Category Archives: Chinese Military – Network & Space Forces

中國軍方解釋了美軍演習在網絡戰中的作用 ~ China Military Explains Role of US Military Theater Operations in Network War

中國軍方解釋了美軍演習在網絡戰中的作用 ~ China Military Explains Role of US Military Theater Operations in Network War

Who is responsible for configuring the information resources owned by the United States? Who is responsible for assigning these resources to use the priority order? What measures have we taken to ensure that the Global Information Grid (GIG), the Independent Joint Service System, and the GCCs: Geographic Combatant Commanders (GCCs) and Global Network Associations (GCCs), which rely on information from them, Trojans (JTF-GNO: Joint Task Force-Global NetOps) security? In recent years, the entire network combat system on the discussion of these issues has not been suspended, the focus of debate is the theater operations in the network operations should play what role.

The US military has announced the deployment of the war command for each theater, and also announced that it would reduce military support in the cross-border areas. For each theater combat command, how to configure the information infrastructure to support the war in the theater has become very important. The enemy may be infiltrated into the critical network system area responsible for military power dispatch, which is often underestimated and even treated as an accident or incidental event, but these intrusion is virtually Made a connection request to block the normal operation of the commercial website, and even led to some of the military logistics business logistics company was marked as invalid. The theater warfare command should ensure that the information conditions of its zone are not affected by external invasions. Countless viruses are destroying the Internet, the Department of Defense system began to be attacked. It is now under discussion whether the Global Network Joint Task Force should be disconnected from the military network on the Internet, but the military is concerned that with the cooperation of commercial suppliers alone, the Department of Defense can not guarantee that all logistical support operations will continue without error To go on. Each theater combat command is not sure about the state of the theater itself, and they are skeptical about the security of the global information grid itself, and they are concerned about their ability to carry out the tasks assigned to it.

(STRATCOM) and the global network of joint contingents in the network operations in the dominant ideology of the impact of the theater operations headquarters of its command and control of the zone has a more global network of operations control institutions to strengthen the United States Strategic Command Weakened. The focus on the operational information grid to the global information grid has also affected, to a certain extent, the battlefield operations command of the global information grid is how to support the theater of the specific behavior of the understanding. This article will introduce the existing command relationship, the war between the theater operations command, the direct relationship between command and combat, the old and emerging joint operational principles of a special case analysis, and finally will be the theater combat command In the network operations should play the role of the proposed recommendations.

Network combat environment

The command and control in cyber warfare is a concept that appeared ten years ago, and its connotation has been evolving. Each of the relevant departments, the theater operations headquarters and the global network of joint contingents have carried out some organizational structure and work focus on the adjustment, but ultimately did not solve their respective roles should play this issue. To really understand why the role of theater warfare in cyber operations will be a problem, it is necessary to clarify the question: where is cyber warfare, what is real cyber warfare, and every What is the organizational structure and command and control structure of the department?

The first thing to explain is, what is the global information grid? According to the definition of Ministry of Defense No. 8100.1, it includes “global interconnection, terminal-to-terminal information transmission capability and joint processing capability.” Ability to collect, process, store, transmit and manage information according to the needs of warriors and policy makers ” This covers government and leased communications information systems and services, as well as other software, security and service support required for global information grids, as well as the Clinger- The National Security System, as defined in Section 5142 of the Cohen Act. According to this definition, the global information grid contains all levels of information systems from the Department of Defense and the national security system, from the tactical level to the strategic level, as well as the interconnected communication system.

Most of the discussion on the command and control of the Global Information Grid Network Operations Center focuses on the defense capabilities of the system, but the content of the network operations is far more than that. The tasks to be accomplished by the network operations include three: departmental management, Content management and network defense, whose purpose is to provide a lack of central support across the boundaries of strategic, tactical and operational concepts, and to support the Department of Defense’s full range of combat, intelligence and mission tasks.

1. Sector management is one of the specific tasks of the global information grid, which is the technology, process and policy management of systems and networks that make up the global information grid, including public sector management, systems management, network management, satellite communications management and Electromagnetic spectrum management of these aspects.

2. Content management refers to managing the information itself in the global information grid. It ensures that information is available to users, operators, and decision makers in real time. Content management includes the search, access, transmission, storage and integration of specific information content of the global information grid.

3. Network defense is the global information grid all the information, including additional information to protect, it mainly includes a number of policies, processes, projects and operations. If necessary, the task can be requested through cross-agency cooperation to complete. It is responsible for the global information grid information security, computer network defense, computer defense response capabilities and critical infrastructure protection.

Now we have learned about the basic organizational structure of the cyber warfare, the next step in the various organizations in the network operations and how they are performing the tasks, which are mainly composed of troops, theater warfare headquarters and global network joint contingents, all of which are With the changes in the battlefield requirements to improve their organizational structure.

The change in the organizational structure of the force is mainly to meet the requirements of the global information grid for information transmission, access, control and protection. Ten years ago, the troops had some changes to regional control in order to adapt to cyber warfare, but those measures eventually developed into centralized controls, and these measures were not preserved. Now it is necessary to understand the composition of the forces in order to better understand why the network operations command and control will become so full of controversy.

GEM: GIG Enterprise Management GCM: GIG Content Management GND: GIG network defense

Army ‘s network operations command and control

The army is the least of all the reforms in the service. The Army continues to hold the previous commander, now known as the Theater Network Operations and Security Centers (TNOSC), which is directly responsible for the various theater war operations. The Army maintains an independent global network operations and security center (GNOSC: Global NetOps and Security Center), all of the battlefield network operations and security centers are its affiliates. The Global Network Operations and Security Center has technical control over the Battlefield Network Operations and Security Center, but the Battlefield Operations and Security Center is also part of the Theater Command and is also managed by the Theater Network Command. A typical example is the Army’s battlefield signal The brigade is managed by the Army Service Component Command.

The Global Network Operations and Security Center provides technical guidance to the network operations forces in each theater. The US Army Network Command and the 9th Signal Command are responsible for the technical and management of the Global Network Operations and Security Center. But in wartime, the Global Network Operations and Security Center was also commanded by the Strategic Command (STRATCOM) as Army Element.

ACERT: Army Computer Emergency Response Unit

AGNOSC: Army Global Network and Security Center

ASCC: Army Army Command

ARSTRAT: Army Strategic Command (Missile Defense and Strategy)

CIO: Chief Information Officer

GCC: Theater Combat Command (Regional Joint Command, Six of the US Army’s Top Ten Command)

INSCOM: Intelligence and Security Command (one of the Army’s reporting units)

JTF-GNO: Joint Task Force – Global Network Operations Command

NETCOM: Army Network War Command

RCERT: Regional Computer Emergency Response Team

STRATCOM: US Strategic Command

TNCC: Theater Network Operations Control Center

TNOCC: Theater Network Operations and Security Center

G6: Army Command Department of Communications

G2 Army Command Information Department

Installation Network Provider

COMMAND – Strategic level operational command

OPCON: Battle (Battle) Command

TACON: tactical control

GS: Global Strike

TECHCON: echelon

ADCON: management control

Air Force ‘s Network Operations Command Control

The Air Force has chosen a different organizational approach to move the focus from the former headquarters of the Network Operations and Security Center (MAJCOM NOSCs) to the Integrated Network Operations and Security Centers (I-NOSCs: Integrated NetOps and Security Centers). Unlike the Army’s Battlefield Network Operations and Security Center, which is managed by the Theater Operations Command, the Air Force’s Integrated Network Operations and Security Center is not affiliated with any theater war command, but only by the Air Force Operations Center (AFNOC : Air Force NetOps Center), which is similar to the Army’s Global Network Operations and Security Center. The Air Force realizes that the Theater Command must have the power to direct direct operations in its zone, and it is necessary to establish a general support relationship between the Air Force Operations Center and the Theater Operations Command, establishing a dedicated link between the two departments unit. In addition, the Air Force has given a command to the establishment of a communications control center in their respective theater areas. These control centers can be used as a shortcut between the Air Force Operations Center and their respective theater operations.

ACC: Air Warfare Center

AFCHQ: Air Force Command

AFNETOPS: Air Force Network Operations Command

ARSTRAT: Air Force Strategic Command Theater Network Operations Control Center

CIO: Chief Information Officer

I-NOSC: Integrated Network Operations and Security Center

GCC: Ibid., Regional Joint Command

JFCC-NW: Network War Joint Function Composition Command

JTF-GNO: Ibid., Joint Task Force – Global Network Operations Command

NCC: Network Control Center

STRATCOM: Ibid., Strategic Command

TNOS: Ibid., Theater Network Operations and Security Center

Naval network operations command control

The Navy and the Air Force, no longer regard the theater as a unit of command. In order to better support global operations, they assisted two existing theater naval warfare centers (RNOSCs) affiliated with the Naval Global Network Operations and Security Center (NAVGNOSC) to assist the original two naval schools in Naples and Bahrain Communication master station (NCTMS: Navy Computer and Telecommunications Master Station). In addition, since most of the Navy’s cyber operations were carried out at sea, they also established Fleet NetOps Centers (FNOCs: Fleet NetOps Centers), echoing the theater and cyber warfare centers located in the United States. The fleet network operations center is the tactical entry point for the fleet to conduct cyber operations, providing network services for audio, video and data for the fleet of the zone, and can be provided when the fleet goes from another area of ​​the fleet network operations center into another area Smooth information transitions. Most unclassified networks are contracted by the US Navy Marine Corps Internet or the US Overseas Overseas Navy Enterprise Network (ONENET: Outside of CONUS Navy Enterprise Network). In order to meet the needs of the battlefield, the Navy established the Overseas Marine Corps Intranet Global Network Operations and Security Center to provide global combat support, as well as the establishment of a war zone network combat and security center of the theater network security center on each Specific battlefield support. There is no subordinate relationship between the Theater Network Operations and Security Center and the theater operations headquarters in the theater.

Fleet NOC: Fleet Network Operations Center

GCC: Ibid., Regional Joint Command

INSCON: Ibid., Army Intelligence and Security Command

JTF-GNO: Ibid., Joint Task Force – Global Network Operations Command

NAVGNOSC: Navy Global Network Operations and Security Center

NAVSOC: Navy Satellite Operations Center

NCC MHQ: Navy Network Operations Information Operations and Space Warfare Center

NMCI GNOC: Maritime Network Global Network Operations Center

RNOSC: ibid, regional network operations center

STRATCOM: Ibid., Strategic Command

TNCC: Ibid., Theater Network Operations Control Center

Navy Global Network Operations and Security Center (NAVGNOSC) and the East and West Regional Network Operations and Security Center (East and West RNOSCs), which support the most basic organization of global naval operations. The Naval Global Network Operations and Security Center brings together information from the Theater Network Operations and Security Center, the Overseas Marine Corps Intranet and the Naval Satellite Operations Center to provide global command and control information for the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force. Unlike the Navy and the Army, they did not maintain a body belonging to the Theater Command. The support relationship between the forces established by the Joint Operations Task Force of the Global Network Operations and the Theater Warfare Command did not give the theater war command the power to command the Naval Department’s global information grid. All command requests of the Theater Warfare Command must be approved by the Navy’s Global Network Operations and Security Center.

Command and Control of Theater Combat Command

Although each theater combat command in their respective jurisdictions for network operations are not the same way, but they have a common feature, that is, have established a theater network operations control center and a subordinate to the defense information system (DISA: Defense Information Systems Agency) of the theater network operations center. (CENTCOM) will be the theater network operations control center and the Defense Information Systems Agency’s theater network operations center known as the Central Theater Network Operations Center (Central Region Theater NetOps), the Central Commander of the Central Theater, Center, and the European Command (EUCOM) has established a Theater Communication Control Center (Theater Communication Control Center). Although there are some differences in the organization, but all the theater network operations control center are basically used by the theater combat command for the area of ​​the global information grid command control (area of ​​the global information grid is also known as the theater Information Grid TIG: Theater Information Grid).

The Theater Operations Command has optimized the configuration and control of the information resources of the global information grid through the Theater Network Operations Control Center to enable them to better serve the battle, while the Theater Network Operations Control Center is also connected to the Defense Information Systems Authority, the regular forces and the global Joint Operations of the Network Operations Joint Task Force. They collaborated with the Theater Network Warfare Center, the Theater Network Operations and Security Center to monitor the status of the theater information grid, to decide on the proposed global operations of the Joint Operations Task Force, and to assess the impact of its actions. The Theater Network Warfare Control Center has the right to decide on the reduction and termination of combat operations and to adjust the priority of operations through the Theater Network Operations Center and the Theater Network Operations and Security Center. If there is no theater network operations and security center in the theater, the theater network operations control center under the Global Network Operations and Security Center tie is responsible for completing the mission required by the Theater Operations Command.

The North North Command (NORTHCOM) is a rather special sector, although it is a theater warfare command with a clear zone, but most of its troops in the zone – including cyber combat troops – are not affiliated with the commander , But belong to the United States Joint Forces Command (JFCOM: Join Forces Command). This deployment is intended to facilitate the global management of the force. The North Command, like several other theater warfare commanders, also set up a theater network operations control center, but did not establish a theater network operations and security center, which makes the North Command must rely on network operations and security centers and other departments for its Provide general support. In this case, the role of the North Command is to be responsible for the operations within its jurisdiction, but also the lack of understanding of the corresponding battlefield information grid, and no direct control of its power.

Strategic Command Network Operations Command Control

With the troops fighting command on the network combat structure to adjust the same, the Ministry of Defense departments are also undergoing reform. Over the years, the Department of Defense has not had a centralized control of the network operations. But in 1997 when the Department of Defense conducted this attempt to find some of the weaknesses of the network at that time, also came to the “combat command – troops – defense agencies,” this network mode of operation is not suitable for modern battlefield situation The That attempt has led to the formation of a Defense Force (IAA) bureau, which is part of today’s Global Network Operations Joint Task Force, which is responsible for the operation and defense of global information grids.

Global Network Operations Joint Task Force network operations command and control mechanism is also constantly evolving. Prior to the advent of the existing UCP: Unified Command Plan, the command and control of the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force was under the responsibility of the Theater Operations Command, but it proved that it was not conducive to managing all the components in the network, It is also difficult to provide enough information for the global information grid information. The original version of the operational concept of cyber warfare emphasizes the control of the theater operations of the theater in the theater, which was described as follows: “The combat command has the power to command the troops assigned to its zone, Is conducive to the completion of the task, when the combat command feel appropriate, or even adjust the priority of the global information grid.All of these activities should be through the theater network operations center to achieve. “In fact, even the global Event, the initial version of the network combat concept document also provides that the global network operations Joint Task Force needs to be in the theater combat command of the theater network operations control center under the command of combat.

The follow-up version of the operational concept has been adapted to this principle. The control of the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force was moved to a more global command and control structure, through which the overall role of the strategic headquarters, the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force and other forces involved in the network operations Has been strengthened. The operational concept of the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force is subdivided into three environmental operational concepts: global, theater and non-global. What kind of environmental concepts apply to different events depends on the actual impact of the events and the impact of the theater. This form of command and control structure is more suitable for the current network combat diversity characteristics, for different levels of events, theater combat command can take a more flexible response measures, and even at the same time to support and supportive action. In this system, sometimes the process of dealing with the event to go through a complete command system chain, and sometimes you can skip some steps.

Global events

Global events refer to activities or events that clearly affect the preparedness of the entire global information grid, which often requires the concordation of multiple theater combatants to be resolved. Commander of the Strategic Command must have the ability to quickly identify global events and to be able to determine which theater combat operations or other agencies of the Department of Defense will be affected. Global events include fast-spreading network malicious code attacks, satellite communications attacks, and enterprise application attacks that are not limited to single-theater network events.

The Global Strategic Command is a reliable command center with command and command for the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force and the Theater Command. The Global Network Operations Joint Task Force uses its own resources to execute the instructions of the Strategic Command, which can be quickly sent to troops around the world. It is noteworthy that this order is not in the event of transmission to the theater of combat operations.

Although the notion of operational concept conferred the command of the commander of the strategic command worldwide, it did not completely deny the right of the theater war command to be commanded by the assigned joint command. While the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force performs the operational command of the Strategic Command, the Theater Operations Command can also deploy its troops to carry out the corresponding activities. Of course, in accordance with the requirements of the operational concept, the forces under the leadership of the theater operations command must be consistent with the action guidelines of the Joint Operations Task Force under the leadership of the Strategic Command. In fact, according to the historical action log of the Joint Operations Task Force of the Global Network Operations, most of the cyber operations began at the beginning of a small theater, and the Theater Command was always the first unit to deal with these incidents, and If they are handled properly, these theater-level events will not develop into global events.

Theater events

Theater events are those that occur in a battlefield area, and its foreseeable range of influence does not go beyond the theater, and the biggest difference between theater and global events is that. In the event of such incidents, the theater operations headquarters played a leading role, while the strategic headquarters only take the support role. The Global Network Operations Joint Task Force can provide support to the Theater Command by its Theater Network Operations and Security Center. If the local forces do not have a theater network operations and security center, it can also provide general support for the Theater Network Operations Control Center through the Global Network Operations and Security Center. The Command of the Theater Combat Command to the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force is subordinate to the subordinate command, that is to say there is no right to direct the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force through its Global Network Operations and Security Center to operate in its area.

Non-global event

A non-global event is an event that only affects the functional warfare headquarters and a particular defense agency. Since such institutions do not have a clear zone, these events can neither be regarded as global nor can they be seen as theater. In dealing with non-global events, the Strategic Command plays the role of auxiliary command, and the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force provides general support for the operational operational warfare headquarters involved. Most of the non-global events generally occur in the northern command zone, since many of the relevant functional departments are subordinate to the Northern Command. In the case of command and control procedures, non-global events and global events are the same.

Contradictory command and control requirements

Tactical technical requirements

Although the positioning of the various forces are not the same, but in the pursuit of efficient network operations, reasonable combat methods are their common theme. Different forces shoulder different responsibilities, they established an independent combat network, application facilities and auxiliary tools to meet their own and global information grid to maintain connectivity needs. Each unit is responsible for operating part of the global information grid, which to some extent the need for combat operations between the various departments of the centralized management, so as to get the desired combat efficiency and return on investment.

The focus of the discussion on centralized control of global information grids is the global nature of cyber warfare. The only way for the Department of Defense to achieve a network-centric commanding mechanism, to enhance the Force’s awareness of the situation and to significantly shorten the decision-making cycle, is to integrate the network and the forces horizontally, which is a centralized control mechanism The The latest “four-year defense assessment report” mentioned in the “to simplify the current ‘chimney’ system structure, to achieve a network-centric command mechanism.”

In order to make better use of scarce resources, the Department of Defense must consider when and where to allocate resources from a global perspective. The allocation of essential resources for network operations such as satellite transmission bands, standard tactical entry network sites and bandwidth must have clear mission objectives and easy to understand global significance. From the perspective of the force, the centralized command is, to some extent, a reshuffle of the existing force institutions and operations, defense networks.

The combat operations led by the theater war command will no longer be strictly limited to its zone. Ground forces are re-starting to use aircraft (including unmanned aerial vehicles) to routinely fly in the United States to support their operations. With the development of the PGS: Prompt Global Strike project, the commander has the power to call for conventional strike assistance from weapons systems outside the theater.

On the Navy, they pointed out that one of the essential characteristics of the maritime forces was global mobility, and the naval forces were constantly interspersed between the various theater warheads. Especially as aircraft carrier battle group such units, once deployed, it can not stay in a small battlefield. In addition, even the theater-level operations taken by the theater war command may have a global impact. The adjustment of the network defensive posture may have a huge financial burden on the Internet sector, and the combat command may not be able to understand the specific details of the adjustment behavior.

For the Department of Defense’s network system, all attacks are essentially global in nature. The enemy can not easily from the other side of the Earth to the United States to attack the physical objectives, but in the field of computer network technology, such things happen often. Once such an attack is detected, the information about it must be communicated to all relevant departments in the shortest possible time to ensure that such attacks are identified from anywhere to protect the security of the global information grid. Every time a network intrusion – even if it does not seem to fail the invasion – is likely to give the global information grid content a huge potential harm, because they invade the system behind the back door will be in the future Attack to play a role. The outbreak of the virus is an undisputed global event, and if we do not realize this, we will suffer more losses.

The Navy emphasizes that the impact of no events will be limited to a theater area, and that all efforts to combat cyber operations must be global. Their defense is that there is no theater boundaries, the Department of Defense every battlefield combat headquarters are facing the same potential threat, in order to obtain information on the advantages of the Department of Defense must make full use of its large coverage of the network resources , Quickly share all useful information on a global basis.

In addition, the Air Force and the Navy have pointed out that their cyber warfare forces are not deployed by the Theater Warfare Command. The Air Force and the Navy have their own cyber warfare organizations (such as the Theater Network Operations and Security Center) in each zone of the Theater Command, and the Air Force and Navy’s cyber warfare forces are usually defender in the theater. Finally, the Air Force and the Navy believe that the Strategic Command is responsible for the Global Information Grid through the Theater Operations Command, based on the description of the official documents available for reference.

Theater war command

There are two issues that need to be concerned about the command and control of cyber warfare against the Theater Command. One is the need for timely control of the battlefield information grid, the second is the need to turn the network into a weapon system, so that commanders can be the same as the conventional weapon system to use the same network resources, the use of the full range of network advantages to conduct a comprehensive battle.

Those forces that have been assigned specific responsibilities have already deployed their own unique solutions, each of which is involved in a network operation or each institution believes that it already has the most effective allocation of scarce resources. But the global information grid is not exclusive to a particular department, but a joint structure. “Chimney” type system and the existing deployment of the troops is actually to reduce the efficiency of the battlefield information grid efficiency. For example, the Army developed a secure IP telephony solution before other departments in the Department of Defense to communicate with the secret voice. For security reasons, other departments usually do not use this program, but their own development of a set of the same function of the solution. So there will be two sets of independent, confidential IP voice schemes in the zone of the Combat Command, which can not be connected to each other. The theater warfare command had to be screened, leaving only a set of programs to ensure that all departments in their zones could cooperate with each other. But the solution is eliminated by the party can no longer with the theater outside the brother forces for confidential contact.

Some of the resources in the combat command zone can serve multiple forces and the public sector. However, there are many examples of the use of duplication of work for the establishment of their own can not be linked to each other independent systems, such as satellite terminals and some technical control equipment. Sometimes, to send a message, you need to send the signal back to the United States, and then sent from the local distance from the initial sender only two miles of the recipient there. All kinds of fibers are arranged one by one on the same route, but the data between them can not be exchanged directly because they belong to different forces or public departments. The theater operations command must take measures to address the interconnection between the troops or the civil service in the zone.

To solve this problem, you can use centralized control approach. The centralized command of the cyber warfare forces requires the theater war command to make some adjustments to its own organization, but at the same time it does not affect its power to direct action when there is a need for combat. Relevant forces must accept orders for multiple combat orders and effectively optimize and feedback battlefield information. At present, the troops sent to the front are becoming more and more independent, and through the help of the global information grid they can cross the border of the theater combat command back and forth, and the theater warfare command has been compromised by the support and confrontation of the cyber warfare , After the implementation of centralized command, the troops can not or do not want to respond to the requirements of the theater combat command.

The Pacific Command (PACOM: Pacific Command) first adopted a “joint attempt” approach in humanitarian aid operations when it participated in the Indonesian tsunami relief work in 2004. The Pacific Command issued instructions to the assigned troops to carry out special network defenses under the framework of the entire action plan. Many naval forces and Marine Corps units have established relatively direct network defenses under the centralized command of the Navy’s Global Network Operations Center, which goes beyond the mandate of the Pacific Command to the Navy and Marine Corps, which Posing a potential risk factor for the global operations of the Pacific Command.

The Combat Command is concerned that the idea of ​​centralizing control of global information grids will always reduce their grip on information and control of the global information grid. Under the existing command system, a unit will carry out training or perform other tasks under the command of its troops, and participate in the battle under the command of the theater combat command, and the rules of command and control are very clear. The command and control of the forces in the field of information is as important as their command and control in the air, land, sea and space fields. For the C3S system (control, communications and computer systems), under its command to combat and responsible for the protection of its forces are often in a double or even triple the report chain, the results can not tell who is responsible for the final battle. In a global or non-global event, the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force often conducts direct operations around the theater operations headquarters. Although the operational concept of joint cyber warfare specifically emphasizes the need for coordinated operations with the theater combat command, this requirement has become almost in the context of modern combat rapid changes. Information Security Weakness Alert System, Computer Task Sequence, and Information Condition Adjustment System Problems outside the jurisdiction of the Combat Command are typical examples of this requirement failure. These events directly affect the command of the Theater Command in the battlefield, when the troops want to directly use these mechanisms from the management level to strengthen their own control, they can not determine when and how in the implementation of these Operation, and do not know what impact this will have on the command of the theater combat command, because under current conditions, only the theater combat command has the ability to carry out these operations. When a threat event requires the Air Force’s Space Command to seek the cooperation of the Joint Operations Task Force of the Global Network Operations with Air Force forces, it would bring to the command of the North Command if it did not notify or obtain cooperation with the Northern Command Big trouble.

In the Central Command, due to the lack of adequate control of the network combat forces, resulting in the commander sometimes can not determine whether the network resources are available. The Navy is responsible for operating a large number of battlefield information grids. Navy network combat forces in the operational area are not responsible for the Central Command of the Navy, who only need to report to the Theater Network Operations and Security Center. The central theater’s central theater theater operations center, whose duty is to maintain and direct all the combat operations of the theater operations, but it is not in the naval network combat force report chain, so it is often impossible to get all the battlefield information grid Of the state of affairs, there are already alternatives to deal with this problem, but this can not be said to be a formal solution.

For the North Command, because of the lack of cyber warfare control, they encountered great trouble in the rescue work of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In that operation, the troops’ equipment was transported to the joint warfare zone without permission. Which makes the North Command can not grasp and guide the transfer of materials, but can not coordinate the actions of various forces, which is a multi-directional management and operational issues.

As the various forces advocate the implementation of a centralized command framework centered on the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force, it is necessary to emphasize the fact that the theater commanders are reluctant to see such changes, Some of them are responsible for the strategic headquarters, with the global information grid operating rights and defense rights mechanism. The presence of the Strategic Command has been instrumental in maintaining the command of the theater combat command in combat operations in theater and global events and in enhancing communication between the theater combat command and the Joint Staff.

Combat headquarters and troops want to focus on the network operations from the level of joint operations, but there are several issues that need to be discussed:

Who is responsible for the first leadership?

2. Network operations to focus on what the specific direction of the command to be reflected, the global level, the theater level or what other level?

3. What is the change brought about by this adjustment only when a part of the theater combat command sends a request to the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force or is the theater commander’s complete command and priority in the theater?

Finally, the Theater Command is the body that is ultimately responsible for the President’s mission to complete the military mission in the area, and the troops dispatched to the theater combat command need to complete their respective tasks under their jurisdiction. It is unquestionable that they will still be under the command of the strategic command when the troops advocate the implementation of a global centralized command. But the current global information grid is a key part of the command and control capability of the theater combat command and the commander’s ability to guide the troops. Without a global information grid, the plane can not fly, the ground forces can not move, the ships can not sail, even the satellite can not provide the signal. Commanders need to get the status of the global information grid and control, just as they need to master the position and status of the troops as important. They must grasp the scope, ability and status of the battlefield information grid, and must know how the situation outside the theater will affect the battlefield information grid in the area where the troops are located and must be able to command and optimize the troops to support operations. If we really believe that the speculation of the centralized command will have a better effect, it can not be ignored for the theater war command to retain the appropriate command and control.

Also, as long as the structure of the Theater Command is still preserved, all military missions, including those directed by the Functional Command Command, will inevitably occur in the theater of the Theater Command, as all networks Combat missions must be carried out by an entity unit. At the same time, centralized command is necessary to achieve a network-centric command model and to more effectively defend against attacks. The concept of this centralized command and the command of the theater war command to master and optimize the battlefield information grid is not mutually exclusive.

The way forward

To develop a viable network combat command and control framework, it is necessary to avoid extremes, taking into account the needs of theater warfare headquarters and the need to establish centralized control of global information grids. In the process of the development of the operational concept of joint network operations and the transformation process of network combat forces, the principle of organization needs to play the role of adjusting the interests of all parties. In order to achieve this goal, the Department of Defense should do the following:

1. Create a simple, clear network combat command chain, to ensure that the strategic headquarters of all network operations can be directed. This can solve the problem just mentioned “who is responsible for the first leadership”. Only when the event occurred in a rapidly changing environment, the theater command and control agencies began to play a role. Simple command chain can ensure that troops involved in network operations know who should listen to who should report to whom, in this command chain, must include the theater combat command.

2. The command of the theater war command in its zone can be given:

– to amend the Joint Command plan to clarify the responsibilities of the Theater Operations Command to operate the network in its zone.

– Revise the existing global information grid network operational concept, detailing that those outside the theater network operations and security centers can obtain direct assistance from the World Network Operations and Security Center of the Theater Operations Command.

– All orders for the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force shall be enforced through the Theater Operations Command.

These adjustments ensure that all units in the theater are acting under a single command chain, which is responsible for the strategic headquarters through the Theater Operations Command. This can also solve the North Command should be responsible for the area but did not command the power of the network fighting the embarrassing situation.

3. In each theater combat command, a joint network operations center under the jurisdiction of the Central Command shall be established to integrate the Theater Network Operations Control Center of the Theater Command Command and the Theater Network Operations Center of the Global Network Operations Joint Task Force. As a result, each theater war command will have a joint operations command in the field of computer space, just as in the battlefield of land, sea and air. Any troops outside the Theater Network Operations and Security Center can obtain direct assistance from the Global Network Operations and Security Center of the Joint Network Operations Center.

4. To consolidate the status of the global information grid, the highest control to the strategic headquarters. The development of centralized command is now focused on the command of the forces involved in the network operations, which runs counter to the network-centric command concept. The force-centric “chimney” command system is not conducive to the transmission and processing of information, let us from the “all users to provide the latest and most accurate information” goal farther and farther. In the previous “Goldwater Nichols Defense Ministry Reconstruction Law” report has made it clear that the organization and management and command and control should be controlled by a joint agency.

Concluding remarks

The current centralized command of network operations is an urgent need. Optimizing the network operational command mechanism can help the Department of Defense to improve efficiency, save costs and better allocate scarce resources. More importantly, this allows network combat troops to provide information more quickly and accurately to commanders, which is important in large-scale network operations. The process of centralized command can not affect the efficiency of network combat command and control. This depends on whether the global information grid can provide enough information for all participating units and whether the commander makes full use of the theater information grid to help command operations.

“We have to change the network combat problem discussion and thinking mode, we are in the network” combat “rather than the network” management “, all participating units must ensure that they are ready to war every time to ensure that the network system A decisive weapon system. ” Network operations are a key part of our country’s ability to win war, it can help us provide command and control, shorten the decision-making cycle and adjust the resources of the theater. The Strategic Command has taken a big step in strengthening the concept of cyber warfare, and these efforts need to be continued. The theater warfare command must be an important part of the control and protection of the global information grid to ensure that we can continue to win the network.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

是誰在負責配置美國所擁有的信息資源?誰在負責分配這些資源利用時的優先級順序?我們採取了哪些措施來保證全球信息柵格(GIG:Global Information Grid)、獨立聯合服務系統以及依靠從它們身上獲取信息來開展工作的戰區作戰司令部(GCCs:Geographic Combatant Commanders)和全球網絡聯合特遣部隊(JTF-GNO:Joint Task Force-Global NetOps)的安全?最近幾年以來,整個網絡作戰系統對這些問題的討論一直沒有停息過,人們爭論的焦點就是戰區作戰司令部在網絡作戰中應該扮演什麼樣的角色。

美國軍方公佈了對每個戰區作戰司令部的部署,同時還宣布將會減少跨戰區的軍事支持行動。對每個戰區作戰司令部來說,如何配置支持本戰區作戰的信息基礎設施就變得非常重要了。敵人有可能會滲透進負責軍事力量調度的關鍵網絡系統區域進行破壞,這些入侵的危害常常被低估,甚至被當作意外事件或者偶發事件輕描淡寫地處理掉,但是這些入侵行為實際上完全有可能濫發連接請求來阻塞商業網站的正常運行,甚至導致一些承擔軍隊後勤業務的物流公司被標為無效狀態。戰區作戰司令部應該保證其防區的信息條件不受外部入侵的影響。不計其數的病毒正在破壞著互聯網,國防部的系統也開始遭到攻擊。現在有人在討論是否應該讓全球網絡聯合特遣隊斷開互聯網上的軍事入網點,但軍方又擔心僅靠和商業供應商的合作,國防部不能保證所有的後勤支持行動都能繼續無差錯地進行下去。每個戰區作戰司令部對各自的戰區網絡狀態都不太確定,他們對全球信息柵格本身的安全持有懷疑態度,他們擔心其是否有能力執行分配給它的任務。

受到建立一個更全球化的網絡作戰控制機構、加強美國戰略司令部(STRATCOM)和全球網絡聯合特遣隊在網絡作戰中的主導地位思想的影響,戰區作戰司令部對其防區的指揮控制權有所削弱。將作戰信息集中到全球信息柵格的做法也在一定程度上影響了戰區作戰司令部對全球信息柵格是如何支持該戰區的作戰的具體行為的了解。本文將會介紹現有的指揮關係、戰區作戰司令部的職責、指揮和作戰之間的線性關係、舊有的和新興的聯合作戰原則一級特殊戰例分析,最後還將會對戰區作戰司令部在網絡作戰中所應扮演的角色提出建議。

網絡作戰的環境

網絡作戰中的指揮控制是一個在十年以前就出現了的概念,之後它的內涵一直處在演變之中。每個相關部門、戰區作戰司令部和全球網絡聯合特遣隊都為此進行過一些組織結構和工作重心上的調整,但是最終都沒有解決好各自應該扮演的角色這個問題。要想真正明白為什麼戰區作戰司令部在網絡作戰中的角色會成為一個難題,就必須先弄清楚這幾個問題:網絡作戰是在哪兒發生的、什麼是真正的網絡作戰、網絡作戰中的每個部門的組織結構和指揮控制結構是怎樣的。

首先需要解釋的是,什麼是全球信息柵格?按照國防部第8100.1號文件的定義,它包括“全球互聯的、終端到終端的信息傳輸能力和聯合處理能力。按照戰士、決策者的需要來進行信息採集、處理、儲存、傳播和管理的能力”。這就涵蓋了政府的和租用的通信信息系統及服務,以及全球信息柵格所需的其他軟件、安全和服務支持,還包括1996年3月頒布的《克林格-科恩法》(Clinger- Cohen Act)第5142節所定義的國家安全系統(National Security System)。按照這個定義,全球信息柵格包含了國防部和國家安全系統的所有級別的信息系統,從戰術層次到戰略層次,以及互聯通信系統。

大多數關於全球信息柵格網絡作戰中心的指揮控制的討論都在著重強調該系統的防禦能力,但是網絡作戰包含的內容其實遠不止這點,網絡作戰要完成的任務包括三項:部門管理、內容管理和網絡防禦,其工作目的是提供跨越戰略、戰術和作戰概念邊界的無中心式支持,為國防部的全方位的戰鬥、情報和考察任務提供支持。

1.部門管理是全球信息柵格的具體任務之一,它是對構成全球信息柵格的系統和網絡的技術、過程和政策管理,包括公務部門管理、系統管理、網絡管理、衛星通信管理和電磁光譜管理這幾個方面。

2.內容管理指的是管理全球信息柵格里的信息本身。它用即時的方式保證信息對使用者、操作者和決策者都是可用的。內容管理包括對全球信息柵格的具體信息內容的查找、訪問、傳輸、儲存和一體化。

3.網絡防禦就是對全球信息柵格所有的信息包括附加信息進行保護,它主要包括一些政策、過程、項目和操作。如果有必要的話,該任務可以請求通過跨機構合作來完成。它負責的是全球信息柵格的信息安全、計算機網絡防禦、計算機防衛反應能力和關鍵性基礎設施保護。

現在已經了解了網絡作戰的基本組織結構,下一步介紹網絡作戰中的各個組織和他們是如何執行任務的,需要介紹的主要是部隊、戰區作戰司令部和全球網絡聯合特遣隊,它們都在隨著戰場要求的變化而改進著各自的組織結構。

部隊在組織結構上的改變主要是為了滿足全球信息柵格對信息傳輸、訪問、控制和保護能力的要求。十年之前,部隊為了適應網絡作戰曾針對區域控制進行過一些變革,但那些措施最終發展成了集中化的控制,這些措施也沒有保留下來。現在我們有必要了解一下部隊的組織構成,以便更好地理解為什麼網絡作戰的指揮控制會變得如此充滿爭議。
GEM:GIG企業管理 GCM:GIG內容管理 GND:GIG網絡防禦
陸軍的網絡作戰指揮控制

