Storm” operation, they were deployed in advance to Kuwait and Iraq depth zone, execute several months of secret reconnaissance missions provided an important headquarters for the coalition military intelligence; aggression in Afghanistan “Enduring Freedom” operation, they had a beard riding a mule, local people dressed in costumes, under air fire support, the leadership of the Northern Alliance armed overthrow of the Taliban regime.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

    自从第二次世界大战以来,特种作战就以其独特的灵活性、高效性、不对称性,日益成为美国维护战略利益、应对威胁挑战的重要手段方式。近年来,美军特种作战部队更是将任务类型从传统作战领域拓展至非传统作战领域,大有取代常规部队成为信息化战场主角,充当美国对外军事行动“战略尖刀”之势。

    战火磨砺“美利坚之刃”

虽然现代特种作战发端于第二次世界大战,但其地位作用被美军充分认识并广泛应用于战争实践则在二战以后。几乎在美国插手的历次局部战争和地区冲突中,都能或隐或现地发现美军特种作战部队的身影,其间的战绩与败笔都成为美军创新发展特种作战的“磨刀石”,使特种作战这一“美利坚之刃”愈加锋利。

越南战争可以说是美军实施大规模、长时间特种作战行动的首次尝试。战争期间,美军特种作战部队广泛承担了清剿游击队、特种侦察、袭击破坏、培训人员等“反暴乱”作战任务,实施了诸如偷袭越南山西战俘营等作战行动。虽然由于战争的非正义性和战略指导的失误,美军始终无法将特种作战取得的战术优势转化为战略胜势,不得不从越南战场黯然撤兵,但特种作战部队在战争中显露出的适应性、机动性、隐蔽性,却获得美军高层肯定,并在随后的战争和武装冲突中得到重点使用。

1980年,为解救被扣押的60多名美国驻伊朗使馆人员,97名美军特战队员从埃及开罗长途奔袭德黑兰。由于在行动过程中突遇沙暴和飞机故障,加之应急预案不周,美军被迫取消计划。但美军并没有丧失信心,反而更加注重在总结经验教训的基础上强力推动特种作战发展。1987年4月,美军正式成立特种作战司令部,统辖陆、海、空所属的特种作战力量,标志着特种作战部队作为一支独立的作战力量正式登上美国战争舞台。

随后,在1989年入侵巴拿马行动、1991年海湾战争、2001年阿富汗战争、2003年伊拉克战争以及2011年利比亚战争中,美军越来越频繁地将特种作战部队用于主要战略方向和关键时节,完成了一个个“不可能的任务”。特别是在阿富汗战争中,借助先进的信息化手段,美军特种作战部队独当一面,创造性地将目标引导、渗透打击、收买瓦解融为一体,使美军在短时间内实现打垮塔利班政权的战争目的。

美军不断推动特种作战部队发展,几乎“每战必特”的原因在于:一是反应灵敏、编成精干,能够快速应对地区性突发事件及非对称威胁;二是行动隐蔽性、突然性强,往往出敌不意,能以最小资源快速达成战略目的,有效降低行动风险;三是作战手段灵活多样,可以作为“全球打击”战役战略构想的重要选择;四是能够较好地与其他作战力量联合行动,形成常规与非常规紧密结合的一体化作战体系。

 大体系支撑下的“剑走偏锋”

随着新军事变革深入演进,美军特种作战日益呈现出从接触作战向非接触作战、从规模作战向精兵作战、从武器平台支撑向战略体系支撑、从传统领域向新型领域快速演变的态势,特种作战部队因为能够遂行常规部队不宜执行或难以完成的特殊任务,成为美军克敌制胜的“杀手锏”。

指挥控制趋向战略直达。美军特种作战的指挥控制由国家级、战区级和作战部队级三个层次构成。通常情况下,由国家指挥当局、特种作战司令部、战区司令部、战区下属军种部队司令部或职能司令部的指挥官按级进行作战控制。随着所执行任务的隐秘性、敏感性不断提高,美军越来越强调由战略高层对特种作战进行“直达式”垂直指挥,增强行动的可控性灵活性。例如,2011年,美军在巴基斯坦突袭本·拉丹住所并将之击毙时,奥巴马和他的决策团队在万里之遥的美国白宫情报室,通过远程视频,进行实时同步指挥。这次行动充分体现了特种作战的战略特质。

特种闪击突出体系支撑。“战术行动,战略支撑;精兵行动,体系支撑;局部行动,全局支撑”已成为美军特种作战的显著特征。仍以击毙本·拉丹的“海王星之矛”突击行动为例,在这场战斗中,表面上美军仅出动4架直升机、24名“海豹”特战队员,用了不到40分钟就击毙了基地组织首脑本·拉丹。但在背后,既有天上35颗卫星、40余架飞机提供强大情报保障,又有海上航母编队接应,还有陆上2个美军驻中亚军事基地的支援,以及近万名各类支援保障人员。这是一次典型的“大体系支撑精兵行动”,深刻折射出信息时代的新战争样式。

作战行动走向全面联合。美军认为,“联合”是特种作战本质之一,需要各军种的全面参与和深度协作。目前,美军特种作战不但实现了与空军从“传感器到射手”的联合,大大提高了其“秒杀”作战能力,而且突破了与中央情报局秘密行动的联合,将中情局情报搜集能力与特种作战部队打击能力有机结合,实现优势互补。尤其是在阿富汗“持久自由行动”以后,美军特种作战更是将与常规部队的联合从战役层次下沉至战术层次,实现小分队一级的一体化作战。据统计,2004年美军实施的代号“山地风暴”清剿行动中,美特种作战部队就与常规部队进行了62次联合战术行动,其中40次行动是在连一级实施的,22次行动是在营一级进行的。

行动效果追求一击制敌。美军特种作战历来重视对敌方高价值目标的直接打击,企图以此加快作战进程迅速达成战略目的。从近期几场局部战争实践看,美军特种作战经常将对方首脑及领导层作为先期重点打击目标,实施所谓的“斩首攻击”,通过突然迅猛出其不意的攻击,达到“一剑封喉”、一击制敌的战略效果。从伊拉克战争首次对萨达姆使用这种战法,到利比亚战争对卡扎菲故技重施,虽然没有直接达成目的,但美军的特种作战对敌方决策层的心理震撼却是不可估量的,极大动摇了对方的抵抗意志,起到了“硬打击”与“软杀伤”的双重功效。可以预想,美军这种“剑走偏锋”式的特种作战还将会不断上演。

 着力锻造“全球力量”

当前,美军已将特种作战、无人机作战和网络作战列为对未来作战有重大意义的“新三位一体”力量,加以重点建设,希望打造一支反应灵敏、既小又狠、多维多能的特战“全球力量”。

强化海外部署,扩大规模数量。近期,美军大幅减少海外军事存在,但海外美军特种作战部队人数却在不断增加,部署国家和地区数量也在显著上升。据报道,小布什政府末期,美军特种作战部队大约部署在全球60个国家,到2010年增加至75个。截至2015年,美国特种作战部队已经部署到世界上135个国家。为了满足不断增长的任务需求,在各军兵种普遍裁员的大背景下,美军特种作战部队不减反增,人数从2001年的3.3万人增至2014年的近7万人,增加了约一倍,其中80%部署在海外。美军高层认为,扩大特种作战部队海外部署的规模,将显著提高美军介入全球事务特别是应对突发事件的能力。

优化作战编组,增建新型部队。为适应反恐战争样式多样化的特点,美军调整特种作战部队结构的步伐明显加快。近几年调整重点为:缩小特种作战小组规模,实现力量“小型化”;增加新的任务部队,陆续组建民事司令部、非正规战联队及心理战大队,增强非传统领域作战能力,实现遂行任务“多元化”;优化特种作战分队编组,根据任务类型,灵活将行动专家、通信专家、心理专家、爆破专家等不同专长人员进行混合编组,提高复杂战场适应能力,实现作战单元“合成化”。

全面更新装备,提升新质作战能力。近年来,美军不断加大投入,研发新型特种作战装备:一是“单兵战斗系统”,主要由激光测距仪、摄像机、环境传感器、弹道计算机以及目标跟踪装置组成,具有自动发射和打击遮蔽物背后目标的功能,提高单兵独立作战能力;二是远程投送工具,改进MC-130H特种作战飞机和采购V-22偏转翼飞机,利用机载精确的地形跟踪雷达、导航系统以及飞机高速性,提升特种作战部队远程机动和敌后渗透能力;三是新概念武器,主要是破坏敌电子设备的计算机病毒、电磁脉冲武器等。这些新武器一旦装备部队,将使美军特种作战手段更加丰富,任务领域更加多样。

不是每名特战队员都戴绿色贝雷帽

——美国陆军特种部队解密

史志达 赵蔚彬

在美军术语中,“特种作战部队”(Special Operation Forces)与“特种部队”(Special Forces)是同时存在的两个概念。前者是美军特种作战司令部下辖所有部队的统称,包括陆军特种部队、75突击队、海豹突击队、“三角洲”部队和海豹6队等;后者则专指陆军特种部队,即“绿色贝雷帽”部队。该部队因被肯尼迪亲自授权佩戴与其他兵种不一样的绿色贝雷帽而得名。

历史悠久,与中情局渊源甚深。1952年美军组建第一支“绿色贝雷帽”部队,便是以战略情报局(中情局前身)领导下的“杰德堡”部队为模板。二战期间,“杰德堡”队员曾受命进入被占领的法国、比利时和荷兰境内,为该地区抵抗组织提供武器和补给,并充当其与盟军最高指挥部的联系渠道。负责组建该部队的阿伦·班克上校曾是战略情报局的一名老兵,后效力于中情局,有着丰富的秘密行动经验。该部队最初被赋予的任务是:假设苏联占领西欧,他们将留在苏军战线后方组织非常规战。至今,非常规战依然是美国陆军特种部队的核心任务之一。由于该任务往往需要在和平时期秘密进行或在战争打响之前就做好准备,而和平时期执行秘密行动任务属于中情局的责任领域,所以特种部队执行此类任务时往往需要与中情局合作或干脆置于中情局的领导之下。中情局特别行动处的特工往往从特种部队老兵中招募,也就不足为奇。

分工明确,责任区域覆盖全球。“绿色贝雷帽”部队现编5个现役大队和2个平时由国民警卫队负责训练督导的后备役大队。5个现役大队总员额一万余人,分别负责太平洋、非洲、中东中亚、美洲和欧洲五个区域,与美国战区设置形成对应。他们根据各自责任区域的地形、政治生态、军事部署、当地语言和风土人情等特点,开展针对性训练。有些部队被长期部署在所属任务区域的某个友好国家,以更好地熟悉那里的作战环境。在大的分工之下,每个大队内部又有着极为精细的分工。作为特种部队最基本的作战单元的A小队,其12名队员分别谙熟作战、情报、武器、工程、医疗、通信六项专长中的一项,同时通过交叉训练掌握另外一到两项专长。

能力全面,一身扮演多重角色。相比将突击队技能展现到极致的“三角洲”部队和“海豹6队”,“绿色贝雷帽”部队队员的技能则更加全面和均衡,他们不仅拥有出色的突击队技能,还拥有一种被美军称为“外交勇士”的技能,即语言文化技能、人际交往能力和政治敏感性。由于广泛执行反恐、侦察、外国内部防卫、非常规战等任务,他们要扮演的角色不仅是英勇善战的突击队员,更是成熟、机警而灵活的情报员、教练员和外交官。在招募过程中,“绿色贝雷帽”部队要求应招人员必须经过外语技能测试,同时具备社会交际、军事训练、武器操作和组织指挥方面的天赋。考虑到语言和文化技能难以通过短期训练取得,特种部队在招募时往往瞄准那些具备少数民族背景或外貌、具备熟练外语能力的人。列入备选名单的队员在接受严酷的体能和战斗技能训练的同时,还要学习心理战课程并进行语言方面的强化训练,确保他们练就身兼多能的全面能力素质。

运用频繁,名字很少见诸报端。自组建以后,“绿色贝雷帽”部队便被频繁使用,但鉴于他们任务的保密性,以及其固有的低姿态作风,关于这些任务的消息很少公之于众,更是难见报端。比如上世纪50年代中后期,他们先后被派往泰国、越南、菲律宾、韩国、印尼等地,用于训练当地部队;1967年被派往玻利维亚,负责训练玻利维亚陆军别动营,并协助他们杀害了古巴革命核心人物切·格瓦拉;1989年大规模参与了入侵巴拿马的“正义事业”行动,推翻了诺列加政权。冷战结束后,美国当局对他们的运用有增无减。“沙漠风暴”行动中,他们被提前部署到科威特和伊拉克境内的纵深地带,执行为期数月的秘密侦察任务,为联军司令部提供了重要军事情报;在侵略阿富汗的“持久自由”行动中,他们留着胡须、骑着骡马、身着当地人民的服装,在空中火力的支援下,领导北方联盟武装推翻了塔利班政权。

来源:解放军报

China’s PLA core mission is winning local wars in conditions of informationization

打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭是軍隊核心任務

來源:解放軍報

In order to win local wars under conditions of informatization, vigorously strengthen military struggle preparation, is a successful experience and important way to guide army building, our army is a major strategic task. Supremely important strategic task. People’s Army Central Military Commission established in accordance with the decisions and arrangements, preparations for military struggle toward a new journey stride forward.

Walking preparations for military struggle rational development road

New China came nearly 60-year history. For decades, the country was much larger rivals, dangerous, but always to stand up, continue to grow and live. There are a lot of successful experience, a very important one is to rely on comprehensive solid preparations for military struggle. It can be said, precisely because of the people’s army “ready”, was created a homeland security steel wall, the guardian of the people’s happiness and peace, prosperity and security of the economic and social development. Recalling decades stormy journey preparations for military struggle, glory Aureole achievements, we should also clearly see that not enough scientific areas. For example, many units ready for Military Struggle, the guiding ideology too much emphasis on specific threats, over-reliance on “the situation stimulus” caused suddenly strong suddenly weak level of combat readiness and combat effectiveness of the construction fluctuated, military preparations did not struggle to maintain autonomy and healthy sustainable development.

Different things when it moves, it is something different equipment variants. Currently, preparations for military struggle and stands at a new historical starting point. National security situation is undergoing complex and profound changes, on the one hand, traditional security threats and non-traditional security threats we face are increasing, the world’s major powers in my peripheral geostrategic competition intensified, neighboring countries, political turbulence, regional security environment, there are many hidden dangers domestic ethnic separatist forces and their activities is rampant, affecting national security instability, increasing uncertainty, preparations for military struggle facing unprecedented challenges; on the other hand, the international unilateralism setback, the financial crisis delayed the expansion of global hegemony, Taiwan situation has eased, I eased pressure on the main strategic directions, preparations for military struggle facing unprecedented opportunities.This opportunity is not only strategic, but also historic. How to seize the opportunity to make good use of the opportunity and momentum forward, the current preparations for military struggle to answer practical proposition. After 30 years of reform and development, army building a qualitative leap, the synthesis of troops, higher level of information, science and technology-intensive, quality and efficiency features more obvious preparations for military struggle with Keziliyong rich results and advancing the jump basic conditions. Into the new century, Hu focused on the special requirements of the party of national defense and army building, giving the army the “three offers, a play,” the historical mission, stressing that “in order to enhance our military must win local wars under information age conditions core, and constantly improve the ability to respond to multiple security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks. ” This series of major strategic thinking, adjust the point of preparations for military struggle to expand the mandate of the contents of preparations for military struggle.Scientific concept of development of this important guidelines established for military combat preparations put a higher demand good seek fast, according to a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development and people-oriented standards, there are many ideas need liberation, a lot of work need to innovate, many aspects need to be improved.