陸軍是所有軍種中改革措施最少的。陸軍繼續保持著以前的指揮機構,現在叫做戰場網絡作戰與安全中心(TNOSC:Theater NetOps and Security Centers),該組織直接對各個戰區作戰司令部負責。陸軍維持著一個獨立的全球網絡作戰與安全中心(GNOSC:Global NetOps and Security Center),所有的戰場網絡作戰與安全中心都是其下屬機構。全球網絡作戰與安全中心對戰場網絡作戰與安全中心進行技術控制,但是戰場網絡作戰與安全中心同時又隸屬於戰區作戰司令部,也受到戰區網絡司令部的管理,典型的例子就是陸軍的戰場信號旅受陸軍服務組件指揮部的管理。

全球網絡作戰與安全中心對各個戰區的網絡作戰部隊提供技術指導。美國陸軍網絡司令部暨第9信號司令部對全球網絡作戰與安全中心的技術和管理負責。但是在戰時,全球網絡作戰與安全中心又作為陸軍的元素受戰略司令部(STRATCOM)的指揮。
ACERT:陸軍計算機應急響應分隊
AGNOSC:陸軍全球網絡和安全中心

ASCC:陸軍軍種組成司令部

ARSTRAT:陸軍戰略司令部(導彈防禦與戰略)

CIO:首席信息官

GCC:戰區作戰司令部(地區性聯合司令部,美軍十大司令部中的六個)

INSCOM:情報和安全司令部(陸軍直屬報告單位之一)

JTF-GNO:聯合特遣部隊-全球網絡作戰司令部

NETCOM:陸軍網絡戰爭司令部

RCERT:地區性計算機應急響應分隊

STRATCOM:美軍戰略司令部

TNCC:戰區網絡作戰控制中心

TNOCC:戰區網絡作戰和安全中心

G6:陸軍司令部通信部門

G2陸軍司令部情報部門

Installation Network Provider網絡施設提供商

COMMAND—戰略層面作戰指揮

OPCON:作戰(戰役)指揮

TACON:戰術控制

GS:全球打擊

TECHCON:梯隊

ADCON:管理控制

空軍的網絡作戰指揮控制

空軍選擇了一條不同的組織途徑,把重點從以前的一級司令部網絡作戰和安全中心(MAJCOM NOSCs)轉移到了一體化網絡作戰和安全中心(I-NOSCs:Integrated NetOps and Security Centers)。與陸軍的戰場網絡作戰與安全中心受戰區作戰司令部的管理不同的是,空軍的一體化網絡作戰和安全中心並不隸屬於任何一個戰區作戰司令部,而是只受空軍網絡作戰中心(AFNOC :Air Force NetOps Center)的管理,該中心與陸軍的全球網絡作戰和安全中心性質類似。空軍意識到了戰區作戰司令部必須擁有在其防區直接指揮網絡作戰行動的權力,有必要在空軍網絡作戰中心和戰區作戰司令部之間建立起一般支持的關係,建立兩個部門之間的專用聯絡單元。另外空軍方面還賦予了一級司令部在各自的戰區建立通信控制中心的自主權,這些控制中心可以當作空軍網絡作戰中心與各自戰區作戰司令部相互聯繫的快捷通道。
ACC:空戰中心
AFCHQ:空軍組成司令部

AFNETOPS:空軍網絡作戰司令部

ARSTRAT:空軍戰略司令部戰區網絡作戰控制中心

CIO:首席信息官

I-NOSC:集成網絡作戰和安全中心

GCC:同上,地區性聯合司令部

JFCC-NW:網絡戰聯合職能組成司令部

JTF-GNO:同上,聯合特遣部隊-全球網絡作戰司令部

NCC:網絡控制中心

STRATCOM:同上,戰略司令部

TNOS:同上,戰區網絡作戰與安全中心

海軍的網絡作戰指揮控制

海軍和空軍一樣,不再把戰區當作指揮的單位。為了更好地支持全球作戰,他們用隸屬於海軍全球網絡作戰與安全中心(NAVGNOSC)的兩個戰區網絡戰安全中心(RNOSCs)來協助原有的位於那不勒斯和巴林島的兩個戰區海軍計算機與通信主站(NCTMS:Navy Computer and Telecommunications Master Station)。另外,由於海軍的大多數網絡作戰是在海上進行,所以他們還建立了艦隊網絡作戰中心(FNOCs:Fleet NetOps Centers),與位於美國本土的戰區網絡戰安全中心互為呼應。艦隊網絡作戰中心是艦隊進行網絡作戰的戰術切入點,可以為本防區的艦隊提供音頻、視頻和數據等網絡服務,並且可以在艦隊從一個艦隊網絡作戰中心的轄區駛入另一個轄區的時候提供平滑的信息過渡。多數未分類的網絡都是由美國本土的海軍陸戰隊內聯網(NMCI:Navy Marine Corps Internet)或者美國海外的海外海軍企業網絡(ONENET:Outside of CONUS Navy Enterprise Network)負責承包運營的。為了適應戰場的需求,海軍建立了海外海軍陸戰隊內聯網全球網絡作戰與安全中心來提供全球性的作戰支持,同時也建立了隸屬於戰區網絡作戰與安全中心的戰區網絡戰安全中心對各個具體戰場提供支持。戰區網絡作戰與安全中心與所在戰區的戰區作戰司令部並沒有從屬關係。
Fleet NOC:艦隊網絡作戰中心
GCC:同上,地區性聯合司令部

INSCON:同上,陸軍情報和安全司令部

JTF-GNO:同上,聯合特遣部隊-全球網絡作戰司令部

NAVGNOSC:海軍全球網絡作戰和安全中心

NAVSOC:海軍衛星作戰中心

NCC MHQ:海軍網絡作戰信息作戰和太空戰中心

NMCI GNOC:海軍陸戰隊網全球網絡作戰中心

RNOSC:同上,地區性網絡作戰中心

STRATCOM:同上,戰略司令部

TNCC:同上,戰區網絡作戰控制中心

支持全球海軍作戰的最基本的組織的海軍全球網絡作戰與安全中心(NAVGNOSC)和東西部戰區網絡作戰與安全中心(East and West RNOSCs)。海軍全球網絡作戰與安全中心匯集了來自戰區網絡作戰與安全中心、海外海軍陸戰隊內聯網和海軍衛星作戰中心的信息,為全球網絡行動聯合特遣部隊提供全球性的指揮控制信息。海軍和陸軍不同的是,他們沒有維持一個隸屬於戰區作戰司令部的機構。全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊建立的部隊與戰區作戰司令部之間的支持關係並沒有賦予戰區作戰司令部在海軍部負責的全球信息柵格範圍內進行指揮的權力。戰區作戰司令部的所有指揮請求都必須先經過海軍全球網絡作戰與安全中心的批准。

戰區作戰司令部的網絡作戰指揮控制

儘管每個戰區作戰司令部在各自的轄區內針對網絡作戰的組織方式都不盡相同,但是他們卻有一個共同的特點,那就是都建立了一個戰區網絡作戰控制中心和一個隸屬於國防信息系統局(DISA:Defense Information Systems Agency)的戰區網絡作戰中心。各個戰區網絡作戰控制中心的組織結構並不完全相同,美國中央司令部(CENTCOM)將戰區網絡作戰控制中心和國防信息系統局的戰區網絡作戰中心合稱為中央戰區網絡作戰中心(Central Region Theater NetOps Center),而歐洲司令部(EUCOM)則建立了一個戰區通信控制中心(Theater Communication Control Center)。雖然在組織上有些差異,但是所有的戰區網絡作戰控制中心基本上都是被戰區作戰司令部用來對轄區內的全球信息柵格進行指揮控制(轄區內的全球信息柵格也被稱為戰區信息柵格TIG:Theater Information Grid)。

戰區作戰司令部通過戰區網絡作戰控制中心來優化配置和控制全球信息柵格的信息資源,以使它們更好地為戰鬥服務,同時戰區網絡作戰控制中心也是連接國防信息系統局、常規部隊和全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的戰區接口。他們與戰區網絡戰中心、戰區網絡作戰和安全中心合作來監控戰區信息柵格的狀態,對被提議的全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊相關行動作出決定,並評估其行動的影響。戰區網絡戰控制中心對作戰行動力度的減小和終止有決定權,並且通過戰區網絡作戰中心和戰區網絡作戰與安全中心來調整作戰的優先級。如果該戰區沒有戰區網絡作戰與安全中心,那麼就由全球網絡作戰與安全中心領帶下的戰區網絡作戰控制中心來負責完成戰區作戰司令部所要求的任務。

美國的北方司令部(NORTHCOM)是一個比較特別的部門,雖然它是一個有著明確防區的戰區作戰司令部,但是其防區內的大部分部隊——包括網絡作戰部隊——都不隸屬於該司令部,而是屬於美國聯合部隊司令部(JFCOM:Join Forces Command)。這樣的部署是為了便於部隊的全球性管理。北方司令部和其他幾個戰區作戰司令部一樣,也設立了戰區網絡作戰控制中心,但是卻沒有建立戰區網絡作戰與安全中心,這就使得北方司令部必須依靠網絡作戰與安全中心等部門為其提供一般支持。在這種情況下,北方司令部所扮演的角色就是需要負責其轄區內的作戰行動,但是又對相應的戰場信息柵格缺乏了解,更沒有直接控制它的權力。

戰略司令部網絡作戰指揮控制

與部隊戰鬥司令部對網絡作戰結構進行調整一樣,國防部的相關部門也在進行著改革。多年以來,國防部一直沒有一個集中控制的網絡作戰部。但是在1997年的時候國防部進行過這方面的嘗試,發現了一些當時網絡的弱點,也得出了“作戰司令部-部隊-國防機構”這種網絡作戰的模式已經不適合現代的戰場情況。那次嘗試促成了國防信息系統局最終組建了一支實體部隊,也就是今天的全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊來負責全球信息柵格的操作和防禦。

全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的網絡作戰指揮控制機制同樣也在不斷發展。在現有的聯合司令部計劃(UCP:Unified Command Plan)出現之前,全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的指揮控制都是由戰區作戰司令部負責,但是事實證明這不利於管理網絡中的所有組件,也難以為全球信息柵格提供足夠的事態感知信息。最初版本的網絡作戰的作戰概念比較強調戰區作戰司令部對其防區的網絡作戰的控制,當時對處理戰區問題的描述是這樣的:“作戰司令部有權指揮被指派到其防區的部隊,只要是利於任務的完成,在作戰司令部覺得合適的時候,甚至可以調整全球信息柵格的優先級。所有的這些活動,都應該通過戰區網絡作戰中心來實現。”事實上,即使是全球性的事件,最初版本的網絡作戰概念文件也規定全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊需要在戰區作戰司令部的戰區網絡作戰控制中心指揮下進行作戰。
作戰概念的後續版本對這項原則進行了調整。對全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的控制被移到了一個更加全球化的指揮控制架構中,通過這樣的調整,戰略司令部、全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊和其他參與網絡作戰的部隊的整體角色都得到了加強。全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的作戰概念被細分成了三個環境作戰概念:全球性的、戰區性的和非全局性的。不同的事件適用何種環境概念取決於事件造成的實際影響和戰區影響。這種形式的指揮控制結構更加適用於目前網絡作戰多樣性特性,針對不同級別的事件,戰區作戰司令部可以採取更加靈活的應對措施,甚至可以同時展開支持性的和輔助性的行動。在這種制度下,有時候處理事件的過程要經過完整的指揮系統鏈,有時候可以跳過一些步驟。

全球性事件

全球性事件是指那些顯而易見會影響整個全球信息柵格的備戰度的活動或事件,這類事件通常需要多個戰區作戰司令部的協同處理才能得到解決。戰略司令部的指揮官必須要具備快速鑑別全球性事件的能力,並要能具體判斷出有哪些戰區作戰司令部或者國防部的其他機構會受到影響。全球性事件包括快速傳播的網絡惡意代碼攻擊、衛星通信攻擊、企業應用攻擊等不僅僅局限於單個戰區的網絡事件。

全球戰略司令部是一個可靠的指揮中心,它對全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊和戰區作戰司令部都有命令和指揮權。全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊利用自己的資源來執行戰略司令部的指示,作戰命令可以很快地發送到在全球各地的部隊中。值得注意的是,這種命令在傳遞時不經過事件發生地的戰區作戰司令部。

雖然作戰概念的原則賦予了戰略司令部指揮官全球範圍內的指揮權,但是這也並沒有完全否定戰區作戰司令部可以通過分配的聯合司令部計劃來進行指揮的權利。在全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊執行戰略司令部的作戰命令的同時,戰區作戰司令部也可以調遣其麾下的部隊進行相應的活動。當然,按照作戰概念的要求,戰區作戰司令部領導下的部隊的行動必須與戰略司令部領導下的全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的行動方針保持一致。事實上,據全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的歷史行動日誌記載,大多數的網絡作戰一開始都是在小範圍戰區開始出現的,戰區作戰司令部總是著手處理這些事件的第一單位,而且如果處理得適當的話,這些戰區級別的事件就不會發展成全球性事件。

戰區性事件

戰區性事件是指那些發生在某個戰場區域,其可預見的影響範圍不會超出該戰區的事件,戰區性事件與全球性事件的最大區別也就在於此。在處理這類事件的時候,戰區作戰司令部起著主導作用,而戰略司令部只承擔輔助的支持作用。全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊可以通過其戰區網絡作戰與安全中心對戰區作戰司令部提供支援。如果當地的部隊沒有戰區網絡作戰與安全中心,那也可以通過全球網絡作戰與安全中心為戰區網絡作戰控制中心提供一般支持。戰區作戰司令部對全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的指揮屬於次級指揮,也就是說沒有權利通過全球網絡作戰與安全中心來直接調動全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊到其所轄區域進行作戰。

非全局性事件

非全局性事件是指只對職能作戰司令部和特定的國防機構造成影響的事件。由於這類機構沒有明確的防區,所以這些事件既不能被看成全球性的也不能被看成戰區性的。在處理非全局性事件時,戰略司令部扮演輔助指揮的角色,全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊對所涉及到的職能作戰司令部提供一般支持。大多數的非全局性事件一般都發生在北方司令部的防區,因為很多相關的職能部門都隸屬於北方司令部。在指揮控制的程序方面,非全局性事件和全球性事件是相同的。

相互矛盾的指揮控制要求

戰術技術的要求

儘管各個部隊的定位不盡相同,但是在網絡作戰中追求高效、合理的作戰方法是他們共同的主題。不同的部隊肩負著不同的職責,他們建立了獨立的作戰網絡、應用設施和輔助工具來滿足自身與全球信息柵格保持聯通的需求。每支部隊都要負責操作一部分全球信息柵格,這在一定程度上需要各部隊間作戰鏈的集中化管理,這樣才能獲得所期待的作戰效率和投入回報率。

關於對全球信息柵格進行集中化控制討論的焦點是網絡作戰的全球性特質。國防部想要實現以網絡為中心的指揮機制、增強部隊的事態感知能力和顯著縮短決策週期的目標的話,唯一的方法就是將網絡和部隊進行橫向的融合,這是一種集中化的控制機制。最新的一份《四年防務評估報告》裡就提到過“要簡化目前的‘煙囪式’系統結構,實現以網絡為中心的指揮機制”。

為了更好地利用緊缺資源,國防部必須從全球性的角度來考慮何時何地調撥何種資源。對衛星傳輸波段、標準戰術入口網絡站點和帶寬等網絡作戰必需資源的分配必須要有明確的任務目標和易於理解的全球性意義。從部隊的角度來看,集中化指揮在某種程度上是對現有部隊機構和作戰、防禦網絡的一次重新洗牌。

由戰區作戰司令部領導的作戰行動將不再嚴格地限於其防區內。地面部隊重新開始利用飛機(包括無人機)例行地在美國本土飛行來支持他們的作戰。隨著快速全球打擊(PGS:Prompt Global Strike)項目的發展,指揮官已經有權力呼叫從戰區以外的武器系統發出常規打擊援助。

在海軍方面,他們指出海上部隊的一個本質性特點就是全球流動性,海軍部隊作戰時會不斷地在各個戰區作戰司令部之間穿插。尤其是像航母戰鬥群這樣的單位,一旦被部署出發,就不可能一直呆在一塊小範圍的戰場。另外,即使是戰區作戰司令部所採取的戰區級別的行動,也有可能產生全球性的影響。網絡防禦姿態的調整可能對互聯網部門帶來巨大的經濟負擔,而且作戰司令部還有可能無法了解到調整行為的具體細節結果。

對國防部的網絡系統來說,所有的攻擊本質上同樣都是全球性的。敵人不可能輕易地從地球的另一端對美國本土的實體目標進行攻擊,但是在計算機網絡科技領域,這樣的事情經常發生。一旦檢測到這種攻擊,關於它的信息必須要在最短的時間內傳遍全球所有的相關部門,以保證從任何地方都能識別出這樣的攻擊方式,從而保護全球信息柵格的安全。每一次網絡入侵——哪怕是看起來無關緊要的失敗的入侵——都有可能給全球信息柵格的內容帶來巨大的潛在危害,因為它們入侵時在系統中留下的後門會在以後的攻擊中發揮作用。病毒的爆發是毫無爭議的全球性事件,如果認識不到這一點的話,我們將會受到更大的損失。

海軍強調沒有任何事件的影響會僅限於某個戰區範圍,所有關於網絡作戰的努力都必須是全球性的。他們的理由是網絡作戰是沒有戰區界限的,國防部的每個戰區作戰司令部所面臨的潛在威脅都是相同的,為了獲得信息上的優勢,國防部必須要充分利用其大覆蓋面的網絡資源,快速地在全球範圍內分享所有的有用信息。

此外,空軍和海軍方面指出,他們的網絡作戰部隊都不是由戰區作戰司令部來負責部署的。在每個戰區作戰司令部的防區內,空軍和海軍都有自己的網絡作戰組織(例如戰區網絡作戰與安全中心),而且空軍和海軍的網絡作戰部隊在戰區內通常是扮演維護者的角色。最後一點,空軍和海軍都認為,根據可供參考的官方文件的描述,戰略司令部通過戰區作戰司令部對全球信息柵格負責。

戰區作戰司令部的要求

對戰區作戰司令部來說,在網絡作戰的指揮控制方面有兩個需要關心的問題。一是需要對戰場信息柵格進行及時的控制,二是需要把網絡變成一個武器系統,讓指揮官們可以像對常規的武器系統一樣共同利用網絡資源,利用網絡全方位的優勢來進行全面的戰鬥。

那些被分配了特定職責的部隊,已經部署好了各自唯一的解決方案,參與到網絡作戰中的每支部隊或者每個機構都相信自己已經擁有了最有效分配緊缺資源的辦法。但是全球信息柵格並不是專屬於某一個部門的,而是一個聯合結構。 “煙囪”式系統和現有的部隊部署方式實際上是降低了戰場信息柵格的利用效率。舉個例子來說,陸軍在國防部的其他部門之前研發出了一套安全的IP電話解決方案,可以進行保密語音的聯絡。出於安全考慮,其他部門通常不會再採用這套方案,而是自己再開發一套功能相同的解決方案。這樣在作戰司令部的防區內就有了兩套獨立的保密IP語音方案,它們相互之間不能進行聯通。戰區作戰司令部只得進行篩選,只保留一套方案,以保證在其防區內所有部門可以進行彼此協作。但是解決方案被淘汰的一方就不能再與該戰區以外的兄弟部隊進行保密聯絡了。

作戰司令部防區內的有些資源可以為多個部隊和公務部門服務。但是也有很多例子是使用者進行重複勞動為各自建立了不能相互聯絡的獨立系統,比如衛星終端和一些技術控制設備。有些時候,要傳遞一個信息的話,需要先把信號發回美國本土,然後再從本土發到距離初始發送者只有兩英里的接收者那裡。各種各樣的光纖一條挨一條地按照相同的路線排列著,但是它們之間的數據卻不能進行直接交換,因為它們分屬於不同的部隊或者公務部門。戰區作戰司令部必須採取措施來解決防區內的部隊或者公務部門之間的互聯性問題。

要解決這個問題,可以採用集中化控制的辦法。對網絡作戰部隊的集中化指揮需要戰區作戰司令部對自身的組織機構進行一定的調整,但是同時又不能影響其在有作戰需要時指揮行動的權力。相關部隊必須接受多個作戰司令部的命令,並且有效地優化和反饋戰場信息。目前,派往前線的部隊獨立性越來越高,通過全球信息柵格的幫助他們可以來回地越過戰區作戰司令部的邊界,戰區作戰司令部對網絡作戰的輔助和對抗作用因此而受到了損害,施行集中化指揮以後,部隊就不能或者說不願意響應戰區作戰司令部的要求了。

在2004年參與印尼海嘯救助工作的時候,太平洋司令部(PACOM:Pacific Command)首次在人道援助行動中採取了“聯合嘗試”的方式。太平洋司令部向被分派有任務的部隊發出指令,讓他們在整個行動計劃的框架之下進行特別的網絡防禦工作。很多海軍部隊和海軍陸戰隊的部隊在海軍全球網絡作戰中心的集中化指揮下,建立了一些相對直接的網絡防禦措施,這些措施超越了太平洋司令部給海軍和海軍陸戰隊分配的任務範圍,這就給太平洋司令部的全球網絡作戰帶來了潛在的危險因素。

作戰司令部很關心總是強調的對全球信息柵格進行集中化控制的思想會降低他們對全球信息柵格的信息掌握度和控制力度。在現有的指揮制度下,一個單位會在其所在部隊的指揮權下進行訓練或者執行其他任務,在戰區作戰司令部的指揮權下參加戰鬥,指揮控制的條理非常清晰。對部隊在信息領域的指揮控制與對其在空中、陸上、海上和空間領域的指揮控制同等重要。對C3S系統(control, communications and computer systems)來說,在其指揮下進行作戰並負責保護它的部隊常常要處於雙重甚至三重的報告鏈中,結果最後分不清到底是誰在負責指揮戰鬥。在全球性或者非全局性事件中,全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊經常繞開戰區作戰司令部直接展開行動。儘管聯合網絡作戰的作戰概念專門強調了與戰區作戰司令部進行協調作戰的要求,但是在現代作戰快速變化的環境中,這條要求幾乎成了擺設。信息保障弱點警報系統、計算機任務序列和信息條件調整系統在作戰司令部的轄區之外出現問題就是這條要求失效的典型例子。這些事件直接影響了戰區作戰司令部在戰場上的指揮,當部隊想要直接利用這些機制從管理級上加強自身的控制的時候,他們不能判斷應該在何時、以什麼樣的方式在執行這些操作,也不知道這樣做會對戰區作戰司令部的指揮產生什麼影響,因為在目前的條件下,只有戰區作戰司令部才有能力來進行這些操作。當一個威脅事件需要空軍太空司令部向空軍部隊尋求全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的協同配合的時候,如果不通知或者取得與北方司令部的合作的話,將會給北方司令部的指揮帶來極大的麻煩。

在中央司令部,由於對網絡作戰部隊缺乏足夠的控制,導致指揮官有時候也不能確定網絡資源是否可用。海軍負責操作大量的戰場信息柵格,在作戰區域的海軍網絡作戰部隊並不用對中央司令部的海軍部負責,他們只需要向戰區網絡作戰與安全中心報告。中央司令部的中央戰區戰區網絡作戰中心,其職責是維持和指揮所有戰區作戰司令部的網絡作戰,但是它也不在海軍網絡作戰部隊的報告鏈當中,所以也常常不能獲得所有戰場信息柵格上的事態感知,目前已經有替代辦法來處理這個問題了,不過這還不能說是正式的解決辦法。

對北方司令部來說,因為網絡作戰部隊的控制權的缺乏,他們在2005年“卡特琳娜”颶風的救援工作中遇到了極大的麻煩。在那次行動中,部隊的設備在未經許可的情況下就被運送到了聯合作戰區域。這使得北方司令部無法掌握和引導物資的調動情況,更無法協同各個部隊的行動,這是個多方位的管理和操作問題。

在各個部隊都主張施行在以全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊為中心的集中化指揮構架的時候,我們有必要強調一個事實,那就是戰區司令部並不願意看到這樣的變化,他們想保持原有的他們對戰略司令部負責,擁有全球信息柵格的操作權和防禦權的機制。戰略司令部的存在對保持戰區作戰司令部在戰區和全球性事件的作戰行動中的指揮地位以及增強戰區作戰司令部與聯合參謀部的溝通都有很大的幫助。

作戰司令部和部隊方面都想從聯合作戰的層面上對網絡作戰進行集中化指揮,但是其中有幾個問題還需要討論:

1.誰負第一領導責任?

2.網絡作戰進行集中化指揮具體在哪個層面上得到體現,全球層面、戰區層面還是其他什麼層面?

3.這種調整帶來的改變是僅僅體現在戰區作戰司令部的某個部門向全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊發出請求時還是戰區作戰司令部獲得戰區內的完全指揮權和優先權?

最後,戰區作戰司令部是最終對總統負責的以完成轄區內的軍事任務為目標的機構,被派遣到戰區作戰司令部的部隊需要在其管轄權之下完成各自的任務。因此在部隊方面主張實施全球性的集中指揮的時候,他們仍然會處於戰略司令部的指揮之下這一點是不容置疑的。但是目前全球信息柵格是影響戰區作戰司令部的指揮控制能力和指揮官對部隊的指導能力的關鍵一環。沒有全球信息柵格的話,飛機不能飛行、地面部隊無法移動、艦艇不能航行,連衛星都不能提供信號。指揮官們需要獲取全球信息柵格的狀態並進行控制,就像他們需要掌握部隊的方位和狀態一樣重要。他們必須要掌握戰場信息柵格的範圍、能力和狀態,必須知道戰區以外的情況會如何影響部隊所在區域的戰場信息柵格,還必須能夠指揮和優化部隊配置以支持作戰。如果我們真的相信被描述得天花亂墜的集中化指揮會有更好的效果,那也不能忽視為戰區作戰司令部保留適當的指揮和控制權。

還有,只要戰區作戰司令部這種結構還保留著,那麼所有的軍事任務,包括那些由職能作戰司令部指揮的作戰,都必然還是會發生在戰區作戰司令部的防區內,因為所有的網絡作戰任務都必定要由一個實體單位來執行。同時,集中化指揮對於實現以網絡為中心的指揮模式以及更加有效地防禦攻擊、傳遞信息都是必要的。這種集中化指揮的概念與戰區作戰司令部要求掌握和優化戰場信息柵格的願望是不互斥的。

前進之路

要想制定出一套可行的網絡作戰指揮控制框架,必須要避免走極端,既要考慮戰區作戰司令部的需要,也要考慮建立對全球信息柵格的集中化控制的需要。在目前聯合網絡作戰的作戰概念的發展過程和網絡作戰部隊的轉型過程中,組織原則需要發揮調整各方利益的槓桿作用。為了達到這樣的目標,國防部應該做到以下幾點:

1.創建一個簡單、明確的網絡作戰指揮鏈,保證戰略司令部可以對所有的網絡作戰行動進行指揮。這就可以解決剛才提到的“誰負第一領導責任”的問題。只有當事件發生在快速變化的環境中的時候,戰區指揮控制機構才開始發揮作用。簡潔的指揮鏈可以保證參加網絡作戰的部隊知道自己應該聽從誰的指揮、應該向誰報告,在這條指揮鏈中,必須包括戰區作戰司令部。

2.可以賦予戰區作戰司令部在其防區內的指揮權:

——修正聯合司令部計劃以明確戰區作戰司令部在其防區內對網絡作戰的職責。

——修正已有的全球信息柵格網絡作戰概念,詳細說明那些處在戰區網絡作戰與安全中心之外的部隊可以從戰區作戰司令部的全球網絡作戰與安全中心獲得直接援助。

——規定全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的所有命令都要通過戰區作戰司令部來執行。

這些調整可以保證戰區中的所有單位都在唯一的一條指揮鏈下行動,那就是通過戰區作戰司令部對戰略司令部負責。這也可以解決北方司令部應該對轄區負責但是又沒有指揮網絡作戰的權力的尷尬境地。

3.在每個戰區作戰司令部建立一個由中央司令部管轄的聯合網絡作戰中心,將戰區作戰司令部的戰區網絡作戰控制中心和全球網絡作戰聯合特遣部隊的戰區網絡作戰中心進行融合。這樣一來,每個戰區作戰司令部都將有一個在計算機空間領域的聯合作戰司令部,就像在海陸空的實體戰場上一樣。任何處在戰區網絡作戰與安全中心之外的部隊都可以從聯合網絡作戰中心的全球網絡作戰與安全中心獲得直接援助。

4.鞏固全球信息柵格的地位,將最高控制權交給戰略司令部。目前集中化指揮的發展偏重於對參與網絡作戰的部隊的指揮,這與以網絡為中心的指揮概念背道而馳。以部隊為中心的“煙囪”式指揮系統不利於信息的傳遞和處理,讓我們離“為所有使用者提供最新、最準確的信息”的目標越來越遠。在之前的《戈德華特·尼科爾斯國防部重構法》報告中已經明確提到,組織管理和指揮控制應該由一個聯合的機構來掌控。

結束語

目前對網絡作戰的集中化指揮是一個迫切的需要。優化網絡作戰指揮機制可以幫助國防部提高效率、節約成本以及更好地分配緊缺資源。更重要的是,這樣可以讓網絡作戰部隊更加快速、準確地為指揮官提供信息,這在大規模的網絡作戰中非常重要。集中化指揮的進程不能影響到網絡作戰指揮控制的效率。這取決於全球信息柵格能否為所有參戰的單位提供足夠的信息以及指揮官是否充分利用戰區信息柵格來幫助指揮作戰。

“我們必須改變對網絡作戰問題的討論和思考模式,我們是在進行網絡“作戰”而不是網絡“管理”,所有的參戰單位必須保證自己每時每刻都準備著開戰,以保證網絡系統這一決定性的武器系統的安全”。網絡作戰是我們國家能夠贏得戰爭的關鍵一環,它可以幫助我們提供指揮和控制、縮短決策週期以及調整各戰區的資源配備。戰略司令部已經在強化網絡作戰概念方面邁出了很大的一步,這些努力還需要繼續進行下去。戰區作戰司令部必須是掌控和防護全球信息柵格的重要一環,以保證我們可以繼續取得網絡作戰的勝利。

Reference URL:  http://www.china.com.cn/military

美國陸軍網空作戰力量演變與歷史 – US Army cyberspace combat force evolution & history

美國陸軍網空作戰力量演變與歷史 –

US Army cyberspace combat force evolution & history

With the rapid development of the global information grid system of the US military, the conceptual research based on the information technology system is becoming more and more thorough. Finally, the American combat theory establishes the cyberspace as a combat domain with land, sea, air and sky. In this context, the US Army will be the construction of cyberspace as a key factor in promoting the process of modernization of the army, determined to follow the formal militarization of the organization’s standards and structure of high-quality network combat forces. Since the establishment of the Army Network Command in 2010, the US Army has established a comprehensive network of operational forces based on the goal of combating the military forces of cyberspace through new means such as new construction, adjustment, transformation and integration.

The basic organizational structure under the guidance of the concept of network operations

From the 90s of the 20th century, in order to ensure the US military information grid system in the army part of the efficient and safe operation, the US Army under the guidance of the joint army, around the concept of network operations carried out a series of organizational restructuring, the dissolution of the information system commander And has set up the Army Signal Command and the network enterprise technology command and other institutions, and gradually formed based on technology, defense, focusing on the basic network of emergency operations organizational structure.

In 2005, the US Strategic Command issued the “Global Information Grid Collaborative Combat Concept”, which elaborated on the organizational structure of the US Army’s cyberspace forces during this period, dividing the Army’s network operations system into three Level: At the first level, under the command of the Army Space and Missile Defense Command / Army Strategic Command, the Army’s Global Network Operations and Security Center is responsible for situational awareness and command coordination as the only governing body for Army operations, In the US Army Joint Force Network Power System, the agency functions as a global network of operations and security centers. At the second level, the Theater Network Operations and Security Center is the supporting element of the operational headquarters, which is responsible for “guiding network operations, managing and defending the global information grid elements that are part of the Army’s jurisdiction.” The regional network operations and security centers in the theater constitute the third dimension of the Army’s network operations system. In addition, the Army Computer Emergency Response Unit is the disposal of the network emergency response, in the emergency can accept the global network operations task force tactical control, each theater network operations and security center also established a computer emergency response unit.

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Set up Army Network Command

With the US military for the degree of dependence on cyberspace, control and weaken the threat of the Internet has continued to become the focus of US military tasks, the establishment of an independent network of space operations command of the voice of the growing US military. In 2008, “Yankee deer bomb action” directly under the impetus, the US military decided to end the unit of independent decentralization of the development of network combat capability of the situation, through the withdrawal, transfer, change and other measures to reorganize the relevant institutions, the establishment of a comprehensive network Space operations of the joint command agencies, the US Army network power organization construction has entered a stage of rapid development.

Through the global deployment of decentralized development of the formation of cyberspace combat organization of the backbone. As the awareness of the network operations will have a far-reaching impact on the military field, the US Army in the combat force level into a lot of resources, and gradually establish the backbone of the network operations. For example, the Army launched its first cyber warfare in July 2008, which provides tactical support, brigade combatant support, and strategic support to other service units, joint forces and even cross-agency partners; the Army also operates on cyber operations The upper-level command system to implement the adjustment, so that the relevant action to be appropriate authority to monitor. During this period, the Army’s future network combat forces were integrated in the form of units in the military and joint forces within the combat unit, including from the Defense Information Systems Agency, the global network operations joint contingent, the National Security Agency to the brigade combat team and other Level of strategic and tactical institutions.
The new core coordination agencies, straighten out the headquarters to the unit level of the command relationship. In June 2009, the US Department of Defense announced the establishment of the US Internet Command in the form of a memorandum to consolidate and promote the construction of cyberspace military forces through a dedicated subordinate joint command. At the same time, as a transitional measure for the formation of the Army Force Network Command in the future, the Army decided to retain the organizational structure of the Army Space and Missile Defense Command / Army Strategic Command and rename it as Army Force Network Command. February 2010, the US Army announced on this basis, the formal formation of the Army Network Force Command, its formation and initial construction phase of the work mainly around the three tasks: to achieve cyber space military forces combat, increase the Army network combat power Capacity and scale, the development of the Army network space professionals team. As the previous command system was disrupted, the newly established Army Network Space Operations and Integration Center under the Cyber ​​Command actually played a central role in command control and coordinated synchronization. The agency is similar to the previous Army Global Network Operations and Security Center, but in addition to “providing clear, concise and timely guidance in the implementation of full spectrum cyberspace operations,” the organization is also responsible for “with the Army’s other headquarters, Other units in the same type of institutions, the United States cyberspace joint operations center to share information. ” At the beginning of the establishment of the organization, some members of the cyberspace operations and integration center also joined the US Department of Network Command staff to better promote the unity of command and operation of the joint force and service units.

US Army Network Space Force Organizational Structure, 2005

The transformation of combat forces functions, to promote the traditional ability to network space combat capability development. At the level of the combat force construction, the field signal force as the main body of the network Enterprise Technology Command / 9 signal command to the Army Network Force Command, the Army Intelligence and Security Command of the cyberspace combat forces combat command by the army Network command. Through this organizational adjustment, the Army Network Command for the first time mastered the forefront of the deployment of combat forces, to form a global presence and have the expedition, you can combat commander to provide more comprehensive combat support capabilities. It is noteworthy that the network enterprise technology command and the intelligence and security commander in the Army Network Command as deputy commander, respectively, responsible for different types of network operations mission, the basic formation of the original signal forces in charge of network defense, the original military Intelligence forces in charge of the network attack mode, which will be previously discrete deployment, loosely combined network space related organizations into a complete army network strength. In addition, the Army Network Command in 2011 was also given the task of carrying out information operations, master the first information combat command of the operational command, intelligence and security headquarters under the 780 military intelligence brigade will also be transformed into Army Network Command Direct command of the network brigade.