Advance preparations for military struggle in the new situation, because of the situation must change, because of the situation set policy, based on a new starting point, to seek new development. Should be based on the threat of grasping ready to strengthen all-round “threat awareness” and “enemy concept,” war is not far away and do not fully understand the only one of the grim reality, unswervingly push forward preparations for military struggle. Should be prepared based on the task grasp the fundamental task of the military is to fight and ready to fight, the battle can not fight a hundred years, but not a moment to relax ready, you must follow the standard effective functioning of the mission, to promote a comprehensive and systematic preparations for military struggle. Should be based on the ability to catch ready, out of the enemy carried away by emergency preparedness passive mode, active design of future wars, there are plans to increase planned to respond to multiple security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks ability, steadily push forward the scientific military preparations struggle.

In major breakthroughs improve the quality of preparations for military struggle

Unfocused no strategy, no emphasis on difficult to break. Make full use of important strategic opportunities, to seize the key content to seek a breakthrough, not only to follow the objective requirements of preparations for military struggle inherent laws, it is an urgent need to comprehensively improve the combat capability of the armed forces.

Practice basic military training as a peacetime army, and combat effectiveness is the basic way of development, is the most direct and most effective preparations for military struggle.We must further enhance awareness of the importance of military training, military training to effectively attach strategic position, really big catch in the army military training, training vigorously promote the formation of a new upsurge in transition. Joint training should seize the key to the combat effectiveness, strengthen joint awareness, improve the quality of the joint, improve joint training and regulations, improve the mechanism of joint training, promoting joint military training from form to substance. Should be training in complex electromagnetic environments as an important entry point and the starting point, and actively explore the organization and command training, research and technological measures for an effective way to combat training and weapons training, operational use, accelerating military training under conditions of mechanization to military training in conditions of informationization change. Training mission should be subject to the carrier, active configuration set up similar to actual battlefield environment, explore the combat training, field based training and base training, simulated training and network training as the main way to really, hard, in fact, test standards to test than pulling mechanism for the implementation of the path of combat training, enhance training effectiveness. Should actively carry out non-war military operations training to improve forces to carry out non-war military operations expertise, empowerment troops accomplish diverse military tasks.

People are fighting the various elements of the most active and most active element, talent preparations for military struggle preparation is the most important and the most difficult to prepare. Outcome of a war depends on the battlefield, but the link was to decide the outcome in the usual competition, in which the focus is talent. Currently, the key is to highlight the joint operations command personnel and high-level professional and technical personnel two “strategic starting point”, traction and promote the overall development of qualified personnel capacity building. Protruding joint operations command personnel training, establish and improve strategic and operational focus on training to improve pattern-level commanders around the joint operations to improve personnel training system, the reform of teaching contents and methods of joint operations, commanding officers to increase job rotation and cross-training, step up joint operational command emergency personnel training, strengthen and improve measures. Outstanding high-level professional and technical personnel training. Follow focus, both in general, to seize the lead, lead the overall principle, focus on training across disciplines planning to organize major research projects of leading scientists, to promote discipline capable of directing talents academic technology innovation and development, equipment and technology to solve complex security technical expert personnel problems, and provide a strong intellectual support information technology.

Soldiers rapidly guiding the iron law of war, under conditions of informationization more emphasis on “speed advantage.” Rapid response capacity has become an important indicator to measure the army’s combat readiness and combat capabilities. Should sound an agile and efficient emergency command mechanism. In recent years, the basis of summing up our military to accomplish diverse military tasks practical experience, grasp curing and conversion-related outcomes, the establishment of emergency response mechanisms and improve the regulatory system, improve the mechanism set up to develop response plans, organize relevant study and training, to ensure that if something happens quick response, efficient command, correct action. Should establish advanced and reliable command information system. In accordance with good interoperability, responsive, security and information sharing requirements established in the end longitudinal, transverse to the edge of the information networks and integrated one, simple hierarchy of command system, relying on information technology to improve emergency response command and rapid response capability. Grasp the strategic delivery of capacity-building characteristics and laws, focusing on the development of strategic transport aircraft (ship), military helicopters and new aircraft, and consider traffic battlefield, explore the establishment of smooth and efficient command and management mechanism, the overall advancement of the strategic transportation capacity building.

Security is a combat. Modern warfare combat operations at any one time, against all the system, comprehensive security have become increasingly demanding. Promoting military struggle preparation, must comprehensively improve the combat support, logistics and equipment support and other comprehensive support capabilities. Our military has historically focused on promoting the coordination of combat forces and combat support forces, reconnaissance, early warning, command and communications, mapping navigation, meteorology and hydrology, engineering, chemical defense and other support to improve the ability to achieve overall synchronization. However, with the continuous expansion and development of the situation changes in battlefield space combat support capability system began to appear new “short board” must be filled as soon as possible to form the overall advantages of joint operations full-dimensional battlefield. Logistics focus is to improve the level of modernization. In accordance with the requirements of the development, the steady implementation of the logistics reform, to promote the integration of the security system to protect the way to the community development, support means to move information, logistics management to scientific change, and promote sound and rapid development of the logistics building. Focusing on strengthening security equipment supporting construction. Improve the capability of independent innovation, accelerate the construction and development of new weapons and equipment, and constantly optimize the structure of armament systems.Focusing on supporting systems and equipment, and security systems supporting supporting construction, improve the equipment series, universal, standardized level, and gradually promote the formation of the organized system equipped to combat and support capabilities, accelerate the establishment of military and civilian production, integrating the armed forces weapons and equipment research and production system and maintenance support system, and further improve the integration of military and civilian equipment development path.

Adhere to scientific development and innovation of military struggle preparation path

Advance preparations for military struggle in the new starting point, we must adhere to the scientific concept of development as guidance, the practical application of the requirements of the times thinking, to explore the development path of innovation and preparations for military struggle.

Continue to emancipate the mind, reform of the army in the tide of the overall advancement of military preparations struggle. The more in-depth preparations for military struggle, the more touches concept of development, institutional mechanisms, policies and systems and other aspects of deep-seated contradictions and problems, and promote the greater the difficulty. The fundamental way to solve these problems, is to continue to emancipate the mind, deepen reform of national defense and army building. Strategic objectives of military reform is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war, which point preparations for military struggle is the same. Preparations for military struggle is the leading military reform and traction, military reform is an important part of preparations for military struggle and optimized conditions, both unity of purpose, mutually reinforcing. Thus, under the new situation to promote the preparations for military struggle, must be combined with promoting defense and military reform, to improve the combat effectiveness as a starting point and goal of reform, with the standards and unify thought reform measure reform measures, testing the effectiveness of reform, promote reform in preparations for military struggle.

Strengthen scientific co-ordination, in the process of modernization of the armed forces to coordinate the promotion preparations for military struggle. Military modernization is a big system, military struggle preparation is the key indeed affect the whole body. Well prepared for military struggle, will be able to provide clear and specific requirements for the overall development of our military modernization construction, provide real starting point, forming a huge traction force. Must stand on military modernization development overall perspective, the effective co-ordination with the main good times, far and near, and built with an equal relationship, the process of preparations for military struggle becomes strengthen military modernization process, the process of military modernization into service the process of preparations for military struggle, so that the two complement each other to promote the coordinated development.

Leading Position of Information, in the mode of generating combat transition to push ahead with preparations for military struggle. Currently, information technology is profoundly changing the mode of generating combat, is also changing all aspects of army building. Promoting military struggle preparation, must quickly adapt to this new situation, take the initiative out of the mindset of mechanization to strengthen the concept of information-led, focusing on scientific and technological progress to improve combat effectiveness, explore innovative adaptation of information requirements of the military concept of war, military technology, military organization and military management, focus on improving the training of military personnel, weapons and equipment development, the level of information the best combination of people and weapons, accelerate the transformation of military training, and gradually establish an effective mechanism to combat the new generation and improve and promote preparations for military struggle to achieve a qualitative leap.

Prominent real traction in accomplishing diversified military tasks to accelerate preparations for military struggle. Practice tells us that no matter how the evolution of the international situation, how to expand the Functions of the Army, how onerous diverse military tasks, containment and win wars, preservation of peace is always the most important functions of the army and winning conditions under local war always is the core mission of our military. Only with the core military capabilities and accomplish diverse military tasks have a solid foundation. We must always take to improve the core military capabilities in the first place, aimed at promoting the fundamental function fully prepared, ready to do more hands without “one-track mind,” not ready to classify “one size fits all”, without further preparation, “superficial”, trying to force the ability to adapt to various conditions, to cope with various situations and accomplish diverse military tasks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

以打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭為重點,大力加強軍事鬥爭準備,是軍隊建設的一條成功經驗和重要指導方式,是我軍一項重大的戰略任務。戰略任務重千鈞。人民軍隊按照中央軍委既定的決策部署,向著軍事鬥爭準備新徵程闊步邁進。

走軍事鬥爭準備理性化發展之路

新中國走過近60年歷程。幾十年來,國家一度強敵環伺、危機四伏,卻始終屹立不屈,不斷生息壯大。成功的經驗有很多,很重要的一條就是靠全面扎實的軍事鬥爭準備。可以説,正是有了人民軍隊“時刻準備著”,才鑄就了祖國安全的鋼鐵長城,守護了人民群眾的幸福安寧,保障了經濟社會的繁榮發展。回顧幾十年軍事鬥爭準備的風雨徵程,在成績的榮耀光環背後,我們也要清醒看到不夠科學的地方。比如不少單位抓軍事鬥爭準備,在指導思想上過于強調具體威脅,過度依賴“情況刺激”,造成戰備水平忽強忽弱,戰鬥力建設忽高忽低,軍事鬥爭準備沒有保持自主、健康地持續發展。

時異則事移,事異則備變。當前,軍事鬥爭準備又站在了一個嶄新的歷史起點上。國家安全形勢發生復雜深刻變化,一方面,我們面臨的傳統安全威脅和非傳統安全威脅都在增加,世界主要大國在我周邊地緣戰略競爭不斷加劇,周邊國家政局持續動蕩,地區安全環境存在諸多隱患,國內民族分裂勢力及其活動猖獗,影響國家安全的不穩定、不確定因素增多,軍事鬥爭準備面臨前所未有的挑戰;另一方面,國際上單邊主義受挫,金融危機拖延了全球霸權擴張,臺海形勢明顯緩和,我主要戰略方向壓力有所減輕,軍事鬥爭準備面臨前所未有的機遇。這個機遇既是戰略性的,也是歷史性的。怎樣抓住機遇、用好機遇、乘勢推進,是當前軍事鬥爭準備需要回答的現實命題。經過30年改革發展,我軍建設出現質的跨越,部隊合成化、信息化程度更高,科技密集型、質量效能型特徵更加明顯,軍事鬥爭準備有了可資利用的豐富成果和推進躍升的基礎條件。進入新世紀新階段,胡主席著眼黨對國防和軍隊建設的特殊要求,賦予軍隊“三個提供、一個發揮”的歷史使命,強調“我軍必須以增強打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭能力為核心,不斷提高應對多種安全威脅、完成多樣化軍事任務的能力”。這一係列重大戰略思想,調整了軍事鬥爭準備的基點,拓展了軍事鬥爭準備的任務內容。科學發展觀這一重要指導方針的確立,對軍事鬥爭準備提出了好中求快的更高要求,按照全面、協調、可持續發展和以人為本的標準來衡量,還有很多思想需要解放,很多工作需要創新,很多方面需要提高。

新形勢下推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須因勢求變、因情定策,立足新的起點,謀求新的發展。應基于威脅抓準備,強化全方位的“威脅意識”和“敵情觀念”,充分認清戰爭並不遙遠且不只一種的嚴峻現實,堅定不移地推進軍事鬥爭準備。應基于任務抓準備,軍隊的根本任務是打仗和準備打仗,仗可以百年不打,但準備一刻也不能放松,必須按照有效履行職能使命的標準,全面係統地推進軍事鬥爭準備。應基于能力抓準備,跳出被敵情牽著走的被動應急準備模式,主動設計未來戰爭,有規劃有計劃地提高應對多種安全威脅、完成多樣化軍事任務能力,穩步科學地推進軍事鬥爭準備。

以重點突破提高軍事鬥爭準備質量

沒有重點就沒有戰略,沒有重點就難以突破。充分利用重要戰略機遇期,抓住重點內容謀求突破,既是遵循軍事鬥爭準備內在規律的客觀要求,更是全面提高部隊實戰能力的迫切需要。

軍事訓練作為和平時期軍隊最基本的實踐活動,是戰鬥力生成和發展的基本途徑,是最直接、最有效的軍事鬥爭準備。必須進一步提高對軍事訓練重要性的認識,切實把軍事訓練擺到戰略位置,真正在部隊形成大抓軍事訓練、大力推進訓練轉變的新高潮。應抓住聯合訓練這個戰鬥力生成的關鍵環節,強化聯合意識,提高聯合素質,健全聯訓法規,完善聯訓機制,推動軍事訓練從形式到實質的聯合。應以復雜電磁環境下訓練為重要切入點和抓手,積極探索組織指揮訓練、戰技術對策研練和武器裝備操作使用訓練的有效辦法,加速推進機械化條件下軍事訓練向信息化條件下軍事訓練轉變。應以使命課題訓練為載體,積極構設近似實戰的戰場環境,探索以對抗訓練、野戰化訓練和基地化訓練、模擬化訓練、網絡化訓練等為主要方式,以真、難、實為檢驗標準,以考、比、拉為落實機制的實戰化訓練路子,增強訓練實效。應積極開展非戰爭軍事行動訓練,提高部隊遂行非戰爭軍事行動專業技能,增強部隊完成多樣化軍事任務的能力。

人是戰鬥力諸要素中最積極、最活躍的要素,人才準備是軍事鬥爭準備中最重要、最艱巨的準備。戰爭勝負決于戰場,但決定勝負的環節卻在平時的競爭之中,其中的重點就是人才。當前,關鍵是要突出聯合作戰指揮人才和高層次專業技術人才兩個“戰略抓手”,牽引和推動人才隊伍能力建設的整體發展。突出聯合作戰指揮人才培養,重點建立健全戰略戰役層次指揮員培養提高模式,圍繞完善聯合作戰人才培訓體係、改革聯合作戰教學內容和方法、加大指揮軍官崗位輪換和交叉培訓力度、加緊聯合作戰指揮人才應急培訓等,加強和完善有關措施。突出高層次專業技術人才培養。按照突出重點、兼顧一般、抓住龍頭、帶動整體的原則,重點培養能夠跨學科領域謀劃組織重大項目攻關的科技領軍人才、能夠指導推進學術技術創新發展的學科拔尖人才、能夠解決裝備技術保障復雜難題的技術專家人才,為信息化建設提供強有力的智力支撐。

兵貴神速是戰爭指導的鐵律,信息化條件下更強調“速度優勢”。快速反應能力已成為衡量一支軍隊戰備水平和實戰能力的重要標志。應健全靈敏高效的應急指揮機制。在總結梳理近年我軍完成多樣化軍事任務實踐經驗的基礎上,抓好相關成果的固化和轉化,建立應急機制,健全法規制度,完善機構設置,制定應對預案,組織相關研練,確保一旦有事能快速反應、高效指揮、正確行動。應建立先進可靠的指揮信息係統。按照互操作性好、反應靈敏、安全保密和信息共享的要求,建立縱向到底、橫向到邊的信息網絡和綜合一體、層級簡捷的指揮係統,依靠信息技術提高應急指揮與快速反應能力。把握戰略投送能力建設的特點規律,重點發展戰略運輸機(艦)、軍用直升機和新型航行器,統籌考慮交通戰場建設,探索建立順暢高效的指揮管理機制,整體推進戰略輸送能力建設。

保障也是戰鬥力。現代戰爭中的任何一次作戰行動,都是體係的對抗,對綜合保障的要求越來越高。推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須全面提高作戰保障、後勤保障和裝備保障等綜合保障能力。我軍歷來注重協調推進作戰力量與作戰保障力量建設,偵察預警、指揮通信、測繪導航、氣象水文、工程防化等保障能力總體實現了同步提高。但隨著形勢的發展變化和戰場空間的不斷拓展,作戰保障能力體係開始出現新的“短板”,必須盡快補齊,以形成全維戰場的聯合作戰整體優勢。後勤保障重點是提高現代化水平。按照時代發展要求,穩步實施後勤改革,將保障體制向一體化推進、保障方式向社會化拓展、保障手段向信息化邁進、後勤管理向科學化轉變,推動後勤建設又好又快發展。裝備保障重點是加強配套建設。提高自主創新能力,加快新型武器裝備建設發展,不斷優化我軍武器裝備結構體係。注重裝備的體係配套、係統配套和保障配套建設,提高裝備係列化、通用化、標準化水平,逐步推進裝備成係統成建制形成作戰能力和保障能力,加快建立軍民結合、寓軍于民的武器裝備科研生産體係和維修保障體係,進一步完善軍民融合發展裝備的路子。

堅持科學發展創新軍事鬥爭準備路徑

在新的起點上推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須堅持以科學發展觀為指導,切實運用符合時代要求的思維方式,探索創新軍事鬥爭準備的發展路徑。

繼續解放思想,在軍隊改革大潮中整體推進軍事鬥爭準備。軍事鬥爭準備越深入,觸及發展理念、體制機制、政策制度等方面的深層次矛盾和問題就越多,推進的難度也越大。解決這些問題的根本出路,在于繼續解放思想、深化國防和軍隊建設改革。軍隊改革的戰略目標是建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭,這與軍事鬥爭準備的基點是一致的。軍事鬥爭準備是軍隊改革的龍頭和牽引,軍隊改革則是軍事鬥爭準備的重要內容和優化條件,二者目標一致、互為促進。因此,新形勢下推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須與推進國防和軍隊改革結合起來,把提高戰鬥力作為改革的出發點和落腳點,用戰鬥力標準統一改革思想,衡量改革措施,檢驗改革成效,在改革中推進軍事鬥爭準備。

加強科學統籌,在軍隊現代化建設進程中協調推進軍事鬥爭準備。軍隊現代化建設是個大係統,軍事鬥爭準備則是牽一發而動全身的關鍵。軍事鬥爭準備做好了,就能為我軍現代化建設整體發展提供明確具體的需求,提供實實在在的抓手,形成巨大的牽引力量。必須站在軍隊現代化建設發展全局的高度,切實統籌好主與次、遠與近、建與用等關係,把軍事鬥爭準備的過程變成加強軍隊現代化建設的過程,把軍隊現代化建設的過程變成服務軍事鬥爭準備的過程,使二者互為促進,協調發展。

堅持信息主導,在戰鬥力生成模式轉變中創新推進軍事鬥爭準備。當前,信息技術正在深刻改變著戰鬥力生成模式,也在改變著軍隊建設的方方面面。推進軍事鬥爭準備,必須敏銳地適應這個新形勢,主動跳出機械化思維定勢,強化信息主導觀念,注重依靠科技進步提高戰鬥力,探索創新適應信息化戰爭要求的軍事理念、軍事技術、軍事組織和軍事管理,著力提高軍事人才培養、武器裝備發展、人與武器最佳結合的信息化水平,加快推進軍事訓練轉變,逐步確立新型戰鬥力生成與提高的有效機制,推動軍事鬥爭準備實現質的躍升。

突出實戰牽引,在完成多樣化軍事任務中加速推進軍事鬥爭準備。實踐告訴我們,無論國際局勢如何演變、軍隊的職能使命如何拓展、多樣化軍事任務多麼繁重,遏制戰爭、打贏戰爭、維護和平始終是我軍職能的重中之重,打贏信息化條件下局部戰爭永遠是我軍的核心任務。只有具備了核心軍事能力,完成多樣化軍事任務才有堅實基礎。必須始終把提高核心軍事能力放在首要位置,瞄準根本職能推進全面準備,做到多手準備而不“單打一”,分類準備而不“一刀切”,深入準備而不“表面化”,努力使部隊具備適應各種條件、應對各種情況、完成多樣化軍事任務的能力。

Source: PLA Daily

Originally Published 2009年01月08日

Chinese Military Reshuffle Carries Deep Significance

02FEB2016 Beijing, People’s Republic of China

74GK-fxmazss1605475

China on Monday inaugurated the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) five new theater commands. The northern, southern, eastern, western and central theater commands replace the seven previous military area commands. The change from “military area command” to “theater command” carries more weight than the change from “seven” to “five.”

The essence of the theater commands is clear. The commands are prepared for combat and winning wars, about which the military and the public share a deep understanding. With such a military system, China’s peaceful development will be more serious and gain more respect from the outside.

It has been decades since the PLA was involved in a war. The outside world focuses more on the Dongfeng ballistic missile and the construction of aircraft carriers than about the military itself. The Chinese army has not made much impression on the world.

Perhaps some would prefer the Chinese military to keep a low profile, and it is even better that they advocate peace. The establishment of the five theater commands heralds a revolutionary change, highlighting the fundamentals of the military and the troops.

From now on, the strength of the Chinese military not only exists in historical documents or rests upon newly developed weapons, but also in its determination for victory and in its preparations.

The more powerful the PLA grows and the more capable it is of engaging in a war, the country will embrace a peaceful rise all the more. This will contribute to the nation’s peaceful rise, otherwise the outside world will only consider that peace is only our compulsory choice. If this happens, the peace of China and the world will face a dangerous future.

A major power will attract all kinds of opportunities for the world’s development and can share in global wealth distribution. But without corresponding military might, instability may brew. The security of a big power relates to the security of the whole world. That a big power is capable of fighting in a war but not obsessed in launching wars fits the common interests of all mankind.

Frankly speaking, the strength of the Chinese military can ensure the country is not intruded on by foreign troops, but it is not enough to promote fair competition and the evolution of order in a globalized era. Some external forces do not accept China’s rise. If such sentiments spread with military aid without restraint, it will hurt China’s security and world peace. There needs to be a tipping point where China is more secure, but how to find the tipping point is a subtle issue.

The Chinese military will shoulder heavier responsibilities in the future. China is close to the historical mission of a national rejuvenation. We are facing an unprecedented landscape, hopes and risks. The PLA will play a key role in helping the Chinese people pass the transition period smoothly and helping the world release some external grievances due to the power shifts of major countries.

Original Source: HERE

China Military Focus of Main Effort in Information Warfare: Electromagnetic Spectrum

来源:解放军报作者:郝嘉 周宁 周任飞责任编辑:张硕

● electromagnetic spectrum owned by the state, is the core of strategic resources for national development, promote social progress

● direct support operations of the electromagnetic spectrum, is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war of the central nervous system

Soul of the information war: the electromagnetic spectrum

14e2888c48e65552560158

Electromagnetic spectrum resources for humanity, as indispensable as water and sun. Information age, the electromagnetic spectrum is changing the world, changing the way people live

Core Tip

Electromagnetic spectrum exists in war by land, sea, air, space the whole time and space, is the only ideal medium capable of supporting mobile operations, decentralized operations and high intensity warfare. Important support elements of the electromagnetic spectrum management as joint operations, throughout the operational readiness, operational planning, operational implementation of the entire process, the role of command and control, intelligence and reconnaissance, weapons guidance, early warning and detection, navigation and other operational elements of the whole, is to improve the combat Important basic capabilities directly related weapons and equipment play information Operational Effectiveness.

Electromagnetic spectrum Past and Present

The physical world there is such a strange phenomenon, alternating current generated in the surrounding space alternating magnetic field, electric field and magnetic field variations mutual contacts to form an alternating electromagnetic field, and can spread from the wave source which produces the distance, this planted in the space at a constant speed of alternating electromagnetic field propagation is electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum, it is by electromagnetic waves lined up according to wavelength or frequency, a formed structure from zero to infinity pedigree, which 0-3000 gigahertz frequency range of radio waves.

Back in October 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent. However, the future Queen of Spain, six months before he heard the news, unfortunately sudden and devastating. April 14, 1865, US President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 13 days after the news spread was known industry’s most advanced British government, coping strategies are overtaken by events. Electromagnetic time unknown, human nature can not enjoy its magic.

In 1888, German physicist Hertz experiment is successful, humans finally touch the existence of electromagnetic waves. In 1901, as the “father of radio” Marconi trans-Atlantic radio communication test is successful, humanity has entered the era of electromagnetic radio communications sweeping the globe. In 1912, after the Titanic wreck, the United Kingdom, the United States and other maritime powers mandatory over a certain tonnage of the vessel must be installed radio stations, in order to protect the safety of life at sea. During World War I, the war all the major powers use radio communication to pass information and commands.

Since then, radio broadcasting, navigation, remote after another, to the development and progress of human society has brought great changes. Electromagnetic wave as an important carrier of information transmission, dash in land, sea, air, space four-dimensional space, accelerate the coming of the information age.

●电磁频谱属于国家所有,是促进国家发展、推动社会进步的核心战略资源

●电磁频谱直接支撑作战,是建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争的中枢神经

电磁频谱:信息化战争之魂

电磁频谱资源对人类的影响,就像水和太阳一样不可或缺。信息时代,电磁频谱正在改变世界,改变人们的生活方式。(图片合成:胡亚军

核心提示

电磁频谱存在于陆、海、空、天的作战全时空,是唯一能够支持机动作战、分散作战和高强度作战的理想媒介。电磁频谱管理作为联合作战的重要保障要素,贯穿于作战准备、作战筹划、作战实施的全过程,作用于指挥控制、情报侦察、武器制导、预警探测、导航定位等作战全要素,是提高体系作战能力的重要基础,直接关系信息化武器装备作战效能的发挥。

电磁频谱的前世今生

物理世界有这样一种奇特的现象,交变电流在周围空间会产生交变磁场,变化的电场和磁场相互联系,形成了交变的电磁场,并能脱离其产生的波源向远处传播,这种在空间以一定速度传播的交变电磁场就是电磁波。

电磁频谱,则是由电磁波按波长或频率排列起来,所形成的一个从零至无穷的结构谱系,其中0-3000吉赫兹频率范围为无线电波。

时间回到1492年10月,哥伦布发现了美洲大陆。然而,西班牙王后半年以后才得知这一消息,遗憾顿生。1865年4月14日,美国总统林肯惨遭暗杀,消息13天后才传到当时号称工业最为先进的英国政府,应对策略也时过境迁。电磁波那时不为人知,人类自然无法享受到它的神奇力量。

1888年,德国物理学家赫兹实验成功,人类终于触摸到电磁波的存在。1901年,随着“无线电之父”马可尼跨越大西洋的无线电通信试验成功,人类进入了电磁时代,无线电通讯席卷全球。1912年,泰坦尼克号失事后,英国、美国等航海大国强制规定,超过一定吨位的船只必须加装无线电台,以保障海上航行生命安全。在第一次世界大战期间,所有参战的大国都使用无线电通信传递情报和命令。

此后,无线电的广播、导航、遥控相继出现,给人类社会的发展进步带来了巨大变化。电磁波作为信息传递的重要载体,纵横驰骋在陆、海、空、天四维空间,加速了信息时代的到来。

Electromagnetic spectrum is a national resource strategy

Electromagnetic spectrum is the only human transmission of information over wireless media, owned by the state, land, forest, mineral and other resources, as it is both a scarce natural resource in the areas of economic development, national defense and social life indispensable , irreplaceable core strategic resources.

At present, humans can use the radio spectrum in the 275 gigahertz or less, mainly concentrated in the range of 30 Hz to 40 gigahertz, but most are in the 3 gigahertz or less, high-quality resources is extremely limited.Therefore, the world has become intense competition for them.

Frequency satellite orbit resources, for example, known as the 80% share of the “golden navigation frequency”, the US GPS and Russian GLONASS navigation system first to seize the countries in the world have to compete for the remaining resources.

Electromagnetic spectrum is widely used in the economic, military and other fields, combined with the scarcity of resources prominent contradictions, it gradually from the back to the front, electromagnetic space and the game become the world compete for important battlefield.

Each year, the US President issued specifically concerning electromagnetic spectrum “presidential memorandum”, leading the electromagnetic spectrum policy and national army. The British government published its “21st Century Spectrum Management” white paper, clearly the introduction of spectrum pricing, spectrum auction, spectrum trading and other means to encourage the efficient use of spectrum resources development and new technologies.

The study reports that the electromagnetic spectrum can contribute each year to 3-5 percent of the total national economy. From 1995 to 2011, the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other countries for the development of the third and fourth generation mobile communication network, spectrum auction value of $ 130 billion. Russia, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and other countries competing to improve the relevant laws and regulations, maintain the electromagnetic spectrum space to maximize their national interests, strongly promote the electromagnetic spectrum resources market and internationalization.

Manage electromagnetic space “traffic light”

Although the electromagnetic spectrum is present in the natural space, invisible, but it does not mean that the State, organizations and individuals are free to use occupied.

With modern urban traffic management have great similarities, at the technical level, the electromagnetic frequency spectrum management major from, space, time three-dimensional expansion, which is vividly called electromagnetic space “traffic lights.”

Currently, the international scope of the electromagnetic spectrum management mainly through the establishment of an international organization, signed an international agreement to allocate spectrum to resolve unified. States also set up frequency spectrum management and monitoring of the site, and to divide the spectrum resource use.