Continuously optimize the Army cyberspace forces

After the establishment of the Army Network Command, cyber space military forces combat is always the center of its work, which in the Army Network Power Organization continue to optimize the integration process has been highlighted. For the current network operations have been formed, electronic warfare, information operations, military intelligence and even space combat capability, the US Army in the network of military organizational structure design also reflects the integration of a variety of capacity trends. The US Army is also actively promoting the overall military model in the construction of network forces, highlighting the development of the national guards and reserve forces. After years of construction, the US Army network power organization has been basically formed.
Army Network Combat Force Organizational Structure, 2011

Optimize the combat strength of the organizational structure, to adapt to operational support needs. At the headquarters level, in order to further improve the command and implementation of cyberspace operations, the Army approved the Network Command in March 2014 as the headquarters of the Army Force, and designated the 2nd Army as its immediate unit, and the network enterprise technology Command to become the second army direct command of the network combat troops, network enterprise technology command commander of the second group army deputy commander. And the previous year, the network command has been under the guidance of the US Internet Command and Army headquarters began to form a joint force network headquarters, which will be the implementation of the network space combat command command, and have direct support to the combat command of the network combat capability The At the combat forces and theater levels, the network command is trying to improve the global network defense situation through regional network centers. Based on the strength of the original Theater Network Operations and Security Center and Regional Computer Emergency Response Center, these regional cybersecurity centers streamline the operational plan of the network operations, and can play a strong planning, coordination and synchronization function to more effectively support geography Operation of the Combat Command.

To determine the development of the responsible institutions, improve the network to build military theory guidance. As the US Army Network Command merged with the original network operations, information operations and the strength of the signal forces, a large number of signal forces combat theory urgent need to be revised and translated into the network combat theory, in order to achieve a unified operational capability development model, to avoid the concept of guidance On the chaos. In March 2014, the US Training and Command Command, on the basis of the Center for Excellence, integrated other relevant professional elements to form the Army Network Center of Excellence, with the goal of providing guidance, network and signal The full ability of training. The cyberspace promotion office under the Cyber ​​Command is also incorporated into the Network Excellence Center to further enhance the advantages of the Network Excellence Center in summing up lessons learned from the construction of network forces. Through the implementation of the Ordinance to publish the project, the Network Excellence Center tried to merge the original signal and electronic warfare forces regulations, according to the Army “2015 order system” related requirements to develop new cyberspace operations, electronic warfare and signal forces regulations. At present, the Army has completed the revision of the field command FM6-02 “signal force support operations” to guide the signal forces to the network forces for functional transformation; the first release of the field order FM3-38 “network electromagnetic action”, clear “Army in the unified ground action to integrate the overall principles of network electromagnetic activity, tactics and procedures”; as the Army network army building a basic guidance document, field command FM3-12 “cyberspace combat” also basically completed the final approval process, Officially distributed within the Army in 2015. With the above documents as the main body, the Network Excellence Center will continue to improve the publication of dozens of related military ordinances publications, build a complete Army cyber space combat technology, tactics and procedures for the Army network forces to provide comprehensive theoretical guidance.
Army Network Combat Force Organizational Structure, 2015

Integration of cyberspace education and training strength, and promote the regular development of network forces. The US Army will promote the development of formal training as a fundamental way to improve the level of network operations and combat readiness. In the Army Network Center of excellence at the same time, the Army Network School as its affiliated institutions in the original electronic warfare school set up on the basis of the Army Signal School is also under the network center of excellence will continue to be retained, the Army on the regularization of the construction of cyberspace “Regulations – Organization – Training – Resources – Leadership and Education – Personnel – Facilities” model has been further refined. With the establishment of the Army Network Arsenal (“17-Series” Career Management), the Army requested new staff members to enter the network career field to complete the school’s school training program, from signal, intelligence and information operations forces and other units to the Corresponding to a large number of network operations staff also need to carry out new vocational education and training, the two schools will jointly set up the new Army network arms units officers, warrant officers and noncommissioned officers for individual personnel skills training. For example, the Army Leadership Foundation Training Program was officially launched at the online school in August 2015, and the 14-week Senior Officer Training Program was implemented in May 2016. For the first batch of network combatants recruited by the Army in October 2015, the senior personal training program that must be attended by the Army began in February 2016. As the cyberspace operations essentially have the characteristics of joint operations, the first phase of the 22-week training program will be the Naval Joint Network Analyst Course, the second phase of training for the same 22 weeks, training venues from the Navy The facility is transferred to the Army Network School.

Attention to the National Guard and reserve network strength, highlighting the support and coordination functions. In view of the development of the network combat force, the Army believes that the reserve department can assist the active forces to share some of the tasks and be able to provide reinforcements with high levels of training as quickly as necessary. Because of its unique dual legal position, the Army National Guard can play the role of state and federal government agencies, civil and military organizations, private and public sector convergence, “with the development of cyberspace capabilities of the natural advantages.” Therefore, the Army in the development of network combat forces also pay attention to the construction of the relevant reserve organizations. For example, the First Information Operations Command also includes four reserve forces theater information operations brigade, which has the ability to provide information operations and cyberspace planning, analysis and technical support. According to a memorandum signed by the Army National Guard in June 2014 with the Army Network Command, the Army National Guard transferred one of its network defenses in the previous year to the Army Network Command / 2nd Army. The cyber force, known as the 1636th Network Defense Unit, will be in Service No. 10 of the United States Code, which is a full-time service and will receive the same standard training with other active forces of the Army Network Command and jointly All types of tasks.

This article from the “Military Digest” December Editor: Zhang Chuanliang

Original Mandarin Chinese:

伴隨著美軍全球信息柵格系統的高速發展,基於信息技術系統作戰的概念研究不斷走向深入,最終美軍作戰理論將網絡空間確立為一種與陸、海、空、天並列的作戰域。在這種背景下,美國陸軍將網絡空間力量建設作為推進陸軍現代化進程的關鍵因素,決心按照正規軍事化組織的標準和結構高質量建設網絡作戰部隊。自陸軍網絡司令部於2010年成立以來,美國陸軍圍繞網絡空間軍事力量作戰化的目標,通過新建、調整、轉型和融合等手段逐步建立起完善的網絡作戰力量組織結構。

網絡作戰概念指導下的基本組織結構

從20世紀90年代開始,為確保美軍全球信息柵格系統中的陸軍部分高效安全運行,美國陸軍在聯合軍隊的指導下,圍繞網絡作戰行動概念進行了一系列組織結構調整,解散了信息系統司令部,並先後組建了陸軍信號司令部以及網絡企業技術司令部等機構,逐步形成基於技術、防禦為主、重在應急的網絡作戰基本組織架構。

2005年,美國戰略司令部發布了《全球信息柵格網絡作戰聯合作戰概念》,對這一時期美國陸軍網絡空間力量建設的組織結構進行了詳細說明,將陸軍網絡作戰體系組織架構劃分為三個層次:在第一個層面,在陸軍太空和導彈防禦司令部/陸軍戰略司令部的指揮下,作為陸軍網絡作戰行動唯一的領導機構,陸軍全球網絡行動和安全中心負責態勢感知和指揮協調工作,在美軍聯合部隊網絡力量體系中,該機構發揮軍種全球網絡作戰與安全中心的功能。在第二個層面,戰區網絡行動和安全中心是各作戰司令部的支持元素,負責“指導網絡作戰行動,管理和防禦屬於陸軍管轄的全球信息柵格元素”。戰區內各地區網絡行動和安全中心構成了陸軍網絡作戰體系的第三個層面。此外,陸軍計算機應急響應分隊是應對網絡突發事件的處置力量,在緊急情況下可以接受全球網絡作戰特遣部隊的戰術控制,每個戰區網絡行動和安全中心也都建立了計算機應急響應分隊。

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成立陸軍網絡司令部

隨著美軍對於網絡空間依賴程度的加深,控制和削弱網絡威脅持續成為美軍關注的重點任務,組建獨立負責網絡空間作戰指揮機構的呼聲在美軍內部日益高漲。在2008年“揚基鹿彈行動”的直接推動下,美軍決定結束軍種單位獨立分散發展網絡作戰能力的局面,通過並、撤、轉、改等措施對相關機構進行結構重組,成立全面負責網絡空間作戰的聯合指揮機構,美國陸軍網絡力量組織建設也進入快速發展階段。

通過全球部署分散發展的方式形成網絡空間作戰組織的基幹力量。由於意識到網絡作戰行動將對軍事領域產生更加深遠的影響,美國陸軍在作戰部隊層面投入大量資源,逐步建立起網絡作戰行動的基幹力量。例如,陸軍在2008年7月啟動了第一支網絡戰營,其能夠提供戰術支持、旅戰鬥隊支援以及向其他軍種單位、聯合部隊甚至跨機構夥伴提供戰略支援;陸軍還對網絡作戰行動的上層指揮體系實施調整,從而使相關行動得到適度權限的監管。在這個時期,陸軍未來網絡作戰力量都以分隊形式整合在軍種和聯合部隊架構下作戰單位的內部,包括從國防信息系統局、全球網絡作戰聯合特遣隊、國家安全局到旅戰鬥隊等各個級別的戰略和戰術機構。
新建核心協調機構,理順總部到分隊層面的指揮關係。 2009年6月,美國國防部通過發表備忘錄的形式宣佈建立美國網絡司令部,旨在通過一個專門的次級聯合司令部集中統籌和推進網絡空間軍事力量建設。與此同時,作為日後組建陸軍部隊網絡司令部的過渡性措施,陸軍決定保留陸軍太空和導彈防禦司令部/陸軍戰略司令部的組織架構,並將其重新命名為陸軍部隊網絡司令部。 2010年2月,美國陸軍宣佈在此基礎上正式組建陸軍網絡部隊司令部,其在組建和初始建設階段的工作主要圍繞三項任務展開:實現網絡空間軍事力量作戰化、增加陸軍網絡作戰力量的能力和規模、發展陸軍網絡空間專業人才隊伍。由於以往的指揮體係被打亂,網絡司令部下新成立的陸軍網絡空間作戰與整合中心實際上發揮了指揮控制和協調同步的核心作用。該機構與此前的陸軍全球網絡行動和安全中心功能類似,但是除了“在執行全譜網絡空間作戰行動過程中提供清晰、簡潔、及時的指導”以外,該組織還負責“與陸軍其他司令部、其他軍種單位中的同類機構、美國網絡空間聯合作戰中心共享信息”。在機構建立之初,網絡空間作戰與整合中心的部分人員還直接加入美國網絡司令部參謀機構,從而更好地促進實現聯合部隊與軍種單位網絡作戰行動的指揮統一。

美國陸軍網絡空間力量組織結構,2005年

轉型作戰部隊職能,促進傳統能力向網絡空間作戰能力發展。在作戰部隊建設層面,以野戰信號部隊為主體的網絡企業技術司令部/第9信號司令部轉隸陸軍網絡部隊司令部,陸軍情報和安全司令部所屬網絡空間作戰部隊的作戰指揮權也由陸軍網絡司令部掌握。通過這種組織調整,陸軍網絡司令部第一次掌握了前沿部署作戰力量,能夠形成全球存在態勢並具備遠征能力,可以向作戰指揮官提供更加全面的戰鬥支援能力。值得注意的是,網絡企業技術司令部以及情報和安全司令部指揮官都在陸軍網絡司令部擔任副司令,分別負責不同類型的網絡作戰行動任務,基本形成了原信號部隊主管網絡防禦、原軍事情報部隊主管網絡進攻的模式,從而將此前離散部署、鬆散聯合的網絡空間相關組織整合為一支完備的陸軍網絡力量。此外,陸軍網絡司令部在2011年還被賦予執行信息作戰的任務,掌握第1信息作戰司令部的作戰指揮權,情報和安全司令部下屬的第780軍事情報旅也將轉型為陸軍網絡司令部直接指揮的網絡旅。

持續優化陸軍網絡空間部隊

陸軍網絡司令部成立後,網絡空間軍事力量作戰化始終是其中心工作,這一點在陸軍網絡力量組織不斷優化整合的過程中得到突出體現。對於當前已經形成的網絡作戰、電子戰、信息作戰、軍事情報甚至太空作戰能力,美軍陸軍在進行網絡軍隊組織結構設計時也體現出融合多種能力的趨勢。美國陸軍還在網絡部隊建設中積極推進整體型軍隊模式,突出國民警衛隊和預備役網絡力量的發展。經過多年建設,美國陸軍網絡力量組織結構已經基本形成。
陸軍網絡作戰力量組織結構,2011年

優化戰鬥力量組織結構,適應作戰行動支援需求。在總部機構層面,為了進一步完善網絡空間作戰行動的指揮程序並實現意圖統一,陸軍在2014年3月批准網絡司令部為陸軍部隊組成總部,同時指定第2集團軍為其直屬單位,而網絡企業技術司令部成為第2集團軍直接指揮的網絡作戰部隊,網絡企業技術司令部指揮官兼任第2集團軍副軍長。而且在前一年,網絡司令部已經在美國網絡司令部和陸軍總部的指導下開始組建聯合部隊網絡總部,其將對網絡空間作戰部隊實施任務指揮,並且具備直接支持作戰司令部的網絡作戰能力。在作戰部隊和戰區層面,網絡司令部試圖通過地區網絡中心改善全球網絡防禦態勢。在原有戰區網絡作戰和安全中心、地區計算機應急響應中心力量基礎上,這些地區網絡安全中心對網絡作戰行動指揮程序進行精簡,能夠發揮較強的計劃、協調和同步功能,從而更加高效地支援地理作戰司令部的行動。

確定條令開發負責機構,完善網絡建軍理論指導。由於美國陸軍網絡司令部合併了原網絡作戰、信息作戰和信號部隊的力量,信號部隊的大量作戰理論迫切需要修訂並轉化為網絡作戰理論,從而實現協調統一的作戰能力發展模式,避免出現概念指導上的混亂。 2014年3月,美國訓練和條令司令部在原信號卓越中心的基礎上,整合其他相關專業力量元素,組建了陸軍網絡卓越中心,目標在2015年10月使其具備指導網絡、信號和電子戰部隊訓練的全面能力。網絡司令部下屬的網絡空間促進辦公室也被合併入網絡卓越中心,從而進一步增強網絡卓越中心在總結網絡部隊建設經驗教訓方面的優勢。通過實施條令出版項目,網絡卓越中心試圖合併原有的信號和電子戰部隊條令,根據陸軍“2015條令體系”的相關要求開發全新的網絡空間作戰、電子戰以及信號部隊條令。目前,陸軍已經完成了對野戰條令FM6-02《信號部隊支持作戰行動》的修訂,指導信號部隊向網絡部隊進行職能轉型;第一次發布了野戰條令FM3-38《網絡電磁行動》,明確了“陸軍在統一地面行動中整合網絡電磁活動的總體原則、戰術和規程”;作為陸軍網絡軍隊建設的根本性指導文件,野戰條令FM3-12《網絡空間作戰》也基本完成了最後的批准程序,於2015年正式在陸軍內部發行。以上述條令文件為主體,網絡卓越中心將繼續完善數十種相關陸軍條令出版物的編撰發布工作,構建完整的陸軍網絡空間作戰技術、戰術和規程體系,為陸軍網絡部隊建設提供全面理論指導。
陸軍網絡作戰力量組織結構,2015年

整合網絡空間教育訓練力量,促進網絡部隊正規化發展。美國陸軍將推進網絡訓練正規化發展視為提高網絡作戰和戰備水平的根本途徑。在陸軍網絡卓越中心組建的同時,陸軍網絡學校作為其下屬機構在原電子戰學校的基礎上成立,而且陸軍信號學校也在網絡卓越中心的建制下繼續得以保留,陸軍關於網絡空間力量正規化建設的“條令-組織-訓練-資源-領導力和教育-人員-設施”模型得到進一步完善。隨著陸軍網絡兵種(“17-系列”職業管理領域)的設立,陸軍要求進入網絡職業領域的新任職人員必須完成網絡學校的駐校訓練項目,從信號、情報和信息作戰部隊等單位調動到相應網絡作戰崗位的大量人員也需要進行新的職業教育訓練,上述兩所學校將共同對新成立的陸軍網絡兵種單位的軍官、準尉和士官進行單個人員技能訓練。例如,軍官領導力基礎訓練課程於2015年8月在網絡學校正式啟動,為期14週的準尉軍官高級訓練項目則在2016年5月開始實施。對於陸軍在2015年10月徵募的第一批網絡作戰士兵,其必須參加的高級個人訓練項目則在2016年2月開始。由於網絡空間作戰行動本質上具有聯合作戰的屬性,高級個人訓練項目為期22週的第一階段訓練內容將是海軍聯合網絡分析師課程,第二階段訓練同樣持續22週,訓練場地也會從海軍設施轉移到陸軍網絡學校。

重視國民警衛隊和預備役網絡力量,突出支援和協調功能。針對網絡作戰力量的發展問題,陸軍認為預備役部門可以協助現役部隊分擔部分任務,能夠在必要時迅速提供具備較高訓練水平的增援力量。因其獨特的雙重法律定位,陸軍國民警衛隊可以發揮各州與聯邦政府機構、民事與軍事組織、私營與公共部門之間的銜接作用,“具備發展網絡空間能力的天然優勢”。因此,陸軍在網絡作戰力量發展過程中也注重相關預備役組織的建設。例如,第1信息作戰司令部還包含4支預備役部隊戰區信息作戰大隊,其都具備提供信息作戰和網絡空間計劃、分析、技術支持能力。根據陸軍國民警衛隊2014年6月與陸軍網絡司令部簽署的一份備忘錄,陸軍國民警衛隊將其在此前一年組建的1支網絡防禦分隊轉隸於陸軍網絡司令部/第2集團軍。這支被稱為第1636網絡防禦分隊的網絡部隊將處於《美國法典》第10卷服役狀態,即全時服役狀態,將與陸軍網絡司令部其他現役部隊共同接受同等標準的訓練,並共同執行所有類型的任務。

本文轉自《軍事文摘》12月刊 責任編輯:張傳良

中國軍隊戰略層面的網絡空間特種作戰 China’s Strategic Level of Cyberspace Special Operations

战略层面的网络空间特种作战 –

China’s Strategic level of Cyberspace Special Operations

Editor’s Note: US Army Lieutenant Colonel Patrick Mitchell Dugen at the US Army War College during the fourth quarter of 2015, “Joint Force Quarterly” published “strategic level of cyberspace special operations,” a paper, the article was Chairman of the Association of the United Nations in 2008 Strategic Papers Competition Strategy Research Award.

In this paper, by reviewing the cyberspace special operations cases, this paper analyzes the potential power of using network tools in asymmetric conflicts, and points out that cyberspace special operations have become an effective strategic tool to achieve national goals. Become a regional power to avoid the US military dominance and to ensure that their strategic interests of the unconventional path. The author proposes three new options for integrating emerging technologies and special operations: “cloud-driven” foreign defense, network counter-insurgency and unconventional cyber warfare advance team. Designed to maintain the US network technology advantages, and to build an important partnership, shaping the full spectrum of the conflict environment has a revolutionary impact. Iran and Russia and other regional forces of cyberspace special combat readiness why more than the United States? How does Iran and Russia strengthen its power at the tactical level while the United States has assembled its network and network capabilities at the strategic level? The United States in more than 20 years ago issued a network of special operations related documents, but why the network of special operations policies, departments and regulations are still not mature enough? For the US military, the most basic question is: how will the United States build a strategic level of network special combat capability?

As early as 1993, Internet technology theorists John Achilla and David Lennfield in his book “cyber war is coming” a book has predicted the recent Iran and Russia to implement the cyberspace special operations. “A large number of scattered small groups around the use of the latest communications technology coordinated” control network, to obtain the decisive advantage of the opponent. In reality this scene has been staged again and again. “We are using the information and the more information we have, and the less demand for traditional weapons,” says Achilla and Lunfield. US military executives have also realized that with asymmetric network tools, unconventional tactics and a large number of false information armed, a small amount of special combatants can form a certain strategic impact. There is news that both Iran and Russia have succeeded in using cyberspace special operations as a strategic tool to achieve their national goals. Both countries have an integrated network of special operations forces that know how to exploit the potential power of network tools in asymmetric conflicts. The asymmetric approach of the two countries has become a strong and unconventional path for regional powers to circumvent US military superiority and to ensure their strategic interests. Low price Of the network of high-tech allows potential rivals can develop a strong network warfare capabilities. Therefore, the United States urgently need to make strategic choices, the development of cyberspace special operations, as a tool for the protection and projection of national interests.

Low-cost network of high-tech technology allows potential rivals to develop a strong network warfare capabilities In February 2013, the Russian chief of staff Grazimov in the Russian “military messenger” magazine published “science in the forecast value” article. In the paper, Gracimov predicted a new generation of war that could “change the rules of the game”, whose strategic value would exceed “the effectiveness of weapon forces.” He called for universal asymmetric action to counter the enemy’s strengths and create a permanent frontier in the territory of the enemy through “special forces and internal confrontation and continuous improvement of information operations, equipment and means.” In the spring of 2014, Western media reported that in the eastern part of Ukraine, a casual special operations squad from Russia through the Ukrainian border, occupation of government buildings and arsenal and transferred to the separatist armed. At the same time, the Ukrainian authorities claim that their digital, telephone and cyber communications are cut off, interfered or attacked. The Ukrainian government attributed the cyber attacks on information and logistics infrastructure, including Internet servers and railroad control systems, to the destruction of Russia, and argued that the implementation of information fraud in Russia was costly in important social media, blogs, and News website published 50 pro-Russian comments every day, inside and outside Ukraine to form a large number of false information flow, on the one hand to cover up its non-traditional military operations in cyberspace, on the other hand to create a political illusion. “Russia is not doing the usual information warfare about false information, lies, leaks or cyber sabotage, it reshapes reality, creates public illusions, and then translates them into political action,” said senior government officials. To this end, in September 2014 at the NATO security summit, the NATO Allied Supreme Commander, US Air Force Admiral Philip Bride Leaf pointed out that Russia in East Ukraine to implement the “mixed” non-traditional operations on behalf of the war The most amazing information in history is Blitzkrieg. Bride Leaf urges the Allies to immediately develop the ability to counter the Russian non-traditional warfare, propaganda and cyber attacks. Russia’s use of the “non-traditional Western as a war” non-traditional means to achieve its political purpose, which makes the Western and NATO countries by surprise. Russia is not a fragmented way to use special forces, information operations or network capabilities.

On the contrary, as General Glashimov said, “the war does not need to be publicly announced, when the special forces with advanced technology and a lot of information for the traditional forces in the maintenance of peace and crisis under the cover of strategic objectives to create good conditions, the war on “Cybercrime deception and cyber attacks are special forces in” war and peace ”

Network information spoofing and cyber attack action for special combat forces in the “war and peace” between the implementation of non-traditional warfare to win the time and space lessons learned from the Russian case can draw four major experience, for the United States special operations Action and network capacity integration to provide a viable theoretical framework. First, there are tactical and strategic differences in the offensive network tools used by the Russian Special Forces, targeting tactical “closed networks”, such as local communications, social media, regional networks and logistics infrastructure, while retaining Its more advanced open network tools as a backup. Second, the network special operations are primarily an agent behavior, emphasizing the minimization of the source tracking. As Gracimov described, “the long-distance, non-contact action against the enemy is becoming the primary means of the tactical battle.” Network special operations usually avoid direct contact with people, but in peace and war in the gray area to start action. Third, information and communication technology, network attacks and information operations in the network to form a non-conventional warfare play an important role. As long as the appropriate implementation, the traditional special operations can go far beyond its original function, “which involves the comprehensive application of a wide range of capabilities to achieve policy objectives.” To be effective, it must also be integrated to synchronize other areas of expertise. Fourth, the network special operations can both deter the conflict, can also be used to deal with the whole spectrum of conflict, because “it is suitable for all stages of action, from shaping the environment to the intense war to post-war reconstruction.” Although the network war to destroy the original intention, but also has a constructive side. The widespread dissemination of low-cost information and communication technologies is conducive to strengthening the security of partner countries and thus helping to prevent the occurrence of conflicts.

“‘Foreign help defense’ (FID) under ‘cloud drive’ is both a concept of cloud computing and a metaphorical description of partnering and trust through virtual means. “The concept of” cloud-driven “FID” has not yet been clearly defined, but it can be integrated into an interdisciplinary field to better understand people, geography and virtual worlds and to act together on related goals. Technically, the “cloud-driven” FID “strengthens the partnership, consolidates data through the federated facilities, enhances automation, and disseminates the analysis process. “Cloud-driven” is flexible and can be developed in private, public, community, or mixed form, using different software, platforms, and infrastructure. Security personnel use intelligent technology to drive confidential mobile applications, analyze tools and share data through “cloud-driven” FIDs. Although the data associated with the virtual cloud, but its real value is to make the timely dissemination of information to the hands of tactics. “The cloud-driven” FID “can also be likened to a persistent, active partnership, the data never stops, the network has been busy. Technology is only a tool to drive deeper, extensive socio-cultural, political and historical factors that are often prone to conflict. “Cloud-driven” FID “can build more sustainable competencies and trust with partner countries. “The cloud-driven” FID “lay a virtual foundation for the future establishment of various institutions, centers and laboratories to bridge the benefits of inter-agency across the United States. From the strategic point of view of the US government, “cloud-driven” FID “is a pragmatic” partnership-centered approach designed to target the core interests of partner countries rather than to Way to change the partner country “. “The cloud-driven” FID “is also a prudent strategic move to” prevent the US partner countries from becoming a public relations crisis due to domestic political problems. ” “The cloud drive ‘FID’ also offers other opportunities. The technology and networks it forms can react quickly to emergencies, such as humanitarian relief or relief operations, prevent mass killings, or evacuate personnel from non-combatants. This saves time, money and manpower by providing information for the decision-making process. For the construction of the partnership, the cloud-driven FID can store local non-US social media information, rich social network analysis, social network maps, and behavioral and opinion trends analysis. Most importantly, the “cloud drive ‘FID” builds trust in an innovative and extremely powerful way to build lasting influence on allies and partners.

Today’s global environment drives the United States to use cyber special operations as a strategic tool network for national military strategies Anti-riot counterintelligence network Anti-riot operations (CNCOIN) aims to use social media networks to achieve the purpose of rebellion. To break the asymmetric information superiority of the enemy, CNCOIN uses non-technical means to combat the relevant crowd and control its perception, behavior and action. It adds a military color to the cyber space’s ubiquitous anti-social network. Although these means are not clearly defined, this article believes that it actually refers to the manipulation of social media, cover up the true identity, to achieve ulterior motives. While social media provides a wide range of opportunities for anti-social networks, such as malicious use, intentional misconduct, but from the military point of view, social media provides a wealth of information resources to affect the psychological vulnerability, but also an ideal attack platform. There are several technologies that contribute to its implementation in each functional category. The scope of action includes, but is not limited to, cyber-pseudo operation and cyber-herding operation. Network fraud is a classic counter-insurgency strategy, “government forces and technical staff will pretend to be insurgents, into the enemy network after the use of advanced intelligence technology in the network within the implementation of the destruction.” Internet expulsion means that “individuals, groups, or organizations deport other individuals, groups, or organizations to the default network area.” The magic of the two technologies is the expulsion of insurgents in the virtual network by exploiting the inherent flaws of the communication technology and communication platform. The two tactics are aimed at rebel activist online communities, manipulating or disrupting them, and ultimately providing more opportunities for cyberbullying. The virtual world magnifies the environmental factors, because the characters in the network are more difficult to determine their authenticity. Planning command control, communication frequency and equipment platform and other elements will become the key to the implementation of network fraud or network expulsion operations to manipulate, mislead or expel the target group to the desired results. The scope of information includes, but is not limited to, Crowdsourcing and Social Networking Analysis, SNA). Crowdsourcing is the use of large-scale knowledge base, provided by the participants voluntarily, to solve the problem to provide new ideas, services or observation, you can quickly expand the organizers of the field of vision. Social network analysis depicts and measures the relationships, strengths, and cores of social links in a visual way to illustrate the social network structure. Social network visualization or social networking maps can provide a unique window for assessing, depicting and even predicting the intensity, time, space, and relationship dimensions of relationship events. In September 2013, during the crisis in the Philippines, the anti-government armed Moro National Liberation Front (hereinafter referred to as “the dismount”) was dissatisfied with the situation of national reconciliation, hijacked more than 200 civilians as hostages, attacked commercial shops and burned urban buildings. Throughout the crisis, crowdsourcing and social network analysis are very successful non-traditional tactical means. The Philippine security forces use crowdsourcing tactics to encourage Zamboang residents to discover and report on the “melodic” members of the hiding place. FEI security forces, together with crowdsourcing information and intelligence analysis, provide information for security operations and humanitarian operations. The use of social network analysis to assess the “Mobility” of the public support, and in the social media against the “interpretation” declaration, to ban the violation of social media user agreement propaganda site, but also the use of crowds of information blockade ” Troops, attacking their temporary command post. The Philippine security forces used solid media to track the key information and lead the use of social media, and then use the solid forces to defeat the “interpretation” of the asymmetric advantage. The information warfare category includes but is not limited to cyber intrusion (cyber Aggression, forum vest (sock-puppeting), astro-turfing and so on. Three tactics are anonymous use of social media to implement misleading, false information to manipulate behavior, public opinion and action. The cyber-invasion is proposed by Teanna Felmyr, which refers to “an electronic or online act that is intended to cause psychological harm to others or damage its reputation by using e-mail, instant messaging, cell phones, digital information, chat rooms

As well as social media, video, game sites, etc. “. It is much broader than the range of ordinary cyber-aggressive behavior. Its anonymity may cause substantial psychological harm and negative consequences, as the relevant information will be repeatedly sent to the target or published in the social media. Its value to CNCOIN is that it can use sensitive digital information to humiliate, defame or hurt the target, causing psychological barriers. This powerful cyber-invading action can reduce the credibility, influence and power of the target, and ultimately lose the power of the target or other insurgents. The other two tactics, the forum vest and the fake are all fictitious online propaganda tools used to spread distorted views to create a wider range of support or opposition to the illusion. In fact, with the forum vest is the same concept, but more complex, more organized, larger. Both tactics use virtual characters to distribute false information in cyberspace, with the aim of initiating group reactions or actions. Combining massive amounts of text, images, and video with a planned misleading network activity will significantly enhance the effectiveness of CNCOIN’s action. The third way to advance the US network’s special operations is the unconventional cyber warfare team (cyber-UW Pilot Team, using social media networks to shape the physical environment, the establishment of regional mechanisms, in the implementation of non – conventional war before the regional connectivity. The core of the unconventional network warfare team is the special forces, with a number of professional organizations to provide technical support, its task is in the field of network security for the preparation of unconventional operations. The penetration of the traditional advance team is the target of enemy territory, military facilities and other entities, rather than the conventional advance team is through the virtual means of infiltration, and then into the sensitive, hostile or refused to area. Through the virtual means, can reduce the United States and partner countries armed forces in time, risk, equipment and other aspects of the loss and risk. Conceptually, unconventional cyber warfare teams use web tools and advanced technology to build people, entities, intelligence, and information infrastructures on social media. While deepening understanding of the local human terrain, the team can strengthen its local language and cultural skills, as well as identify resistance leaders, assess motivation and resistance, and overall support for US government goals, while at the same time understanding Informal hierarchical distribution, psychology and behavior. In addition, you can also incorporate the Internet’s white noise into the social media network to “improve the cultural understanding of potential collaborators in the United States and the local situation before action.” While the US national security strategy has long recognized the strategy of cyber warfare Role, but this understanding is not fully translated into a clear strategic level of thinking and combat capability. For example, the US Department of Defense cyberspace action strategy did not give much solution or specific measures, only from five aspects of the previous repeated network ideas. Lack of clear ideas lead to our network strategy is flawed, making the United States advanced network technology advantages to hand over to the potential rival risk. In contrast, Iran and Russia’s asymmetric innovation modeled other regions and global forces, trying to circumvent the US military advantage by unconventional means to ensure their strategic interests. Cyberspace special operations are a must to fill the strategic level of the blank. Obviously, the United States must actively seek a tactical level of unconventional combat into the cyber space operations in the form of special operations. Rand’s recent study of special operations concluded that “the United States needs to use a more advanced form of special operations to ensure national interests, taking into account the recent US and its interests facing the security threat situation, special operations

Become the most appropriate form of ensuring national interests “. In an increasingly interconnected global environment, the physical infrastructure is quickly allocated Internet protocol addresses, accessory networking. By 2020, there will be 50 billion “machine-to-machine” equipment (currently 1 3 billion units) will be through the “embedded computer, sensor and Internet capabilities” access to network space. Cyberspace special operations Unicom virtual and reality, through the modern information network and with the traditional face-to-face combination of special operations partnership. Today’s global environment has prompted the United States to use cyber special operations as a strategic tool for national military strategies. Potential rivals combine offensive network capabilities with unconventional tactics to set a terrible example for other enemies in the United States, and they will follow suit quickly. This paper presents three new options for integrating emerging technologies and special operations: foreign-assisted defense under “cloud-driven”, anti-riot operations in the network, and non-conventional cyber warfare advance teams. Full play of these three tactics will not only maintain the advantages of the US network technology, but also to build an important partnership, shaping the whole spectrum of combat environment have a revolutionary impact. If successful implementation, network special operations will become the United States a strong new strategic options

Original Mandarin Chinese:

编者按:美国陆军中校帕特里克·米歇尔·杜根在美陆军战争学院就读期间,于2015年第4季度《联合部队季刊》发表《战略层面的网络空间特种作战》一文,该文曾获得2015年度参联会主席战略论文竞赛战略研究类奖。本文通过回顾网络空间特种作战案例,分析了在非对称性冲突中利用网络工具的潜在力量,指出网络空间特种作战已经成为达成国家目标的有效战略工具。成为地区强国用以规避美国军事主导权以及确保本国战略利益的非常规性路径。作者提出了融合新兴技术与特种作战的三种新选项:“云驱动”下的国外协助防御,网络反暴乱平叛行动与非常规网络战先遣队。旨在维持美国的网络技术优势,并对构建重要伙伴关系、塑造全频谱冲突环境产生革命性影响。伊朗和俄罗斯等地区力量的网络空间特种作战战备为何比美国更为充分?