According to statistics, a US infantry division of about 70 radar, radio station 2800, a Russian motorized infantry division of about 60 radar, radio station 2040 to ensure so much electronic equipment to work smoothly, you need a strong power and spectrum management mechanism. After the baptism of several local wars, the US military high command from the field to have a specialized division of spectrum management agencies from the Department of Defense, the Joint Staff to the armed services, has established a complete set of joint campaign spectrum management system, formed a mature management mechanism.

According to the US Army website reported, the United States developed a new Joint Tactical Radio System, which contains the spectrum defragmentation technology, is not a continuous spectrum of debris re-polymerization, to achieve the integration of resources to meet the needs of purpose. European development of the “Spectrum pool” technology, but also the integration of free spectrum resource collection, and dynamically allocated based on customer needs, improve efficiency in the use of the spectrum.

Now, the world’s major countries are seeking to develop spectrum sharing technology, without changing the existing spectrum allocation rules, through technical analysis tools simulate actual combination, so that different systems can share the same frequency band compatible. In addition, many countries and organizations through the use of advanced signal transmission technology, using a frequency equipment to improve the level of technology, and other means to control the transmission frequency, both to avoid the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment, but also to achieve efficient use of spectrum.

“The 21st century will be the era of the spectrum war”

Traditional air and sea superiority play, must be based on the electromagnetic advantage, losing electromagnetic power, will lose control of the air, sea control, electromagnetic space and space has become, ground and ocean coexistence fourth dimension battlefield. It can be said that the future of information warfare, who won the electromagnetic power, grasps the initiative on the battlefield. Former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Thomas Muller said: “If a third world war, the winner will be the most adept at controlling the use of the electromagnetic spectrum and the party.”

Faced with escalating competition in the world of the electromagnetic spectrum, the US military has issued a joint spectrum vision, strategic planning and the Department of Defense Spectrum “Spectrum war” and other top-level strategic guidance documents, and to take away from the crowded band, the development of high-end spectrum, etc., developed microwave , laser, electromagnetic pulse weapons, etc., to actively seize the spectrum.British forces widely promote the use of intelligent and efficient radio modulation techniques to improve spectrum utilization efficiency of a wireless communication system.

In order to obtain the advantages of the spectrum in the future information warfare, Europe and the United States armed forces through the establishment of specialized agencies electromagnetic compatibility, the use of advanced simulation techniques to develop quality indicators management system, develop joint spectrum management system, etc., to improve battlefield electromagnetic spectrum management capabilities.

In recent years, cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum sensing, frequency control simulation deduction, emerging electromagnetic environmental adaptability analysis of new technologies, to the military electromagnetic spectrum management development has brought great opportunities and challenges. Experts predict that the future will share a common electromagnetic spectrum management towards spectrum resources, spectrum efficiency analysis and refinement of embedded dynamic spectrum management, direction and progress.

电磁频谱是一个国家的战略资源

电磁频谱是目前人类唯一理想的无线信息传输媒介,属于国家所有,与土地、森林、矿藏等资源一样,它既是一种稀缺的自然资源,也是经济发展、国防建设和社会生活各领域不可或缺、无法替代的核心战略资源。

目前,人类能够利用的无线电频谱在275吉赫兹以下,主要集中在30赫兹至40吉赫兹范围内,而且绝大部分是在3吉赫兹以下,优质资源极其有限。因此,世界各国对其争夺已经趋于白热化。

以卫星频率轨道资源为例,被誉为“黄金导航频率”80%的份额,被美国GPS和俄罗斯格洛纳斯导航系统率先抢占,世界各国不得不争夺剩余资源。

电磁频谱在经济、军事等领域的广泛应用,加之资源紧缺的突出矛盾,使其逐渐从后台走向前台,电磁空间成为世界各国争夺和博弈的重要战场。

每年,美国总统专门发表事关电磁频谱的《总统备忘录》,主导国家和军队的电磁频谱政策。英国政府在其发布的《21世纪的频谱管理》白皮书中,明确提出引入频谱定价、频谱拍卖、频谱贸易等手段,激励频谱资源的高效利用和新技术的研发。

有关研究报告表明,电磁频谱每年可为国家经济总量贡献3至5个百分点。1995年至2011年,美、英、法、德等国家,为发展第三、第四代移动通信网,所拍卖的频谱价值高达1300多亿美元。俄、法、德、日、澳等国家竞相完善相关法规,最大限度地维护本国的电磁频谱空间利益,极力推进电磁频谱资源市场化和国际化。

管好电磁空间的“红绿灯”

电磁频谱虽然是存在于自然空间,看不见摸不着,但并不意味着国家、组织和个人可以随意使用侵占。

同现代城市交通管理有很大的相似之处,在技术层面上,电磁频谱管理主要从频率、空间、时间三维展开,这也被形象地称为电磁空间的“红绿灯”。

目前,国际范围的电磁频谱管理主要是通过建立国际组织、签订国际协议、统一划分频谱来解决。各国也设立了频谱管理部门和监测站点,对频谱资源进行划分和使用。

据统计,美军一个步兵师约有70部雷达、2800部电台,俄罗斯一个摩托化步兵师约有60部雷达、2040部电台,保证如此多的电子装备有条不紊地工作,需要强大的频谱管理力量和机制。经过几次局部战争的洗礼后,美军从统帅部到野战师都设有专门的频谱管理机构,从国防部、联合参谋部到各军兵种,都建立了一整套完整的联合战役频谱管理体系,形成了成熟的管理机制。

根据美国陆军网站报道,美国研发的新型联合战术无线电系统,其中包含了频谱碎片整理技术,就是将不连续的频谱碎片重新聚合,实现整合资源、满足需求的目的。欧洲开发的“频谱池”技术,也是将空闲频谱资源收集整合,并根据用户需求进行动态分配,提高频谱的使用效益。

现在,世界主要国家都在大力发展频谱共享技术,在不改变现有的频谱分配规则下,通过仿真实测相结合的技术分析手段,使不同系统能够在同一频段兼容共用。此外,很多国家和组织通过采用先进信号传输技术、提高用频设备工艺水平、控制发射频率等手段,既避免了电磁环境的恶化,也实现频谱的高效利用。

“21世纪将是频谱战的时代”

传统海空优势的发挥,必须建立在电磁优势的基础上,失去制电磁权,必将失去制空权、制海权,电磁空间已成为与空间、地面和海洋并存的第四维战场。可以说,未来信息化作战,谁赢得了制电磁权,谁就掌握了战场主动权。美国前参谋长联席会议主席托马斯·穆勒曾说:“如果发生第三次世界大战,获胜者必将是最善于控制和运用电磁频谱的一方。”

面对世界范围内电磁频谱竞争的不断升级,美军先后出台联合频谱构想、国防部频谱战略规划以及“频谱战”战略等顶层指导文件,并采取避开拥挤频段、开发高端频谱等方式,研发微波、激光、电磁脉冲等武器装备,积极抢占频谱资源。英国在部队中广泛推广使用智能无线电和高效调制技术,提升无线通信系统的频谱使用效率。

为在未来信息作战中获得频谱优势,欧美等国军队还通过成立专门电磁兼容机构、采用先进仿真技术手段、制定质量指标管理体系、开发联合频谱管理系统等方式,提高战场电磁频谱管理能力。

近年来,随着认知无线电、动态频谱感知、频管仿真推演、电磁环境适应性分析等新技术的不断涌现,给军队电磁频谱管理发展带来了巨大机遇和挑战。专家预计,未来电磁频谱管理将朝着频谱资源共享共用、精细化频谱效能分析和频谱动态嵌入式管理等方向不断进步。

Classic examples of the electromagnetic spectrum

In 1914, the US Navy Atlantic Fleet in the first trial under the state of war radio communication equipment, results strongly spark near neighbor ship transmitters interference interrupt all radio communication, the participants had to make time allocation plan, assigned to the United States for two hours domestic radio transmitter, the other four countries 1 hour each. Thus, the Washington-based headquarters to an interval of 4 hours to its armed forces on the battlefield contact again.

In 1967, the US “Forrestal” aircraft carrier in the implementation of a particular military mission, carrier F-4 “Phantom” fighter ship radar beam is irradiated by the interference, the aircraft hanging space rocket was accidentally fired ignition, hit ship an a-4 “Skyhawk” attack aircraft fuel tank, causing a chain explosion, causing heavy casualties.

April 1980, the US Joint Task Force and local school Rangers joint implementation embassy hostage rescue mission in Iraq. In its way to evacuate due to a communication device and the Rangers are not compatible with the frequent collaboration errors, resulting in a helicopter and transport aircraft collided, eight commandos were burned to death and four serious burns.

May 4, 1982, the Falklands War, the British naval weapon known as a symbol and pride of the fleet, “Sheffield” cruiser by satellite communication and radar systems are not compatible, can only start work in turn, the result was Argentina “Super flag “aircraft launched the” flying fish “missile sunk.

June 9, 1982, the fifth Middle East war, Israel intercepted prior use of the Syrian army radar and “Sam” spectral parameters of the missile launch, just 6 minutes will be stationed in the Bekaa Valley which cost $ 2 billion in 19 “Sam” air defense missile sites completely destroyed. In the next two days of combat, Israeli fighter planes and electronic jamming aircraft with combat, created a miracle in the history of air combat.

After April 21, 1996, the Russian war in Chechnya, the hunting group through special electronic warfare, electronic signal war zone to collect, monitor, cell phone signal reconnaissance to Dudayev, was analyzed to confirm, and lock the phone signal coordinate system, cruise warplanes fired missiles on Dudayev was “targeted killings.”

May 2011, the US Navy Seals and Special Air Service regiment battle the implementation of “Neptune Spear” initiative. SEALs use of “Land Warrior” soldier system, and joint operations center for situation analysis and sharing of intelligence, special operations group UAV crew via satellite communication system commando operations return the White House and the Pentagon. Throughout its action, the US military weapons systems use spectrum resources covering all channels, in just 40 minutes, successfully kill Osama bin Laden.

1914年,美国海军大西洋舰队首次在战争状态下试验无线电通信设备,结果附近友邻舰艇发射机产生的强烈火花干扰中断了所有无线电通信,参加者不得不作出时间分配计划,分配2小时给美国对国内进行无线电发射,其他4个国家各1小时。这样,设在华盛顿的总部要间隔4小时才能与它在战场上的武装力量联络一次。

1967年,美军“福莱斯特”航母在执行某次军事任务时,舰载F-4“鬼怪”式战机受该舰雷达波束照射干扰,飞机悬挂的空地火箭弹被意外点火发射,击中舰上1架A-4“天鹰”式攻击机的副油箱,导致一系列连锁爆炸,造成重大伤亡。

1980年4月,美派联合特遣部队和当地别动队共同执行营救驻伊大使馆人质任务。在其撤离途中,由于和别动队的通信设备互不兼容,用频协同失误,造成1架直升机与运输机相撞,8名突击队员被烧死,4人严重烧伤。

1982年5月4日,英阿马岛之战,号称英海战利器和舰队骄傲象征的“谢菲尔德”号巡洋舰因卫星通信和雷达系统互不兼容,只能轮流开机工作,结果被阿根廷“超级军旗”飞机发射的“飞鱼”式导弹击沉。

1982年6月9日,第五次中东战争,以色列利用事先截获的叙利亚军队雷达和“萨姆”导弹发射的频谱参数,仅用6分钟就将其驻守在贝卡谷地的耗资20亿美元的19个“萨姆”防空导弹阵地彻底摧毁。在其后两天的空战中,以色列战斗机配合预警机和电子干扰机作战,创造了空战史上的奇迹。

1996年4月21日,俄罗斯在车臣战争中,通过特种电子战猎杀小组,对战区内的电子信号进行收集、监听,侦察到杜达耶夫的手机信号,进行分析确认后,锁定手机信号坐标,利用巡航战机发射导弹,对杜达耶夫进行了“定点清除”。

2011年5月,美军海豹突击队和特战空勤团实施“海王星之矛”行动。海豹突击队采用“陆地勇士”单兵系统,与联合行动中心进行态势分析和情报共享,特战空勤团无人机通过卫星通信系统将突击队行动回传白宫和五角大楼。整个行动过程,美军使用的武器系统频谱资源涵盖全频道,仅用时40分钟,便成功击杀本·拉登。

http://www.81.cn/rd/2015-06/18/

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

20160104131249755

Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)

中国解放军事科学院_lit

People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces

3259521140

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Source:

http://chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/photo-reports/2016-01/01/content_6840094.htm

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate 中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China

Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate

中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

八一解放軍

China’s People’s Liberation Army General Staff, subordinate to the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The Central Military Commission, is the organization which leads China’s national armed forces; it is a building and military operational command of the supreme command of authority. After streamlining under Xi Jinping’s recent modernization and adjustment, the Office of the General Staff now has an Operations Division, a Ministry of Information, the third section, is the Ministry of Information, which includes military training, a military affairs department, an equipment procurement department, a mobilization section, artillery, armor, combat engineering, anti-chemical warfare unit , electronic warfare radar units, Department of Political Affairs, Confidential Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Bureau, Foreign Affairs Bureau, Aviation Authority, and the military authority over other departments within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

f0c82be1a96d775cde9eb2b22c62cfd4

The following highlights at a few key sectors:

A General Staff

General Staff is considered a “General Staff Operations Department,” and is the ultimate operational military authority under China’s Central Military Commission, General Staff of the sequence is the “boss.” One is the most crucial of the General Staff, a division of the army all military commands are issued by one. He is the headquarters of the army during the war, when the war broke out, he was the representative of the country’s Central Military Commission, commander of military operations, and it also serves as the country’s highest military command, from the first place in the hierarchy of the General Staff.

Bai Jianjun incumbent Minister Major General Staff Operations Department, served as the Jinan Military Region deputy commander of the 54th Army, in March 2008, Marshall became the first 20 Army commander led his troops in May to participate in earthquake relief. 2009 appointed Minister of the General Staff Operations Division. There are five deputy minister one, are Major General, the direct leadership of the Chief of Staff Admiral Room Feng Hui.

General Staff of the General Staff is one of the largest department, under the jurisdiction of eight regular division level of bureau-level units, including the operational plan bureau, war Environment Agency, Joint Operations Bureau, Bureau of combat logistics organization, the Special Operations Bureau, the Bureau of the strategic objectives, readiness Bureau the exercise of the Authority. Two units would be under the jurisdiction of more to go, this section of the generals there are dozens of people, there is a joke, just throw a big stone, you can killed several generals. Liang Guanglie, chief of general staff came out after the reform, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff learning system, has been prepared to adjust. The military services, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Strategic Missile Forces (Artillery) – were in combat with a corresponding portion of the armed services bureau, in peacetime, the military services bureau responsible for tracking the corresponding daily activities of the military services, and to the Central Military Commission report. And in wartime, is responsible for coordinating the activities of the various military services.