美国在战略层面集结其网络部门和网络能力的同时,伊朗和俄罗斯又是如何在战术层面强化其力量的呢?美国在20多年前就发布了网络特种作战的相关文件,但为何其网络特种作战的政策、部门和条令仍然不够成熟呢?对于美军而言,最基本的问题是:美国将如何打造战略层面的网络特种作战能力?早在1993年,互联网技术理论家约翰·阿奇拉和大卫·伦菲尔德在其著作《网络战争即将来临》一书中就已经预言了最近伊朗和俄罗斯所实施的网络空间特种作战行动。“大量分散各地的小规模团体利用最新的通信技术协调一致”控制网络,取得对对手的决定性优势。现实中这一情景一再上演。阿奇拉和伦菲尔德认为,“战争中我们投向敌人的不再是质量和能量;如今我们使用的是信息,掌握的信息越多,对传统武器的需求就越少”。

美军高层也已经意识到,有了非对称性网络工具、非常规战术以及大量虚假信息的武装,少量的特种作战人员就可以形成一定的战略影响。目前有消息表明,伊朗和俄罗斯均已成功地将网络空间特种作战作为一种战略工具来达成其国家目标。两国都拥有一体化的网络特种作战部队,知道如何在非对称性冲突中利用网络工具的潜在力量。两国的非对称性手段成为地区强国用以规避美国军事优势以及确保本国战略利益的强大非常规性路径。价格低廉的网络高新技术使得潜在对手可以发展出强大的网络战能力。因此,美国亟需做出战略选择,发展网络空间特种作战,作为保护和投射国家利益的工具。

价格低廉的网络高新技术使得潜在对手可以发展出强大的网络战能力2013年2月,俄罗斯总参谋长格拉西莫夫在俄《军工信使》杂志发表了《科学在预测中的价值》一文。文中,格拉西莫夫预测了能够“改变游戏规则”的新一代战争,其战略价值将超过“武器力量的效能”。他号召普遍开展非对称性行动,以抵消敌方的优势,通过“特种作战力量和内部对抗以及不断完善的信息行动、装备和手段,在敌国的领土中创造一个永久活动的前线”。2014年春,有西方媒体报道,在乌克兰东部的乱局中,一支便装的特种作战小分队从俄罗斯境内穿越乌克兰边界,占领政府建筑和武器库并转交给分裂主义武装。与此同时,乌克兰当局声称,其全境的数字、电话及网络通信均遭到切断、干扰或攻击活动。乌克兰政府将信息和物流基础设施(包括互联网服务器和铁路控制系统)遭受的网络攻击归因于俄方的破坏,同时还认为,俄罗斯实施信息欺骗行动,花费巨资在重要的社交媒体、博客以及新闻网站每天发布50条亲俄评论,在乌克兰内外形成大量的虚假信息流,一方面掩盖其在网络空间的非传统军事行动,另一方面制造了政治假象。乌政府高级官员表示,“俄罗斯所做的并不是通常的信息作战所涉及的虚假信息、谎言、泄漏机密或网络破坏活动,它重新塑造现实,造成大众幻象,然后将之转化为政治行动”。为此,在2014年9月召开的北约安全峰会上,北约盟军最高司令、美国空军上将菲利普·布里德莱弗指出,俄罗斯在东乌克兰实施的“混合型”非传统作战代表了战争史上最惊人的信息闪电战。布里德莱弗敦促盟军立即发展相应的能力以反制俄罗斯的非传统战、宣传战及网络攻击行动。俄罗斯使用“根本不被西方视为战争的”非传统手段达成其政治目的,这使得西方及北约国家措手不及。俄罗斯并不是以碎片化的方式来使用特种力量、信息作战或网络能力。相反,正如格拉西莫夫将军所言,“发动战争不再需要公开宣布,当配备先进技术和大量信息的特种力量为传统部队在维持和平与危机的掩护下达成战略目标创造好条件,战争就发生了。”言外之意,网络信息欺骗和网络攻击行动为特种作战力量在“战争与和平之间”实施非传统战赢得了时间和空间。俄罗斯的网络赋能非传统战极为成功,不仅是其网络特种力量的混成,而且还成功地侵入欧盟成员国,甚至没有引起西方有效的军事反应。

网络信息欺骗和网络攻击行动为特种作战力量在“战争与和平之间”实施非传统战赢得了时间和空间 经验教训从俄罗斯的案例中可以得出四个方面的主要经验,可为美国特种作战行动与网络能力整合提供一个可行的理论框架。第一,俄罗斯特种部队所使用的进攻性网络工具存在战术和战略层面的差别,主要以战术层面的“封闭网络”为目标,如本地通讯、社交媒体、区域网络和后勤基础设施等,同时保留其更为先进的开放网络工具作为备用。第二,网络特种作战主要是一种代理人行为,强调最小化的来源跟踪。正如格拉西莫夫所描述的那样,“对敌方的远距离、无接触行动正在成为战术战役目标的主要手段”。网络特种作战通常避免人员的直接接触,而是在和平与战争的灰色地带展开行动。第三,信息与通信技术、网络攻击及信息作战等在网络赋能的非常规战中发挥着重要作用。只要恰当的实施,传统的特种作战可以远远超出其原有的功能,“这涉及到对广泛能力的综合运用,以达成政策目标”。要发挥效能,还必须整合同步其他领域的专门知识。第四,网络特种作战既可以慑止冲突,也可用于应对全频谱冲突,因为“它适合行动的各个阶段,从塑造环境到剧烈战争再到战后重建等”。虽然网络战以破坏为初衷,但也具有建设性的一面。低成本的信息和通信技术的广泛传播有利于强化伙伴国安全,从而有助于阻止冲突的发生。

网络空间特种作战是一种必须填补的战略层面的能力空白,美国必须积极寻求一种在战术层面的非常规作战中融入网络空间作战的特种作战形式 “‘云驱动’下的‘国外协助防御’(FID)”既是一种云计算概念,也是通过虚拟手段增强伙伴能力和信任的一种比喻性描述。“‘云驱动’FID”概念虽然还未经明确界定,但是它却可以联接整合跨学科领域,以更好地理解人员、地理及虚拟世界,并对相关目标展开共同行动。从技术上而言,“‘云驱动’FID”可以强化伙伴关系,通过联合设施,实时共享数据,增强自动化,传播分析过程。“云驱动”是灵活多变的,能够以私人、公共、社区或混合形式出现,各自使用不同的软件、平台和基础设施等。安全人员通过“‘云驱动’FID”使用智能技术驱动保密的移动应用软件、分析工具和共享数据。虽然数据与虚拟云相联,但其真正价值在于使信息及时传播到战术人员手中。“‘云驱动’FID”也可比喻为一种持续的、活跃的伙伴关系,数据永不停止,网络一直忙碌。技术仅仅是一种工具,用以驱动更深入、广泛的社会文化、政治和历史因素的理解,这些往往是容易造成冲突的因素。“‘云驱动’FID”可以与伙伴国构建更具持续性的能力和信任。“‘云驱动’FID”为未来建立各种机构、中心和实验室弥合美国各跨机构间的利益打下一个虚拟的基础。从美国政府的战略视角而言,“‘云驱动’FID”是一种实用主义的“以伙伴国为中心的方式,旨在围绕伙伴国的核心利益设计行动,而不是寄希望于以短视的方式来改变伙伴国”。“‘云驱动’FID”还是一种审慎的战略举措,“以防美国的伙伴国由于国内政治问题出现公共关系危机”。“‘云驱动’FID”也提供了其他的机会。它所形成的技术和关系网络可以迅速对紧急事件做出反应,如人道主义救援或救灾行动、阻止大规模屠杀,或者非战斗人员撤离任务等。这样可以通过为决策过程提供信息而节约时间、金钱和人力等。对于伙伴关系的构建而言,“‘云驱动’FID”可以存储当地的非美国社交媒体信息、丰富的社交网络分析、社会网络地图以及行为和舆论趋势分析等信息。最为重要的是,“‘云驱动’FID”以富有创新性和极为有力的方式构建信任,打造对盟友及伙伴国的持久影响力。

当今的全球环境促使美国采用网络特种作战作为国家军事战略的战略性工具 网络反暴乱平叛行动网络反暴乱平叛行动(CNCOIN)旨在利用社交媒体网络达成平叛的目的。为打破敌人的非对称性信息优势,CNCOIN使用非技术手段打击相关人群,控制其感知、行为和行动。它为网络空间无处不在的反社交网络手段增添了军事色彩。虽然这些手段没有明确界定,本文认为,它实际上就是指操纵社交媒体,掩盖真实身份,达成不可告人的目的。虽然社交媒体为反社交网络提供了广泛的机会,如恶意利用、有意误导等,但从军事角度而言,社交媒体提供了丰富的信息资源以影响心理脆弱性,也是一个理想的攻击平台。每种功能性范畴中都有几种有助于其实施的技术。行动范畴包括但不局限于网络欺骗行动(cyber-pseudo operation)和网络驱逐行动(cyber-herding operation)。网络欺骗行动是一种经典的平叛策略,“政府军和技术人员将自己假扮为叛乱分子,渗入敌方网络后使用先进的谍报技术在该网络内部实施破坏”。网络驱逐行动就是指,“个人、团体或组织把其他的个人、团体或组织驱逐到预设的网络区域”。两种技术的奇妙之处在于,通过利用通信技术与通信平台的内在缺陷来驱逐虚拟网络中的叛乱分子。两种战术以叛乱分子活跃的网络社群为目标,对其进行操控或者瓦解,最终为网络平叛提供更多的机会。虚拟世界放大了环境因素,因为网络中的人物更难确定其真实性。规划指挥控制、通信频率以及设备平台等要素将成为网络欺骗行动或网络驱逐行动实施的关键点,用以操纵、误导或者驱逐目标群走向预想的结果。情报范畴包括但不局限于众包(Crowdsourcing)和社交网络分析技术(Social Networking Analysis, SNA)。众包就是利用大规模的知识库,由参与者自愿提供的,为解决问题提供新思路、服务或观察,可以迅速扩展组织者的视野。社交网络分析以可视的方式描绘和测量社交链接的关系、强度及核心性以说明社会网络结构。社交网络可视化或者社网图可以提供独特的窗口用以评估、描绘甚至预测关系事件的强度、时间、空间和关系维度。2013年9月,菲律宾三宝颜危机期间,反政府武装摩洛民族解放阵线(以下简称“摩解”)对民族和解状况感到不满,挟持200多名平民为人质,袭击商业店铺,烧毁城市建筑。整个危机期间,众包和社交网络分析都是非常成功的非传统战术手段。菲律宾安全部队使用众包战术鼓励三宝颜居民发现并报告“摩解”成员的藏身地点。菲安全部队结合众包信息和情报分析,为安全行动和人道主义行动提供信息。使用社交网络分析来评估“摩解”的民众支持度,并在社交媒体上反制“摩解”宣言,封禁违反社交媒体用户协议的宣传网站,还使用众包信息封锁“摩解”小股部队,攻击其临时指挥哨所。菲安全部队通过使用社交媒体跟踪关键信息和领导节点,随后使用实体部队挫败了“摩解”的非对称性优势。信息作战范畴包括但不局限于网络入侵(cyber aggression)、论坛马甲(袜子手偶sock-puppeting)、以假乱真(Astro-turfing)等。三种战术都是匿名利用社交媒体实施误导、假信息等来操纵行为、舆论及行动。网络入侵是由蒂安娜·菲尔姆利提出,是指“一种电子或在线行为,旨在对他人实施心理伤害或损毁其名誉,通过使用电子邮件、即时信息、手机、数字信息、聊天室以及社交媒体、视频、游戏网站等”。它比普通的网络攻击性行为的范围要广泛得多。它的匿名性可能会引起实质性的心理伤害和负面后果,因为相关信息会被重复发送给目标或者在社交媒体发布。它对CNCOIN的价值在于,可以利用敏感的数字信息来羞辱、诽谤或伤害目标,造成心理障碍行为。这种强大的网络入侵行动可以降低目标的可信度、影响力和权力,最终使目标或其它叛乱分子丧失实力。其它两种战术,论坛马甲和以假乱真都是虚构的在线宣传工具,用来散布扭曲的观点,以制造更广范围的支持或者反对的假象。以假乱真实际上跟论坛马甲是同一个概念,只不过更为复杂、更有组织、规模更大。两种战术都使用虚拟人物在网络空间散布虚假信息,目的是引发群体反应或行动。以假乱真的网络信息作战行动包含海量文字、图片和视频,与有计划的误导性网络活动相结合,将显著增强CNCOIN行动的效果。 非常规网络战先遣队推进美国网络特种作战的第三种方式是非常规网络战先遣队(cyber-UW Pilot Team),利用社交媒体网络塑造实体环境,建立区域机制,在实施非常规战之前将各区域联通起来。非常规网络战先遣队的核心是特种部队,拥有多个专业机构提供的技术支持,其任务是在网络安全领域进行非常规作战的准备。传统先遣队的渗透目标是敌方领土、军事设施等实体目标,而非常规先遣队则是通过虚拟手段进行渗透,再潜入敏感、敌对或拒止区域。通过虚拟手段,可以减少美国及伙伴国武装力量在时间、风险、装备等方面的损失和风险。从概念上讲,非常规网络战先遣队利用网络工具和先进技术在社交媒体上打造人员、实体、情报以及信息基础设施。在加深对当地人文地形理解的同时,小组可以强化其本地语言和文化技能,还可识别抵抗活动领导者、评估动机和抵抗能力以及对美国政府目标的总体支持度,与此同时,还可以了解非正式的层级分布、心理及行为等。此外,还可以通过接入社交媒体网络混入互联网白噪音,以“提高美国对潜在合作者的文化理解以及在采取行动之前的当地形势。”虽然美国国家安全战略中早就承认了网络作战的战略作用,但是这种认识并没有完全转化成明晰的战略层面的思维和作战能力。例如,美国《国防部网络空间行动战略》中并没有给出多少解决方案或具体措施,仅仅从五个方面重复了先前的网络思路。缺乏明确的思路导致我们的网络战略存在缺陷,使得美国先进的网络技术优势有拱手让给潜在对手的风险。对比之下,伊朗和俄罗斯的非对称性创新为其他地区和全球力量树立了模仿的样板,都试图以非常规手段规避美国的军事优势,确保各自的战略利益。网络空间特种作战是一种必须填补的战略层面的能力空白。很显然,美国必须积极寻求一种在战术层面的非常规作战中融入网络空间作战的特种作战形式。兰德公司最近的一份研究特种作战的报告得出结论,称“美国需要运用一种更为先进的特种作战形式来确保国家利益,考虑到近来美国及其利益面临的安全威胁形势,特种作战成为确保国家利益的最合适的形式”。在一个日益互联的全球环境中,实体性基础设施快速被分配互联网协议地址,接入物联网。到2020年,将有500亿台“机器对机器”设备(目前为130亿台)会通过“嵌入计算机、传感器和互联网能力”接入网络空间。网络空间特种作战联通了虚拟与现实,通过现代的信息网络并与传统的面对面的特种作战伙伴关系相结合。当今的全球环境促使美国采用网络特种作战作为国家军事战略的战略性工具。潜在对手将进攻性网络能力与非常规战术相结合为美国的其他敌人树立了可怕的榜样,他们必将快速跟进。本文提出了融合新兴技术与特种作战的三种新选项:“云驱动”下的国外协助防御、网络反暴乱平叛行动以及非常规网络战先遣队。充分发挥这三种战术将不仅仅能维持美国的网络技术优势,还可对构建重要伙伴关系、塑造全频谱作战环境产生革命性影响。如果能成功实施,网络特种作战必将成为美国强有力的新战略选项。

 

2016-08-22 17:42现代军事

中國軍隊信息戰裝備的作戰運用 – Chinese Military Operation of Information Warfare Equipment

中國軍隊信息戰裝備的作戰運用

Chinese Military Operation of Information Warfare Equipment

Information warfare is the C4ISR system and C4ISR system of confrontation, is the advantage of information contention, the main purpose is to ensure that their own information system to run properly, from the enemy use, paralysis and destruction; the same time, trying to use, paralyzed and destroy the enemy’s information system, So that in a paralyzed, confused state. Information warfare includes two parts: strategic information warfare and battlefield information warfare.

Strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield

strategic information warfare is mainly characterized by a wide range of sectors covering all key political, economic, technological, and military and other special areas; special way, relates to psychological warfare, media warfare, deception warfare, media warfare and other special Means that the target is special, mainly through the decadence war, psychological warfare, information deterrence attack the enemy’s understanding system and thinking system; great harm, can make the whole country’s economic, political or military paralyzed, and even make it happen alternately; Personnel special, the war is not necessarily military personnel, computer experts, international criminal groups, ulterior motives of hackers or terrorist organizations and so may become war personnel.

Battlefield information warfare is the information warfare in the battle space, refers to the preparation and conduct of a campaign, the integrated use of information technology and a variety of information technology weapons, information combat platform and C4ISR system, in reconnaissance detection and early warning, information processing and Transmission, weapons control and guidance, operational command and control, camouflage deception and interference, as well as military strategy and other aspects of the comprehensive confrontation and struggle. Battlefield information warfare is through the interference or disrupting the enemy decision-making process, so that the enemy can not effectively take concerted action. Therefore, we must first affect the enemy decision-making, and then affect its actions, that is, to win the air electromagnetic advantage, and then made the air superiority, and finally the use of conventional forces to take combat operations. To seize the right to information system, to seize the initiative to fight the space, but also for the fight for land rights, air supremacy, sea power and the system of the right to lay a good foundation and necessary conditions.

A The basic combat forces and means are digital forces and information weapons equipment, the main contents include combat confidentiality, military deception, electronic warfare, psychological warfare and fire destroyed, the core purpose is to compete for the battle space information access , Control and use rights. Battlefield information warfare is the confrontation of the information system, it directly affects the entire battle space, the whole process of war and success or failure. Battlefield information warfare The main combat style is the electronic warfare and cyber warfare. Electronic warfare is an important part of the battlefield information warfare, mainly for the enemy communications, radar and other electromagnetic radiation source for the lure, interference, destruction and destruction activities. In the Gulf War, the electronic warfare was not only for the first time on a large scale, but also as a campaign stage and a specific campaign in war. In the Kosovo war, NATO used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the first use of electromagnetic pulse bombs and the first time a network war. Network warfare is a cyber-confrontational activity in computer cyberspace, using the Internet, and is being used for the first time in the Kosovo war. NATO network warfare measures include: network advertising; hacker attacks; attacks on financial networks. The main feature of the network war in the Southern Alliance is the people’s war mode, fans, computer fans and computer enthusiasts spontaneously carried out a large number of network operations, such as online publicity, attack NATO website, the use of network transmission of information.

Information warfare equipment in war equipment electronic warfare equipment the trend of electronic warfare equipment increasingly integrated and universal, under the conditions of information technology in the local war, the battlefield of the electromagnetic environment is increasingly complex, the past that the separation of each other, a single function of electronic warfare equipment is far from Adapt to combat needs. Integration and generalization has become the focus of the development of electronic warfare equipment and future electronic warfare equipment overall development direction. In order to deal more effectively with the complex and volatile electromagnetic threat in the information warfare, the future of the new generation of electronic warfare equipment, will be widely used advanced computer technology, greatly improve the automation of the entire system to have better real-time capabilities, since Adaptability and full power management capability. Electronic warfare equipment, work areas continue to widen, increasing the transmission power, millimeter-wave technology and the development of optical technology, the modern electronic warfare equipment, the frequency of continuous development to a wider band. On the whole, the future range of electronic warfare equipment will be extended to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. GPS interference and anti-interference will be concerned about the practice of war has shown that if the loss of GPS support, it will greatly weaken the information advantage, so that command, control, reconnaissance, combat, military and other military aspects are facing severe tests, Combat effectiveness. Focusing on the development of anti-radiation and new electronic warfare jets, attention to the development of new, special electronic warfare technology and equipment, such as anti-satellite laser weapons, high-energy particle beam weapons, and meteor communication, neutrino communication and so on.

Computer virus weapon <a In the military information system, the battlefield information acquisition, transmission, processing and other functions need to complete the computer and network, computer network is the basis and pioneer of information warfare. The use of software-driven sniffers and hardware magnetic sniffers and other sniffing network is an important way to attack the network. These sniffing tools were originally a test device used to diagnose and assist in repairing the network, so it was a powerful tool for network management personnel to manage the network, but it was a terrible computer virus weapon in information warfare. It can make the network “service denied”, “information tampering”, information “halfway steal” and so on. In addition, will also focus on design “portal trap”. “Portal trap”, also known as “back door”, is a computer system designer in the system in advance of a structure, in the application appears or operating system, the programmer to insert some debugging agencies. System programmers in order to achieve the purpose of the attack system, deliberately left a small number of portal traps for familiar with the system staff to go beyond the normal system protection and sneak into the system. Network is an important infrastructure for information warfare, network-based warfare is mainly based on the network and the network is reliable to determine the outcome of the war. Therefore, to strengthen the network of offensive and defensive combat research, to win the future of information war is essential.   Electromagnetic pulse bombs

Iraq war, the US military used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the use of electromagnetic pulse bombs attacked the Iraqi radio and television system and the Iraqi military various types of electronic radiation source. Electromagnetic pulse bomb, also known as microwave pulse bomb, is through the micro-beam into electromagnetic energy, damage to each other’s electronic facilities and personnel of a new directional energy weapons. Its working principle is: high-power microwave through the antenna gathered into a very narrow, very strong electromagnetic waves fired at each other, relying on this beam of electromagnetic waves generated by high temperature, ionization, radiation and other integrated effects in the target internal electronic circuit to produce fatal voltage And the current, breakdown or burn the sensitive components, damage to the computer stored in the data, so that the other side of the weapons and command system paralyzed, loss of combat effectiveness. According to the test, a briefcase size of the microwave bomb, can produce power of 300 million watts of pulse waves. Will be more than one connection, it can become an adjustable radiation source, resulting in more than 2 billion watts of pulse waves. This pulse wave is somewhat similar to the nuclear pulse generated when the nuclear explosion can easily from the power and communication pipes into the underground bunker, which rely on radio, radar, computers, power grids and telephone modern weapons systems, chemical and biological arsenal and its production The shop was paralyzed in an instant.

GPS interference device <a I = 13> Iraq war, the Iraqi military use of GPS interferometer on the Tomahawk cruise missiles for effective interference, which is the first time in combat in the GPS guidance system interference. GPS signal is very weak, very easy to interfere. A Russian company offers a 4-watt power handheld GPS jammers that can be bought for less than $ 4,000. If you buy parts from a retail e-store, spend $ 400 to create a GPS jammer with a radius of 16 km or more. Before the war in Iraq, the United States had expected the Iraqi side to interfere with GPS signals. The United States has already been equipped with anti-jamming technology for its GPS bombs and missiles so that these GPS-guided weapons can continue to use GPS signals in the event of interference; even if the GPS signal is lost, these weapons can also use their own other guidance system Such as inertial navigation, laser guidance, etc., so that they reach the target. Nevertheless, the early Iraq war, the US military more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles or because of interference from the scheduled route, falling in Turkey, Syria and Iran. Small GPS jitter problem alerted the US government, Powell personally come forward to investigate the source of Iraqi GPS jammers, Russia and other countries imposed no small pressure.

Gulf War, GPS navigator as a trial for the first time issued to the use of desert combat personnel, the effect is obvious. At that time, including cruise missiles, including all the weapons are not using GPS navigation device. During the war in Iraq, we saw almost all of the combat platforms, and every soldier, almost all of the missiles and bombs used this kind of navigation device, so that the tanks, planes, ships were more mobile so that the missiles and bombs were The probability error is reduced to 1-3 m, within a maximum of 10 m. <A I = 15> everything has a disadvantage. GPS navigation defects and information technology weapons and equipment of the drawbacks is the same, that is, electronic interference. From the perspective of the development of weapons and equipment, the purchase of a cruise missile needs more than 100 million dollars, and manufacturing a GPS jammers only a few hundred dollars, as a strategic defense side, if a large number of development and development of GPS jammers, not only for US missiles And bombs are a threat to their tanks, planes, ships and personnel navigation and positioning will also have a huge impact. Of course, you should also see the US military fight, further, after the end of the war in Iraq will be based on the lessons of the war to improve the GPS system. Is expected to be improved in three areas: First, GPS satellites, mainly to enhance the satellite launch signal, and as much as possible to launch GPS satellites; Second, improve the guidance system, mainly to increase the composite guidance device, after the GPS guidance is disturbed, Automatic recovery or transfer to inertia and other navigation methods to ensure the normal operation of the platform and weapons; Third, GPS anti-interference, mainly to improve the GPS receiver anti-jamming capability, the development of new GPS receiver, Machine and jamming machine for electronic suppression and interference.

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

信息戰是C4ISR系統與C4ISR系統的對抗,是信息優勢的爭奪,主要目的是確保己方信息系統正常運行,免遭敵方利用、癱瘓和破壞﹔同時,設法利用、癱瘓和破壞敵人的信息系統,使之處於癱瘓、迷茫狀態。信息戰包括戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰兩大部分。

戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰

戰略信息戰主要特征是范圍廣泛,涉及國家政治、經濟、科技、軍事等各個要害部門和特殊領域﹔方式特殊,涉及心理戰、輿論戰、欺騙戰、媒體戰等特殊手段﹔目標特殊,主要是通過誘騙戰、心理戰、信息威懾等攻擊敵人的認識體系和思維體系﹔危害巨大,能使整個國家的經濟、政治或軍事陷入癱瘓,甚至能使其發生政權交替﹔人員特殊,參戰人員不一定軍人,計算機專家、國際犯罪集團、別有用心的黑客或恐怖組織等都可能成為參戰人員。

戰場信息戰是發生在戰斗空間內的信息戰,是指為准備和進行一場戰役,綜合運用信息技術手段和各種信息化武器、信息化作戰平台和C4ISR系統,在偵察探測及預警、信息處理與傳遞、武器控制和制導、作戰指揮與控制、偽裝欺騙與干擾以及軍事謀略等方面展開的全面對抗和斗爭。戰場信息戰是通過干擾或打亂敵方決策程序,使敵方無法有效採取協調一致的行動。因此,要先影響敵人決策,然后再影響其行動,即先贏得空中電磁優勢,再取得空中優勢,最后使用常規部隊採取作戰行動。奪取了制信息權,就奪取了戰斗空間的主動權,而且為爭奪制陸權、制空權、制海權和制天權奠定一個良好基礎和必要條件。

戰場信息戰的基本作戰力量和手段是數字化部隊及信息化武器裝備,主要內容包括作戰保密、軍事欺騙、電子戰、心理戰和火力摧毀,核心目的是爭奪戰斗空間的信息獲取權、控制權和使用權。戰場信息戰是信息體系的對抗,它直接影響到整個戰斗空間、整場戰爭的進程和成敗。戰場信息戰的主要作戰樣式是電子戰和網絡戰。電子戰是戰場信息戰的一個重要組成部分,主要是針對敵人通信、雷達等電磁輻射源進行的誘騙、干擾、破壞和摧毀活動。海灣戰爭中,電子戰不僅首次大規模使用,而且正式作為戰爭中的一個戰役階段和特定戰役行動。科索沃戰爭中,北約使用了大量電子戰裝備,並首次使用了電磁脈沖炸彈並首次進行了網絡戰。網絡戰是在計算機網絡空間,利用因特網進行的一種網絡對抗活動,並在科索沃戰爭中首次使用。北約網絡戰的措施包括:網絡宣傳﹔黑客攻擊﹔襲擊金融網絡等。南聯盟網絡戰的主要特征是人民戰爭模式,網迷、電腦迷和計算機愛好者自發地進行了大量網絡作戰行動,如開展網上宣傳、攻擊北約網站、利用網絡傳遞情報等。

戰爭中的信息戰裝備

電子戰裝備

電子戰裝備的發展趨勢日趨一體化和通用化,信息化條件下的局部戰爭中,戰場上的電磁環境日益復雜,以往那種彼此分立、功能單一的電子戰裝備已遠遠不能適應作戰需要了。一體化和通用化已成為當前電子戰裝備發展的重點和未來電子戰裝備總的發展方向。為了更有效地對付信息化戰爭中復雜多變的電磁威脅,未來新一代的電子對抗裝備,將廣泛採用先進的計算機技術,大幅度提高整個系統的自動化程度,以具備更好的實時能力、自適應能力和全功率管理能力。電子戰裝備的工作頻段不斷拓寬,發射功率不斷增大,毫米波技術和光電技術的發展,使現代電子戰裝備的工作頻率不斷向更寬的頻段發展。從整體上看,未來電子戰裝備的工作范圍必將擴展到整個電磁波頻譜。GPS干擾與反干擾將受到關注,戰爭實踐已經表明,如果失去GPS的支持,就會極大地削弱信息優勢,使指揮、控制、偵察、打擊、部隊機動等各個軍事環節都面臨嚴峻考驗,嚴重降低戰斗力。重點發展反輻射和新型電子戰干擾機,重視發展新型、特殊的電子戰技術裝備,如用於反衛星的激光武器、高能粒子束武器,以及流星余跡通信、中微子通信等等。

計算機病毒武器

在軍事信息系統中,戰場信息的獲取、傳遞、處理等功能需要計算機及網絡來完成,計算機網絡是進行信息戰的基礎和先鋒。利用軟件驅動嗅探器和硬件磁感應嗅探器等對網絡進行嗅探是進攻網絡的重要方法。這些嗅探工具原本是一種測試設備,用來診斷和協助修理網絡,因此它是網管人員管理網絡的一種得力工具,但在信息戰中卻是一種可怕的計算機病毒武器。它能使網絡“服務否認”、“信息篡改”、信息“中途竊取”等。另外,也將重視設計“門戶陷阱”。“門戶陷阱”又稱“后門”,是計算機系統設計者預先在系統中構造的一種機構,在應用出現或操作系統期間,程序員插入一些調試機構。系統程序員為了達到攻擊系統的目的,特意留下少數門戶陷阱,供熟悉系統的人員用以超越對方正常的系統保護而潛入系統。網絡是信息化戰爭的重要基礎設施,網絡中心戰主要是基於網絡而進行的,網絡是否可靠決定戰爭的勝負。因此,加強網絡攻防作戰的研究,對於贏得未來信息化戰爭至關重要。

電磁脈沖炸彈

伊拉克戰爭中,美軍使用了大量電子戰裝備,並使用電磁脈沖炸彈襲擊了伊拉克廣播電視系統及伊軍各類電子輻射源。電磁脈沖炸彈也稱微波脈沖炸彈,是通過把微波束轉化為電磁能,毀傷對方電子設施和人員的一種新型定向能武器。其工作原理是:高功率微波經過天線聚集成一束很窄、很強的電磁波射向對方,依靠這束電磁波產生的高溫、電離、輻射等綜合效應,在目標內部的電子線路中產生致命的電壓和電流,擊穿或燒毀其中的敏感元器件,毀損電腦中存貯的數據,從而使對方的武器和指揮系統陷於癱瘓,喪失戰斗力。據測試,一枚公文包大小的微波炸彈,可產生功率達3億瓦的脈沖波。將其多個聯接后,則能成為可調整的輻射源,產生20億瓦以上的脈沖波。這種脈沖波有點類似核爆炸時產生的電磁脈沖,可以輕易地從電力和通訊管道進入地下掩體,使其中依賴無線電、雷達、計算機、電網和電話等的現代化武器系統、生化武器庫及其生產車間在瞬間癱瘓。

GPS干擾設備

伊拉克戰爭中,伊軍利用GPS干擾儀對戰斧巡航導彈進行了有效的干擾,這是第一次在實戰中對GPS制導系統進行干擾。GPS信號很弱,很易於干擾。一家俄羅斯公司提供的一種4瓦功率的手持GPS干擾機,不到4000美元就能買到。如果從零售電子商店購買部件組裝,花400美元就可以制造一個干擾半徑16公裡以上的GPS干擾機。伊拉克戰爭開戰之前,美國就已經預料到伊拉克方面會干擾GPS信號。美國其實早已經給其GPS炸彈和導彈裝載了抗干擾技術,使這些GPS導引的武器能夠在干擾的情況下繼續使用GPS信號﹔即使GPS信號丟失,這些武器還可以使用自身的其他導引系統如慣性導航、激光制導等,使自己到達目標。盡管如此,伊拉克戰爭初期,美軍十幾枚戰斧式巡航導彈還是因受干擾偏離預定航線,落在土耳其、敘利亞和伊朗境內。小小的GPS干擾機問題驚動了美國朝野,鮑威爾親自出面調查伊拉克GPS干擾機的來源,對俄羅斯等國施加了不小的壓力。

海灣戰爭中,GPS導航儀作為試用品首次發放給沙漠作戰人員使用,效果明顯。當時,包括巡航導彈在內的所有武器都沒有採用GPS導航裝置。伊拉克戰爭中,我們看到幾乎所有的作戰平台,每一個單兵,幾乎全部的導彈和炸彈都採用了這種導航裝置,從而使坦克、飛機、艦艇的機動更加精確,使導彈和炸彈的原概率誤差縮小到1—3米,最大10米范圍之內。

凡事有一利必有一弊。GPS導航的弊端與信息化武器裝備的弊端是一樣的,就是電子干擾問題。從武器裝備發展角度來看,購買一枚巡航導彈需要100多萬美元,而制造一部GPS干擾機才幾百美元,作為戰略防御一方,如果能夠大量發展和研制GPS干擾機,不僅對於美軍導彈和炸彈是一種威脅,對其坦克、飛機、艦艇和人員的導航定位也將產生巨大影響。當然,也應看到美軍打一仗、進一步,伊拉克戰爭結束后必將根據戰爭中的教訓,改進GPS系統。預計將在三個方面進行改進:一是GPS衛星,主要是增強衛星發射信號,並盡可能多的發射GPS衛星﹔二是改進制導系統,主要是增加復合制導裝置,在GPS指導受到干擾之后,自動恢復或轉入慣性等其他導航方式,以保証平台和武器的正常運行﹔三是GPS反干擾,主要是提高GPS接收機抗干擾能力,研制新型GPS接收機,在戰區對地方軍民用GPS接收機和干擾機進行電子壓制和干擾等。

Full Text of China Military Reform Commission //中華人民共和國軍委發布軍事改革意見全文

Full Text of China Military Reform Commission

中華人民共和國軍委發布軍事改革意見全文

http://news.sina.com   2016年01月01日

戰略火箭軍

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, January 1 – Approved by the CMC Chairman Xi Jinping, the Central Military Commission recently issued “on deepening the reform of national defense and military advice.”

“Opinions” stressed eighteen since the party’s Central Military Commission and President Xi on the realization of strong military objectives, overall army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized, co-ordinate military construction and operation, co-ordination of economic development and national defense construction develop military strategic policy under the new situation, and proposed a series of major policies and principles, make a series of major decisions and plans. Implement the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission and President Xi major strategic planning and strategic design, we must deepen defense and military reform, full implementation of the reform and strengthening the military strategy, unswervingly take the road of Chinese characteristics, a strong army.

“Opinions” that deepen defense and military reform guiding ideology, thoroughly implement the party’s 18 and eighteenth session of the Third, Fourth, Fifth Plenum, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, “Three represents “important thought, the scientific concept of development as guidance, thoroughly implement the important speech of President Xi series is especially important to discuss defense and army building, according to the” four comprehensive “strategic layout requirements in order to target the party strong army under the new situation is lead and implement the military strategic principle in the new situation, the full implementation of the reform strategy of strengthening the military, efforts to address the constraints of national defense and military development of the institutional barriers and structural problems, policy issues, and promote the modernization of the military organizational form, further emancipate and develop combat effectiveness, further liberation army and enhance the vitality of the construction with China’s international status commensurate with the interests of national security and development to adapt to the consolidation of national defense and powerful armed forces, to achieve “two hundred years” goal to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream to provide a strong assurance.

“Opinions” stressed, deepen reform of national defense and the armed forces should adhere to the following basic principles: adhere to the correct political orientation, focusing adhere to fight, persist in innovation-driven, adhere to the system design, adhere to the rule of law thinking, actively and steadily adhere to.

“Opinions” that deepen defense and military reform overall objective is to firmly grasp the principle of “total JMC tube, main battle theater, built in the main military services” to the leadership of the management system, joint operational command system reform, focusing on promoting the coordination of the scale structure , policy and institutional reform and the development of military and civilian integration depth. 2020, a breakthrough in the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, optimizing the size of the structure, improve the policy system to promote achieved important results on the integration of military and civilian aspects of the depth development of reform, efforts to build able to win the information war effectively fulfill its mission mandate Chinese characteristics of modern military system, and further improve the military system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

“Opinions” to define the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, the size of the military structure, forces, and military personnel training, policies and systems, military and civilian integration, Wuzhuangjingcha Forces Command management system and force structure, military legal system and other aspects of major task.

“Opinions” stressed deepen defense and military reform is a holistic, revolutionary change, must always be under the unified leadership of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the study, thoroughly implement the spirit of the Central Military Commission Reform Work Conference, adhere to strengthen education, unity Thought throughout, to strengthen the responsibility to implement the fine drop throughout to promote the law, moving steadily through to the end, the bottom line thinking, risk management and control throughout, with strong organizational leadership to ensure that the reform task is satisfactorily completed.

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CMC views on deepening the reform of national defense and army (full text)

To implement the Party Central Committee and President Xi’s strategic decisions and directions, push forward to deepen defense and military reform, made the following comments.

First, the significance of the reform of the guiding ideology and basic principles

(A) significant. Deepen defense and military reform, China is to realize a dream, the dream of a strong army requirements of the times, is the only way the army Hing strong army, the army also decided to move a key to the future. Eighteen years, the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the party’s study on the realization of a strong army targets, co-ordinate the army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized, co-ordinate military construction and operation, co-ordination of economic development and national defense construction, the development of the new situation military strategy proposes a series of major policies and principles, make a series of major decisions and plans. Implement the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission and President Xi major strategic planning and strategic design, we must deepen defense and military reform, full implementation of the reform and strengthening the military strategy, unswervingly take the road of Chinese characteristics, a strong army. This is to deal with in today’s world of unprecedented large change in the situation will inevitably require the effective maintenance of national security; adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, promote the coordination necessary requirement “four comprehensive” strategic layout; the goal is to implement a strong army and military strategic policy , fulfill military missions and tasks necessary requirement. The army to fully understand the importance of deepening the reform of national defense and military necessity urgency, a high degree of historical awareness and a strong mission to play unswervingly deepen defense and military reform, efforts to hand over the party and the people a satisfactory answer.

(B) the guiding ideology. Thoroughly implement the party’s 18 and eighteenth session of the Third, Fourth, Fifth Plenum, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of “Three Represents”, the scientific concept of development as guidance, thoroughly implement the learning Chairman of the series especially important speech of defense and army building important expositions, in accordance with the “four comprehensive” strategic layout requirements in order to target the party strong army under the new situation for the lead, must implement the military strategic principle in the new situation, the full implementation of a strong army reform strategy, efforts to address the constraints of national defense and military development of institutional barriers and structural problems, policy issues, and promote the modernization of the military organizational form, further emancipate and develop combat effectiveness, further emancipate and enhance the vitality of the armed forces, building commensurate with China’s international status, with national security and development interests compatible consolidate national defense and powerful armed forces, to achieve “two hundred years” goal to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream to provide a strong guarantee power.

(C) the fundamental principles

– Adhere to the correct political orientation. Consolidate and improve the party’s absolute leadership over the army’s fundamental principle and system, keeping the nature and purpose of the people’s army, and carry forward the glorious tradition and fine style of our military, the full implementation of the CMC chairman has overall responsibility to ensure that the military command of the supreme leadership of the Party Central Committee to focus on, CMC.

– To insist on focusing war. To adapt the form of war and the world development trend of the evolution of the military, fighting the only firmly established the fundamental standards, and effectively solve the preparations for military struggle to overcome difficult problems and combat heavy construction weaknesses, build integrated joint operations system, to enhance the army can fight, the ability to win the war.