A functional equivalent of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff J-3. Suppose the PLA is preparing a formal war plan, or emergency contingency plans, then this is a dry live. If Japan is now suddenly on the Diaoyu Islands to stir up trouble, then, is the one responsible for what, in 2001, the South China Sea military aircraft collided, is a direct command of the situation by the process. Also on the 1st to the 6th Shenzhou spacecraft launch, recovery, participation by a command of the General Staff, scheduling.

General Staff on duty 24 hours a belonging department, the command post located near the Summer Palace in northwest Beijing Yuquan Hill, commonly known as “Western Hills command post”, hundreds of meters deep underground command post by the elevator and out, can withstand nuclear attack; the Chinese people PLA land, sea and air, the Second Artillery Corps combat nerve center, similar to the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center. Its own communication center, information center, operations center, and other functional allegations. In wartime can act as a “national war command center” role. Western Hills command post with similar national readiness command center, the country there are many.

Second section of the General Staff

Two is the General Staff of the General Staff “intelligence unit”, is responsible for collecting, analyzing military and political intelligence, and the General Staff and the General Political Department of the three are considered military intelligence system. In a way, its strategic intelligence work and the Ministry of State Security (MSS) has partially overlap. Two main “customer” is the leadership of the General Staff, the Central Military Commission, the Department of Defense, branches of the military headquarters, the military-industrial leadership, and troop commander.

Major General Yang Hui is the incumbent minister of the General Staff bipartite, who has worked in Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Embassy, ​​the Russian Embassy and Kazakh embassy, ​​and later served as vice minister of the General Staff of three, 31 Army deputy commander and concurrently he was appointed Russia Eastern Europe, Central Asia Institute, vice president, director of the Anti-Terrorism Research Center, China International Strategic Studies, Senior Fellow, adjunct professor of the Nanjing Institute of International Relations. Major General Yang Hui network warfare specialists. (Note: The latest data, Vice Minister Chen Friendship promoted bipartite minister)

General Staff consists of more than two bureau-level units.

A game in which the General Staff bipartite intelligence gathering is mainly responsible for Hong Kong and Taiwan. Of course, it is also responsible for important goals worldwide. The following inning with five offices: Guangzhou work at work at Beijing, Tianjin work at work at Shanghai, Shenyang work place. These work all over the place in this city in the name of certain offices appear. For example, work at Guangzhou, the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government is the fifth office. Beijing Working People’s Government of Beijing Office called several offices. Now head of bipartite work at Beijing, the original military attaché in Russia. This is based on the geographical distribution of five configurations are also engaged in the work of the secret intelligence operations overseas. For example, Shenyang is responsible for intelligence gathering work in Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the Guangzhou office work also seems to be responsible for intelligence gathering its adjacent areas. Its primary goal is to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions people. Shanghai and Nanjing at work at work are responsible for Western Europe and the United States.

Second, the General Staff Department of the Second Board, also known as “tactical intelligence bureau”, the PLA’s seven military regions (Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Jinan, Beijing, and Shenyang) each under the jurisdiction of the military intelligence unit, is being at the division level. These two sectors directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Second Board of Management. Primarily responsible for providing tactical intelligence to seven military forces and coordinate their work.

Two military intelligence officers of the General Staff Department of Military Strategy in order to meet demand and sent intelligence, belonging to the General Staff bipartite three innings, commonly known as military attaché office, there are more than four hundred employees, by geographical region and the importance of the Special Envoy of the collection activities is subdivided into seven groups. Military personnel gather intelligence on major foreign arms technology, the scale of war, military doctrine, economic and policy aspects. A lot of this information can be obtained from public sources, but sensitive technology in general must also be taken in order to obtain confidential manner. The main way to get there is the General Staff Intelligence bipartite three ways: First, in various capacities as a cover for sending military personnel to a foreign intelligence; the second is the analysis of military intelligence from foreign publications; third is sent to the embassy military attaché. Chinese embassies were sent by the military attaché bipartite General Staff, and not by the Foreign Ministry or the Ministry of Defence. Attaché is military personnel, the highest level is the military attaché in the United States, is the military level, the rank of Major General. Some military attaché stationed in other countries is a positive military level, some deputy corps, but in most countries the military attaché, were positive at the division level, which is the colonel.

Two military personnel have specialized training institutions, training programs including espionage skills and language ability. Two former Minister General Staff Major General Luo Yudong served as president of the Nanjing Institute of Foreign Affairs. Nanjing Foreign Affairs College now renamed the People’s Liberation Army Institute of International Relations, the predecessor of the PLA 793 hospital School of Foreign Languages, Luoyang and Nanjing after the Cultural Revolution moved from Zhangjiakou, is divided into two colleges. That’s two intelligence skills training and language skills of school.

Second, under the jurisdiction of the Department of the General Staff also have many intelligence analysis bureau, responsible for specific geographical targets deep intelligence analysis: If the bipartite four innings responsible for understanding the CIS and Eastern Europe, political and military policy, five innings for the US and Western countries Analysis of intelligence gathering; and the sixth inning put the focus on neighboring Asian countries and China. Five innings during political and economic analysis of the main advantage of open channels to obtain publications. Analysts bipartite in the United States often have to work for many years in the United States, because this particular study enjoy high reputation in China intelligence circles. At the same time it may take considerable time and effort to develop the language ability of the analyst, so that he can identify the cultural and political information publications in the United States and Europe reflected. Five innings two favorite sources of information is the US Congress and the RAND Corporation report file.

Bipartite seven innings for the Science and Technology Bureau, is responsible for military weapons research, design and development of intelligence. Seven foreign intelligence aimed at future military science and technology, and domestic weapons development unit has close ties, can play a significant role in weapons development process. Qiju existing six research institutions belong to the Agency’s Management: includes fifty-eighth Institute of espionage equipment development, production and technical assistance equipment seagulls electronic equipment factory, Beijing electronics factory, fifty-seventh Institute, North Jiaotong University Computer center and where your own computer center.

Two and a bureau of arms control, specifically designed to deal with foreign ballistic missile defense systems and arms control issues. Since the Foreign Ministry has a department in charge of arms control and disarmament, the People’s Liberation Army and he set up a similar department. And the arms control mechanism is provided under the two, it is because the work of intelligence and foreign affairs at the General Staff of the interior is made with a deputy chief of staff to charge.

Section II has the following departments:

Archives Collection publications abroad. It is a subordinate unit of military Yi Wen Press, the company responsible for the translation and re-military magazine published in other countries.

Secret Service is responsible for handling, conveying and collection of confidential documents, is also responsible for the development of security classification of documents.

Provide comprehensive logistics services for office staff, such as transportation, office equipment, entertainment centers and diet.

Guard Bureau is responsible for the safety of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of leadership. In the second section of the security agencies also enjoy judicial powers.

In addition, the name of the General Staff publicly bipartite research institution “International Institute for Strategic Studies”, which is past the Beijing International Institute of Research. So that both experts and scholars Strategic Research Institute, is the second unit of the General Staff officer. For example, in the period after Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often published by a young scholar to speak against Taiwan Xin Qi, which is the second portion of the General Staff of a scholar. Staff Intelligence bipartite level is much higher than the Ministry of National Security, as it has been extended from the Red Army era to the present, therefore, there is China’s CIA (US Central Intelligence Agency) said.

Second section of the General Staff intelligence officers who are basically three: dense industrial and commercial dry, anchored. The first man is of the General Staff of full-time military personnel bipartite, is in the preparation of such a person in the circle is called the “secret work” professionally trained. The Ministry of State Security and Public Security of these people are called “dense dry”, but also in public security or national security establishment in the interior. The second man is half in the series, in the circle is called the “commercial dry”, saying that they are ‘half in the series “because their names on the computer intelligence unit, but the staff did not enter the military system. The administrative establishment such as one called Zhang Peng, whether it is an accident in Guangdong beat up, robbed, or open the underground brothel, as long as there is no dead, police came when Zhang Peng, Peng can say: You I cannot move, I was engaged in intelligence, a certain person. In addition, if Peng exit, than People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration can only take six thousand Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong when the Chinese citizens to the provisions of carry sixty ten thousand Hong Kong dollars and then caught by Customs, customs Peng will tell people, you cannot move me, I was the mouth of intelligence, is a certain person. Then customs will likely make a phone call to the authorities to ask. And because Peng’s name is on the mouth of computer intelligence, there a check and said: Peng is our people after such confirmation, the customs then you can only put people to put money.

In fact, the second man inside, and can be divided into two categories: one is relatively close to the “secret workers” are both on the list of military computers, has officially made the uniforms. Also, there is a salary nominally, the Central Military Commission is Rehang. If this person is indeed engaged in intelligence work because of the expense, then the money will be handed over to the man’s family. This may usually receive no wages, but the state will retain a person for this. Another person is not doing intelligence, it can be said of such people into the intelligence sector is purely to be able to rely on the usual relationship between the two portions for trading a lot of money. Because everyone knows that Chinese military authorities have called exemption chapter, there is an absolute privilege exemption of imports of goods. A third person is called “anchored”, which most people in the community. The vast majority of these people who are affiliated to a number of foreign military in the local offices below. For example: the Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department of identity at the local level is the “Guangdong Provincial People’s Government fifth office”, the head of sub-director and political commissar. The original five-run political commissar called Fu Jun, vice minister-level equivalent of Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department, he turned out to be the Director of Personnel Department of the Guangzhou Military Region.

Three of the General Staff

Three General Staff, also known as “listening unit”, is responsible for interception, processing and transfer of foreign radio communication signal propagation. That is through a border and coastal areas in the numerous “listening post” in intercepting electronic intelligence work. Former intelligence officers monitoring 24 hours a day listening to foreign television, and now adds support for Internet surveillance. This is somewhat similar to the US National Security Agency (NSA). “Network Control Center” section of the three located in Haidian District. General Staff is currently estimated at three hundred thousand persons responsible for monitoring all international calls. All international calls on recording equipment in advance to enter some key words, such as the names of some of the Chinese leaders, some sensitive event name, as well as some of the taboo words, when the recorder is sensitive to these terms, it will automatically jump up, then monitor staff will immediately check this phone to track listening, and three also intercepted faxes overseas.

Three overseas has many listening posts, in 1992 the Government of Myanmar agreed to set up a listener Chinese station on the Andaman Islands, to monitor the Indian Ocean. 1994 Lao government agree China Champasak Province in southern Laos (Champasak) listens to establish three stations, one in Khong. 1999 Chinese in Cuba located on Lourdes (Lourdes) in a project to expand cooperation listens station, the station was originally established by the Soviet Union.

Three is also responsible for domestic military network communication listener work, any wired and wireless communication links cannot avoid this listener’s ears network between the military regions, which helps to combat security checks.

Similar to the second section of the General Staff, General Staff three in seven military also has subsidiary bodies, regional anti-military regions responsible for intelligence gathering and processing backbone listens station is the headquarters of three military regions to operate directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff Department of the three management. The commander of military regions and staff have no right to intervene in the three institutions to expand their area of ​​prevention work. There is no affiliation between its stationed with the provincial military and large military. These listeners stand personnel, budget, establish respectfully the responsibility of the three Department of the General Staff. Listening station military regions have different functions and objectives of the region, such as: the Lanzhou Military Region, responsible for three innings in signal communication with the Russian side of the listener, and shoulder the important mission of the Russian missile attack early warning. The department should belong to three eight innings, the “former Soviet Union responsible for intercept electronic communications signal”, Central Asian republics also the council’s target range, the listener object is the Sino-Russian border areas. Three 12th Bureau is mainly responsible for the “identification and tracking of foreign satellite – the US military satellites.” A facility located 12 Bureau of Xichang.

Three minister Major General Wu Guohua, political commissar: Major General Wang Yongsheng.

Four General Staff

Four General Staff as “electronic radar countermeasure unit”, established in 1990, is mainly responsible for electronic warfare, including electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, and radar control and so on. Minister of the General Staff had accounted for four flat Major. In recent years, the PLA and electronic warfare tactics Jizhen been strengthened. Before the formation of the General Staff of four electronic warfare is a duty two portions. In addition to the implementation of the policy content of the PLA electronic warfare theory prescribed, four also provides electronic defense to strategic objectives, such as the Western Hills in Beijing military command and control center of the C4I system. In providing electronic protective measures to important national goals, and also in charge of the General Staff of four electronic warfare units army down to the division level units belong. Also manages and signals intelligence and electronic warfare operations leading naval and air forces, such as airborne intelligence-gathering system, the Navy shipboard facilities.

There are also a number four innings, armed forces troops to provide guidance on business respectively, directly under the Department of Electronics and radar troops against troop’s vertical leadership, or their counterparts responsible for some of the work of the Institute. Including the Southwest Research Institute of Electronic (i.e. 29 Chengdu Institute), responsible for the development of radar jammer station. 54 Institute of General Staff, that the special “for the development of electronic warfare and radar unit radar pulse parameters analyzed digital signal processors electronic intelligence.” 36 Hefei Institute, responsible for the development of communication jammer. In addition, the General Staff as well as its own four military academies, including Hefei PLA Electronic Engineering Institute.

In addition to managing the PLA’s military communications systems outside the General Staff Communication Department also full communications infrastructure modernization drive in China has played a leading role. Mainly includes the following items:

◎ Military telephone network (non-secret)

◎ Confidential telephone network

◎ Army data communications network (probably above the “army of public data exchange network”)

◎ Field communications system, which “integrates sound, light, electrical signals, the use of aerial, underground, submarine data link.” (As tactical / operational network system, the integration of optical fiber communications, and satellite communications.)

Another item on the People’s Liberation Army communication systems include:

◎ Underground fiber-optic network

◎ Communications satellite

◎ Microwave Communication

◎ Shortwave radio stations

◎ Automatic command and control network

General Staff Communication Department has a lot of units and personnel within the establishment in the fixed communication facilities (such as high-frequency communications, microwave communications, satellite communications, telephone switching systems, tropospheric scatter communications) as well as mobile communications equipment strategy. Four General Staff under a lot of maintenance and logistics units within the establishment to the relevant equipment repair, supply, maintenance, testing, calibration, and perform the functions of the General terms. In short, the General Staff Communication Department shouldered the main military mission is: planning and realization of the PLA modernization operational command and administrative communication network. Currently in charge of General Staff Communication Department is to build a telecommunication network to meet the need to fight a “local war under high-tech conditions”. At this point, the communication unit is focusing on achieving “six changes” military communications. These changes include:

  1. from the analog communications to digital communications transformation
  2. The transition from cable to fiber optic cable
  3. Terminal to change from single-use multipurpose terminal
  4. From the electromechanical switching system to an automatic switching system changes
  5. from the single-task network transition to multi-task network
  6. from manual to automated systems management and intelligent system management change

General Staff Guard Bureau

People’s Liberation Army General Staff Guard Bureau is prepared, which is the Central Office Guard Bureau, responsible for directing the Central Guards Regiment, known as 8341 troops.

General Staff Guard Bureau is being prepared corps, under the eight regular division level unit, the person in charge is the rank of general, and Chief of Staff of the same level. Secretary is also first deputy director of the Central Office (ministerial level), deputy director of including Deputy Secretary are Major General. Responsible for specific security command and coordination of national leaders you.

General Staff Guard Bureau is responsible for the defense of the leading organs of the Party Central Committee (Politburo) of the Central Military Commission and a safe. Also included Vice President, Vice Chairman of the NPC, CPPCC vice-chairman, the deputy secretary, Supreme People’s Procuratorate long, Supreme Court president and above leaders. Almost all state leaders living near Zhongnanhai and Zhongnanhai, the General Staff Guard Bureau is undoubtedly high position. A head of the Guards Regiment, awarded the rank, indicating the central importance of this force, for example, if what happened now Zhongnanhai, the Central Guards Regiment to the quick, or stationed in the Beijing suburb of 38th Army to the quick. Thus in 1976, the CPC Central Committee smash gang of four, is the central security group (8341 units) completed. Central Guards Regiment in charge of the central leadership of the security work, which is a very important and very politically sensitive posts, who must fill the position is the central leadership of the most trusted people.

In many army troops designation in 8341 is arguably the most famous. It was in 1953 in the Central Guard Division to form the basis of a group together, was formally established in Zhongnanhai June 9 that year. First built in 8341 when the army only 1,000 people, the main task is to defend the five leaders – Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun. Owned by the Ministry of Public ninth inning leadership. The then Minister of Public Security is Lo Jui-ching, Wang Dongxing nine innings of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary is Zhang Yaoci. During the “Cultural Revolution” 8341 troops replaced by the Central Office leadership, Wang Dongxing specifically responsible for leading, directing. Preparation expanding more than 8,000, the jurisdiction of seven brigades, 36 squadrons. The number of troops has been the equivalent of a division of troops. “913” after the incident, Lin Biao and the gang attempted to use against aircraft bombed Zhongnanhai, the Diaoyutai conspiracy, has set up an eighth brigade, namely cannon brigade, arranged around Zhongnanhai in order to ensure the safety of its over, but not for long on withdrawn. First built in 8341 when the guard unit or the target is more concentrated, mainly in Yuquan Mountain; new Rokkasho, Zhongnanhai, etc., and later expanded to Beidaihe, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall, Diaoyutai. Due to various reasons, the scope of security is greatly increased during the “Cultural Revolution”, the addition of Changping farm, Beijing Botanical Garden, Garden Village, East Cabinet and other places.

General Staff Guard Bureau under the jurisdiction of departments are: the General Office of Political Affairs, Policy Research Department, the Department (command and coordination center), Ministry of Information Technology, Communications, Training Wing (Cadre Training Group), livelihood security department, construction review Ministry Liaison Department, cadres Force (Guard Battalion), a brigade authorities Service Center (Zhongnanhai) Second Battalion (Great Hall) Third Brigade (new six) four teams (Yuquan Hill) five brigades (Beidaihe) Six Brigade (Special Operations Battalion) Seven Battalion (Cadre Battalion) Eight brigade is (engineering and maintenance team).

Leading security standards are divided into: a guard of the Politburo Standing Committee.

Politburo member, alternate member of the CPC Central Committee, vice chairman of National People’s Congress, State Councilor for the two guards (the Chinese Nationalist Party Chairman Lien Chan to visit the mainland to strengthen the use of two security guards). CPPCC Vice Chairman, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the three guards over the leadership after retirement if, based upon the original standard security guards. Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the main party leaders who also guard the goal, secretary of the country, the city, the state, as the case may determine the level of security, usually three guards and so on.

8341 security work forces very tight organization, the principal leaders of both the division of labor forces, Mao’s guards done by Wang Dongxing, Zhang Yaoci responsible, guards brigade is a brigade, security forces Zhongnanhai A zone is a brigade, a squadron; Lin Biao The guards work by the deputy head Zhang is responsible for, guards brigade is the Second Battalion, Second Battalion of the Guard squadron is a squadron; because Zhou Enlai lived in Zhongnanhai, the guards brigade is also a brigade, a squadron guards brigade three squadrons headed by Yang in. Other Politburo Standing Committee also has specific security brigade and squadron and responsible person. Was responsible for a team of Zhongnanhai and the surrounding area, the Second Battalion in charge of Maojiawan and the surrounding area, the four teams in charge of security in and around the Yuquan Shan, seven brigade responsible for the central directorate Beidaihe resort and the surrounding area, five brigade responsible for the Diaoyutai State and surrounding areas, other Several brigades are mobile brigade. In addition, each security zone has divided into specific perimeter and inner circle, the inner circle is divided into A, B, C area. A person can freely access area B, C area, but B, C zone A zone cannot easily access. In the 1970s to over Beijing’s Great Hall of the people know or see around pulling the cord, there are security guard, pedestrians cannot enter the security zone. Outside the red walls of Zhongnanhai have fixed posts and swimming whistle, of course, plainclothes whistle. Zhongnanhai, the Great Hall in addition to sentry outside the door, door security zone there, an outsider, a stranger is simply to get in. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others around the residence and living areas as well as multi-channel guard, unrelated persons, including 8341 troops of some leading cadres without the approval and consent also do not allow access, which is strictly regulated. 8341 cadres and soldiers because of their work out of Zhongnanhai, the Sentinels know can be released, and did not know where the company should be contacted to ensure correct case can be released.

However, this designation in 8341 there was a time back and forth change too. In 1975, when the military forces of the designation by the 4-digit rise to 5 digits, but the central security group is still 4 digits, then 8341 to 57001 by the designation of external, internal and remains unchanged, but Soon forces have received notice of the change callback 57001 8341 until shortly after the death of Chairman Mao in 1976, 8341 before it was changed to 57003, in October 2000 to 61,889 units.

General Staff Guard Bureau leaders

SECRETARY: Cao Qing in

Deputy Director:

Major General Li Hongfu

Major General Yan Min

Ma Jinhu Major General in charge of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo guard

Major General Zhao Jiang stay

Major General Sun Yuan Gong

Major Jiangguang Qing

Major General Zhou Dongsheng

Major General Ye your new

The leaders of the Central Military Commission

CMC leadership

PRESIDENT: Xi Jinping

Vice-Chairmen: Xu Liang Fan Changlong

Members: Chang Wanquan Room Feng Hui Zhang Yang Zhao Xia Wu Shengli and Zhang Shi Wei Feng and Ma Xiaotian

Former Chief of Staff

Zhou Enlai and chief of staff

Marshal Xu Xiangqian

Marshal Nie

Su Yu

Huang Kecheng general

Lo Jui-ching generals

Yang Chengwu

Admiral Huang Yongsheng

Deng Xiaoping’s chief of staff

Admiral Yang Dezhi

Chi Haotian

Zhang Wannian

Fu Admiral

Liang Guanglie

Chen Bingde

Admiral Room Feng Hui

Belonging to the Military Academy of the General Staff

Nanjing Army Command College

Shijiazhuang Army Command College

Information Engineering College (Zhengzhou)

Artillery Command College (Hebei Xuanhua)

Shenyang Artillery Academy

Zhenjiang Institute of boats

Engineering Command College (Xuzhou)

Communication Command Academy (Wuhan)

Chongqing Communication Institute

Electronic Engineering Institute (Hefei)

Institute of International Relations (Nanjing}

Army Missile Academy (Langfang)

Nanjing University of technology & Engineering

Anhui Artillery Academy

Bengbu Tank Institute

Xi’an Communication Institute

Luoyang Foreign Languages ​​Institute

Zhangjiakou Communication Institute

Zhengzhou Air Defense Forces College

Sports (communication) College (Guangzhou)

Engineering Institute of Chemical Defense Command (Hebei Changping)

Beijing Army Aviation Academy

National Defense and the National Defense University directly under the Central Military Commission, not to the local college enrollment

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中國人民解放軍總參謀部,在中國共產黨中央委員會、中央軍事委員會領導下,負責組織全國武裝力量建設和作戰指揮的最高軍事統率機關。經過精簡調整後,總參謀部下設辦公廳、作戰部、情報部、第三部、信息化部、軍訓部、軍務部、裝備部、動員部、炮兵部、裝甲兵部、工程兵部、防化部、電子對抗雷達部、政治部、機要局、測繪局、外事局、陸航局、管理局等部門。下面重點介紹一下幾個主要部門:

總參一部

總參一部就是“總參作戰部”,是總參序列中的”老大”。一部是總參最最要害的一個部門,全軍所有的軍事命令都是通過一部下達。他是全軍作戰時的總指揮部,在戰爭爆發時,他就代表中央軍委指揮全國的軍事行動,它同時也作為國傢最高軍事指揮部,在總參的層次結構中起首位作用。

白建軍少將是現任總參作戰部部長,曾擔任過濟南軍區第54集團軍副軍長,2008年3月任陸軍第20集團軍軍長,5月率部參加汶川地震抗震救災。2009年任總參謀部作戰部部長。一部還有5個副部長,都是少將,由總參謀長房峰輝上將直接領導。

總參一部是總參最大的一個部門,下轄8個正師級的局級單位,包括作戰計劃局、戰爭環境局、聯合作戰局、作戰組織運籌局、特種作戰局、戰略目標局、戰備局、演習管理局。下轄的二級的單位那就多瞭去瞭,這個部的將軍有幾十人,有笑話,隨便扔個大石頭,就可以砸死幾個將軍。梁光烈總參謀長上臺後搞瞭改革,向美國的參謀長聯席會議制度學習,已經進行瞭編制調整。各軍種,包括陸軍、海軍、空軍、戰略導彈部隊(二炮)–均在作戰部設有相應的軍種局,在平時,這些軍種局負責追蹤其對應的各軍種日常活動情況,並向中央軍委匯報。而戰時,則負責協調各軍種的活動。

一部在職能上相當於五角大樓Joint Staff的J-3。假設解放軍正在擬定一份正式的作戰計劃,或者突發事件的應變計劃,那麼這就是一部幹的活。如果現在日本突然在釣魚島挑起事端,那麼,負責處理就是一部的事情,2001年,南海軍機相撞,就是由一部直接指揮事態處理的。還有神州1號到6號飛船的發射、回收,都由總參一部參與指揮、調度。

總參一部屬於24小時值班的部門,指揮所位於北京頤和園西北的玉泉山附近,俗稱“西山指揮所”,指揮所深處於上百米的地下,通過電梯進出,可以抵禦核打擊;是中國人民解放軍陸、海、空、二炮的作戰神經中樞,類似於五角大樓的國傢軍事指揮中心。其擁有通信中心、情報中心、作戰指控中心等職能。在戰時可以起到“國傢戰爭指揮中心”的作用。與西山指揮所類似的國傢戰備指揮中心,全國還有多處。

總參二部

總參二部就是總參“情報部”,主要負責搜集、分析軍事政治情報,與總參三部和總政聯絡部都屬軍隊情報系統。在某種程度上,其戰略情報方面的工作與國傢安全部(MSS)有部分重迭。二部的主要”客戶”是總參領導,軍委、國防部、軍兵種總部、軍事工業集團的領導,和部隊指揮員。

楊暉少將是現任總參二部的部長,曾先後在中國駐南斯拉夫使館、前蘇聯使館、俄羅斯使館和哈薩克使館工作,後又擔任總參三部副部長、31集團軍副軍長,並兼任任中國俄羅斯東歐中亞學會副會長,中國國際戰略學會反恐怖研究中心主任、高級研究員,南京國際關系學院兼職教授。楊暉少將是網絡戰專傢。(註:最新資料,二部副部長陳友誼晉升部長)

總參二部下設多個局級單位。

其中總參二部一局主要負責香港和臺灣的情報收集。當然,它也負責全世界范圍內的重要目標。一局下面有五個辦事處:廣州工作處、北京工作處、天津工作處、上海工作處、沈陽工作處。而這些工作處都是以駐這個城市的某某辦公室的名義出現。比如說廣州工作處,就是廣州市人民政府第5辦公室。北京工作處就叫北京市人民政府第幾辦公室。現在二部北京工作處的負責人,原來是駐俄羅斯的武官。這五個根據地理分佈配置的工作處也從事海外秘密諜報行動。例如,沈陽工作處負責俄羅斯、東歐、日本的情報收集,廣州工作處看來也是負責其鄰近地區的情報收集。其首要目標是港澳臺地區的人。上海工作處和南京工作處分別負責西歐和美國。

總參二部二局,又稱“戰術情報局”,解放軍七大軍區(廣州、蘭州、南京、成都、濟南、北京、沈陽)各有軍區下轄的情報部,屬正師級。這些部門直接歸口總參二部二局管理。主要負責向七大軍區部隊提供戰術情報並協調其工作。

總參二部為滿足軍事戰略情報需求而派出的軍情人員,屬於總參二部三局,俗稱武官處,有四百多員工,按地理位置和所在地區對特使搜集活動的重要性,又被細分為七個小組。軍情人員主要搜集有關外國武器技術、戰爭規模、軍事學說、經濟和政策方面的情報。很多這種信息都能從公開渠道得到,但敏感技術一般來說還必須采取秘密方式才能獲得。總參二部獲得情報的方式主要有三個途徑:一是向外國派遣以各種身份為掩護的軍事情報人員;二是從外國的公開出版物上分析軍事情報;三是向駐外使館派出武官。中國駐各國大使館的武官都是由總參二部派出,而不是由外交部或國防部。武官是軍職人員,級別最高的是駐美國的武官,正軍級,軍銜是少將。駐其他國傢的武官有些是正軍級,有些是副軍級,但是駐多數國傢的武官,都是正師級,也就是大校。

二部有專門機構培訓軍情人員,培訓項目包括諜報技巧和語言能力。原總參二部部長羅宇棟少將曾擔任南京外交學院院長。南京外交學院現更名為解放軍國際關系學院,該院前身是中國人民解放軍793外國語學院,文革後從張傢口遷至洛陽和南京,分為兩個學院。這就是二部培訓諜報技巧和外語能力的學校。

總參二部還下轄有多個情報分析局,負責對特定地域的目標進行深層次的情報分析:如二部四局負責瞭解獨聯體和東歐的政治軍事政策,五局負責美國和西方國傢的情報搜集分析;而六局則把工作重點放在與中國相鄰的亞洲國傢上。五局在進行政治和經濟分析時主要利用公開渠道得到的出版物。二部駐美國的分析傢常常要在美國工作很多年,因為這一特殊的研究在中國情報圈內享有較高的聲譽。同時可能要花相當多時間和精力來培養語言能力強的分析傢,這樣他才能辨別出美國和歐洲公開出版物中所反映的文化和政治信息。五局最喜歡的兩個美國資料來源就是國會的報告和蘭德公司的文件。

二部七局為科技局,主要負責軍事武器的研究、設計和開發情報。七處瞄準的是國外未來軍事科學技術的情報,和國內武器研發單位有密切的聯系,能夠在武器研發過程中起到很大作用。七局現有六個研究機構屬該局管理:包括開發諜報設備的第五十八研究所、生產技術性援助設備的海鷗電子設備廠、北京電子廠、第五十七研究所、北方交通大學計算機中心和該處自己的計算機中心。