– Adhere to innovation-driven. Implement through science and technology strategy, give full play to innovation in military theory, military technological innovation, military organizational innovation, management innovation traction and military role in promoting efforts to achieve military modernization construction by leaps and bounds, to seek greater military competitive advantage.

– Adhere to the system design. Grasping the reform initiatives of relevance, coupling, correctly handle the top-level design and stratification docking, long-term layout and transitional arrangements, supporting policy reform and relations, so that the reform and promote each other, complement each other to form the overall effect, best effect.

– Uphold the rule of law thinking. Give full play the leading role of the rule of law and norms of the reform, so that major reforms in the legal basis, reform and harmonize legislation, focusing on the use of curing the results of reform laws and regulations, to promote the rule of law reform on track.

– Actively and steadily adhere. Both our minds, trying to make this reform a breakthrough in the reform, and based on reality, steady hoof walked quickly grasp the rhythm of reform, the reform of control risk, take progressive, open the path of reform, to ensure high degree of stability and centralized.

Second, the overall objectives of the reform and main tasks

(1) the overall goal. Firmly grasp the principle of “total JMC tube, main battle theater, built in the main military services” to the leadership of the management system, joint operational command system reform, focusing on promoting the coordination of the scale structure, policies and systems and the development of military and civilian integration depth reform. 2020, a breakthrough in the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, optimizing the size of the structure, improve the policy system to promote achieved important results on the integration of military and civilian aspects of the depth development of reform, efforts to build able to win the information war effectively fulfill its mission mandate Chinese characteristics of modern military system, and further improve the military system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Accordance with the overall objectives and requirements, in 2015, focused on the implementation of organizational leadership and management system, joint operational command system reform; in 2016, organizing the implementation of the military structure and the size of a combat force structure, institutions, armed forces reform, basically completed the task of reforming stage; 2017 2020, for further adjustments related areas of reform, optimize and improve, continue to promote the reform in various fields. Policy regimes and civilian integration depth development and reform, promoting a mature one.

(2) leadership and administration system. Focus on strengthening the Central Military Commission centralized and unified leadership, strengthen strategic planning JMC authorities, strategic command, strategic management functions, optimizing the CMC Organs configuration and institutional settings, improve military services and new combat forces leadership and management system, the formation of decision-making, enforcement and oversight powers both check each other and coordinate the operation of the system.

Starting from the positioning functions, according to prominent core functions, integrate similar functions and strengthen oversight functions, fulfilling the coordination function of thinking, adjustment and reform of the Central Military Commission of Organization, headquarters for the system to adjust the multi-sectoral system. JMC delegated authority to act in the military services building functions, stripped specific management functions, merge similar adjustment similar functions, reducing the level of leadership, streamlining staffing and units directly under the command make, construction, management and supervision of four link more clear, decision-making, planning, implementation , the evaluation function configuration is more reasonable.

Sound armed services leadership and management system, optimize the configuration and functions of the organs of the military services institutional settings play an important role in the construction and management of the armed services and Security. Logistical support adjustment and reform leading management system, based on the existing joint logistics system, adjust and optimize the configuration and security forces leadership and command relationships and build joint operational command system to adapt, sub-system integration, through logistical support system designed two lines. Reform equipment development leadership and management system, build centralized system managed by the Central Military equipment department, armed services concrete construction and management, theater joint use of the institutional framework, the development of equipment construction to the Central Military equipment sector – the military services and equipment sector institutions, equipment management to ensure the implementation of the Central Military equipment sector – the military services and equipment sector – force security sector institutions. Strengthen the unified leadership of the national defense mobilization system.

(3) the joint operational command system. Adaptation Integrated Joint Operational Command requirements, establish and improve the Central Military Commission, the theater two joint operational command system, build peacetime one, normal operation, specially the main, capable and efficient, strategic and operational command system. Readjust the designation of the theater.

According to joint operations, joint command of the requirements, adjust the specification refers to linking the Central Military Commission, the military services, operational command functions of the Union refers to the theater and theater military services. And joint operational command system to adapt, and improve joint training system.

(4) the size of the military structure. Adhere to the road of fewer but better troops with Chinese characteristics and speeding up the army from quantity to quality and efficiency changes. Active duty military posts cut 300,000 troops gradually reduced the size of the 2.3 million 2 million. Optimize the proportion of military services, reduce non-combat institutions and personnel. Yajian officer positions.Optimization of weaponry scale structure, reduce equipment types of models, elimination of old equipment, the development of new equipment.

(5) Force compiled. Depending on the strategic direction of the security requirements and operational tasks, adjusting the structure, enhanced functions, optimize the layout, promote the composition of forces to the full, synthesis, and more energy, flexible direction. Optimize the structure of reserve forces, militia Yajian quantity, adjust the layout and strength marshalling mode.

(6) New Military Talents. Training of military personnel to follow the law, to build military educational institutions, military training practice, military personnel training system trinity of professional military education. Sound Central Military Commission, the leadership of the armed services two institutions management system, improve the early, middle and high three training system, adjust and optimize the structure of the scale institutions. Sound professional military education system, building full gamut of full-time professional military education platform. Creative Talents institutional mechanisms to strengthen the institutions and armed forces personnel were sterile.

(7) policy regimes. Military mission requirements and adapt the functions of national policy institutional innovation, further improve the military human resource policies and systems and logistics policies and systems, building reflects the characteristics of military occupation, and enhance the military sense of honor pride policy institutional system. Adjustment of military personnel classification, and gradually establish the rank-dominated hierarchy, to promote the professional military officers, military service system reform, non-commissioned officers system, civilian system. Veterans resettlement policies and improve the management mechanism.Deepening the management of funds, material procurement reform, construction and military wages, housing, health care, insurance and other systems. Full cessation of the armed forces to carry out foreign paid services.

(8) development of military and civilian integration. Full focus on the formation of elements, multi-field, high-effective civil-military integration depth development pattern, building a unified leadership, military coordination, smooth and efficient organization and management system, state-led, demand traction, market unity of the work of running the system, the system is complete, Joining a complete, effective incentive policies institutional system. Categories related fields to promote the reform and improve the regulatory system and the development of military and civilian integration of innovation and development mechanisms.

(9) Wuzhuangjingcha Forces Command management system and force structure. Strengthening the Central Military Commission of the centralized and unified leadership of the armed forces, the armed forces command to adjust the management system, optimize the structure and troop strength compiled.

(10) the system of military rule. Fully implement the Law forces strictly policy, improved army, to achieve fundamental to the administration by law fundamental shift from the way of simply relying on experience working habits and working practices from relying solely on executive order to rely on rules and regulations of the transition from assault-style, campaign-style grab a fundamental change to the way work according to rules and regulations act. Improve the legal system for the military and military Falvguwen system, reform the military justice system and mechanism innovation discipline inspection and supervision system and inspection system, improve the audit system mechanisms to improve the military legal talent management system, establish the rule of law and procedural rules improve the organization, improve national defense and army the level of the rule of law.

Third, the reform of organizational leadership

Deepen defense and military reform is a holistic, revolutionary change, big efforts to promote the wide, deep touch interests, of unprecedented scope, must always be under the unified leadership of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the study, thoroughly implement the Central Military Commission the spirit of reform work conference, adhere to strengthen education and unity of thought throughout to strengthen the responsibility falls fine implementation throughout to promote the law, moving steadily through to the end, the bottom line thinking, risk control throughout, with strong organizational leadership to ensure that all reforms task is satisfactorily completed.

(A) strengthen the responsibility at all levels of play. Party committees at all levels should focus on reform initiatives landing capability as an important political responsibility, improve the leadership of reform, give full play to the core leadership role, mainly to be a good leader first responsibility. Investigation should run through the whole process of reform, deepen the major theoretical and practical issues research, to discover and solve new problems. To establish and improve the supervision and assessment mechanism reform, strengthen supervision and inspection of the implementation of the reform. Each institutional reform departments at all levels must closely cooperate to create synergy, the Central Military Commission to guide the working group set up to further adjust the unit to strengthen tracking guidance, specific guidance, full guidance, the Central Military Commission inspection teams launched simultaneously inspections. Reform of the Central Military Commission and the Office to improve the preparation of the relevant mechanisms play a good co-ordination, supervision, role. Four general headquarters is necessary to do their own adjustment and reform, reform of the army but also a good guide. The new Central Military Commission after the establishment of organs and departments should pay close attention to improve the operational mechanism, into the role as soon as possible, to perform their duties. Newly formed units to adjust and improve the timely establishment of Party organizations, to strengthen the organization and leadership of the reform implementation. Each institution should take responsibility for the aftermath, and properly handle all kinds of problems left.

(B) to strengthen ideological and political work. Organization officers and soldiers in-depth study President Xi series of important expositions on deepening defense and military reform, special education organizations do a good job, deepening ideological mobilization, the army unity of thought and action to the Central Military Commission and President Xi decision-making arrangements . Senior leading organs and Gaojiganbu first common understanding, lead politics, the overall situation, discipline, promoting reform, diligence, under the above rate, the army looks good.The ideological and political work throughout the entire process of reform, the ideological trend of concern at all levels, targeted to do the work, and guide all levels to strengthen political awareness, overall awareness, sense of command and guide the officers and men turn their concepts, new ideas, and consciously from the overall high level of awareness reform unified in emancipating the mind and thought, the correct treatment adjustment of interests, and actively support, support and participate in the reform. Attaches great importance to public opinion to guide online public opinion in particular, to work, take the initiative battle, spread positive energy, to promote the reform to create a good atmosphere for public opinion.

(C) improve solid adjustment of cadres placement. The reform process as a process of strengthening the construction of the contingent of cadres, cadres carry out military standards, establish the correct employment-oriented, adhere to all over the world, merit, ability and political integrity adhere to Germany first, do a good job with leadership adjustment, selecting the right with a good cadres to firmly implement strong military goals, and actively reform plan, strongly supported the reform, the courage to join in the reform of the cadres to use. The proper placement of the backbone with retention, improve the structure together, the scientific development of cadres and resettlement plan for the adjustment, reasonably determine the fate of the advance and retreat of cadres, cadres of concern and resolve practical difficulties. Cadres should promote the reform as a showcase for the best stage talent, tempered and tested in the reform, to become promoters of reform and doers. Veteran is a valuable asset of the party and the army, security services need to carefully prepare cadres continue to work.

(D) the transfer of well-organized transfer scribe. Do a good job of personnel, materials, and funds transfer work to ensure that the old system is not out of control during the transition staff, assets are not lost, all work seamlessly. Strict military land, barracks management and ensure the transfer of the camp barracks facilities to adjust and do remedial work in construction. Comprehensive verification, financial and material base. Follow organizational security of supply in a timely manner to resolve various contradictions and problems encountered in the supply, to ensure continuous supply, not for the leak. A solid job in the transfer of weapons and equipment inventory, well-organized deployment of security equipment, equipment management and strictly implement the provisions.

(E) the strict implementation of disciplinary regulations. The more critical time of reform, the more discipline and rules put in front of the very strict political discipline, organizational discipline, and personnel discipline, financial discipline, discipline, and discipline of secrecy. Strictly political discipline and political rules, resolutely oppose Ziyouzhuyi action on organizational politics. Serious organizational and personnel discipline, adhere to the principle of press policy outlaw follow procedures. Properly handle the reality of military conflicts and problems left by history. Discipline, inspection and auditing departments should strengthen supervision and discipline, and severely punish all kinds of violation of discipline problems during the adjustment and reform.

(F) do a good job overall troop readiness training management. Pay close attention to national security and social stability during the reform period, the development of a major emergency situations response plans to improve and strictly implement the provisions of Gongzuozhidu combat readiness, combat readiness duty to maintain efficient operation of the system at all levels, to ensure that if something happens to timely and effective response. Careful planning organization’s annual military training mission. Strengthen military management, the implementation of security responsibility, to discover and solve trends and tendencies problem, prevent the occurrence of major accidents and cases, maintaining stability and security forces centralized.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

戰略火箭軍

新華社北京1月1日電 經中央軍委主席習近平批准,中央軍委近日印發了《關於深化國防和軍隊改革的意見》。

《意見》強調,黨的十八大以來,黨中央、中央軍委和習主席圍繞實現強軍目標,統籌軍隊革命化、現代化、正規化建設,統籌軍事力量建設和運用,統籌經濟建設和國防建設,制定新形勢下軍事戰略方針,提出一系列重大方針原則,作出一系列重大決策部署。貫​​徹落實黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的重大戰略謀劃和戰略設計, 必須深化國防和軍隊改革,全面實施改革強軍戰略,堅定不移走中國特色強軍之路。

《意見》指出,深化國防和軍隊改革的指導思想是,深入貫徹黨的十八大和十八屆三中、四中、五中全會精神,以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、“三個代表”重要思想、科學發展觀為指導,深入貫徹習主席系列重要講話精神特別是國防和軍隊建設重要論述,按照“四個全面”戰略佈局要求,以黨在新形勢下的強軍目標為引領,貫徹新形勢下軍事戰略方針,全面實施改革強軍戰略,著力解決制約國防和軍隊發展的體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,推進軍隊組織形態現代化,進一步解放和發展戰鬥力,進一步解放和增強軍隊活力,建設同我國國際地位相稱、同國家安全和發展利益相適應的鞏固國防和強大軍隊,為實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供堅強力量保證。

《意見》強調,深化國防和軍隊改革要堅持以下基本原則:堅持正確政治方向,堅持向打仗聚焦,堅持創新驅動,堅持體系設計,堅持法治思維,堅持積極穩妥。

《意見》指出,深化國防和軍隊改革總體目標是,牢牢把握“軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建”的原則,以領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革為重點,協調推進規模結構、政策制度和軍民融合深度發展改革。 2020年前,在領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展,在優化規模結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合深度發展等方面改革上取得重要成果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現代軍事力量體系,進一步完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度。

《意見》明確了領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制、軍隊規模結構、部隊編成、新型軍事人才培養、政策制度、軍民融合發展、武裝警察部隊指揮管理體制和力量結構、軍事法治體係等方面的主要任務。

《意見》強調,深化國防和軍隊改革是一場整體性、革命性變革,必須始終在黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的統一領導下,深入貫徹中央軍委改革工作會議精神,堅持把加強教育、統一思想貫穿始終,把強化責任、落細落實貫穿始終,把依法推進、穩扎穩打貫穿始終,把底線思維、管控風險貫穿始終,以堅強有力的組織領導保證各項改革任務圓滿完成。

中央軍委關於深化國防和軍隊改革的意見(全文)

為貫徹落實黨中央、習主席的戰略部署和決策指示,紮實推進深化國防和軍隊改革,提出如下意見。

一、改革的重大意義、指導思想和基本原則

(一)重大意義。深化國防和軍隊改革,是實現中國夢、強軍夢的時代要求,是強軍興軍的必由之路,也是決定軍隊未來的關鍵一招。黨的十八大以來,黨中央、中央軍委和習主席圍繞實現強軍目標,統籌軍隊革命化、現代化、正規化建設,統籌軍事力量建設和運用,統籌經濟建設和國防建設,制定新形勢下軍事戰略方針,提出一系列重大方針原則,作出一系列重大決策部署。貫​​徹落實黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的重大戰略謀劃和戰略設計,必須深化國防和軍隊改革,全面實施改革強軍 戰略,堅定不移走中國特色強軍之路。這是應對當今世界前所未有之大變局,有效維護國家安全的必然要求;是堅持和發展中國特色社會主義,協調推進“四個全面”戰略佈局的必然要求;是貫徹落實強軍目標和軍事戰略方針,履行好軍隊使命任務的必然要求。全軍要充分認清深化國防和軍隊改革的重要性必要性緊迫性,以 高度的歷史自覺和強烈的使命擔當堅定不移深化國防和軍隊改革,努力交出黨和人民滿意的答卷。

(二)指導思想。深入貫徹黨的十八大和十八屆三中、四中、五中全會精神,以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、“三個代表”重要思想、科學發展觀為指導,深入貫徹習主席系列重要講話精神特別是國防和軍隊建設重要論述,按照“四個全面”戰略佈局要求,以黨在新形勢下的強軍目標為引領,貫徹新形勢下軍事戰略方針,全面實施改革強軍戰略,著力解決制約國防和軍隊發展的體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,推進軍隊組織形態現代化,進一步解放和發展戰鬥力, 進一步解放和增強軍隊活力,建設同我國國際地位相稱、同國家安全和發展利益相適應的鞏固國防和強大軍隊,為實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供堅強力量保證。

(三)基本原則

——堅持正確政治方向。鞏固完善黨對軍隊絶對領導的根本原則和製度,保持人民軍隊的性質和宗旨,發揚我軍的光榮傳統和優良作風,全面落實軍委主席負責制,確保軍隊最高領導權指揮權​​集中於黨中央、中央軍委。

——堅持向打仗聚焦。適應戰爭形態演變和世界軍事發展趨勢,牢固確立戰鬥力這個唯一的根本的標準,切實解決和克服軍事鬥爭準備重難點問題和戰鬥力建設薄弱環節,構建一體化聯合作戰體系,全面提升我軍能打仗、打勝仗能力。

——堅持創新驅動。貫​​徹科技強軍戰略,充分發揮軍事理論創新、軍事技術創新、軍事組織創新、軍事管理創新的牽引和推動作用,努力實現我軍現代化建設跨越式發展,謀取更大軍事競爭優勢。

——堅持體系設計。科學把握改革舉措的關聯性、耦合性,正確處理頂層設計與分層對接、長期佈局與過渡安排、體制改革與政策配套的關係,使各項改革相互促進、相得益彰,形成總體效應、取得最佳效果。

——堅持法治思維。充分發揮法治對改革的引領和規範作用,做到重大改革於法有據、改革與立法相協調,注重運用法規制度固化改革成果,在法治軌道上推進改革。

——堅持積極穩妥。既解放思想、與時俱進,努力使這次改革成為突破性的改革,又立足現實、蹄疾步穩,把握改革節奏,控制改革風險,走漸進式、開放式的改革路子,確保部隊高度穩定和集中統一。

二、改革的總體目標和主要任務

(一)總體目標。牢牢把握“軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建”的原則,以領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革為重點,協調推進規模結構、政策制度和軍民融合 深度發展改革。 2020年前,在領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展,在優化規模結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合深度發展等方面改革上取得重要成果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現代軍事力量體系,進一步完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度。

按照總體目標要求,2015年,重點組織實施領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革;2016年,組織實施軍隊規模結構和作戰力量體系、院校、武警部隊改革,基本完成階段性改革任務;2017年至2020年,對相關領域改革作進一步調整、優化和完善,持續推進各領域改革。政策制度和軍民融合深度發展改革, 成熟一項推進一項。

(二)領導管理體制。著眼加強軍委集中統一領導,強化軍委機關的戰略謀劃、戰略指揮、戰略管理職能,優化軍委機關職能配置和機構設置,完善軍種和新型作戰力量領導管理體制,形成決策權、執行權、監督權既相互制約又相互協調的運行體系。

從職能定位入手,按照突出核心職能、整合相近職能、加強監督職能、充實協調職能的思路,調整改革軍委機關設置,由總部製調整為多部門制。軍委機關下放代行的軍種建設職能,剝離具體管理職能,調整歸併同類相近職能,減少領導層級,精簡編製員額和直屬單位,使指揮、建設、管理、監督四條鏈路更加清晰,決策、規劃、執行、評估職能配置更加合理。

健全軍種領導管理體制,優化軍種機關職能配置和機構設置,發揮軍種在建設管理和保障中的重要作用。調整改革後勤保障領導管理體制,以現行聯勤保障體製為基 礎,調整優化保障力量配置和領導指揮關係,構建與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,統分結合、通專兩綫的後勤保障體制。改革裝備發展領導管理體制,構建由軍委裝備部門集中統管、軍種具體建管、戰區聯合運用的體制架構,裝備發展建設實行軍委裝備部門—軍種裝備部門體制,裝備管理保障實行軍委裝備部門—軍種裝備部門— 部隊保障部門體制。加強國防動員系統的統一領導。

(三)聯合作戰指揮體制。適應一體化聯合作戰指揮要求,建立健全軍委、戰區兩級聯合作戰指揮體制,構建平戰一體、常態運行、專司主營、精幹高效的戰略戰役指揮體系。重新調整劃設戰區。

按照聯合作戰、聯合指揮的要求,調整規範軍委聯指、各軍種、戰區聯指和戰區軍種的作戰指揮職能。與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,完善聯合訓練體制。

(四)軍隊規模結構。堅持走中國特色精兵之路,加快推進軍隊由數量規模型向質量效能型轉變。裁減軍隊現役員額30萬,軍隊規模由230萬逐步減至200 萬。優化軍種比例,減少非戰鬥機構和人員。壓減軍官崗位。優化武器裝備規模結構,減少裝備型號種類,淘汰老舊裝備,發展新型裝備。

(五)部隊編成。依據不同戰略方向安全需求和作戰任務,調整結構、強化功能、優化佈局,推動部隊編成向充實、合成、多能、靈活方向發展。優化預備役部隊結構,壓減民兵數量,調整力量佈局和編組模式。

(六)新型軍事人才培養。遵循軍事人才培養規律,構建軍隊院校教育、部隊訓練實踐、軍事職業教育三位一體的新型軍事人才培養體系。健全軍委、軍種兩級院校 領導管理體制,完善初、中、高三級培訓體系,調整優化院校規模結構。健全軍事職業教育體系,構建全員全時全域軍事職業教育平台。創新人才培養制度機制,加 強院校與部隊共育人才。

(七)政策制度。適應軍隊職能任務需求和國家政策制度創新,進一步完善軍事人力資源政策制度和後勤政策制度,構建體現軍事職業特點、增強軍人榮譽感自豪感 的政策制度體系。調整軍隊人員分類,逐步建立軍銜主導的等級制度,推進軍官職業化,改革兵役制度、士官制度、文職人員制度。完善退役軍人安置政策和管理機 構。深化經費管理、物資採購、工程建設和軍人工資、住房、醫療、保險等製度改革。全面停止軍隊開展對外有償服務。

(八)軍民融合發展。著眼形成全要素、多領域、高效益的軍民融合深度發展格局,構建統一領導、軍地協調、順暢高效的組織管理體系,國家主導、需求牽引、市場運作相統一的工作運行體系,系統完備、銜接配套、有效激勵的政策制度體系。分類推進相關領域改革,健全軍民融合發展法規制度和創新發展機制。

(九)武裝警察部隊指揮管理體制和力量結構。加強中央軍委對武裝力量的集中統一領導,調整武警部隊指揮管理體制,優化力量結構和部隊編成。

(十)軍事法治體系。全面貫徹依法治軍、從嚴治軍方針,改進治軍方式,實現從單純依靠行政命令的做法向依法行政的根本性轉變,從單純靠習慣和經驗開展工作的方式向依靠法規和製度開展工作的根本性轉變,從突擊式、運動式抓工作的方式向按條令條例辦事的根本性轉變。健全軍事法規制度體系和軍事法律顧問制度,改革軍事司法體制機制,創新紀檢監察體制和巡視制度,完善審計體制機制,改進軍事法律人才管理制度,建立健全組織法制和程序規則,全面提高國防和軍隊建設法治化水平。

三、改革的組織領導

深化國防和軍隊改革是一場整體性、革命性變革,推進力度之大、觸及利益之深、影響範圍之廣前所未有,必須始終在黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的統一領導下,深入貫徹中央軍委改革工作會議精神,堅持把加強教育、統一思想貫穿始終,把強化責任、落細落實貫穿始終,把依法推進、穩扎穩打貫穿始終,把底線思維、管控風險貫穿始終,以堅強有力的組織領導保證各項改革任務圓滿完成。

(一)強化各級責任擔當。各級黨委要把抓改革舉措落地作為重要政治責任,提高領導改革的能力,充分發揮核心領導作用,主要領導要當好第一責任人。要把調查 研究貫穿改革實施全過程,深化對重大理論和實踐問題研究,及時發現和解決新情況新問題。要建立健全改革評估和督查機制,加強對改革落實情況的督導檢查。各 級各部門各改革機構要密切配合、形成合力,軍委指導工作組要深入調整組建單位,加強跟蹤指導、具體指導、全程指導,軍委巡視組同步展開巡視工作。軍委改革 和編製辦公室要完善相關機制,發揮好統籌、協調、督促、推動作用。四總部既要做好自身調整改革,又要指導好全軍改革。新的軍委機關部門成立後,要抓緊完善 運行機制,盡快進入角色、履行職責。新調整組建的單位要及時建立健全黨組織,加強對改革實施工作的組織領導。各善後工作機構要負起責任,妥善處理各類遺留 問題。

(二)加強思想政治工作。組織全軍官兵深入學習習主席關於深化國防和軍隊改革一系列重要論述,組織抓好專題教育,深入進行思想發動,把全軍的思想和行動統一到黨中央、中央軍委和習主席決策部署上來。高層領率機關和高級幹部首先要統一認識,帶頭講政治、顧大局、守紀律、促改革、盡職責,以上率下,為全軍做好 樣子。把思想政治工作貫穿改革全過程,關注各級思想動態,有針對性地做工作,引導各級強化政治意識、大局意識、號令意識,引導官兵轉變理念、更新觀念,自覺站在全局高度認識改革,在解放思想中統一思想,正確對待利益調整,積極擁護、支持、參與改革。高度重視輿論引導特別是網上輿論工作,打好主動仗,傳播正 能量,為推進改革營造良好輿論氛圍。

(三)紮實搞好幹部調整安置。把推進改革的過程作為加強幹部隊伍建設的過程,貫徹軍隊好幹部標準,樹立正確用人導向,堅持五湖四海、任人唯賢,堅持德才兼備、以德為先,搞好領導班子調整配備,選準用好幹部,把堅定貫徹強軍目標、積極謀劃改革、堅決支持改革、勇於投身改​​革的好幹部用起來。把妥善安置同保留骨 幹、改善結構結合起來,科學制定幹部調整安置計劃方案,合理確定幹部進退去留,關心和解決幹部實際困難。廣大幹部要把推進改革作為展示才能的最好舞台,在 改革中經受鍛煉和考驗,爭做改革的促進派和實幹家。老乾部是黨和軍隊的寶貴財富,要精心做好老乾部服務保障接續工作。

(四)嚴密組織轉隸交接。認真搞好人員、物資、經費等交接工作,確保新舊體制轉換期間人員不失控,資産不流失,各項工作無縫銜接。嚴格軍用土地、營房管 理,抓好營區營房設施調整交接,做好在建工程善後工作。全面核實經費物資底數。跟進組織供應保障,及時解決供應中遇到的各種矛盾和問題,確保不斷供、不漏 供。紮實做好武器裝備清點移交,周密組織裝備調配保障,嚴格落實裝備管理各項規定。

(五)嚴格執行各項紀律規定。越是改革的關鍵時刻,越要把紀律和規矩挺在前面,嚴格政治紀律、組織紀律、人事紀律、財經紀律、群眾紀律、保密紀律。嚴守政 治紀律和政治規矩,堅決反對政治上組織上行動上的自由主義。嚴肅組織人事紀律,堅持按原則按政策按規矩按程序辦事。妥善處理軍地現實矛盾和歷史遺留問題。紀檢、巡視、審計部門要加強執紀監督,嚴肅查處調整改革期間各類違規違紀問題。

(六)統籌抓好部隊戰備訓練管理。密切關注改革期間國家安全和社會穩定,制定完善應對重大突發情況預案,嚴格落實戰備工作制度規定,保持各級戰備值班體系 高效運行,確保一旦有事能夠及時有效應對。周密籌劃組織年度軍事訓練任務。加強部隊管理,落實安全責任,及時發現和解決苗頭性、傾向性問題,防止發生重大 事故和案件,保持部隊安全穩定和集中統一。

Original Source: XinHua Military News

China Military Theater System Reform Era of Information Warfare //中國軍事戰區制改革信息化戰爭時代中國軍隊應對新安全形勢的重大保障

China Military Theater System Reform Era of Information Warfare 

中國軍事戰區制改革信息化戰爭時代中國軍隊應對新安全形勢的重大保障

習近平中國軍事改革

習近平中國軍事改革

February 1, the PLA theater inaugural meeting held in Beijing. CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping granted flag to the theater and five issued a bull. Theater set up joint operations command structure, the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission in accordance with domestic major strategic decision, made ​​by the international situation changes, China will further promote the reform process in military forces, and greatly enhance the combat capability of the PLA.

Substantive reform: the military establishment system to adapt to new forms of information warfare needs

Military technology, military and military establishment system are the three basic elements of the new military revolution. Mankind has experienced a long weapon cold and hot steel age after the war and military technical thinking in the era of rapid development of mechanized warfare. The late 1970s, the Soviet Chief of Staff, Marshal of the Soviet Ogarkov Given the rapid development of military technology, forward-looking put forward the idea of ​​military technological revolution, which started a new military revolution sweeping the globe; 1997 , the US military put forward the “network-centric warfare” concepts, theories began to appear new military revolution prototype – each a full revolution in military affairs, the military establishment were to promote institutional change by a large development of military technology and weaponry – it by military personnel and weaponry so that the army can be effectively combined to form an overall combat power key.

In 1998, China put forward the “information warfare” concept, explicitly stated that mankind is the fourth military revolution of information technology revolution in military affairs, marking the technical form of human warfare into the information age warfare from mechanized war era. Against this background, the PLA is to follow the above rules, after weapons and equipment technology has made rapid progress, the military regime began vigorously to prepare a series of reforms: December 31, 2015, the armed services mechanism reform is completed, set up a new army, rocket forces, strategic support of three services – army, navy and air force combined with the previous, form a pattern of five armed services; January 11, 2016, to complete the formation of organs of the Central military Commission departments, from the previous four general headquarters, JMC became 15 functional departments; February 1, 2016, five theater adjustment is completed, the previous seven military regions, adjusted to five theater.

The main reason: “military” system become shackles China Military Revolution and the development of military

Original seven military system schematic

Original seven military system schematic

From the founding of the early century, by the comprehensive national strength and defense spending restrictions, military equipment levels remained low, failed to achieve the goal of complete mechanization construction; and, when low domestic railway, highway construction level, under difficult conditions in a nuclear war support large formation in the territory of strategic mobility. By the above two limitations, only the army at the time of partition of defense, so that each major military all have independent ability to respond to a threat of strategic direction.

Nearly 15 years, accumulated through investment in national defense and army reform, China’s transport network has been done, “accessible”, the level of military equipment have been greatly improved – Preliminary mechanization and mobility of fighting units sharply higher, with the from “area defensive shift basis “to” trans-regional mobility. “After greatly improved mobility, combat troops in wartime may implement in different zones under the command of, and therefore no longer need to implement the military management by a specific military.

Also, in the “military” system, military and navy and air force the same level, but also under the jurisdiction of the military air force, and even the fleet, in fact, is the embodiment of “Continental Army” thought, there are some drawbacks: military orders, regardless of military inefficient. This system has become the shackles of China Military Revolution and the development of the armed forces, can not effectively respond to security threats or China is likely to face.

Perimeter security situation and the international situation changes, “theater” made a timely decision.

Theater, from a geographic dimension in terms of a multi-dimensional space, including a broad front, greater depth and possible operational target, it is mainly based on strategic and operational tasks delineated strategic and operational activities of the regional corps with the leadership and command bodies, forces have on the area command, the command level is between the high command and strategic battle between the Legion.The main basis for division of the theater, including changes in the international pattern of perimeter security situation, military strategy, political, economic, military status and geographical characteristics of the country, and many other aspects.

Since the reform and opening up, China’s economic construction has made remarkable achievements in comprehensive national strength rising rapidly driven by changes in national strategy occurred; the Soviet Union, China land border security threat disappeared, and security threats from maritime direction is upward trend, originally established military regime on the basis of the Continental Army can not adapt to the new international situation and the security situation in neighboring China, thereby theater system came into being. In the People’s Liberation Army is divided into five theater, theater should correspond to the east of Japan and the East China Sea direction, corresponding to the western Central Asia and India theater direction, mainly the southern theater direction corresponding to the South China Sea, the northern war zone corresponds to the direction of Russia and Mongolia, as the central theater centered coordinate strategic reserve corps.

Officers appointed theater: Theater five display a mission and future trends

Five theater and officers appointed

Five theater and officers appointed

Officers from the theater can be seen in the appointment of some common: theater five ten military officers are “50,” so relatively young; most of them have experience working at the grassroots level, the so-called “starting in Reggie died five”, which two military officers have battlefield experience; most have received training integrated joint operations command. This shows the five main tasks entrusted to the theater and future trends:

First, combat and theater become the main task is to deter. Eastern theater commanderLiu PLA and western theater commander Zhao Zongqi are returning heroes from the battlefield, with actual combat experience, which is a valuable asset, but also the implementation of the “Military Commission to total, theater battle, armed services main building” in the implementation of the “theater of battle “organizational guarantee.

Second, the integrated joint operations will be the main model for future combat theater. The so-called “integrated joint operations” around unified combat purposes to the combat units, combat elements of highly integrated combat system as the main body, give full play to the overall combat effectiveness, in a multidimensional space combat or fight against the enemy’s fighting style. And the appointment of military officers have a theater at the National Defense University and other institutions of military education integrated joint operations experience.

Third, the theater system will be in constant development and improvement. The theater is a relatively young officers will and individual will, visionary, to accept new things, strong ability; In addition, the relatively young military officers also means working for a long time, can ensure coherence of policy implementation.

With the deepening of Chinese People’s Liberation Army to change the implementation of the system, this massive military force after the founding of foreign unbeaten mighty will rapidly improve combat effectiveness. This not only has a positive significance for peace and stability in the region and the world, but also for the new military revolution on a global scale provides a theoretical and practical aspects of the double “template.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习近平向五大战区授予军旗

习近平向五大战区授予军旗

2月1日,中国人民解放军战区成立大会在北京举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向五大战区授予军旗并发布训令。组建战区联合作战指挥机构,是党中央和中央军委根据国内、国际形势变化做出的重大战略决策,将进一步推动中国部队军事改革进程,并大大提升中国人民解放军的作战能力。

改革实质:使军队编制体制适应信息化战争形态新需要

军事技术、军事力量和军队编制体制是新军事革命的三个基本要素。人类经历了漫长的冷兵器和热兵器时代之后,战争技术与军事思想在机械化战争时代迅猛发展。20世纪70年代末,苏军总参谋长、苏联元帅奥加尔科夫鉴于军事技术的飞速发展,富有前瞻性的提出了军事技术革命的设想,由此展开一场席卷全球的新军事革命;1997年,美军提出“网络中心战”概念,新军事革命的理论开始出现雏形——在每一场全面的军事革命中,均是由军事技术和武器装备的大发展推动军队编制体制变革——它是通过保证军队人员和武器装备有效结合从而使军队能够形成整体作战力量的关键。

1998年,中国提出“信息战”概念,直接指出人类第四次军事革命就是信息化的军事革命,标志着人类战争的技术形态从机械化战争时代迈向信息化战争时代。在此种背景下,中国人民解放军正是遵循着上述规律,在武器装备技术水平得到长足发展后,开始着手大力对军事体制编制进行一系列改革:2015年12月31日,军种改革机制完成,新组建了陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队三个军种,加上此前的海军和空军,形成5个军种的格局;2016年1月11日,军委机关各部门组建完成,从以前的四总部,变成了15个军委职能部门;2016年2月1日,五大战区调整完毕,以前的七大军区,调整为五大战区。

主要原因:“军区”制成为中国军事革命与军队发展的桎梏

原有七大军区制示意图

原有七大军区制示意图

从建国初到上世纪末,受综合国力和国防投入限制,我军装备水平始终较低,未能实现完成机械化建设的目标;并且,当时国内铁路、公路建设水平较低,难以在核战争条件下支持大兵团在境内实施战略机动。受以上两点限制,我军在当时只能进行分区防御,使每个大军区都具备独立应对一个战略方向威胁的能力。

近15年以来,通过国防投入积累和军队体制改革,我国交通网络已经做到“四通八达”,我军装备水平已经得到大幅改善——初步实现机械化,部队机动作战能力大幅高,具备了从“区域防卫型”向“全域机动型”转变的基础。在机动性大大提高之后,部队在战时可能在不同区指挥下实施作战,因此就不再需要由特定的军区实施军政管理。

并且,在“军区”制度下,军区与海空军平级,又下辖军区空军,甚至是舰队,实际上是“大陆军”思想的体现,存在一定弊端:军政军令不分导致效率低下。这种体制已经成为中国军事革命与军队发展的桎梏,不能有效应对中国正在或可能面临的安全威胁。

国际格局和周边安全形势发生变化,“战区”制应时而生

战区,从地理层面来讲是一个多维空间,包括宽阔的正面、较大的纵深和可能的作战对象,它主要是根据战略战役任务而划定的战略战役军团活动区域,设有领导指挥机构,拥有对辖区部队的指挥权,是介于统帅部与战略战役军团之间的指挥层次。划分战区的主要依据包括国际格局的变化,周边安全形势,国家的军事战略,政治、经济、军事力量状况和地理环境特征等诸多方面。

改革开放以来,我国经济建设取得了举世瞩目的成就,综合国力迅速攀升带动国家战略发生变化;苏联解体后,中国陆地边境安全威胁基本消失,而来自海洋方向的安全威胁则呈上升趋势,原先建立在大陆军基础上的军区制度已经不能适应新的国际格局和中国周边安全形势,由此,战区制度应运而生。在此次解放军划分的五大战区之中,东部战区应该对应日本和东海方向,西部战区对应中亚和印度方向,南部战区则主要对应南海方向,北部战区则对应俄罗斯和蒙古方向,中部战区则作为战略预备总队居中策应。

战区主官任命:显示五大战区肩负使命与未来发展趋势

五大战区及主官任命

五大战区及主官任命

从此次任命的各战区主官中可以看到一些共性:五大战区的十位军政主官都是“50后”,相对年轻;大多有在基层任职经历,所谓“猛将起于卒伍”,其中有两位军事主官具有战场经历;大多接受过一体化联合作战的指挥训练。由此可见五大战区肩负的主要任务与未来发展趋势:

第一,作战和是威慑成为战区主要任务。东部战区司令员刘粤军和西部战区司令员赵宗岐都是从战场凯旋的英雄,具有实战经验,这是宝贵的财富,也是落实“军委管总、战区主战、军种主建”中落实“战区主战”的组织保证。

第二,一体化联合作战将成为未来战区的主要作战模式。所谓“一体化联合作战“,是围绕统一的作战目的,以各作战单元、作战要素高度融合的作战体系为主体,充分发挥整体作战效能,在多维作战空间打击或抗击敌方的作战样式。而此次任命的战区军事主官都有在国防大学等军事院校进修一体化联合作战的经历。

第三,战区制度还将处于不断的发展和完善中。此次战区主官都是相对年轻的上将和个别中将,思维开阔、接受新事物能力强;另外,军政主官相对年轻也意味着任职时间长,可以保证政策实施的连贯性。

随着中国人民解放军军改制度的不断深入实施,这支建国后对外大规模用兵保持全胜的威武之师将会快速提高战斗力。这不仅对于地区及世界的和平与稳定具有积极意义,也为全球范围内的新军事革命提供了理论与实践方面的双重“范本”。

Original Source: China MOD

Chinese Military Informatization Construction & Development Process // 中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

Chinese Military Informatization Construction & Development Process 

中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

部队信息化系统-国德建设

中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

For Chinese military informatization construction and development process, these unusual phenomena:

The convening of the National Science and Technology Awards Conference, the General Staff was not always an information technology research institute mountain dew, surprising to get a national scientific and technological progress, become the focus of the conference ……

Since last year, the army accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness model to improve the combat capability based information systems, has taken unprecedented steps ──

Northwest desert, the Air Force Military Air Force organize multiple consecutive number-field conditions at the combat maneuvers in high-performance logistics information system, the formation of a powerful strike capability.