二部還有一個軍控局,專門用來處理國外彈道導彈防禦系統和軍控問題。由於外交部設有一個負責軍控和裁軍的部門,所以解放軍自己也設一個類似的部門。而把軍控機構設在二部之下,則是因為情報和外事方面的工作在總參內部是由同一名副總參謀長來分管。

二部還有以下幾個部門:

檔案局 收藏海外的公開出版物。它的一個下屬單位就是軍事誼文出版社,該公司負責翻譯和重新出版其他國傢的軍事雜志。

機要局 負責處理、傳達和收藏機密文件,也負責為文件制定密級。

綜合局 為工作人員提供後勤服務,如交通、辦公設備、娛樂中心和飲食。

警衛局 負責中央軍委委員和各總部領導的人身安全。在二部各機構的安全工作中它還享有司法權。

另外,總參二部研究機構的對外公開名稱是“國際戰略研究學會”,也就是過去的北京國際研究學會。所以凡是戰略研究協會的專傢學者,都是總參二部的軍官。比如說在陳水扁上臺以後,臺海局勢緊張期間,經常發表針對臺灣講話的一位年輕的學者辛旗,這就是總參二部的一個秀才。總參二部的情報水平比國傢安全部高很多,因為它從紅軍時代一直延續到現在,因而,有中國的CIA(美國中央情報局)之稱。

總參二部的情報人員基本上有三種人:密工、商幹、掛靠。第一種人是總參二部的專職軍情人員,是在編制內的,這種人在圈子裡被叫做“密工”,受過專業培訓。而國安部和公安部的這類人則都叫“密幹”,也是在公安或者國安內部編制裡的。第二種人是半在編的,在圈子裡被稱為“商幹”,說他們是’半在編”,就是因為這些人的名字上瞭情報部的電腦,但是人員並沒有進入軍情系統的行政編制。比如一個叫張鵬的,在廣東出事瞭。不管是打人瞭,搶劫瞭,還是開地下妓院瞭,隻要沒有死人,公安來抓張鵬的時候,張鵬就可以說:你不能動我,我是搞情報的,某某的人。另外,如果張鵬出境時,超過中華人民共和國外匯管理局關於中國公民到香港時隻能帶六千港幣的規定,隨身帶瞭六十萬港幣而被海關抓住的話,張鵬又會告訴海關的人,你不能動我,我是情報口的,是某某的人。這時海關就可能會打個電話到有關部門去問。而因為張鵬的名字是上瞭情報口電腦的,那邊一查就說:張鵬是我們的人。這樣確認瞭之後,海關這時就隻能放人、放錢。

其實在第二種人裡邊,又可以分兩類:一類是比較接近於“密工”的,是既上瞭軍情電腦名單,也正式發瞭軍裝的。並且,在名義上還有一份工資,軍委是認賬的。如果這個人確實是因為搞情報工作犧牲瞭,那麼這筆錢會交給這個人的傢屬。可能平時這份工資並沒領,但是國傢會替這個人存著。另一類人其實並不做情報,也可以說這類人進軍情部門純粹是為瞭平時能夠靠二部的關系作買賣賺很多錢。因為,誰都知道,中國軍情部門有所謂的免檢章,有貨物進口免檢的絕對特權。第三種人被稱為“掛靠”,社會上這種人最多。而這些人當中的絕大部分人是掛靠於軍情在地方上對外的一些辦公室下邊的。比如說:廣州軍區情報部在地方上的身份是“廣東省人民政府第五辦公室”,負責人分主任和政委。原來五辦的政委叫傅軍,級別相當於廣州軍區情報部的副部長,他原來是廣州軍區人事處的處長。

總參三部

總參三部,又稱“監聽部”,主要負責偵聽、處理和轉送國外電臺的通信傳播信號。也就是通過設在各邊境和沿海地區的無數“監聽站”進行電子情報的截收工作。情報人員以前全天24小時監聽監看外國電視,現在又增加瞭對互聯網的監視。這有點類似於美國的國傢安全局(NSA)。三部的“網絡控制中心”位於北京市海淀區。總參三部目前估計有十幾萬人員負責監聽所有國際長途電話。所有的國際長途電話在錄音設備上預先輸入一些關鍵詞匯,例如一些中國領導人的名字、一些敏感的事件名稱、以及一些隱諱的詞語,當錄音機感應到這些詞匯時,就會自動跳起來,這時監聽人員就會立即對這個電話進行跟蹤監聽檢查,而且三部也同時截收海外的傳真。

三部在海外擁有眾多的監聽站,1992年緬甸政府同意中國在安達曼海的島嶼上設立偵聽站,以監視印度洋。1994年老撾政府同意中國在老撾南方占巴塞省(Champasak)設立三個偵聽站,其中一個在Khong。1999年中國在古巴位於盧爾德(Lourdes)的一個偵聽站項目上展開合作,該站最初是由蘇聯援助建立。

三部也負責對國內軍網通信的偵聽工作,各大軍區之間任何有線和無線的通信聯系都無法避過這張偵聽網的耳朵,這有助於對戰備安全的抽查。

與總參二部類似,總參三部在七大軍區也有下設機構,各大軍區防區內負責情報收集和處理的骨幹偵聽站是由各大軍區司令部三局來運作,直接歸口總參三部管理。各大軍區的司令和參謀無權幹預在其防區內展開工作的三部機構。其同所駐紮的省軍區及大軍區之間沒有任何隸屬關系。這些偵聽站在人員、編制、預算、組建方面,完全由總參三部負責。各大軍區的偵聽站有不同的功能和目標區域,例如:蘭州軍區的三局負責偵聽俄羅斯方面的信號通信,並肩負著對俄方導彈攻擊進行早期預警的重要使命。這個部門應該隸屬於三部八局,其”負責截聽前蘇聯地區的電子通信信號”,中亞地區各共和國也是該局的目標范圍,其偵聽對象是中俄邊界地區。三部十二局主要負責”識別和跟蹤外國衛星–即美國軍用衛星”。十二局的一處設施位於西昌。

三部部長為吳國華少將,政治委員:王永生少將.

總參四部

總參四部為“電子雷達對抗部”,組建於1990年,主要負責電子戰,包括電子情報、電子對抗、雷達管制等。總參四部部長為曾占平少將。近年來,解放軍在戰術技偵和電子戰方面得到瞭加強。在總參四部組建之前,電子戰是二部的一項職責。除瞭執行解放軍電子戰理論政策所規定的內容之外,四部也向戰略目標提供電子防禦,例如位於北京西山的軍事指揮控制中心的C4I系統。在向國傢重要目標提供電子保護措施的同時,總參四部也掌管全軍下至師級單位所屬的電子戰分隊。同時也管理和領導海空軍部隊的信號情報和電子戰的運作,如機載情報收集系統、海軍艦載設施。

四部裡還設有一些局,分別對陸海空三軍部隊在業務上提供指導,對直屬該部的電子對抗部隊和雷達兵部隊進行垂直領導,或負責一些對口研究所的工作。主要包括西南電子研究所(即成都第29研究所),負責雷達幹擾發射臺的研發。總參第54研究所,該所專門”為電子對抗與雷達兵部研制分析雷達脈沖參數的數字電子情報信號處理器。” 合肥第36研究所,負責研發通信幹擾發射臺。此外,總參四部還有自己的軍事院校,其中包括安徽合肥解放軍電子工程學院。

除瞭管理解放軍的軍事通信系統之外,總參通信部也在全中國的通信基礎設施現代化建設方面扮演瞭領頭作用。主要包括以下一些項目:

◎軍用電話網(非密)

◎保密電話網

◎全軍數據通信網絡(可能就是上述的”全軍公共數據交換網絡”)

◎野戰通信系統,它”整合瞭聲、光、電信號,利用空中、地下、潛艇數據鏈。”(就像戰術/作戰網絡系統,整合瞭光纖通信和衛星通信。)

另一個關於解放軍通信系統的項目包括:

◎地下光纖網絡

◎通信衛星

◎微波通信

◎短波廣播站

◎自動指揮和控制網絡

總參通信部設有很多建制內的單位和人員從事著固定通信設施(例如高頻通信、微波通信、衛星通信、電話交換系統、對流層散射通信)以及移動戰略通信設備。總參四部下設大量建制內的維護和後勤部隊,以對相關設備進行修理、供給、維護、測試、校準,並執行總務方面的職能。總之,總參通信部肩負的主要軍事使命是:規劃和實現解放軍作戰指揮及行政管理通信網絡的現代化。目前總參通信部正負責建設一個長途通信網絡,以滿足打一場”高技術條件下局部戰爭”的需要。在這點上,通信部正著力於實現軍事通信的”六大轉變”。這些轉變包括:

1.從模擬通信向數字通信的轉變

2.從電纜向光纜的轉變

3.從單用途終端向多用途終端轉變

4.從機電交換系統向自動交換系統的轉變

5.從單任務網絡向多任務網絡的轉變

6.從人工系統管理向自動以及智能系統管理的轉變

總參警衛局

總參警衛局是解放軍編制,也就是中央辦公廳警衛局,負責指揮中央警衛團,俗稱8341部隊。

總參警衛局是正軍級編制,下設8個正師級單位,負責人是上將軍銜,與總參謀長平級。局長兼任中央辦公廳第一副主任(正部級) ,副局長包括常務副局長均為少將。負責具體指揮協調各位國傢領導人的安全。

總參警衛局主要負責保衛黨中央領導機關(政治局常委)和軍委領導的安全。此外還包括國傢副主席、人大副委員長、政協副主席、中紀委副書記、高檢院長、高法院長及其以上領導人。國傢領導人幾乎都生活在中南海和中南海附近,總參警衛局無疑是位高權重。一個警衛團的團長,授予上將軍銜,說明中央的對這個部隊的重視,舉個例子,如果現在中南海出瞭什麼事,是中央警衛團來的快,還是駐紮在北京郊區的第38集團軍來的快。因此1976年,黨中央粉碎四人幫,就是由中央警衛團(8341部隊)完成的。中央警衛團負責中央領導的保安工作,這是一個很重要的也很政治敏感的職位,擔任此職者必是中央領導最信任的人。

在我軍諸多部隊番號中,8341可以說是最出名的。它是1953年以中央警衛師一團為基礎組建起來的,當年6月9日在中南海正式成立。8341部隊初建時隻有1000多人,主要任務是保衛五大領袖–毛澤東、劉少奇、朱德、周恩來、陳雲。歸公安部第九局領導。當時的公安部部長是羅瑞卿,九局局長是汪東興,副局長是張耀祠。”文革”期間8341部隊改由中央辦公廳領導,汪東興具體負責領導、指揮。編制不斷擴大達8000多人,轄7個大隊、36個中隊。部隊人數已相當於一個師的兵力。”913″事件後,針對林彪一夥企圖用飛機轟炸中南海、釣魚臺的陰謀活動,又成立瞭第八大隊,即機炮大隊,佈置在中南海周圍以確保其上空的安全,但時間不長就撤銷瞭。8341初建時警衛單位或目標較為集中,主要有玉泉山;新六所、中南海等地,後來擴大到北戴河、天安門、人民大會堂、釣魚臺等。”文革”期間由於種種原因警衛范圍更是大大地增加瞭,又多瞭昌平農場、北京植物園、花園村、東官房等地。

總參警衛局下轄部門主要有:辦公廳、政治部、政策研究部、行動部(指揮協調中心)、情報部、技術部、通信部、訓練部(幹部訓練大隊)、生活保障部、建設審查部、聯絡部、幹部隊(衛士大隊)、機關服務中心一大隊(中南海)二大隊(人民大會堂)三大隊(新六所)四大隊(玉泉山)五大隊(北戴河)六大隊(特種作戰大隊)七大隊(幹部大隊)八大隊是(工程維護大隊)。

領導警衛標準分為:政治局常委為一級警衛。

政治局委員、候補委員、中央書記處書記、全國人大副委員長、國務委員為二級警衛(中國國民黨連戰主席至大陸訪問采用二級加強警衛)。全國政協副主席、最高人民法院院長、最高人民檢察院檢察長為三級警衛,以上領導如果退休之後,仍按原警衛標準警衛。省、自治區、直轄市的黨政主要領導人員也是警衛目標,各地、市、州的書記可以視情況決定警衛級別,通常是三級警衛等。

8341部隊的警衛工作組織相當嚴密,部隊主要領導都有分工,毛澤東的警衛工作由汪東興、張耀祠具體負責,警衛大隊是一大隊,中南海甲區的警衛部隊是一大隊的一中隊;林彪的警衛工作由副團長張宏負責,警衛大隊是二大隊,警衛中隊是二大隊的一中隊;周恩來因住在中南海,警衛大隊也是一大隊,警衛中隊是一大隊的三中隊,由楊德中負責。其他政治局常委也都有具體警衛大隊和中隊及負責人。當時一大隊負責中南海及周圍地區,二大隊負責毛傢灣及周圍地區,四大隊負責玉泉山及周圍的警衛,七大隊負責北戴河中央首長療養地及周圍地區,五大隊負責釣魚臺及周圍地區,其他幾個大隊是機動大隊。此外,每個警衛區又具體分為外圍和內圍,內圍又分甲、乙、丙區。甲區的人可以自由出入乙、丙區,但乙、丙區的人不能隨便出入甲區。上世紀70年代到過北京的人都知道或看到人民大會堂周圍拉著線繩,有警衛站崗,行人是不能進入警衛區的。中南海的紅墻外也有固定哨和遊動哨,當然還有便衣哨。中南海、人民大會堂除門口有哨兵外,門裡還有警衛區,外人、生人是根本就進不去的。在毛澤東、周恩來等人的住地周圍及生活區還有多道門衛,無關人員,包括8341部隊的一些領導幹部不經批準和同意也根本不允許出入,這是嚴格規定的。8341的幹部戰士因工作需要出入中南海,哨兵認識的可以放行,不認識的要和所在連隊進行聯系,確保無誤的情況下才能放行。

不過,8341這個番號在有段時間來回變動過。在1975年,那時全軍部隊的番號都由4位數上升為5位數,但中央警衛團仍然是4位數,後來番號對外由8341改為57001,對內仍然不變,但不久部隊又接到通知,把57001改回叫8341,直到1976年毛主席逝世後不久,8341才又改為57003,2000年10月改為61889部隊。

總參警衛局領導人

局長:曹清中將

副局:

李洪福少將

顏 敏少將

馬金虎少將 負責全國人大常委會委員長吳邦國警衛

趙留江少將

孫元功少將

薑廣清少將

周冬生少將

葉貴新少將

軍委領導人

中央軍委領導

主席:習近平

副主席:范長龍 許其亮

委員:常萬全 房峰輝 張陽 趙克石 張又俠 吳勝利 馬曉天 魏鳳和

歷任總參謀長

周恩來 兼總參謀長

徐向前 元帥

聶榮臻 元帥

粟裕 大將

黃克誠 大將

羅瑞卿 大將

楊成武 上將

黃永勝 上將

鄧小平 兼總參謀長

楊得志 上將

遲浩田 上將

張萬年 上將

傅全有 上將

梁光烈 上將

陳炳德 上將

房峰輝 上將

隸屬於總參的軍校

南京陸軍指揮學院

石傢莊陸軍指揮學院

信息工程學院(河南鄭州)

炮兵指揮學院(河北宣化)

沈陽炮兵學院

鎮江船艇學院

工程指揮學院(江蘇徐州)

通訊指揮學院(湖北武漢)

重慶通信學院

電子工程學院(安徽合肥)

國際關系學院(江蘇南京}

陸軍導彈學院(河北廊坊)

南京理工大學

安徽炮兵學院

蚌埠坦克學院

西安通信學院

洛陽外國語學院

張傢口通信學院

鄭州防空兵學院

體育(通信)學院(廣州)

防化指揮工程學院(河北昌平)

北京陸軍航空兵學院

國防大學和國防科技大學直接隸屬中央軍委,不向地方高考招生

 

Original Source: http://www.81.cn/jwgd/index.htm

 

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department” 鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department”  鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

Within the People’s Republic of China is the little known “Central Investigation Unit”, this cadre generates strategic intelligence for economic, military and Communist Party leadership strategic decision-making.