Yellow Sea, the North Sea Fleet led joint exercises Army, Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery Force participation, navy and air-ground early warning radar network integration, surface ships and anti-air fighter pilot together, missiles and submarines Phangan firearms against contract .

At the same time, the military regions, the Second Artillery Force have also organized to improve the combat capability based information system for the goal of joint combat exercises ……

Some may be difficult to link these phenomena together, but military experts familiar with the matter knows: It is a breakthrough in the matter of the army information construction of some key global challenges, open up to accelerate the transformation of the mode of generating combat army ” Renduermo. ” This historic turning point, that is, information from the General Staff of the Institute for a joint military and civilian units of hundreds of thousands of scientists face the challenge, hard research made numerous fruits. Since only “fifteen”, the Institute will include a complete integrated command information system, tactical

200 number of important results such as the Internet, access to a national scientific and technological progress awards, three first prize, second prize 8, 54 military scientific and technological progress award for accelerating the transformation of the army burgeoning mode of generating combat upsurge It provides a strong boost. Heads of the Central Military Commission praised them as the vanguard of the army research front, information technology pioneer!

In the army information construction most need someone to stand up when it is equal to hesitate hesitate cold feet. Face the challenges of future wars, we have no right to say not ready —

“Goad” shock out a piece of paper “military order”

This is an important meeting on army construction and development of information technology, which is a certain integrated command information system project chief engineer, former director Wang Jianxin most unforgettable scene.

Beijing spring of that year, the sun was shining. Just defeated “SARS” Chinese people smile stretch to live in peace, and the Chinese military’s heart, but he is not easy ──

Just a year ago, the Iraq war started, the US military whistling “Tomahawk” missiles pierced the sky in the new century of peace and tranquility. Based on high-performance network-centric warfare command information systems, showing new information warfare style ── information war from the laboratory onto the stage of human warfare.

Before being able to fight the war ended. The rapid development of military reform, a strong impact on the survival and to bring peace and challenges, but also to our military struggle preparation task even more urgent.

By this time, our military information construction has suffered difficulties: the army’s troops, although a lot of built command and information systems, but the larger institutional differences between these systems, interoperability is difficult, restricting the ability to improve our military information warfare.

To achieve “building computerized armed forces and winning the information war,” the strategic goal to come up with effective measures to solve practical problems of our military presence in information technology, according to the head of the Central Military Commission instructions, held at the headquarters of the combat troops comprehensive integration of information technology seminar.

部队信息化系统-国德建设

People are anxious: the meeting has been open for two days, appeared to be the end of Understanding more, talk less approach, and sometimes into the tangle. Chair of the headquarters-led sit still, convened an emergency officer: “so many problems, but we could not get a way, there would not care either weight, simply tell our enemies that we are not ready, a war? Wait?”

“In the military information technology is most needed someone to stand up when it is equal to hesitate hesitate chickened face challenges of information war, we have no right to say not ready!” After listening to headquarters-led criticism Zhefan half and half “dare”, then when Wang Jianxin, director-blood straight forehead: “heads, I recommend a project to develop an integrated command information system as soon as possible.”

Wang Jianxin proposal is certainly not a passing fad. When the world changes in the surging tide of the military, he led the researchers to track real-time, in-depth research to find countermeasures, see the scenes deeply hurt him ──

Participate in exercises of the army, the head of the field in front of the headquarters of the command of all military branches placed a dozen different command terminal system. Force exercises, field command post two command vehicles but not close Unicom, staff officers can only braved the pouring rain to stand outside the car, umbrella propaganda to pass information to each other.

Information technology is the soul of “Fabric capability.” “Village ignition, household smoke,” How can mean clenched into a fist?

As a research institute, to courageously pioneer information technology.Facing the challenges of the times, Wang Jianxin and his research team has already launched a pre-integrated command information system, the development of related software, and even tried in individual exercises.

From that day, leaving them for only 40 days.

Military no joke. Wang Jianxin and lead the struggle of the people day and night, relying on the existing common software, load the temporary transformation of Arms Command messaging software, the fastest to build a simple simulation system, scheduled for the Central Military Commission, the headquarters of the army leadership and senior commanders were three games in a row demo.

First end of the presentation, the scene silence. Shortly after, the head of the headquarters slowly stood up: “This is the prototype of the future integrated command information system in the right direction, ideas and feasible!”

In this regard, the development of an integrated command information system officially approved. Wang Jianxin, representing the whole of the researchers set a “military order”: time node, the timely completion of development tasks!

Thus, only the beginning of the scene: the National Science and Technology Awards Conference, Wang Jianxin as a chief engineer and project representatives, by the party and state leaders cordially received.

Lessons “bombs and one satellite” successful experience, to carry out military and civilian research collaboration to fully mobilize all forces and resources on doing big things, play a game of information construction congress battle —

Take the road with Chinese characteristics and create a miracle latecomer

An order!

That year, the institute researchers to fully weigh the crushing weight of these four words.

New Year’s bell had just struck, two official documents issued at the same time it posthaste: one was hosted by the Institute developed an integrated command information system; another is also an important research project hosted by their research.

Two projects, each of which is winning the information war relations overall are major innovation projects. Complete a separate no easy task, not to mention two projects rolled into one. This allows both up and down the whole feel honored, but also feel unprecedented pressure.

However, duty-bound. You can only forge ahead, no turning back. The Party scientific deployment forces, forces were divided into mouth. When Wang Jianxin as a director-integrated command information system chief engineer, deputy director Yin Hao as the other information systems chief engineer.

Determination difficult, the more difficult road to go. When the research really opened the curtain, threw himself into research, they found the complex and difficult challenge, unspeakable. To develop an integrated command information system, for example, when all military branches have been built all kinds of command information systems have hundreds, thousands more related software.

In the past, they have tried to help an army division engaged in comprehensive integration of information systems, centralized crack hard work half a year before shaping. At this rate, integrated command information system to drag these years to build?

Foreign experience shows that the development of large-scale information systems with high investment, high risk and low success rate characteristics, and construction costs are often substantial period than expected.

How to get rid of this curse? How this mess in the group clarify ideas, scientific and efficient way to find innovation? Party decisions in-depth research, listen to opinions from all parties based on the completion of this major information technology projects, can not copy foreign experience, you must break a large-scale information system with Chinese characteristics developed road.

── Information Integration. Make full use of information technology has been the outcome of troops, not to engage reinvent the wheel, reinvent the wheel, through a unified technical standards and the development of a common software for comprehensive integration. Their army has a variety of command and information systems technology research, software model to build thousands of repeated technical tests, more than 8.5 million words written out feasibility reports, thousands of software will integrate the army into three categories 1700 More than a software component, integrated command post transformed into a typical information system, cross military services, cross-business, cross the comprehensive integration.

── integration of military and civilian research. Lessons “bombs and one satellite” successful experience, to carry out a large collaborative research outside the military, concentrating power. In the headquarters of a unified leadership and strong support, their combined more than 300 military and civilian research institutes, more than 8,000 scientific research personnel integrated command information system research team to carry out joint research.In order to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of scientific research play parties, they proposed “system we build, to build a unified basis, their application to build” collaborative research ideas, pay attention to the wisdom of relying on the team to crack research problems.

── innovative research model. Innovative research and development group model, organizational group of military experts, technical experts, test force three teams simultaneously entering participate in research. Military experts mention needs technical experts engaged in research, test force to verify, identify problems and make improvements, while research and reform in scientific research like the beginning, being kind, setting three stages alike.

Thinking of a change world wide. An outcomes come out on schedule, took home one award after another. Practice has fully proved, based on the actual break our military information construction of this unique research and development path to shorten the maximum period of scientific research, improve research efficiency, to create a miracle after the hair plays an important role.

Like war, like the need to engage in scientific research is not afraid of difficulties and obstacles, indomitable commandos, we are to use this information for the military spirit blaze a new trail construction —

Adhere to the spirit of the Highlands to climb the peak technology

Full year convened That people passionate research mobilization meeting, many speakers we all remember, only when the founding director Wang Jianxin, said the sentence still echo in everyone ear: “engage in scientific research as war need not afraid difficulties and obstacles, indomitable commandos, we need this spirit is for the military information technology to blaze a new trail! ”

You can never erase the memory, because it is deep in the heart ──

That year, an integrated command information system complete prototype development, ushered in the first big test: the headquarters of the organization associated test drills. Early all goes well, it’s when we secretly delight in the core database server system suddenly can not start.

Lunch in the cold days, drill off frosty, indoor tension has reached boiling point. Some commanders and staff officers participating are red eyes, researchers responsible for troubleshooting is sweating, anxiety.

Although failure ruled out, but the exercise was interrupted for half an hour.

“If this scene took place in wartime, will have what dire consequences!” Although the head of the General Staff encourage everyone to put down the burden of traveling light, but Wang Jianxin and researchers know that such systems must not be on the battlefield!

To this end, they began their own “hard hand”: all systems must meet the reliability, all data must be stored on backup, all aspects need to develop contingency plans for the whole process and all elements of the system test.

In those days, each test is full full participation of thousands of software each test cycle, we must work day and night 7 days and 7 nights. Everyone eating instant noodles hungry, thirsty to drink mineral water, sleepy lying in a chair.

There are memorable old expert Dr. Luo Jiangyi starry night for risk. It was a time when information systems joint trial is about to begin, suddenly found an army command information system failure. If not timely troubleshooting, joint trial would be postponed, security testing and commissioning of ten thousand soldiers and equipment will regroup numerous deployments, military leaders and related personnel recite.

3:00, is the director of the Department of Luo Qiang after a busy that situation, the director refused to apply to the Ministry of the vehicle, rushed stopped a taxi on the dark streets, straight over 200 kilometers outside the command post, has been working to 9:00, solve problems and then non-stop back to directing department, continue to participate in joint trial exercise.

Afterwards, a leading training ground said with deep feeling: “This Institute researchers has been able to research a critical moment on the dash, hold up, was under attack, the key is promising army information construction indomitable, selfless dedication pillar. ”

Adhere to the spirit of the Highlands, in order to climb the heights of science. Wang Jianxin father was the army’s telecommunications industry pioneer ── Wang Zheng. War years by his father inherited that spirit, huh research to life, is commonly known as “Tie person.”

Tactical Internet division of the total in the whole, an information systems division vice president Luo Qiang many first-class research backbone, have experience studying abroad, but they are not favorable for foreign material temptations treatment, insist on returning to their careers.

It is this spirit inspired everyone, so, sacrifice commando war years, fear of fatigue, courageously break ──

An integrated command information systems division vice president Cao Jiang for several days and nights of continuous fighting to overcome the difficulties without a break, actually tired late at night on his way home against a tree and fell asleep, woke up until the big rain-fed.

It Zhidong young scientists, for the command and information systems need to adapt to high altitude operations, seven on the snow-covered plateau, overcome severe altitude sickness, collect relevant data, commissioning and installation systems, quality engineering system acceptance by the parent organizations.

Tang Hong, director of a center for the early completion of border command and information system development, and his comrades lianzhouzhuan day and night, working is more than 40 days, collapsed of a heart attack in the field of research. The doctor asked him to be hospitalized, but he took the oral drug in the back, and continue to work overtime until the task is completed.

An information systems division vice president Chen Qiang, the child was born 10 days, he rushed to the field to participate in scientific research work.Years, he rarely home conquests war, like the system from the beginning, being kind to stereotypes, to achieve results, the children have grown up ……

Core technology can not be bought, bought there are risks; mere imitation is not far away, Zhaomaohuahu only produce short-term benefits; rely on the introduction unreliable, dependent on people must be controlled by others —

Independent innovation as information technology basis points

A few years ago, when several major information technology research progressed, one must answer the question put in the front: point where scientific work?

A debate about how to build information systems around the first core part ── “software component” broke out. To reduce the development difficulty, to avoid the risk of the development, it was a standard move member countries, and called for the preparation as such.

Liu Hong, director of a center firmly opposed: “The core software technology, information related to the construction of the foundation of our military problem, we must now independent innovation ‘Zhaomaohuahu’ petty advantages, the future will suffer a great deal on the battlefield..”

Debate the truth. Liu Hung finally persuaded related cooperative units using innovation program, although several times to spend the effort, but it is essential for safe and reliable battlefield.

Debate, has aroused great concern of the Party: In recent years, around the major research projects, the researchers collected a lot of foreign technical information, how to use? It is not copy, or selective absorption?

Security is an integrated command information system “lifeline”, it is also the highest part of the innovation requirements. Young chief engineer Yang led his research team to develop inventive security system. Unexpectedly, a drill, a new virus has led to the chain of command all but paralyzed.

Since that safe, reliable, foolproof protection system was breached. Face the harsh reality, Yanglin they realize there is no innovation in scientific research, once on the battlefield, it is likely to occur “as also Xiao Xiao loser”!

By “stimulus” Yang Lin they followed through completely independent innovation, to create a “safe line of defense in depth”, and the headquarters of the organization in network of high-intensity offensive and defensive drills, and withstood the test.

Profound lesson, so that the party committee set determined: the core technology can not be bought, bought there are risks; simple imitation go far produced only short-term benefits rather than beyond capacity; rely on the introduction unreliable, dependent on people must be controlled by others.Guarantee winning strategic basis must be placed on innovation!

Vision to reach places, the pace to reach. This year, the early development of an information system, due to the electromagnetic information computational complexity, resulting in the battlefield situation map with the actual situation is not synchronized. If this difficulty is not a breakthrough, it may lead to wartime command to make wrong judgments and decisions. To break through this difficulty, a total of 17 members crowded group division in the lab for three days and three nights of research, testing hundreds of times, but never resolved.

Just when everyone was unable to do anything, has been meditating division vice president Cao Jiang suddenly stood up and asked:. “We change in thinking, not the traditional method, use the new algorithm,” everyone shines. Along the way, they not only look to solve the problem, but also to create new ideas developed by our military information systems.

It is even more gratifying that, by insisting on the scientific point of independent innovation, the past few years, this institute by the completion of major scientific research projects, gave birth to a large number of technological achievements with independent intellectual property rights. Only certain innovations integrated command information system generated by the project, it obtained a national scientific and technological progress awards, 22 military scientific and technological progress award, for winning future wars cast a sword.

Information system development is not a “turnkey” project, not once and for all, must follow the military change as demand increases, to achieve “one-year version of a three-year upgrade” —

Fighting services for the military research is the eternal mission

The research work on this history, this may be a unique exception ──

The end of November last year, Liu Hong, director of a center suddenly apply to the General Staff Operations Leadership: Please let me into combat duty on duty!

It turned out that two days ago, Liu Hung learned combat duty in some applications to operate is not easy, but the problem is they can not tell the user. Thus, the application of the special red Liu on duty. Upon approval, she walked into the duty room, find out the software design problems, led the researchers improved.

Research in respect of military service as a combat! Liu Hong won the headquarters-led approach of praise, but the familiar people know, this kind of thing at the Institute abound.

In recent years, some of the developed information systems, have been identified through the stereotypes, with the troops.

But they did not see this as a “turnkey” project, but keeping up with the changing needs of military struggle and technical progress, in accordance with the “one-year version, an upgrade for three years,” the idea, scroll improve and perfect outcomes, and enable improved information systems to keep up with the pace of military reform.

This year, in the promotion of an integrated command information system applications, business director Liu Dongbo found on the system of Artillery situation plotting is too simple and can not accurately display the cluster and related impacts range firepower for combat possible bias .

However, Cheng research unit has felt, due to lack of relevant data and model support, and sometimes difficult to improve. “Fighting for the service is the eternal mission of scientific research, but also solve another big problem.” 刘东波 difficulties and his comrades, the front line to collect data, repeated studies calculus, successfully designed three-dimensional, dynamic, multi-cluster artillery fire hit model , the problem is completely resolved.

According to statistics, only one direction of the theater, the researchers in the application, the size of the find and solve 275 problems and ensure an integrated information system for safe operation.

Deputy director of a center to promote the application of forces to the east in the next bud Tactical Internet, found a strange phenomenon: the equipment in good laboratory performance, when the exercise application, performance is often compromised, repeated analysis also found “root cause.”

East Lei went down to the communications company, together with the soldiers live, train together, and finally reveal the answer: some soldiers to improve maintenance of the new equipment, often after Cawan gun, pulled a gun oil to a new type of radio antenna also rub. The gun oil has an insulating effect, oiled antenna resistance increases, performance naturally weakened.

Thereafter, promote the use of Tactical Internet a few years time, east Lei troops under 20 times, the longest up to 3 months, has found nearly 16 aspects of a problem, and through timely improvement, so that research results fast Xian parade ground.

Only research and operational needs docking, vitality. In this institute, each regarded researchers from the voice forces deemed to promote research and development of the power of each of them reflect the views, the small nor ignored.

Once a theater communication department heads to Beijing act casually about some integrated command information system when displaying the battlefield situation, to show both the macro war on the same screen, and show the specific local situation is even more easy to use.

Speaker has no intention, the listener interested. The presence of a central leadership keenly felt this proposal, to enhance the service function of great value. Immediately, they assigned director Ning early-depth special investigations unit found: needs of the troops involved in many complex technical issues.

“As long as the operational command needs, hard to have to change.” First research tasks at hand rather put down, two local organizations Institute research staff, worked for six months in a row, and finally overcome the difficulties.

End of the year, the head of the theater authorities to apply the new situation display system, successfully organized troops cross maneuvers. To this end, they wrote a special letter of thanks to the headquarters.

Who is the first to occupy the commanding heights of the new technology will come in the future a little more chance of winning the war; who can look into the future direction of development, will have more chips in tomorrow’s game —

Change the world to catch up with the forefront of the military, we are still on the road

Solemn National Science and Technology Awards Conference held night, some information in the General Staff of the Institute hospital scene was emerging, a lot of people quite surprised:

Baitian Gang leaders just took over the award certificate hero who, calm face at night, walking hurriedly went into the research building, open the computer to carry out scientific and technological activities.

Although this day, we are very happy, but did not imagine the kind of people celebrating carnival, toast singing ……

In recent years, faced with fruitful results, the institute every soldiers always maintained an unusual calm:. “Our results compared with the development of military changes in the world, still walking on the road to catch up with neither have a shred of satisfaction, but can not have a shred of slack! ”

Words are the voice. After several important research setting, a research center director who was known as “arraigned” activities, then the whole of the expansion: according to the requirements of the Party Committee, director of the Center dozen turns on stage, mutatis mutandis, the world’s military development representation, find the problem allowed, ideas disarray, who can not “step down.”

Tang Hong, director of a center, focusing on the world’s new technological revolution, about 18 research projects presented. Unexpectedly, in its subsequent “arraigned” in no clearance because: some issues too frontier, some topics are too partial, and some issues too, some topics which makes the lack of maneuverability …… Tang Hong difficult “to step down.”

Management ideas, to find the starting point, to seek long-term. He led Tiaofenlvxi help him sort out, he finally put things into focus key issues, the six directions of information technology and other border and coastal defense.Today, there are six major research breakthrough. Wherein the direction of things declared three sub-topics of major national science and technology projects, border and coastal defense information technology has also been research project.

It is a field that special “arraigned” as they stride into the eternal power that often ranging from scientific research tasks at hand the dust settles, some key research direction has been quietly, struggling to seize the new high ground ─ ─

Just as a center took home dozens of major awards, like a “magician” new technology laboratory studio, created the first in the army, it may be applied to an item magical new technology experiment for the future, here quietly expand.

At the same time, the Institute has 11 research institutions in the United Nations on 34 kinds of products to carry out independent information integration experiment. These budding scientific research, is becoming a new means to meet future challenges.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

對於中國軍隊信息化建設發展進程來說,這些現像不同尋常:
國家召開科學技術獎勵大會,向來不顯山不露水的總參某信息化研究所,出人意料獲得1項國家科技進步特等獎,成為此次大會焦點……
去年以來,我軍加快轉變戰鬥力生成模式、提高基於信息系統的體係作戰能力,邁出前所未有步伐──
西北大漠,空軍組織多個軍區空軍部隊連續進行數場信息化條件下體係作戰對抗演習,在高效能信息系統運籌下,形成強大的打擊能力。
黃海之濱,北海艦隊牽頭,陸軍、海軍、空軍和第二砲兵部隊參加的聯合演練,海軍預警與陸空雷達融合組網,水面艦艇與空中戰機聯手抗導,潛艇導彈與岸島火器合同打擊。
與此同時,各大軍區、第二砲兵也相繼組織了以提高基於信息系統的體係作戰能力為目標的聯合作戰演練……

中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

也許有人很難把這些現象聯繫在一起,但通曉內情的軍事專家深知:正是在事關我軍信息化建設全局的一些關鍵性難題取得突破,打通了加快轉變我軍戰鬥力生成模式的“任督二脈”。這個歷史性的轉折,就是來自總參某信息化研究所聯合軍內外數百家單位、數千科技工作者直面挑戰、刻苦攻關所取得的累累碩果。僅“十五”以來,該所就完成了包括某一體化指揮信息系統、戰術
互聯網等200多項重要成果,獲得1項國家科技進步特等獎、3項一等獎、8項二等獎,54項軍隊科技進步一等獎,為全軍蓬勃興起的加快轉變戰鬥力生成模式熱潮提供了有力助推。軍委首長稱讚他們是我軍科研戰線的排頭兵、信息化建設的先行者!
在軍隊信息化建設最需要有人站出來時,遲疑躊躇就等於臨陣退縮。面對未來戰爭的嚴峻挑戰,我們無權說還沒準備好———
“激將法”激出一紙“軍令狀”
這是有關我軍信息化建設發展的一次重要會議,也是讓某一體化指揮信息系統項目總師、原所長王建新最為刻骨銘心的一幕。
那年北京的初春,陽光明媚。剛剛戰勝“非典”的中國老百姓笑容舒展地享受和平生活,而中國軍人的心頭卻一點也不輕鬆──
就在一年前,伊拉克戰爭打響,美軍呼嘯的“戰斧”導彈劃破新世紀和平寧靜的天空。基於高效能指揮信息系統的網絡中心戰,展現出全新的信息化作戰樣式──信息化戰爭從實驗室走上了人類戰爭的舞台。
能戰方能止戰。快速發展的軍事變革,給生存與和平帶來的強烈衝擊和嚴峻挑戰,也使我軍軍事鬥爭準備任務愈加緊迫。
而此時,我軍信息化建設卻遭遇困難:全軍各部隊雖然建了不少指揮信息系統,但這些系統體制差異較大,難以互聯互通,制約了我軍信息化作戰能力提高。

部队信息化系统-国德建设
為實現“建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭”的戰略目標,拿出有效措施解決我軍信息化建設存在的現實問題,根據軍委首長指示,總部召開了作戰部隊信息化綜合集成研討會。
讓人心急如焚的是:會議已經開了兩天,眼看就要結束,談認識的多,講辦法的少,一時陷入糾結。主持會議的總部領導坐不住了,緊急召集有關人員:“這麼多問題,我們卻拿不出辦法,豈不有負重托?要不,乾脆告訴敵人,我們還沒準備好,請戰爭等一等?”
“在軍隊信息化建設最需要有人站出來時,遲疑躊躇就等於臨陣退縮。面對信息化戰爭的嚴峻挑戰,我們無權說還沒準備好!”聽了總部領導這番半是批評半是“激將”的話,時任所長王建新熱血直衝腦門:“首長,我建議盡快立項研製某一體化指揮信息系統。”
王建新的建議當然不是一時心血來潮。當世界軍事變革大潮湧動之時,他就帶領科研人員實時跟踪,深入研究,尋找對策,看到的一幕幕場景深深刺痛了他──
參加全軍性的演習,現場指揮的總部首長面前擺放著各軍兵種不同體制的十幾種指揮終端。部隊演習,野戰指揮所兩台指揮車近在咫尺卻不能聯通,參謀人員只能冒著瓢潑大雨站在車門外,打著雨傘互相喊話傳遞信息。
信息化的魂是“網聚能力”。 “村村點火、戶戶冒煙”,又怎能攥指成拳?
作為研究所,要勇當信息化建設的開路先鋒。迎著時代挑戰,王建新和他的團隊早已展開了某一體化指揮信息系統的預研,開發了相關軟件,甚至在個別演習中試用過。
從那天起,留給他們的時間只有40天。
軍中無戲言。王建新帶領全所人員不分晝夜拼搏,依托已有的共用軟件,加載臨時改造的軍兵種指揮信息軟件,以最快的速度搭建一個簡易的模擬系統,如期為軍委、總部領導和全軍高級指揮員連續作了3場演示。
首場演示結束,現場沉寂了。片刻之後,總部首長緩緩站起來:“這正是未來一體化指揮信息系統的雛形,方向正確,思路可行!”
就此,研製某一體化指揮信息系統正式立項。王建新代表全所科研人員立下“軍令狀”:按時間節點,如期完成研製任務!
如此,才有了開頭的一幕:國家科學技術獎勵大會上,王建新作為項目總師和代表,受到黨和國家領導人親切接見。
吸取“兩彈一星”成功經驗,開展軍內外科研協作,充分調動各方力量和資源辦大事,打一場信息化建設大會戰———
走中國特色之路創造後發奇蹟
軍令如山!
那年,該研究所科研人員充分掂量到這4個字的千鈞分​​量。
新年鐘聲剛剛敲過,兩份紅頭文件便急如星火同時下達:一項是由該研究所主持研製某一體化指揮信息系統;另一項同樣是由他們主持某重要科研項目攻關。
兩大工程,每一項都關係打贏信息化戰爭大局,都是重大創新工程。單獨完成一項決非易事,何況兩大工程集於一身。這讓全所上下既感到光榮,又感到前所未有的壓力。
然而,義不容辭,責無旁貸。只能奮勇前行,沒有後路可退。所黨委科學調配力量,分兵把口。時任所長王建新擔任某一體化指揮信息系統總師,副所長尹浩擔任另一個信息系統總師。
決心難下,路更難走。當科研大幕真正拉開,全身心投入攻關時,他們才發現面臨挑戰之複雜艱鉅,難以言表。以研製某一體化指揮信息系統為例,當時全軍各軍兵種已經建成各類指揮信息系統有數百種,相關軟件更是成千上萬。
過去,他們曾嘗試幫一個陸軍師搞信息系統綜合集成,集中精兵強將苦乾了半年時間才成形。照此速度,一體化指揮信息系統要拖到猴年馬月才能建成?
國外經驗表明,研製大型信息系統具有高投入、高風險和低成功率的特點,建設成本和周期往往會大幅度超出預計。
如何擺脫這一魔咒?如何從這團亂麻中理清思路,找到科學高效的創新之路?所黨委在深入調研、廣泛聽取各方意見的基礎上決定,完成這項重大信息化工程,不能照搬國外經驗,必須闖出一條中國特色大型信息系統研製開發之路。
──綜合信息集成。充分利用部隊信息化建設已有成果,不搞另起爐灶、推倒重來,通過統一技術標準和研製共用軟件進行綜合集成。他們對全軍已有的各種指揮信息系統進行技術調研,構建數千種軟件模型反復進行技術測試,撰寫出850多萬字論證報告,將全軍成千上萬種軟件整合成3大類1700餘個軟件構件,集成改造成一個個典型指揮所信息系統,實現跨軍種、跨業務、跨領域的綜合集成。
──軍民科研融合。吸取“兩彈一星”成功經驗,開展軍內外科研大協作,集中力量辦大事。在總部統一領導和大力支持下,他們聯合軍內外300多家科研單位、8000多名科研人員組成一體化指揮信息系統攻關團隊開展聯合攻關。為充分調動發揮各方科研積極性,他們提出“系統大家建、基礎統一建、應用各自建”科研協作思路,注重依靠團隊智慧破解科研難題。
──創新攻關模式。創新科研編組和研發模式,組織軍事專家組、技術專家組、試驗部隊3支隊伍同時進場參與科研。軍事專家提需求,技術專家搞攻關,試驗部隊來驗證,發現問題隨時改進,邊研邊改,在科研成果的初樣、正樣、定型3個階段都是如此。
思路一變天地寬。一項項成果如期問世,一個個大獎相繼捧回。實踐充分證明,立足我軍信息化建設實際闖出的這一獨特研發之路,對於最大限度縮短科研週期、提高科研效益,創造後發奇蹟發揮了重要作用。
搞科研像打仗一樣需要不怕艱難險阻、一往無前的突擊隊,我們就是要用這種精神為部隊信息化建設殺出一條血路———
堅守精神高地才能攀登科技高峰
當年全所召開的那場讓人熱血沸騰的科研動員大會,許多發言大家都記不得了,唯有時任所長王建新說的一句話至今還迴響在大家耳旁:“搞科研像打仗一樣需要不怕艱難險阻、一往無前的突擊隊,我們就是要用這種精神為部隊信息化建設殺出一條血路來!”
永遠磨滅不了的記憶,是因為它深深扎在心田──
那一年,某一體化指揮信息系統完成初樣研製,迎來第一次大考:總部組織聯試演練。前期一切順利,就在大家暗自歡欣之時,核心服務器數據庫系統突然無法啟動。
數九寒天,演練場外滴水成冰,室內緊張程度卻達到沸點。參演的一些指揮員和參謀人員都急紅了眼,負責故障排查的科研人員更是滿頭大汗,焦急萬分。
故障雖然排除了,但演練卻中斷了半小時。
“如果這一幕發生在戰時,將產生怎樣可怕的後果!”儘管總參首長鼓勵大家放下包袱、輕裝上陣,但王建新和科研人員都知道,這樣的系統決不能上戰場!
為此,他們對自己下起了“狠手”:所有系統必須達到可靠性指標、所有數據必須存有備份、所有環節必須制訂應急預案,對系統進行全過程全要素檢驗。
那段日子,每次測試都是全員全程參與,數以千計的軟件每測試一個週期,就要連軸轉上7天7夜。大家餓了啃方便麵,渴了喝礦泉水,困了就在椅子上躺一會。
讓人難忘的還有老專家羅強一博士星夜排險。那是一次某信息系統聯試即將開始時,突然發現某集團軍指揮信息系統有故障。如不及時排除故障,聯試就要延期,保障聯試的近萬名官兵和眾多裝備就要重新集結部署,部隊領導和相關人員急得團團轉。
凌晨3時,正在導演部忙碌的羅強一得知情況後,顧不得嚮導演部申請車輛,衝到漆黑的街道上攔了一輛出租車,直奔200多公里外的指揮所,一直工作到上午9時,解決問題後又馬不停蹄地趕回導演部,繼續參加聯試演練。
事後,演練場一位領導深有感觸地說:“這個研究所科研人員之所以能在科研關鍵時刻沖得上、頂得住、攻得下,關鍵是有為我軍信息化建設一往無前、無私奉獻的精神支柱。”
堅守精神高地,方能攀登科學高峰。王建新的父親是我軍通信事業的開創者──王諍。他把父親戰爭年代那種精神繼承下來,搞起科研不要命,被大家稱為“王鐵人”。
戰術互聯網總師於全,某信息系統副總師羅強一等所裡眾多科研骨幹,都有國外留學經歷,但他們不為國外優厚物質待遇誘惑,堅持回國干事業。
正是這種精神激勵大家,像戰爭年代的突擊隊那樣,不怕犧牲,不怕疲勞,奮勇突破──
某一體化指揮信息系統副總師曹江,為攻克難點連續奮戰幾晝夜不休息,竟累得深夜回家途中靠著大樹睡著了,直到被大雨澆醒。
青年科技工作者何志東,為使指揮信息系統適應高原作戰需要,七上雪域高原,克服嚴重高原反應,採集有關數據,調試安裝系統,以優質工程通過上級組織的系統驗收。
某中心主任唐宏,為儘早完成邊防指揮信息系統研製,和戰友們白天黑夜連軸轉,一干就是40多天,心髒病發作暈倒在攻關現場。醫生要求他住院治療,他卻拿著口服藥回到所裡,又繼續加班,直到任務完成。
某信息系統副總師陳強,孩子出生10天,就趕赴外地參加科研工作。幾年間,他東征西戰極少回家,系統從初樣、正樣到定型,取得成果了,孩子也長大了……
核心技術買不來,買來也存在隱患;單純模仿走不遠,照貓畫虎只能產生短期效益;依靠引進靠不住,依賴於人必然受制於人———
把自主創新作為信息化建設基點
幾年前,當幾大信息化科研項目陸續展開時,一個必須回答的問題擺在了眼前:科研工作的基點在哪兒?
一場爭論,首先圍繞如何構建信息系統核心部分──“軟件構件”爆發了。為減少研發難度,避免研發風險,有人搬出某發達國家構件標準,並主張照此編寫。
某中心主任劉東紅堅決反對:“核心軟件技術,事關我軍信息化建設根基問題,必須自主創新。現在‘照貓畫虎’佔點小便宜,將來在戰場上就會吃大虧。”
爭論出真知。劉東紅終於說服相關協作單位採用自主創新方案,雖然要多花出幾倍的力氣,但它的安全可靠對戰場至關重要。
這場爭論,引起了所黨委的高度關注:近些年,圍繞重大科研課題,科研人員收集整理了不少國外技術資料,怎樣使用?是照搬照抄,還是有選擇地消化吸收?
安全防護系統是某一體化指揮信息系統的“生命線”,也是對自主創新要求最高的部分。年輕的總師楊林帶領他的科研團隊,獨闢蹊徑研製安全防護系統。沒想到,一次演練,一種新型病毒就導致指揮系統全線癱瘓。
自認為安全可靠、萬無一失的防護體系卻被攻破了。面對殘酷的現實,楊林他們認識到,沒有自主創新的科研成果,一旦走上戰場,很有可能出現“成也蕭何敗也蕭何”!
受到“刺激”的楊林他們,隨後通過完全的自主創新,打造出“縱深安全防線”,並在總部組織的高強度網絡攻防演練中,經受住了考驗。
深刻的教訓,讓所黨委定下決心:核心技術買不來,買來也存在隱患;單純模仿走不遠,產生的也只是短期效益而不是超越能力;依靠引進靠不住,依賴於人必然受制於人。必須把保障打贏的戰略基點放在自主創新上!
眼光到達的地方,腳步才能到達。這一年,某信息系統研製初期,由於電磁信息運算複雜,造成態勢圖與戰場實際狀況不同步。如果這個難點不突破,可能導致戰時指揮做出錯誤判斷和決策。為突破這個難點,總師組17名成員擠在實驗室,連續3天3夜攻關,試驗數百次,但始終沒有解決。
就在大家一籌莫展的時候,一直在沉思的副總師曹江突然站起來提出:“我們換個思路,不用傳統算法,改用新的算法。”大家眼前一亮。沿著這個思路,他們不僅一下解決了難題,還開創我軍信息系統研發的新思路。
令人更加欣喜的是,由於堅持把科研基點放在自主創新上,幾年來,這個研究所通過完成重大科研項目,催生出一大批具有自主知識產權的技術成果。僅某一體化指揮信息系統一個項目產生的創新成果,就獲得1項國家科技進步特等獎,22項軍隊科技進步一等獎,為打贏未來戰爭鑄就一把把利劍。
信息系統研製不是“交鑰匙”工程,不能一勞永逸,必須緊跟軍事需求變化不斷提高,實現“一年一版本、三年一升級”———
為戰鬥力服務是軍事科研永恆使命
在這個所科研工作歷史上,這或許是一個絕無僅有的特例──
去年11月底,某中心主任劉東紅突然向總參作戰部領導提出申請:請讓我到戰備值班室值班!
原來,兩天前劉東紅獲悉,戰備值班某些應用程序操作起來不太方便,但問題用戶又說不清。因此,劉東紅申請了這次特殊值班。經批准,她走進了值班室,弄清了軟件設計的問題,帶領科研人員進行了改進。
軍事科研就該為戰鬥力服務!劉東紅的做法贏得了總部領導的讚許,但熟悉這個所的人都知道,這種事在該研究所比比皆是。
近年來,這個所研製的一些信息系統,相繼通過定型鑑定,配發部隊。
但他們並沒有把這當成“交鑰匙”工程,而是緊跟軍事鬥爭需求變化和技術進步,按照“一年一版本、三年一升級”的思路,滾動改進完善成果,使信息系統的改進跟上了軍事變革的步伐。
這一年,在推廣某一體化指揮信息系統應用中,業務室主任劉東波發現,系統關於砲兵火力打擊情況的標繪過於簡單,不能精確顯示集群火力打擊範圍及相關影響,用於實戰可能產生偏差。
然而,承研單位卻感到,因缺乏相關數據和模型支持,一時很難改進。 “為戰鬥力服務是科研的永恆使命,困難再大也要解決。”劉東波和戰友們迎難而上,深入一線採集數據,反复研究演算,成功設計出立體、動態、多層砲兵集群火力打擊模型,將問題徹底解決。
據統計,僅某戰區一個方向,這個所的科研人員就在推廣應用中,發現並解決275個大小問題,確保某一體化信息指揮系統安全運行。
某中心副主任向東蕾在下部隊推廣應用戰術互聯網時,發現一個奇怪現象:裝備在實驗室性能良好,可在演練應用時,性能卻時常打折扣,反複分析也找不到“病根”。
向東蕾就下到通信連隊,與戰士一起生活、一起訓練,終於將謎底揭開:有的戰士為了搞好新裝備維護保養,經常在擦完槍之後,順手用槍油把某新型電台天線也擦一擦。而槍油具有絕緣作用,塗油的天線電阻增大,性能自然減弱。
此後,在推廣應用戰術互聯網的幾年時間裡,向東蕾下部隊20多次,最長時間達到3個月,先後發現16個方面近百個問題,並通過及時改進,使這一科研成果快速顯威練兵場。
科研工作只有與作戰需求對接,才有生命力。在這個研究所,每名科研人員都把來自部隊的呼聲,視為推動科研發展的動力,對他們反映的每一條意見,再小也不忽略。
一次,某戰區通信部門領導來京辦事,隨口談起某一體化指揮信息系統在顯示戰場態勢時,要在同一屏幕既能顯示宏觀戰局,又能顯示局部具體情況就更好用了。
說者無意,聽者有心。在場的某中心領導敏銳地感到,這個建議,對提升系統服務功能很有價值。隨即,他們指派室主任初寧深入部隊專題調研,結果發現:部隊的需求涉及眾多複雜技術問題。
“只要作戰指揮需要,再難也要改。”初寧放下手頭科研任務,組織地方兩個研究所科研人員,連續乾了大半年,終於攻克難關。
年終,這個戰區首長機關應用新的態勢顯示系統,成功組織部隊跨區機動演習。為此,他們專門給總部寫來感謝信。
誰搶先佔領新的科技制高點,誰就在未來戰爭中多一分勝算;誰能夠洞察未來發展方向,誰就在明天的博弈中擁有更多籌碼———
追趕世界軍事變革潮頭,我們依然在路上
莊嚴隆重的國家科學技術獎勵大會召開當晚,在總參某信息化研究所院內出現的一幕情景,讓很多人頗為詫異:
白天剛剛從國家領導人手中接過獲獎證書的功臣們,晚上又面容平靜、步履匆匆地走進科研大樓,打開微機,開展科技攻關活動。
儘管這一天,大家都很高興,但卻沒有人們想像的那種狂歡慶祝、舉杯高歌……
幾年來,面對累累碩果,該研究所每名官兵始終保持著一種異乎尋常的冷靜:“我們的成果與世界軍事變革發展相比,依然行走在追趕的路上。既不能有一絲一毫的滿足,更不能有一絲一毫的懈怠!”
言為心聲。幾項重要科研成果定型之後,一項被科研中心主任們稱為“過堂”的活動,隨即在全所展開:根據黨委要求,十幾個中心主任輪流上台,比照世界軍事發展進行陳述,問題找不准、思路理不清,誰也不能“下台”。
某中心主任唐宏,著眼世界新技術革命,一下提出18個研究課題。沒想到,在隨後幾次“過堂”中都沒過關,原因是:有的課題太過前沿,有的課題太偏,有的課題太大,有的課題缺乏可操作性……這讓唐宏難以“下台”。
理思路,找抓手,謀長遠。所領導幫他條分縷析梳理,他最後把攻關課題聚焦到物聯網、邊海防信息化建設等6個方向上。如今,這6個研究方向都有重大突破。其中,物聯網方向申報3個國家重大科技專項子課題,邊海防信息化建設也已經立項研究。
正是這一場場特殊的“過堂”,為他們大步前進注入了永恆的動力,以至於往往不等手頭的科研任務塵埃落定,一些重點科研方向已悄然展開,奮力搶占新的製高點─ ─
就在某中心捧回幾十個重大獎項時,一個猶如“魔術師”工作室的新技術實驗室,率先在全軍創建,可能應用於未來的一項項神奇的新技術實驗,在這裡悄然展開。
與此同時,該所還聯合國內11家科研機構,對34種自主信息產品開展集成實驗。這些含苞待放的科研成果,正在成為迎接未來挑戰的新型手段。

Original Source: X

China Faces Challenge of Combat Interpretation of Latest US Military Information Warfare // 中國面臨美軍最新信息戰作戰解讀挑戰中國網絡戰能力

China Faces Challenge of Combat Interpretation of Latest US Military Information Warfare

中國面臨美軍最新信息戰作戰解讀挑戰

中國網絡戰能力

Soure: X

中國網絡戰

中國網絡戰能力

Reaching aspects during Chinese President Xi Jinping’s visit, the two countries to combat cybercrime and promote the development of codes of conduct in cyberspace consensus, developed a number of cooperation initiatives to maintain network security, the formation of some dispute settlement mechanism, it is intended to address global network security issues. However, the US military in cyber warfare, information warfare is a fight, and actively adjust operational concepts, organizational system, forms of organization, operational processes and information culture, accelerate the development of the field of information warfare capabilities to ensure the Navy to get in a confrontation with major combat rival China’s dominance.

First, information warfare establishment of institution-building

In 2013, the US Navy Intelligence and Communication Networks merged unit information superiority by a Deputy Minister of Naval Operations is responsible for matters related to information superiority, with seven officers and some senior civilian fleet, as well as many professionals engaged in information warfare work in the field of change exist between intelligence gathering and fleet operations during the Cold war barriers, the US Navy to ensure safe use of the network environment to support access to information among the various operations. US Navy Fleet at Fort Dmitry set up Cyber ​​Command, the merger of the former Naval Network Warfare Command in Norfolk, Virginia naval base, he served as deputy commander of the Chief of Naval Operations is responsible for the integration of capabilities and resources, is responsible for the network attack and defense, management, operation and defense of the Navy’s network, as well as other activities related to cyber war, as both the US Cyber ​​Command, the Navy branch, to provide information to the US military combat support.

In the army building, the US Navy established the first 10 Fleet responsible for information warfare, information superiority as the US Navy forces, the development and delivery of information superiority capability to support operational requirements of the US Navy and allies, has formed intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, full operational capacity of the network, command and control, communications, intelligence, electronic warfare, aerospace and other aspects of the transition to the information operations after the US Navy intelligence and cyber warfare important step.

From US Navy surface ships, submarines and aviation sector includes allocated funds to ensure the daily operation of the Ministry of information superiority, training, equipment and procurement, taking into account the construction and development of unmanned aerial systems and electronic warfare systems. Although electronic warfare department, said the electronic attack items (such as the next generation of jammers) transferred from the Air Operations Department to the Ministry of information superiority will weaken budgetary support for electronic attack system, but the Navy said it had recognized that strengthening the field of electronic warfare offensive the importance of strengthening investment in the field of electronic warfare.

Second, the “joint information environment” guarantee the right to information system at sea

According to the US Department of Defense in September 2013 issued a “joint information environment implementation strategies”, “joint information environment” (JIE) is by far one of the largest joint military information technology operations, with the goal of network integration within the DoD overall IT footprint and infrastructure costs of the construction of the Ministry of Defence, the “chimney” of information systems development for the flat network of dynamic information system, providing interoperability of cloud-based enterprise network infrastructure and services, reduce to ensure that the US military battlefield obtain control of information, enhance the capacity of the Ministry of Defence to deal with cyber threats in the field.

“Joint Information Environment” construction focus is to strengthen information sharing and cooperation, the establishment of enterprise-class shared security protocol for configuration standardization, optimizing the routing of data, at the time and place needed to deliver confidential voice, data and information, including almost all joint information DoD information technology work. “Joint information environment” universal, global, based on cloud properties, including network operations center, data center and cloud-based applications and services, identity management systems, based data storage and sharing capabilities cloud structure and review computer technical support, allows the use of any device to achieve the edge of the network operator, to accelerate the integration of command and control network nodes, can guarantee the daily operations and administration while reducing the cost of network operation and management.

Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is responsible for technical management of a joint information environment, the development of the overall architecture of the safety standards, access issues and identity management. July 2013, the US European Command in Stuttgart established its first enterprise-class Operations Center (EOC), responsible for managing the access management information environment within the Joint Command of the US system in Europe and Africa, dozens of command and control nodes under the jurisdiction of merger . In 2014, the US Pacific Command, and enterprise-class operations center in the United States have also launched joint information environment “Delta 1” have reached initial operational capability.

US Department of Defense Joint Information Environment has given a total of $ 239 million to ensure funding for the purchase of core routers, optical network equipment, fiber optic, network devices, storage devices, security tools and other infrastructure, management and maintenance of the Defense Information Systems Network. In the context of budget cuts, the US military had more dependent on commercial space field, planned in 2016 by the local company responsible for global broadband communications satellite (WGS) in daily operations. In the civil-military cooperation in space operations, DISA need to focus on the potential threat so bring, make up the vulnerability of the physical transmission layer.

Third, the face of major combat operations rivals Applications

Navy Information Warfare future construction operations targeting China and other major rivals, based on the field of cyberspace under serious threat in the Western Pacific battlefield environment construction and operation of information and operational deployment to focus on the formation of forward-deployed real deterrent. US military flexibility and emphasizes the use of reliable satellite communications, to support joint information environment physical transport layer, especially for mobile and forward-deployed forces, command and control and ISR equipment to deal with the growing threat of space.

The initial stage of “joint information environment” design applications, the US Navy had stressed in its response cyber threats using a single security architecture (SSA) to reduce the Navy’s networks “cyber attack surface,” the US military response in the face of network damage, theft data and other forms of cyber attacks, to ensure that the US military’s combat information through various channels to secure smooth transmission. If the intruder’s goal is simply to prevent or delay transmission of information, there is no need to pursue a unified security architecture and security code.

Optical Fiber Communication Security System Operation Command Decision Support System is another focus of attention Navy. Currently, 99% of international data traffic through submarine cable transmission, optical fiber communication is the US military’s “joint information environment” an important transport route for the United States to protect allies and overseas military bases of communication and contact. Naval activities is the greatest threat to the submarine cable, submarine cable on the other side of the attack is difficult to prevent, once destroyed will take a long time to repair. Therefore, the Defense Information Systems Agency “Network infrastructure requirements” (NIPR) requires operators to repair the damaged cable within three days, the US Navy underwater submarine cable project team is also responsible for the maintenance and repair tasks to ensure safe and smooth optical fiber communication .

Fourth, call our army building appropriate information warfare capabilities

Faced with aggressive information warfare against the US military posture, Chinese military information warfare must face the challenge to build offensive and defensive information warfare system. Recently, Chinese President Xi Jinping has said it will vigorously promote the revolution in military affairs, the development of “information warfare” new strategies, innovative new military doctrine to fulfill the mission requirements of the system and setup, system equipment, strategy and tactics, management mode. Specific to the field of information warfare is to aim at the US military weaknesses, focusing on the development of anti-satellite missiles, land-based electronic jamming of satellite monitoring and control, high-energy laser to attack satellites and space-based weapons killer weapons, improve the ability of information systems most vulnerable to attack opponents nodes, enhanced network integrated Defense level clouds and terminal element transport layer, dependent on the US military “joint information environment” to implement the most damaging effect, in order to gain the initiative in the local military confrontation or war.

Origianl Mandarin Chinese:

中国国家主席习近平访美期间,中美两国就打击网络犯罪、推动制定网络空间行为准则等方面达成共识,制定了维护网络安全的若干合作举措,形成了某些争端解决机制,意图共同解决全球网络安全问题。然而,美军在网络战、信息战方面正在大动干戈,积极调整作战概念、编制体制、组织形式、作战流程和信息文化,加快发展信息领域作战能力,确保海军能够在与主要作战对手中国的对抗中取得优势地位。

一、信息战编制体制建设

2013年,美国海军将情报部和通信网络部合并成立信息优势部,由一名海军作战部副部长负责信息优势相关事务,配备7名舰队军官和一些高级文职,以及众多的专业人员从事信息战领域的工作,改变了冷战时期情报搜集和舰队作战之间存在的壁垒,保证美国海军利用安全的网络环境获取信息支持各种作战行动之中。美国海军在梅德堡组建了舰队赛博司令部,合并了弗吉尼亚州诺福克海军基地的原海军网络战司令部,由负责能力和资源整合的海军作战部副部长任司令,主要负责网络进攻和防御,管理、运作和保卫海军的网络,以及与赛博作战相关的其它活动,同时作为美军赛博司令部的海军分支,向美军提供信息作战支持。

在部队建设方面,美国海军成立了第10舰队专门负责信息战,作为美国海军的信息优势部队,发展和投送优势信息能力,支援美海和盟军的作战需求,目前已经形成情报监视与侦察、网络、指挥控制、通信情报、电子战、航天等方面的完全作战能力,向信息作战转型之后成为美国海军情报和网络战的重要步骤。

美国海军从水面舰艇、潜艇和航空兵部门划拔经费,保障信息优势部的日常运行、训练、装备和采购,兼顾无人航空系统和电子战系统的建设发展。尽管电子战部门表示将电子攻击项目(如下一代干扰器)从空中作战部门转移到信息优势部将削弱对电子攻击系统的预算支持,但是美国海军表示已经认识到在电子战领域加强攻击性的重要性,加强电子战领域的投入。

二、“联合信息环境”保证海上制信息权

根据美国国防部2013年9月发布的《联合信息环境实施战略》,“联合信息环境”(JIE)是美军迄今为止最大的联合信息技术行动之一,其目标是在国防部范围内进行网络一体化化建设,将“烟囱式”的信息体系发展为扁平网络化的动态信息体系,提供互联互通的基于云的网络基础架构和企业级服务,减少国防部整体的信息技术占用空间和基础设施成本,确保美军获得战场制信息权,提高国防部应对赛博领域威胁的能力。

“联合信息环境”的建设重点是加强信息共享和合作,建立企业级的共享安全协议,实现配置标准化,优化数据路由,在需要的时间和地点交付保密的语音、数据和情报,包括了几乎所有的国防部信息技术工作的联合信息。“联合信息环境”具有通用性、全球性、基于云的特性,包括网络作战中心、数据中心和基于云应用程序和服务的身份管理系统,提供基于云结构的数据存储和共享能力和可回顾的计算机技术支持,允许使用任何设备实现边缘网络操作,加速网络指挥与控制节点的融合,能够保障作战行动和日常行政管理,同时减少网络运行管理成本。

国防信息系统局(DISA)负责联合信息环境的技管理,制定整体架构中的安全标准、准入问题和身份管理等。2013年7月,美军欧洲司令部在斯图加特建立了首个企业级作战中心(EOC),负责管理美国欧洲和非洲司令部内联合信息环境系统的访问管理,合并下辖的几十个指挥和控制节点。2014年,美军太平洋司令部和美国本土的企业级作战中心也相继展开,联合信息环境“增量1”陆续达到初始作战能力。

美国国防部对联合信息环境建设给予了总计2.39亿美元的经费保证,用于采购核心路由器、光网设备、光纤、网络设备、存储设备、安全工具等基础设施,管理维护国防信息系统网。在预算削减的背景下,美军不得不更加倚重商业空间领域,计划在2016年由地方公司负责宽带全球通信卫星(WGS)的日常运营。在军民合作的空间运营中,DISA需要关注因此带来的潜在威胁,弥补物理传输层的脆弱性。

三、面对主要作战对手展开作战应用

美国海军未来信息战建设瞄准中国等主要作战对手,立足赛博领域严重威胁下的西太平洋战场,进行信息环境建设运营和作战部署,以前沿部署为重点形成现实威慑。美军强调使用弹性和可靠的卫星通信,支持联合信息环境物理传输层,特别是对机动和前沿部署的部队、指挥控制和ISR装备,应对日益增加的空间威胁。

“联合信息环境”设计应用的最初阶段,美国海军就强调以其应对赛博威胁,利用单一安全架构(SSA)减少海军网络面临的“赛博攻击面”,应对美军面对的网络破坏、窃取数据等多种形式的赛博攻击,保证美军的作战信息通过各种渠道安全通畅地传输。如果入侵者的目标只是阻止或迟滞信息传输,就没有必要追求统一的安全架构和保密码。

作战指挥辅助决策系统的体系结构光纤通信安全是美国海军关注的另一个重点。目前,99%的国际数据通信通过海底光缆传输,美军的光纤通信是“联合信息环境”的重要传输途径,用来保障美国本土与盟国和海外军事基地的通信联络。舰艇活动对是海底光缆的最大威胁,对方的对海底光缆的攻击很难防范,一旦遭到破坏需要很长时候修复。因此,国防信息系统局的“网络基础设施需求”(NIPR)要求运营商在3天之内修复受损光缆,美国海军水下工程队也担负海底光缆的维护和抢修任务,保证光纤通信安全顺畅。

四、呼唤我军建设相应的信息战能力

面对美军咄咄逼人的信息战对抗姿态,中国军队的信息战也要直面挑战,建设攻防兼备的信息战体系。日前,习近平主席已经表示中国将大力推进军事变革,制定“信息化战争”新战略,创新履行使命要求的新的军事理论、体制编制、装备体系、战略战术、管理模式。具体到信息作战领域,就是要瞄准美军弱点,重点发展反卫星导弹、陆基电子干扰卫星测控、高能激光攻击和天基卫星武器等杀手锏武器,提高攻击对手信息系统最脆弱节点的能力,增强网络云和终端元件传输层的综合攻防水平,对美军依赖的“联合信息环境”实施最大效应的破坏,才能在军事对抗或局部战争中占据主动。

China Military Review of US Cyberspace Development Strategy // 中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評

中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評

发布日期: 2015 – 10 – 15

中國軍方人士

With the dependence on cyberspace continues to improve, the US cyberspace security into national security strategy category, has promulgated the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment”, “Cyberspace International Strategy”, “cyberspace operations strategy” and a series of policy file, accelerate the construction of cyberspace security strategy system, vigorously strengthen the network combat forces, to achieve hegemony in cyberspace control. April 2015, the US Department of Defense has issued “Cyberspace Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “the new cyber strategy”) summary, for the first time publicly that the cyberspace operations as one of the options for future tactical military conflict that the United States has exceeded the network space combat preparation system, weapons and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, forming an effective mode of network attack and defense, has all the ability to launch cyber war.

  First, the US Cyberspace Strategy Evolution
  Cyberspace security strategy of the United States began in the late 20th century, at the Clinton and the Bush administration has been further strengthened and developed, eventually forming a “national strategy for cyberspace security.” Since 2009, the Obama administration has issued a series of strategic documents for the United States constructed a three-dimensional network security strategy system, international politics and international security situation had a significant impact.
  (A) in the Clinton and the Bush administration, cyberspace into context of US national security strategy, issued its first “cyberspace national strategy.”
  The Clinton administration information industry as an emerging pillar industries and vigorously support, promote the rapid development of the Internet, but also to the United States to rely on the network rose to an unprecedented degree, the information industry has become the largest industry in 1995 – growth in the US economy during 1998 The actual contribution rate of more than 35%. Published by the end of 1999, “US National Security Strategy Report” for the first time defined the US cyberspace security interests that network security threats to US national security posed challenges presented initial ideas to prevent security risks of cyberspace through international cooperation and other means. In early 2000 the introduction of “defending America’s cyberspace – to protect the national information system plan”, became the first programmatic document of the United States to maintain network security space. Release of this document is another important motivation is the US government tried to develop new rules of the game, to ensure American power distribution of wealth in cyberspace, to build a strong, growing and innovative US economy.[12]
  The Bush administration since the “September 11” incident, the United States has changed the concept of security, network spatial development strategy adjustment from “development priority” to “Security First”, and promulgated the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” in 2003. The strategy identifies strategic position cyberspace security, cyberspace is defined as “to ensure the nation’s critical infrastructure properly functioning ‘nervous system’ and the national control systems,” the security situation in cyberspace to make a new judgment, that the new situation combined with the hostile forces of terror and information technology to pose a serious threat to US national security, will clearly improve cyberspace security to national security strategic level. “US National Security Strategy,” the strategy report issued in 2002, “Homeland Security National Strategy” and other reports, constituted after the “9.11” incident the new US national security strategy system. [12]
  (B) The Obama administration efforts to build US cyberspace security strategy stereo system, and actively seek a higher degree of cyberspace world hegemony, to ensure that the three core interests prosperity, security, the US government values ​​determined in cyberspace
  President Obama took office, started the 60-day cyberspace security assessment, and in May 2009, issued a “cyberspace policy review.” In the report published ceremony, Obama delivered an important speech entitled “to protect the American network infrastructure”, specifies the development of new national cyberspace security strategy, led by the National Security Council, the integrated use of diplomatic, military, economic, intelligence and law enforcement “four in one” means ensuring security in cyberspace, so that the strategic concept of cyberspace Obama administration’s horizon.
  1, cyberspace security threats as an excuse to network infrastructure as a national strategic asset, by all means to protect the security of cyberspace
  US cyberspace strategy document, the threat is the highest frequency vocabulary appears. The United States believes in cyberspace Chiang Kai-shek himself facing a new invisible smoke of war, and has been at a disadvantage, worried about the future possible outbreak of “Network Pearl Harbor” or “medium” 9/11 “incident [10]. To this end, Obama came to power after repeatedly stressed, should the network security as part of national security strategy, the network infrastructure will be increased to protect national strategic asset. March 2009, the US Center for Strategic and International Studies, submitted to “ensure the new presidency cyberspace” first report’s recommendations is that the network is an important wealth of the country, “the United States will not hesitate to use all means of national power ensuring security in cyberspace. issued “cyberspace policy assessment report” in May 2009 that day, Obama said in a speech, cyber threats are “one of the most serious challenges to US economic and national security faced” network infrastructure will be regarded as a strategic national facility “to protect the facility will become a national security priority issue.” We can say that all US cyberspace strategy and policy documents are as a starting point.
  2, to improve leadership and command system as the focal point, accelerate the construction of cyberspace deterrence systems and to build capacity-building network attacks.
  Obama believes the US government cyberspace security agencies there strategic center of gravity is unknown, job functions overlap, lack of coordination and other issues, it is necessary to implement the leadership from the top, the overall coordination of network security mechanism. May 2009, the White House announced the formation of cyberspace security office, the president is responsible for the policy decision to provide cyberspace security, coordinate government policies and activities. A month later, the Defense Department announced the creation of Cyberspace Command, responsible for coordinating the US military deployment strategy and network security, unified US military command network warfare, network warfare forces to enter the United States so that harmonized development of the “fast track.” Thus, the United States to create an integrated and comprehensive national cybersecurity leadership system. Published in July 2011, “cyberspace operations strategy”, as the United States Department of Defense first report on cyberspace operations and comprehensive strategy to more effectively carry out military operations in cyberspace provides guidelines and a roadmap, marking the US military operations in cyberspace who has been officially transferred deployment and implementation phase. In 2012, US National Cyber ​​Range officially delivered military trial. In 2013, the United States Cyber ​​Command expanded from 900 people to 4900 people, announced the expansion of 40 network warfare units within three years. 2014, the US Department of Defense released the “Quadrennial Defense Review Report,” clearly put forward the “expansion of investment in new network capabilities, network building 133 task force.” It is noteworthy that from 2013 to the year 2014, the US declared war forces expansion of the network more than three times. Meanwhile, the US also increased efforts to carry out research and development of cyber weapons, arms only reached 2,000 kinds of viruses, and has already entered the US Weapon series. This series of actions that the objective to reach the US military in cyberspace than just ensure its own security in cyberspace, but to build a network to enhance deterrence system through cyberspace attack, towards the consolidation of its “system net power” in cyberspace . [2]
  3, in order to emphasize international cooperation in cyberspace as a means to change and influence the political system and values ​​of other countries, and strive to maintain US hegemony
  In May 2011 the United States issued “Cyberspace International Strategy”, the first time its foreign policy goals combined with cyberspace strategy, marking its focus has been disclosed by the ball itself will be extended to the entire range, while its output cyberspace has become an American an important platform for political models and values. Former Defense Secretary Robert Gates has publicly declared that the network is a “huge strategic American assets in favor of other countries to help promote democracy.” Since then the Department of Defense issued “cyberspace operations strategy” is the introduction of “collective defense” concept, showing the United States to establish a new military alliance in cyberspace intent. Obama Government has been changed over the years, the United States resisted, highly publicized international cooperation in cyberspace, partly because it recognizes that even a superpower like the United States, can not single-handedly solve the problems exist in cyberspace and, more importantly, the United States wants to use its strong network resources, through international action in cyberspace cyberspace control global leadership development, change and affect the political system and values ​​of other countries, to consolidate its hegemony in cyberspace . [4]
  Second, the US Department of Defense the main features of the new cyber strategy
  April 2015, the new cyber strategy US Department of Defense released a continuation of the Obama administration’s strategic vision of cyberspace, for the first time publicly that one should cyberwarfare as a future military conflict tactical options, an explicit proposal to improve cyberspace deterrence and offensive capability, put on active defense and deterrence posture initiative, reflects the next few years, the US space power network construction and distinctive features of related actions, highlighting the US attempts to dominate in cyberspace.
  (A) exaggerated the threat facing the United States in cyberspace, cyberspace has continued to spread fear destruction, wanton shaping cyberspace at the national level enemy
  The new cyber strategy with a larger strategic context described space, repeatedly stressed that the United States risks inherent in cyberspace environment, deliberately exaggerating the threat of cyberspace activities faced constantly looking for new threats, new enemy is the United States to shape the mindset of decision logic and tradition dictates . In the strategy paper publicly available, the “risk” and “threat” were two words appear up to 31 times and 46 times, claiming that the new cyber strategy risks and threats from both the basic structure of the Internet’s inherent ability to handle risks, but also from the interests of the enemies of the United States coveted American networks, systems and data intrusion and malicious damage. The new cyber strategy will be mainly determined by the previous target to prevent extremist network technology and combined adjusted to focus on the national level opponent, Russia, China, Iran, North Korea and other countries as the United States may constitute a threat to the network [1]. These presets national level opponents, both in order to show the necessity of the introduction of the new cyber strategy, but also the threat of the proliferation of network attacks fear of public opinion, and thus eliminate barriers for “Snowden” event generated between the private sector and , dilute the new cyber strategies on social interests and personal privacy violations, to further consolidate public support for DoD and government policies. This judgment with ideological bias and arbitrariness, high-handed and is a very dangerous act. In fact, the United States ahead of the field of security in cyberspace, no one country can be formed a fundamental threat to the United States.
  (B) expressly DoD cyberspace strategic tasks and objectives, publicly cyberspace operations as a future military conflict tactical options, highlighting the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture.
  The new cyber strategy identifies the Department of Defense “three major tasks” and “five strategic objectives,” first proposed to launch a cyber attack when US national interests are threatened, and asked the US Department of Defense “Developing viable network options into the DoD term plan “for the US president or secretary of defense to provide” full spectrum “of options, when it comes to their national interest to make a variety of decisions.Compared with 2011 the first release version of cyberspace emphasize defensive action by the major network security operations to “offensive action network” changes, and the new cyber strategy frequent word “deterrence”, a total appears 29 times, that the United States has gradually freedom “with precision-guided physical damage to cope with asymmetric means to deal with cyber attacks” on US deterrence into network attacks to protect US national cybersecurity strategy, squeezing US major strategic competitors cyberspace policy choices available. At the same time, the new cyber strategy first proposed holding cyberspace operations as a tactical option, option to control the use of network operations escalation of the conflict, create conflict environment. Visible, the new cyber strategy has been the traditional means of fighting the physical space and virtual cyberspace means of integration, clearly convey to the world the determination of the American retaliation and sufficient network capacity to implement retaliation, far beyond the active defense category, highlighting the United States will protect cyberspace, attacks and confrontation blend of deterrence and offensive posture. [1] [8]
  (Iii) strengthen the integration with traditional combat power, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, with the power to launch cyber warfare system
  US military cyberspace operations following the fifth field of land, sea, air, space after the new cyber cyberspace operations strategy requires the option into the Defense Department plans to ensure that all areas of military operations in cyberspace and physical space Action Action coordinated. The new cyber strategy proposed to mobilize all forces, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, including the Ministry of Defence led government departments, between government and enterprises and international concerted action. The new cyber strategy breakthrough in Cyberspace “civil-military separation” trend strategy, Cyberspace Command, National Security Agency, the organic integration of the Central Security Agency, the Ministry of Defence is responsible for network forces combat training and guidance to the intelligence network functions and network operations functions are distinguished by the Defense Department-led combat troops network. One important goal of the new cyber strategy is to build a 2018 offensive and defensive, flexible forms of cyberspace forces, including 133 teams from the 6200 Department of Defense and the military soldiers, civilian and contract employees and other components. Among them, 13 responsible for the national infrastructure network protection mandate national task forces and eight country support teams; 27 to assume the task of attacking the enemy’s network operations task force and 17 combat support units; 68 responsible for the protection of the United States Department of Defense and the military network protection force network and system security tasks. These actions show that the US military has been resolved cyberspace warfare establishment system, apparatus and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, explore the formation of an effective mode of generating combat capabilities of network attack and defense, with the power to launch cyber warfare system. [7]
  (Iv) continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, consolidate US leadership in the world in the field of network information for its dominate cyberspace to provide technical support.
  For a long time, the US military has the advantage of science and technology as an important part of the national security strategy, and always will be technological innovation as the key to maintaining US military strength and capacity. As a network of information technology and the birthplace of the leader, the United States Department of Defense to maintain and expand the leading edge technologies that will continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, technology continues to improve deterrence and offensive capabilities in cyberspace. The new cyber strategy proposed, the Defense Department must build and command and control systems to increase investment, continues to accelerate technological innovation in the field of cyberspace, vigorously carry out research and development with significant advantages over the technology, focusing on staff training to improve cyberspace, effective organization basic research and applied research capacity for action needed to fully develop the required DoD cyberspace capabilities. In recent years, the United States looks to shape the full spectrum cyberspace operations capability can cope with all types of threats in the successful development of “chute”, “Fire” and “shock web” more than 2,000 kinds of network warfare weapons on the basis of increasing network space war frontier technology investment, and actively develop a new generation of network technology and virtual battlefield assault weapons, and network warfare weapons and conventional weapons integration, in order to achieve a variety of battlefield environment flexible ways to combat.The new cyber strategy conference selection in the birthplace of Silicon Valley Stanford University, in person at the Secretary of Defense Carter, will seek to show that the Ministry of Defence and a new mechanism between the private sector and research institutions, technology, people and information and cooperation, and develop a wide range of industries channel sector R & D cooperation, greatly enhance the ability to act in cyberspace, to provide a solid technical support for the United States to expand the network space interests, safeguarding cyberspace hegemony. [7]
  Third, the construction of cyberspace security forces Inspiration
  The new US Defense Department cyber strategy highlights the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture, releasing its attempt hegemony in cyberspace danger signal, and to our country as one of its main rivals in cyberspace, cyberspace is bound for China safety and national security have a profound impact. Faced with the threat of US cyberspace strategy, China should accelerate the pace of construction of power networks, and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty interests in cyberspace, safeguard national cyberspace security.
  (A) firmly established Cyberspace Security Strategy in national security, strengthen national security in cyberspace top-level design, in line with China’s national conditions to speed up the formation of a military cyberspace security strategy system
  President Xi pointed out that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. This important exposition, clear cyberspace strategic position for the construction of the security forces of cyberspace provided a powerful impetus.Currently, the national cyberspace security forces involved in military dress, especially after fighting equipment sector, and national industry, finance, energy, transportation, education and other sectors. Therefore, we should focus on promoting the interdisciplinary, multisectoral cyberspace security system construction, the formation of strong guidance, perfect features, dynamic evolution of cyberspace security strategy system. National Cyberspace Security Strategy should carry out national cyberspace security situation assessment, clarify the department’s own cyberspace security policy, as well as the main tasks and the division of responsibilities in national security in cyberspace, military and civilian science linkage design, comprehensive coverage, responsive network space security forces system, organizational system and institutional system. Cyberspace military strategy should focus on military operations security, the implementation of self-defense and homeland defense needs collaboration, scientific planning cyberspace “reconnaissance, attack, defense, control” forces, specifically the construction of military use of cyberspace timing, principles and tasks, as well as synergies with local forces. Cyberspace International Strategy should focus oppose hegemony in cyberspace, cyberspace governance rights and fight for the right to speak, and resolutely safeguard national cyberspace sovereign interests and development interests, and actively promote the peaceful development and common prosperity of the international cyberspace.
  (Ii) accelerate the construction of an appropriate scale, combined offensive and defensive cyberspace security forces, and constantly improve the network space combat capability, to provide strategic support for the maintenance of national security in cyberspace
  To effectively respond to threats in cyberspace main rival joint operations and information technology support to high-quality compound talents as the main body, accelerate the construction of electricity network integration, hardware and software combination, both offensive and defensive cyberspace power system, focusing on the development of intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities, integrated attack, defense capabilities and affect the control system capacity to effectively meet the security and defense tasks require effective counterattack. At present, shall be in accordance with the strategic and operational level, based on the national and military security and electronic warfare forces network-based, command, reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” and six security forces to focus the power of the network set up directly under the army’s troops and the attachment of various branches / departments of strategic and security reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” four network power forces the enemy to achieve the Internet, critical infrastructure, national defense information network, information systems and other defense battlefield combat. Technical support base in accordance with cyberspace security needs, the establishment of core technology research and development equipment, offensive and defensive range, a number of joint combat exercises and other technical support base, to provide technical support for the network equipment research, development, testing and evaluation.
  (C) to strengthen cyberspace theoretical research, and actively explore cyberspace mode of generating combat, and strive to improve the combat capability of our army cyberspace
  In the process of the evolution of the war, military battlefield Game by plane, three-dimensional multi-dimensional virtual battlefield to battlefield extended form, combat and operational means of war is undergoing revolutionary change, to win victory in future wars but no longer rely on bullets and explosives byte strings and no longer rely on the military but on the scale of the number of botnets, will nurture and birth of a new doctrine. Accelerate innovation in cyberspace combat theory, system analysis of the historical evolution of human warfare, to find common characteristics and laws of war, exploring new ideas that may occur in the military field, the new theory, in-depth study of cyberspace doctrine, doctrine, combat styles, and elements cyberspace power system composed of the elements of its own scientific judgment and changes in the relationship between the shape of cyberspace changes and evolution. Increased interdependence cyberspace winning mechanism, system analysis cyberspace and physical space constraints and mutual enhancement of mutual relations, in-depth mechanism, attack and defense mechanism, the mechanism of the effect of war in cyberspace right, and the mechanism of self-organizing collaborative research, and actively explore cyberspace winning new mechanisms and new ways. Actively explore cyberspace combat formation mechanism, focusing on national cyberspace security strategies to enhance the combat effectiveness of troops starting point, the system analyzes cyberspace combat formation structure, composition and structure analysis of the interaction between the various elements of the fighting, a network of scientific space combat effectiveness the new model provides a solid theoretical innovation for our military in cyberspace can fight to win the war.
  (D) seize the new round of technological change information network a major opportunity, and vigorously promote the development of self-control cyberspace security core technology and key equipment, consolidate our network security space technology base.
  For a long time, the United States use of network information technology security threat to other countries, for the recent implementation of high-performance computing technology embargo, indicating that it will not easily give up the leading international cyberspace security right to speak. After the “Prism” incident, the world is generally recognized that there is no core technology, key equipment and self-controlled, cyberspace will be the lifeblood of the hands of others, have increased self-controlled information network construction. Currently, a new round of worldwide information network technology is ushering in a new wave of development, the development of large data, networking, quantum information, cutting-edge cloud computing and other emerging technologies are driving traditional information network technology to enter the replacement stage, to promote the network basis for, the system shape and space technology security mechanism profound changes. Should make full use of information network technology upgrading precious “time window”, to focus the forefront of key technologies in the emerging field of security basic, global impact of cyberspace, increase their own information network technology and independent information industry development efforts continue promoting the “nuclear high base” of major projects, and actively create the ecological environment of self-control application, determined to get rid of cyberspace security key technologies the kinds of passive situation, the lifeblood of the national cyberspace security technology and industrial development firmly in control of their own hands.
  (E) give full play to the advantages of our system, promote China’s cyberspace security forces and civilian integration development, to build military and civilian science linkage, peacetime and wartime national cyberspace security system
  Cyberspace has a “peacetime and wartime, civil-military one” determined by the characteristics of cyberspace security system must take military and civilian integration development model.Important features of the new US Department of Defense cyberspace security strategy is to mobilize the army of human, technical and industrial resources, accelerate the formation of cyberspace prominent military and technological superiority. China should give full play to the advantages of the system and network advantages of a big country, and actively promote the cyberspace combat forces military and civilian integration, fully absorb the military, local professional and technical strength and nurture talent in the private sector network attack and defense, national parties formed a unified command under the system of ” power system main force “and” guerrilla “a combination of; by improving the organization and leadership to build civil-military integration, program planning, collaborative innovation and industrial development at the national cyberspace security system, and promote the development of dual-use network information technology to optimize civil-military dual network information industry layout, accelerate the formation of “galloping market can not only battle-hardened” information technology industrial base; establish and improve civil-military integration network defense mobilization system, a clear linkage military and civilian cyberspace security system and operation mechanism, promote the integration of military and civilian network space action joint exercises, and actively explore how to play the power of the people’s war in cyberspace, condensed balance enemies, against tremendous energy hegemony, the realization of China’s power network by the network power to leap.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
隨著對網絡空間的依存度不斷提​​高,美國將網絡空間安全納入到國家安全戰略範疇,先後頒布《網絡空間政策評估》、《網絡空間國際戰略》、《網絡空間行動戰略》等一系列政策性文件,加快構建網絡空間安全的戰略體系,大力加強網絡作戰力量建設,以實現對網絡空間控制的霸權地位。 2015年4月,美國防部又發布《網絡空間戰略》(下文簡稱“新版網空戰略”)概要,首次公開表示將網絡空間行動作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,表明美國已突破了網絡空間作戰的編制體制、武器裝備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,形成了網絡攻防的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的全部能力。