The following article comes from the Communist Party of China News website and the Chinese Military portion of Sohu.com.

八一解放軍

Original Modern English (loose translation):

Recently we saw a material, referred to the Party after the founding of new China an institution called the “Central Investigation Department,” but not too clear on the presentation. Asked colleagues around, it was said “in tune unit” is the former “central social unit”, it was considered by the restructuring from. So, it really is what kind of organization? What are its main functions? When it is established? Could the experts answer?

Daxing District, Zhang Xinyu Readers

Speaking of the central social unit, people still know the big end, and for the Central Investigation Department, is known to only a handful, and some even thought that the central social unit which consists of the establishment of Sino-Japanese War came directly reorganization. History, however, is not true.

First, the “Central Investigation Department” is not the “central social unit

Central Social Department in 1939 to set up the “Central special working committee”, management and leadership intelligence and security work, stating that “the CPC Central Intelligence Department,” outside “the CPC Central Committee Working Committee enemy territory”, but in the preparation of new China namely revocation of the occasion. However, the Central Social Work Department revoked, defending section included in the Ministry of Public Security (normalized before the government established the Central Military Commission formed), is set to change the intelligence part of the Liaison Department of the Central Military Commission, former Secretary-General of the Central Social Department 邹大鹏 minister, and former Central Minister of Social Affairs, when he was minister in charge of the Central Military Commission General Intelligence Department of LI.

October 1949, the third meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee adopted 邹大鹏 Director of Intelligence, to August 1952, due to intelligence agencies Administration revoked the Seventeenth Meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee approved the Department dismissed 邹大鹏length and level of the Deputy Director of 王少春. These show that the intelligence agencies after the founding of New China in the Ministry of Personnel and the Central Social closely linked, and in the affiliation by the CPC Central Committee and State Council on site were transferred to the Central Military Commission. However, the State Council’s Information Department only existed for three years, after intelligence work has focused on the Central Military Commission.

Central Investigation Department at the Central Social Department is not being withdrawn directly established on its basis, but in the Central Military Liaison Department of the Army transferred from within the party sometimes formed together. According to the 2001 book “Yang Shangkun diary” recorded February 23, 1955, when he was Deputy Minister Liaison Department of Lo long, green and Secretary-General Ma times wait until Mao Cheng Yang Shangkun place on “liaison department of ‘fate’ problem ‘ . February 28, Yang Shangkun about when he was Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLA LI “On the section on the political situation where the problem.” LI advice is: “entirely on the good organization within the party, you can set up one.” About the name and personnel issues of this section, Yang Shangkun contained in the diary: “name for ‘investigation unit’, Comrade Enlai Interested by the gram farming and Minister for unified management. “Subsequently, Yang Shangkun reported the matter to the Zhou Enlai. March 4, Yang Shangkun to Zhou Enlai at the “political situation the organization’s decision to participate in the” discussion, “decided to separate the military from the Central Military Commission, the party set up a ‘research department’, by the gram farming and Minister Zhou reported by the Secretariat decision. “That night, Secretariat meeting held in the office of Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai decided to agree on the establishment of the Ministry of the opinion survey, reported Chairman Mao Zedong decided. April 8, Yang Shangkun recorded in his diary: “The central and the President has approved the establishment of the Central Investigation Department of the LI was appointed by the minister, please contact the Department of the Central Military Commission of existing transfer system into the CPC Central Committee..” And contains: “to be in After the formal transfer of 1 July. ”

Second, the “Central Investigation Department” is to adapt to the actual needs of the construction and the establishment of new China, is an exploration and development on the organizational structure of the military.

Central Investigation Department to “investigation” is named, is the nature of intelligence work by the party under the leadership of the decision, but also with the CPC Central Committee issued the “Decision on investigation and study” on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding, in order to strengthen research, realize intelligence work from the collection of alert and defend the military strategic intelligence gathering intelligence to turn the inseparable. At that time, the central authorities set up the Central Investigation Bureau of Investigation, under a Ministry of Information, etc., whose function is to collect political, military, economic, cultural and social class relations and other aspects of domestic and foreign materials, to research, that the central work Direct assistant. Central Investigation Department inherited this work is the “investigation” of history and tradition and the basic spirit and adapt to the actual needs of the construction of the new China and in the organizational structure of an exploration and development.

On the working mechanism of the Central Investigation Department, Yang Shangkun in his diary records, daily work by his contact with the LI, big things consult Deng Xiaoping resolved. LI is the first Secretary of the Central Investigation Department was established. Incumbent Minister of tone in the hole after LI. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the ministry also failed from the impact. June 13, 1969, the Central People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department of the decision by the Second Investigation Department took over, gradually returning to normal until after 1971. To 1983, in view of the Central Investigation Department of historical issues in the “Cultural Revolution”, as well as adapt to the new situation of reform and opening up of intelligence work, the central government decided to revoke the unit formed, and its main body, with the Ministry of Public Security’s counterintelligence department and other parts of the relevant units merged to form the Ministry of National Security.

Third, the “Central Investigation Department” on the front to provide decision-making information secret for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee and his assistant staff

Central Investigation Department of the existence of nearly 30 years, as the organizers and perpetrators of the specific period since the new Chinese intelligence work, through painstaking research, on major issues related to the party and national security interests, and often at a critical moment provide decision-making information for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee staff and assistants.

First, the anti-peaceful evolution, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. After the founding of New China, the anti-peaceful evolution related to the new Chinese regime and consolidate the party’s ruling position, on this issue, Mao Zedong attached great importance to study the political situation in the United States, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. In autumn 1958, the US Congress elections, the ruling Republican Party defeated Democrats. On the US domestic political situation after the elections, the Central Investigation Department to write a report, noting that in the case of a severe economic crisis, the United States within the ruling class and national conflicts intensified, people from all walks widespread fear of war, internal political atmosphere bright side development. November 27, Mao Zedong when reviewing this report, will be subject to “political climate in the United States for the better development”, and instructed to say: The Central Investigation Department of the analysis is very interesting, at the same time he was appointed charge d’affaires in the British Embassy official township British diplomatic situation and analyze the situation in Western Europe is similar is a good article. He added: “In short, the Western world for the better day by day in terms of change, direct and indirect allies allies in the development of the proletariat.” Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPC Mao’s comments on the issuance and the Central Investigation Department The analysis report.

Second, in the development and expansion of patriotic united front staff played a role. The mid-1960s, the Central Investigation Department involved in the fight on behalf of the former Kuomintang government of President Li Tsung-jen Nanjing returning to work, and staff play an important role. July 9, 1965, the Central Investigation Department in writing to return to the central reporting jen comments on issues raised could be considered two options: First, do not need to enter the country on a statement to be issued a statement after returning to discuss; two I agree to enter the country on a written statement at the airport and met with reporters, but the statement is issued in advance with domestic suppliers properly. July 12, Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai instructed: “like a second program for the better, the manuscript beforehand good providers, there is no harm.” July 20, Mrs. Li Tsung-jen kai Guode Jie arrived in Beijing, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen at the airport welcome, which bore the original, Zou Dapeng, like Feng hyun, head of tune also meet personnel of the column.

In short, the Central Investigation Department in secret front for the new construction and development of China made a historic contribution to the party and the country’s intelligence has accumulated rich historical experience.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

编辑同志:

近日看到一则材料,提到新中国成立后党的一个机构叫“中央调查部”,但对之介绍不甚了了。问及周围的同事,有人说“中调部”就是以前的“中央社会部”,也有人认为是由其改组而来。那么,它究竟是一个什么样的机构?其主要功能是什么?它是什么时候组建的?能否请专家解答一下?

大兴区读者 张新宇

说起中央社会部,人们还是知其大端的,而对于中央调查部,则知者寥寥,有的甚或以为它由抗日战争时期成立的中央社会部直接改组而来。然而,历史事实并非如此。

一、“中央调查部”并非“中央社会部

中央社会部于1939年由“中央特别工作委员会”改设,管理和领导情报与保卫工作,内称“中共中央情报部”,外称“中共中央敌区工作委员会”,但在筹建新中国之际即被撤销。但是,中央社会工作部撤销后,保卫部分归入了公安部(在政府建立之前归军委建制),情报部分改设为中央军委联络部,原中央社会部秘书长邹大鹏任部长,并由原中央社会部部长、时任中央军委总情报部部长李克农主管。

1949年10月,中央人民政府委员会第三次会议通过邹大鹏为情报总署署长,至1952年8月,因情报总署机构撤销,中央人民政府委员会第十七次会议批准免去邹大鹏的署长和王少春的副署长之职。这些表明,新中国成立后的情报机构在人事上与中央社会部有着密切的联系,而在隶属关系上则由党中央内设分别转至中央军委与政务院。但是,政务院的情报总署只存在了三年之久,之后情报工作主要集中在了中央军委。

中央调查部并不是在中央社会部被撤销后在其基础上直接成立的,而是在中央军委联络部由军内转入党内时而组建起来的。根据2001年出版的《杨尚昆日记》记载,1955年2月23日,时任联络部副部长的罗青长、马次青和秘书长毛诚等到杨尚昆处谈“联络部的‘归宿’问题”。2月28日,杨尚昆约时任中国人民解放军副总参谋长的李克农“谈政情部放在哪里的问题”。李克农的意见是:“以完全放在党的组织内为好,可成立一部。”关于这个部的名称和人事问题,杨尚昆在日记中载:“名称可为‘调查研究部’,恩来同志有意由克农兼部长,以便统一管理。”随后,杨尚昆将此事呈报给了周恩来。3月4日,杨尚昆到周恩来处“参加对于政情组织的决定”,经讨论,“决定把军情由军委分开,在党内成立一‘调查部’,由克农兼部长,由周呈报书记处决定。”当晚,书记处会议在刘少奇办公室召开,决定同意周恩来关于成立调查部的意见,报毛泽东主席决定。4月8日,杨尚昆在日记中记载:“中央和主席已批准成立中央调查部。由李克农同志任部长,请现有的军委联络部转移到党中央系统内来。”并载:“拟在7月1日之后正式转移。”

二、“中央调查部”是为适应新中国建设的实际需要而设立的,是在组织体制上的一种探索与发展

二、“中央调查部”是为适应新中国建设的实际需要而设立的,是在组织体制上的一种探索与发展

中央调查部以“调查”命名,是由党领导下的情报工作的性质所决定的,也是与中共中央在建党20周年之际发出《关于调查研究的决定》,以加强调查研究,实现情报工作由搜集警报性和保卫性的情报向搜集军政战略性情报的转折所分不开的。当时,中央设置的调查研究机关即中央调查研究局,下设有情报部等,其职能是收集国内外政治、军事、经济、文化及社会阶级关系等各方面材料,加以研究,以为中央工作的直接助手。中央调查部正是继承了这一工作“调查研究”的历史传统与基本精神,并适应新中国建设的实际需要而在组织体制上的一种探索与发展。

关于中央调查部的工作机制,杨尚昆在日记中记载,日常工作由他与李克农联系,大的事情请示邓小平解决。李克农是中央调查部成立后的第一任部长。李克农之后,孔原任中调部部长。“文化大革命”期间,该部也未能免于冲击。1969年6月13日,中央决定由中国人民解放军总参谋部二部接管调查部,至1971年后逐渐恢复正常。至1983年,鉴于中央调查部在“文革”中的历史遗留问题,同时为适应改革开放以来情报工作的新形势,中央决定撤销该部建制,并以其为主体,同公安部的反间谍部门及其他部分相关单位合并,组成了国家安全部。

三、“中央调查部”在隐秘战线上为党和国家提供决策情报,成为党中央工作的重要参谋与助手

中央调查部存续近30年,作为新中国一个时期以来情报工作的具体组织者和实施者,它通过艰苦细致的调查研究,在事关党和国家安全利益等重大问题上,而且往往在关键时刻,为党和国家提供决策情报,成为党中央工作的重要参谋与助手。

其一,在反和平演变上,中央调查部起到了重要智囊作用。新中国成立后,反和平演变关系到新中国的政权和党的执政地位的巩固,在这一问题上,毛泽东十分重视研究美国的政治局势,中央调查部起到了重要智囊作用。1958年秋,美国国会举行选举,执政的共和党败于民主党。就这次选举后的美国国内的政治局势,中央调查部写了一个报告,指出在严重的经济危机情况下,美国统治集团内部和国内的阶级矛盾加剧,各阶层人民普遍恐惧战争,国内政治气氛在往好的方面发展。11月27日,毛泽东在审阅此报告时,将题目改为《美国政治气氛向好的方面发展》,并批示说:中央调查部这个分析,很有意思,同时任中国驻英国大使馆代办宦乡对英国外交形势与西欧形势的分析相似,都是好文章。他还说:“总之,西方世界一天一天地在向好的方面变,无产阶级的直接同盟军和间接同盟军都在发展。”中共八届六中全会上印发了毛泽东的批语和中央调查部的分析报告。

其二,在发展壮大爱国主义统一战线上起到了参谋作用。20世纪60年代中叶,中央调查部参与了争取原国民党南京政府代总统李宗仁回国的工作,并发挥了重要的参谋作用。1965年7月9日,中央调查部以书面形式向中央报告李宗仁回国有关问题的意见,提出两个可以考虑的方案:一是不必一进国门就发表声明,待回国商量后再发表声明;二是同意一进国门就在机场发表书面声明并接见记者,但声明稿应事先同国内商妥。7月12日,毛泽东批示周恩来总理:“似以第二方案为较好,稿子事前商好,并无坏处。”7月20日,李宗仁偕夫人郭德洁抵达北京,周恩来、彭真等到机场欢迎,其中孔原、邹大鹏、冯铉等中调部负责人也在迎接人员之列。

总之,中央调查部在隐秘战线为新中国的建设和发展作出了历史性贡献,为党和国家的情报工作积累了丰富历史经验。

 

Source: 战略决策情报支撑