一、美國網絡空間戰略演變
美國網絡空間安全戰略思想發端於20世紀中後期,在克林頓與布什政府時期得到進一步充實和發展,最終形成了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。自2009年奧巴馬政府以來,先後發布了一系列戰略文件,為美國建構了一個立體的網絡安全戰略體系,對國際政治和國際安全局勢產生了重大影響。
(一)在克林頓及布什政府時期,網絡空間安全進入到美國國家安全戰略範疇,頒布了首份《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。
克林頓政府將信息產業作為新興支柱產業大力扶持,推動了互聯網的高速發展,也使美國對於網絡的依賴上升到了前所未有的程度,信息產業成為美國最大的產業,1995-1998年期間對美國經濟增長的實際貢獻率達35%以上。 1999年底公佈的《美國國家安全戰略報告》首次界定了美國網絡空間安全利益構成,認為網絡安全威脅對美國國家安全構成挑戰,提出了通過國際合作等方式防範網絡空間安全風險的初步設想。 2000年初出台《保衛美國的網絡空間——保護信息系統的國家計劃》,成為美國維護網絡空間安全的第一份綱領性文件。推出這份文件的另一個重要動因是美國政府試圖通過制定新的遊戲規則,確保美國在網絡空間中分配財富的權力,建立強大的、不斷增長的創新型美國經濟。 [12]
布什政府自“9·11”事件後,改變了美國的安全觀,將網絡空間發展戰略從“發展優先”調整為“安全優先”,並於2003年頒布了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。該戰略明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,將網絡空間定義為“確保國家關鍵基礎設施正常運轉的’神經系統’和國家控制系統”,對網絡空間安全形勢做出了新的判斷,認為新形勢下恐怖敵對勢力與信息技術的結合對美國國家安全構成嚴峻威脅,明確將網絡空間安全提高到國家安全的戰略高度。該戰略報告與2002年頒布的《美國國家安全戰略》、《美國國土安全國家戰略》等報告,構成了“9·11”事件後美國新的國家安全戰略體系。 [12]
(二)奧巴馬政府著力打造美國網絡空間安全立體戰略體系,積極謀求更高程度的網絡空間世界霸權,確保美國政府在網絡空間所確定的繁榮、安全、價值觀三大核心利益
奧巴馬總統上任伊始,就啟動了為期60天的網絡空間安全評估,並於2009年5月,發布了《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​。在該報告的發布式上,奧巴馬發表了題為《保護美國網絡基礎設施》的重要講話,指定由國家安全委員會牽頭制定新的國家網絡空間安全戰略,綜合運用外交、軍事、經濟、情報與執法“四位一體”的手段確保網絡空間安全,從而使奧巴馬政府的網絡空間戰略構想初露端倪。
1、以網絡空間安全威脅為藉口,把網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產,將不惜一切手段保護網絡空間安全
美國網絡空間戰略文件中,威脅是出現頻率最高的詞彙。美國認為,自己在網絡空間中正面臨著一場新的看不見硝煙的戰爭,且已處於劣勢,擔心未來可能爆發“網絡珍珠港”或是“網上‘9·11’”事件[10]。為此,奧巴馬上台後不斷強調,應把網絡安全作為國家安全戰略的一部分,將網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產加以保護。 2009年3月,美國戰略與國際問題研究中心提交的《確保新總統任內網絡空間安全》報告提出的第一條建議就是,網絡是國家的重要財富,“美國將不惜動用一切國家力量之手段確保網絡空間安全。在2009年5月發布《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​的當日,奧巴馬發表講話稱,網絡威脅是“美國經濟和國家安全所面臨的最嚴重的挑戰之一”,網絡設施將被視為戰略性國家設施“保護該設施將成為國家安全的優先課題”。可以說,美國所有網絡空間戰略及相關政策文件都是以此為出發點。
2、以完善領導指揮體係為著力點,加快構建網絡空間威懾體系,著力打造網絡攻擊能力建設。
奧巴馬政府認為,美國政府網絡空間安全機構存在著戰略重心不明、工作職能重疊、缺乏協調配合等問題,因此必須從最高層實施領導,全面協調網絡安全機制。 2009年5月,白宮宣布組建網絡空間安全辦公室,負責為總統提供網絡空間安全方面的決策方針,協調政府相關政策與活動。一個月後,國防部宣布創建網絡空間司令部,負責協調美軍網絡安全策略及部署,統一指揮美軍網絡戰,使得美國網絡戰力量進入統一協調發展的“快車道”。由此,美國打造了一體化的綜合性國家網絡安全領導體制。 2011年7月公佈的《網絡空間行動戰略》,作為美國防部首份有關網絡空間作戰行動的綜合戰略,更為美軍有效開展網絡空間行動提供了指南和路線圖,標誌著美軍網絡空間軍事行動已正式轉人部署與實施階段。 2012年,美國家網絡靶場正式交付軍方試用。 2013年,美網絡司令部由900人擴編到4900人,宣布3年內擴建40支網絡戰部隊。 2014年,美國防部發布《四年防務評估報告》​​,明確提出“投資新擴展的網絡能力,建設133支網絡任務部隊”。值得關注的是,從2013年到2014年一年中,美軍宣稱網絡戰部隊擴編3倍以上。與此同時,美國還加大力度開展網絡武器的研發,僅病毒武器就達2000多種,且早已進入美軍武器序列。這一系列動作表明,美軍在網絡空間要達成的目標絕不僅僅是保證自身網絡空間安全,而是要通過提升網絡空間攻擊能力構建網絡威懾體系,實現鞏固其在網絡空間的“製網權” 。 [2]
3、以強調國際網絡空間合作為手段,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,力求維護美國霸權地位
2011年5月美國出台《網絡空間國際戰略》,首次將其外交政策目標與網絡空間戰略結合在一起,標誌著其關注重點已公開由自身擴展到整個球範圍,同時網絡空間也成為其輸出美式政治模式和價值觀的重要平台。原國防部長蓋茨曾公開宣稱,網絡是“美國巨大的戰略資產,有利於幫助其他國家推進民主”。此後出台的國防部《網絡空間行動戰略》更是引入“集體防禦”理念,展現了美國要在網絡空間建立新軍事同盟的意圖。奧巴馬政府之所以一改美國多年來的抵制態度,高調宣傳網絡空間國際合作,一方面是因為它認識到,即使是美國這樣的超級大國,也不可能憑一己之力解決網絡空間存在的種種問題,更重要的是,美國希望利用自己雄厚的網絡資源,通過在網絡空間的國際行動掌控全球網絡空間發展領導權,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,鞏固自身在網絡空間的霸權地位。 [4]
二、美國防部新版網空戰略主要特點
2015年4月,美國防部發布的新版網空戰略,延續了奧巴馬政府對網絡空間的戰略構想,首次公開表示要把網絡戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,明確提出要提高網絡空間的威懾和進攻能力,擺出積極防禦和主動威懾的姿態,折射出未來數年美軍網絡空間力量建設和相關行動的鮮明特點,彰顯了美國在網絡空間稱霸的圖謀。
(一)誇大美網絡空間面臨的威脅,不斷擴散網絡空間遭受破壞的恐懼,恣意塑造網絡空間國家層級的敵人
新版網空戰略用較大篇幅描述戰略背景,反復強調美國網絡空間環境蘊含的風險,蓄意誇大網絡空間活動面臨的威脅,不斷尋找新威脅、塑造新敵人是美國思維定勢和決策邏輯的傳統使然。在公開發布的戰略文件中,“風險”和“威脅”兩詞分別出現高達31次和46次,新版網空戰略聲稱這些風險和威脅既源於互聯網基本架構防範風險能力的先天不足,也源於覬覦美國利益的敵人對美國網絡、系統和數據的惡意入侵和破壞。新版網空戰略將主要目標確定由此前以防範網絡技術與極端主義結合為重點調整為國家層級的對手,將俄羅斯、中國、伊朗、朝鮮等列為可能對美國構成網絡威脅的國家[1]。預設這些國家層級的對手,既是為了顯示推出新版網空戰略的必要性,也是在公共輿論中擴散對網絡攻擊威脅的恐懼,進而消除因“斯諾登”事件與私營企業之間產生的隔閡,淡化新版網空戰略對社會利益和個人隱私的侵害,更進一步鞏固公眾對國防部和政府政策的支持。這種判斷帶有主觀隨意性和意識形態偏見,是一種霸道和非常危險的行徑。事實上,美國在網絡空間安全領域遙遙領先,沒有哪一個國家能對美國形成根本性威脅。
(二)明確國防部網絡空間戰略任務和目標,公開把網絡空間作戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項,凸顯了美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻態勢。
新版網空戰略明確了國防部“三大任務”和“五項戰略目標”,首次提出美國國家利益受到威脅時可發動網絡攻擊,並要求美國防部“開發可行的網絡選項,融入國防部各項規劃”,為美國總統​​或者國防部長提供“全頻譜”的選擇方案,以便其在涉及國家利益的時候能夠做出各種決策。與2011年首次發布版本相比,網絡空間行動由主要強調防禦性的網絡安全行動向“採取進攻性網絡行動”轉變,並且新版網空戰略中頻繁出現“威懾”一詞,共出現29次,表明美國已經逐漸將“用精確制導的物理毀傷來應對網絡攻擊的不對稱應對手段”,納入到威懾對美國網絡攻擊、保障美國國家網絡安全戰略、擠壓美國主要戰略競爭對手的網絡空間行動自由的策略選擇之中。同時,新版網空戰略第一次提出將保持網絡空間行動作為戰術選項,運用網絡行動選項控制衝突升級,塑造衝突環境。可見,新版網空戰略已將傳統的物理空間作戰手段與虛擬的網絡空間作戰手段相融合,向世界清晰地傳遞了美國進行網絡報復的決心和實施報復的足夠能力,遠遠超出了主動防禦的範疇,凸顯了美國將網絡空間的保護、攻擊和對抗融為一體的威懾和進攻態勢。 [1] [8]
(三)加強與傳統作戰力量融合,構建全方位聯合作戰體系,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系
網絡空間是美軍繼陸地、海洋、天空、太空後的第五作戰領域,新版網空戰略要求把網絡空間行動選項融入到國防部計劃中,確保軍事行動的所有領域中網絡空間行動與物理空間行動協調一致。新版網空戰略提出要動員各方力量,​​構建全方位的聯合作戰體系,包括由國防部主導政府部門間、政企間和國際間的協同行動。新版網空戰略突破了網絡空間戰略“軍民分隔”的態勢,將網絡空間司令部、國家安全局、中央安全署有機融合,由國防部負責網絡部隊的作戰訓練和指導,從而將網絡情報職能與網絡作戰職能進行區分,由國防部主導網絡作戰部隊。新版網空戰略的重要目標之一是至2018年建成一支攻防兼備、形式靈活的網絡空間部隊,包括由6200名國防部和軍事部門的軍人、文職人員和合同員工等組成的133支小組。其中,13支擔負國家基礎設施網絡防護任務的國家任務部隊和8支國家支援小組;27支擔負攻擊敵網絡系統任務的作戰任務部隊和17支作戰支援部隊;68支擔負保護美國國防部及軍隊網絡和系統安全任務的網絡保護部隊。這些動作表明,美軍已經解決了網絡空間戰的編制體制、裝備設備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,探索形成了網絡攻防戰鬥力生成的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系。 [7]
(四)繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,鞏固美在網絡信息領域的世界領先優勢,為其稱霸網絡空間提供技術支撐。
長期以來,美軍一直將科學技術優勢作為國家安全戰略的重要組成部分,始終將科技創新作為維持美軍作戰優勢能力的關鍵。作為網絡信息技術的發源地和引領者,美國防部為保持和擴大技術領域的領先優勢,將繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,不斷提升網絡空間的技術威懾和進攻能力。新版網空戰略提出,國防部必須在人員培訓、有效組織構建和指揮控制系統方面加大投入,繼續加速網絡空間領域的技術創新,大力開展具有重大優勢的跨越性技術的研發,聚焦提高網絡空間行動能力所需的基礎研究和應用研究,全面發展國防部所需的網絡空間作戰能力。近年來,美國著眼塑造可應對各類威脅的全頻譜網絡空間作戰能力,在成功研發“舒特”、“火焰”和“震網”等2000多種網絡戰武器的基礎上,不斷加大網絡空間作戰前沿技術投入,積極研發虛擬戰場技術和新一代網絡攻擊性武器,並將網絡戰武器與傳統武器進行整合,以實現在戰場環境中靈活的多種打擊方式。新版網空戰略發布會選擇在矽谷發源地的斯坦福大學進行,國防部長卡特親自前往,表明國防部將尋求與私營部門和研究機構間技術、人員和信息聯繫與合作的新機制,廣泛拓展與工業部門合作研發的渠道,大力提升網絡空間行動能力,為美國拓展​​網絡空間利益、維護網絡空間霸權提供堅實的技術支撐。 [7]
三、對我國網絡空間安全力量建設的啟示
美國國防部新版網空戰略凸顯了美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻姿態,釋放出其圖謀網絡空間霸權的危險信號,並把我國列為其網絡空間的主要對手之一,必將對我國網絡空間安全乃至國家安全帶來深刻影響。面對美國網絡空間戰略威脅,我國應加快網絡強國建設步伐,堅決捍衛國家網絡空間主權利益,維護國家網絡空間安全。
(一)牢固確立網絡空間安全在國家安全中的戰略地位,加強國家網絡空間安全的頂層設計,加快形成符合我國國情軍情的網絡空間安全戰略體系
習主席指出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。這一重要論述,明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,為我國網絡空間安全力量建設提供了強大動力。當前,國家網絡空間安全涉及軍隊軍政後裝尤其是作戰、裝備部門,以及國家工業、金融、能源、交通、教育等部門。為此,應著眼推進跨領域、多部門網絡空間安全體系構建,形成指導有力、要素完善、動態演化的網絡空間安全戰略體系。國家網絡空間安全戰略應深入開展國家網絡空間安全態勢評估,明確各部門自身網絡空間安全策略,以及在國家網絡空間安全中的主要任務和職責分工,科學設計軍民聯動、覆蓋全面、反應敏捷的網絡空間安全力量體系、組織體系和製度體系。網絡空間軍事戰略應著眼軍事行動安全、實施自衛反擊和協同國土防禦需要,科學規劃網絡空間“偵、攻、防、控”力量建設,明確網絡空間軍事力量建設運用的時機、原則和任務,以及與地方力量的協同關係。網絡空間國際戰略應著眼反對網絡空間霸權、爭奪網絡空間治理權和話語權,堅決維護國家網絡空間主權利益、發展利益,積極推動國際網絡空間的和平發展和共同繁榮。
(二)加快建設一支規模適度、攻防結合的網絡空間安全力量,不斷提高網絡空間實戰能力,為維護國家網絡空間安全提供戰略支撐
著眼有效應對網絡空間主要對手威脅和支撐信息化聯合作戰,以高素質複合型人才隊伍為主體,加快構建網電一體、軟硬結合、攻防兼備的網絡空間力量體系,重點發展情報偵察能力、綜合攻擊能力、體系防禦能力和影響控制能力,有效滿足安全防禦和有效反擊任務需要。當前,應按照戰略和戰役層次,立足國家和軍隊網絡安全和電子對抗力量基礎,以指揮、偵察、攻擊、防禦、“三戰”和保障六支力量為重點,設置直屬全軍的網絡力量部隊和配屬各軍兵種/戰略和安全部門的偵察、攻擊、防禦、“三戰”四支網絡力量部隊,能夠實現對敵國際互聯網、關鍵基礎設施、國防信息網、戰場信息系統等進行防禦作戰。技術保障基地按照網絡空間作戰保障需要,建立核心裝備技術研發、攻防靶場、聯合作戰演練等若干技術保障基地,為網絡裝備研究、開發、試驗與評估提供技術支撐。
(三)加強網絡空間作戰理論研究,積極探索網絡空間戰鬥力生成模式,著力提高我軍網絡空間作戰能力
在戰爭發展演變的進程中,軍事博弈已由平面戰場、立體戰場向虛擬多維戰場延伸,戰爭的形態、作戰方式和作戰手段正發生革命性變革,贏得未來戰爭勝利不再依靠子彈和炸藥而是字節和字符串,不再依靠軍隊規模而是依靠殭屍網絡的數量,必將孕育和催生新的作戰理論。加快網絡空間作戰理論創新研究,系統分析人類戰爭的歷史演變,尋找戰爭的共同特點和規律,探索軍事領域可能出現的新思想、新理論,深入研究網絡空間作戰理論、作戰原則、作戰樣式,以及網絡空間作戰的力量體系的要素組成,科學判斷各要素自身及相互關係的變化對網絡空間作戰形態的變化和演進。加強網絡空間作戰制勝機理研究,系統分析網絡空間與物理空間的相互依存、相互制約和相互增強等關係,深入開展網絡空間制權機理、攻擊與防禦機理、作戰效果機理、自組織協同機理等方面的研究,積極探索網絡空間作戰制胜新機理、新途徑。積極探索網絡空間戰鬥力生成機理,著眼國家網絡空間安全戰略,以提高部隊戰鬥力為基點,系統剖析網絡空間戰鬥力生成結構,分析結構中各戰鬥力要素的組成和相互作用關係,科學形成網絡空間戰鬥力生成的新模式,為我軍在網絡空間能打仗打勝仗提供堅實的創新理論。
(四)抓住新一輪信息網絡技術變革重大機遇,大力推動網絡空間安全核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控發展,夯實我國網絡空間安全的技術基礎。
長期以來,美國利用網絡信息技術優勢對別國進行安全威脅,近期針對我國高性能計算實施技術禁運,表明其不會輕易放棄主導國際網絡空間安全的話語權。 “棱鏡”事件後,世界各國普遍意識到,沒有核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控,網絡空間安全的命脈就會掌握在別人手裡,紛紛加大自主可控信息網絡建設力度。當前,世界範圍內新一輪信息網絡技術正迎來新的發展浪潮,大數據、物聯網、量子信息、雲計算等新興前沿技術的發展,正推動傳統信息網絡技術進入更新換代階段,推動網絡空間的技術基礎、系統形態和安全機理髮生深刻變化。應充分利用信息網絡技術更新換代的寶貴“時間窗”,聚焦前沿新興領域中對網絡空間安全具有基礎性、全局性影響的核心關鍵技術,加大自主信息網絡技術和自主信息產業發展力度,持續推進“核高基”重大專項,積極營造自主可控應用的生態環境,下決心擺脫網絡空間安全核心關鍵技術受制於人的被動局面,將國家網絡空間安全的技術和產業發展的命脈牢牢掌控在自己手中。
(五)充分發揮我國製度優勢,推進我國網絡空間安全力量軍民融合式發展,科學構建軍民聯動、平戰結合的國家網絡空間安全體系
網絡空間具有“平戰結合、軍民一體”的特點,決定了網絡空間安全體系必須採取軍民融合發展模式。美國國防部新版網絡空間安全戰略的重要特點,就是廣泛動員軍民人力、技術和產業資源,加快在網絡空間形成突出的軍事和技術優勢。我國應充分發揮制度優勢和網絡大國的優勢,積極推動網絡空間作戰力量的軍民融合發展,充分吸納軍隊、地方專業技術力量以及孕育在民間的網絡攻防人才,形成國家統一指揮體制下的各方“主力軍”和“游擊隊”相結合的力量體系;通過完善構建軍民融合的組織領導、規劃計劃、協同創新和產業發展的國家網絡空間安全體系,推動軍民兩用網絡信息技術的發展,優化軍民兩用網絡信息產業佈局,加快形成“既能馳騁市場又能決戰沙場”的信息科技產業基礎;建立完善軍民融合網絡國防動員體系,明確網絡空間安全軍民聯動體制和運行機制,推動軍民融合的網絡空間行動聯合演習,積極探索如何在網絡空間中發揮人民戰爭威力,凝聚制衡強敵、反對霸權的巨大能量,實現我國由網絡大國向網絡強國的飛躍。

China Information Warfare – China’s Basic Form of a Future War //中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

In the 21st century, the rapid development of high technology and extensive application, and promote the development and evolution of combat weapons and equipment, and promote the transformation and innovation and the development of institutional military doctrine, which triggered a new revolution in military affairs. Information warfare will eventually replace mechanized war, become the basic form of war. Information warfare refers to occur in the information age, information-based, using information technology as a tool of war weaponry of war. Information warfare does not change the nature of war, but the war must take into account the outcome of the mentor and the consequences of war, first in the pursuit of strategic guidance on how to achieve “the enemy without fighting the soldiers,” the strategic victory, the kind of large-scale physical destruction at the expense of traditional warfare will be greatly constraints and limitations.

Knowledge has become the main source of war to destroy the force  on the right in terms of information (quantity and quality) dependence, the past is not any war and information war. In conventional war, the two sides focus more on comprehensive contest on the basis of physical force. Such as mechanized war, mainly for steel contest, contest the whole country is full of large industrial machinery production capacity. Information war contest does not exclude physical force, but more important is the contest of knowledge, innovation ability and speed of innovation contest. Knowledge will become the main source of war to destroy force, “an ounce of effect of silicon computer generated perhaps more than a ton of uranium is also big.”

Firepower, mobility, information, constitute an important part of modern military combat capability, and the ability of information has become the primary indicator to measure the level of combat capability. Information capabilities, performance in terms of information acquisition, processing, transmission, and use of confrontation, to be manifested through information superiority and competition control. Information superiority, in essence, in the understanding of the enemy at the same time prevent the enemy to understand one’s own situation, confrontation is a dynamic process. It has become a fight for air supremacy, command of the sea, land control of the premise of a direct impact on the process and outcome of the war. Of course, people will always be the master of information warfare. Plan and organize and direct the war from people completely dominated increasingly dependent on technology to develop human-machine combination of military quality requirements are higher. Information from the advantages of competition to the final decision superiority into more competitive knowledge and wisdom.

War forces will move toward information, intelligence  forces of war are directly and indirectly referred to the various forces for war, to fight the information war, natural rely heavily on information, intelligence and information technology military weapons and equipment.

The most basic of war, the most significant feature is the use of the most advanced scientific and technological achievements to create the most advanced instruments of war. Information weapons and equipment is developed on the basis of mechanized equipment, such as C4ISR systems, precision-guided weapons, information warfare equipment and various high-tech combat platforms.They are highly knowledge-intensive tools of war, and thus can not be compared with the traditional tools of war performance, functionality, operational capabilities and effectiveness. At the same time, they play to the performance level and the operational level, directly restricted information, information systems and information capabilities.   The army is the army of information technology refers to using information technology to weapons armed with the information age. Its unprecedented level of integration will enhance the overall combat capability more powerful, emphasizing optimal combination of combat capability, the services are just part of joint combat forces. At the same time, the size of the forces become smaller, more flexible and diverse forms of grouping, vertical command structure will also benefit from the tree into a flat network architecture. From the subordinate command relationship changed multilayer horizontal communication, and down one command relationships, delayering, put as many combat units into the same level of information, information sharing, shorten the information flow to meet the real-time command decision Claim.

War mode will tend to systematic, precise  Technological development determines the evolution of tactics. With the development of weapons and equipment, the scale of war is also growing, the most prominent battlefield extended to three-dimensional space from the plane: from land to sea and air space, and then, from the visible to the invisible electromagnetic space and information space, it has formed armed day one dimensional, tangible and intangible space space Blending the new operational environment. This network battlefield is great depth, three-dimensional high, dilute the distinction between front and rear, major changes have taken place in time and space, both traditional air, naval, marine, electronic warfare, and more will be a new web-based attacks information warfare. Rely on the support of information networks, through the orderly flow of information, all combat operations within the space really blending together.

In the past, a new weapon tends to cause relatively large impact, obtain better operational effectiveness. But in the modern battlefield, the two sides are no longer hostile confrontation between a single or a few branches, but not a single weapon system confrontation, but confrontation between systems. In the information war, the extent of such a system of confrontation and even more will not emphasize the operational performance of tanks, aircraft, warships and other single combat platform, but rather to highlight the overall performance of information technology weaponry system, pay attention to multiple armed services, comprehensive combat effectiveness of a variety of weapons and equipment.

Destroy the enemy is an important part of the war. Mechanized warfare, anti-surface fire mostly destroyed, such as fire suppression, carpet bombing, saturation-type attacks. This operational mode corresponding to the extensive mode of production of the industrial age, reflecting the idea of a war of attrition, to victory in that time, space, energy, supplies and other aspects of continuous consumption and weaken the power of the enemy, and finally defeat the enemy. The precision strike in line with the characteristics and requirements of the information age, but also reflects the basic characteristics of information warfare. Intensive production model of the information age emphasizes effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness. Weapons and equipment level of intelligence and combat accuracy was greatly improved, can be done “pinpoint” type of destroyed; also can be accurate, non-physical damage, such as psychological warfare and information warfare. In addition, the precision strike can also significantly reduce collateral damage, so that the development and the process of social civilization synchronization war, war means more conducive to play its unique role.

Course of the war would be short, controlled – the rhythm of information warfare significantly accelerated course of the war will become shorter and shorter, but the intensity is getting high, and humanity as a whole control of the war also significantly enhanced.   Army should pay more attention to the quality of the information age and effectiveness. Winning quality from quantity into winning, it is one of the significant change in the war. Such as the combination of high-tech precision-guided weapons and combat platforms used to enhance the ability of the enemy to combat the standoff embodiment, can greatly reduce the loss of one’s own operations; continually improve the accuracy of the attack, it can greatly reduce the number of weapons consumption. World War II in 9000 to use bombs to blow up a goal, now 1-2 as long as missiles or guided bombs can solve the problem, operational tempo and the natural process will be faster.

Layers of advancing successive war, set small victories, this contact, wire is typical of traditional methods of warfare combat visual feedback. In information warfare, from the contact, non-line operations will be the main form of combat operations will be launched simultaneously in all the whole depth of space combat and battlefield, the primary targets will point directly to the enemy center of gravity. Especially powerful information warfare, even in the enemy without the knowledge of the state, it is possible to make several hacker instant enemy paralyzed economic and social, to quickly achieve the purposes of war.

Source: http://www.china001.com/

Original Mandarin Chinese:

進入21世紀,高技術的迅猛發展和廣泛應用,推動了武器裝備的發展和作戰方式的演變,促進了軍事理論的創新和編制體制的變革,由此引發新的軍事革命。信息化戰爭最終將取代機械化戰爭,成為未來戰爭的基本形態。信息化戰爭是指發生在信息時代、以信息為基礎、以信息化武器裝備為戰爭工具的戰爭。信息化戰爭不會改變戰爭的本質,但戰爭指導者必須考慮到戰爭的結局和後果,在戰略指導上首先追求如何實現“不戰而屈人之兵”的全勝戰略,那種以大規模物理性破壞為代價的傳統戰爭必將受到極大的約束和限制。

知識成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源

就對信息(數量和質量)的依賴程度而言,過去的任何戰爭都不及信息化戰爭。在傳統戰爭中,雙方更注重在物質力量基礎上的綜合較量。如機械化戰爭,主要表現為鋼鐵的較量,是整個國家機器大工業生產能力的全面競賽。信息化戰爭並不排斥物質力量的較量,但更主要的是知識的較量,是創新能力和創新速度的競賽。知識將成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源,“計算機中一盎司矽產生的效應也許比一噸鈾還大”。

火力、機動、信息,是構成現代軍隊作戰能力的重要內容,而信息能力已成為衡量作戰能力高低的首要標誌。信息能力,表現在信息獲取、處理、傳輸、利用和對抗等方面,通過信息優勢的爭奪和控制加以體現。信息優勢,實質就是在了解敵方的同時阻止敵方了解己方情況,是一種動態對抗過程。它已成為爭奪制空權、制海權、陸地控制權的前提,直接影響著整個戰爭的進程和結局。當然,人永遠是信息化戰爭的主宰​​者。戰爭的籌劃和組織指揮已從完全以人為主發展到日益依賴技術手段的人機結合,對軍人素質的要求也更高。從信息優勢的爭奪到最終轉化為決策優勢,更多的是知識和智慧的競爭。

戰爭力量將走向信息化、智能化

戰爭力量是可直接和間接用於戰爭的各種力量的統稱,打信息化戰爭,自然離不開信息化、智能化的武器裝備和信息化軍隊。

戰爭最基本、最顯著的特徵,就是利用當時最先進的科學技術成果製造最先進的戰爭工具。信息化武器裝備是在機械化裝備基礎上發展起來的,如C4ISR系統、精確制導武器、信息戰裝備和各種高技術作戰平台等。它們都是知識高度密集型的戰爭工具,因而具備傳統戰爭工具無法比擬的性能、功能、作戰能力和效果。同時,它們作戰效能的高低和發揮程度,直接受到信息、信息系統和信息能力的製約。

信息化軍隊是指用信息化武器裝備武裝起來的信息時代的軍隊。其一體化程度將空前提高,整體作戰能力更強大,強調作戰能力的優化組合,各軍種都只是聯合作戰力量的一部分。同時,兵力規模將趨於小型化,編組形式更加靈活多樣,指揮體制也將從垂直樹狀結構轉變為扁平網絡結構。即從上下級多層指揮關係改為橫向溝通、上下一體的指揮關係,減少層級,把盡可能多的作戰單元納入同一個信息層次,實現信息共享,縮短信息流程,以滿足實時化指揮決策的要求。

戰爭模式將趨於體系化、精確化

技術的發展決定著戰術的演變。隨著武器裝備的發展,戰爭規模也在日益擴大,突出表現為戰場從平面向立體空間擴展:由陸地到海洋再到空中和太空,從有形空間到無形的電磁和信息空間,已形成了陸海空天四維一體、有形空間與無形空間相互交融的新型作戰環境。這種網絡化戰場是大縱深、高立體的,前後方區別淡化,時空觀都發生了重大變化,既有傳統的空戰、海戰、陸戰、電子戰,更會出現全新的以網絡攻擊為主的信息戰。依靠信息網絡的支撐,通過信息的有序流動,所有作戰空間內的作戰行動真正地融合為一體。

過去,一件新式武器往往會造成比較大的影響,獲得較好的作戰效果。但在現代戰場上,敵對雙方已不再是單一或少數軍兵種之間的對抗,更不會是單一武器系統的對抗,而是體係與體系的對抗。在信息化戰爭中,這種體系化對抗的程度更甚,將不再強調坦克、飛機、軍艦等單件作戰平台的作戰性能,而是突出信息化武器裝備體系的整體效能,注重發揮多個軍種、多種武器裝備的綜合作戰效能。

消滅敵人是戰爭的重要內容。在機械化戰爭中,火力摧毀主要是面殺傷,如火力壓制、地毯式轟炸、飽和式攻擊等。這種作戰方式對應於工業時代的粗放型生產模式,反映了消耗戰的思想,制勝之道在於從時間、空間、能源、補給等方面不斷消耗和削弱敵人的力量,最後戰勝敵人。而精確打擊符合信息時代的特徵和要求,也反映了信息化戰爭的基本特點。信息時代的集約型生產模式講求效能、效率、效益。武器裝備的智能水平和打擊精度也獲得極大的提高,可做到“點穴式”的摧毀;同時還可以進行精確的非物理性毀傷,如心理戰、信息戰等。另外,精確打擊還可以大幅度降低附帶毀傷,使戰爭的發展與社會文明進程同步,更有利於戰爭手段發揮其獨特作用。

戰爭進程將是短暫的、可控的

信息化戰爭的節奏明顯加快,戰爭進程將變得越來越短,但強度卻越來越高,而人類對戰爭的整體控制能力也在顯著增強。

信息時代的軍隊更注重質量和效能。由數量製勝轉變為質量製勝,是戰爭發生的顯著變化之一。如精確制導武器和高技術作戰平台的結合使用,增強了從敵人防區外實施打擊的能力,可大大降低己方的作戰損失;攻擊精度的不斷提高,可大大減少武器消耗數量。第二次世界大戰中要用9000枚普通炸彈才能炸毀一個目標,現在只要1-2枚導彈或製導炸彈就可以解決問題,作戰節奏和進程自然會越來越快。

層層推進,逐次交戰,集小胜為大勝,這種接觸式、線式作戰是傳統作戰方法的典型直觀反映。而在信息化戰爭中,脫離接觸式、非線式作戰將成為主要形式,作戰行動將在所有作戰空間和戰場全縱深同時展開,首要打擊目標將直接指向敵人重心。尤其是信息戰威力巨大,甚至在敵人毫不知情的狀態下,幾個黑客頃刻間就有可能令敵國經濟和社會陷入癱瘓,從而迅速達成戰爭目的。