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Full Text of China Military Reform Commission //中華人民共和國軍委發布軍事改革意見全文

Full Text of China Military Reform Commission

中華人民共和國軍委發布軍事改革意見全文

http://news.sina.com   2016年01月01日

戰略火箭軍

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, January 1 – Approved by the CMC Chairman Xi Jinping, the Central Military Commission recently issued “on deepening the reform of national defense and military advice.”

“Opinions” stressed eighteen since the party’s Central Military Commission and President Xi on the realization of strong military objectives, overall army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized, co-ordinate military construction and operation, co-ordination of economic development and national defense construction develop military strategic policy under the new situation, and proposed a series of major policies and principles, make a series of major decisions and plans. Implement the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission and President Xi major strategic planning and strategic design, we must deepen defense and military reform, full implementation of the reform and strengthening the military strategy, unswervingly take the road of Chinese characteristics, a strong army.

“Opinions” that deepen defense and military reform guiding ideology, thoroughly implement the party’s 18 and eighteenth session of the Third, Fourth, Fifth Plenum, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, “Three represents “important thought, the scientific concept of development as guidance, thoroughly implement the important speech of President Xi series is especially important to discuss defense and army building, according to the” four comprehensive “strategic layout requirements in order to target the party strong army under the new situation is lead and implement the military strategic principle in the new situation, the full implementation of the reform strategy of strengthening the military, efforts to address the constraints of national defense and military development of the institutional barriers and structural problems, policy issues, and promote the modernization of the military organizational form, further emancipate and develop combat effectiveness, further liberation army and enhance the vitality of the construction with China’s international status commensurate with the interests of national security and development to adapt to the consolidation of national defense and powerful armed forces, to achieve “two hundred years” goal to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream to provide a strong assurance.

“Opinions” stressed, deepen reform of national defense and the armed forces should adhere to the following basic principles: adhere to the correct political orientation, focusing adhere to fight, persist in innovation-driven, adhere to the system design, adhere to the rule of law thinking, actively and steadily adhere to.

“Opinions” that deepen defense and military reform overall objective is to firmly grasp the principle of “total JMC tube, main battle theater, built in the main military services” to the leadership of the management system, joint operational command system reform, focusing on promoting the coordination of the scale structure , policy and institutional reform and the development of military and civilian integration depth. 2020, a breakthrough in the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, optimizing the size of the structure, improve the policy system to promote achieved important results on the integration of military and civilian aspects of the depth development of reform, efforts to build able to win the information war effectively fulfill its mission mandate Chinese characteristics of modern military system, and further improve the military system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

“Opinions” to define the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, the size of the military structure, forces, and military personnel training, policies and systems, military and civilian integration, Wuzhuangjingcha Forces Command management system and force structure, military legal system and other aspects of major task.

“Opinions” stressed deepen defense and military reform is a holistic, revolutionary change, must always be under the unified leadership of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the study, thoroughly implement the spirit of the Central Military Commission Reform Work Conference, adhere to strengthen education, unity Thought throughout, to strengthen the responsibility to implement the fine drop throughout to promote the law, moving steadily through to the end, the bottom line thinking, risk management and control throughout, with strong organizational leadership to ensure that the reform task is satisfactorily completed.

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CMC views on deepening the reform of national defense and army (full text)

To implement the Party Central Committee and President Xi’s strategic decisions and directions, push forward to deepen defense and military reform, made the following comments.

First, the significance of the reform of the guiding ideology and basic principles

(A) significant. Deepen defense and military reform, China is to realize a dream, the dream of a strong army requirements of the times, is the only way the army Hing strong army, the army also decided to move a key to the future. Eighteen years, the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the party’s study on the realization of a strong army targets, co-ordinate the army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized, co-ordinate military construction and operation, co-ordination of economic development and national defense construction, the development of the new situation military strategy proposes a series of major policies and principles, make a series of major decisions and plans. Implement the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission and President Xi major strategic planning and strategic design, we must deepen defense and military reform, full implementation of the reform and strengthening the military strategy, unswervingly take the road of Chinese characteristics, a strong army. This is to deal with in today’s world of unprecedented large change in the situation will inevitably require the effective maintenance of national security; adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, promote the coordination necessary requirement “four comprehensive” strategic layout; the goal is to implement a strong army and military strategic policy , fulfill military missions and tasks necessary requirement. The army to fully understand the importance of deepening the reform of national defense and military necessity urgency, a high degree of historical awareness and a strong mission to play unswervingly deepen defense and military reform, efforts to hand over the party and the people a satisfactory answer.

(B) the guiding ideology. Thoroughly implement the party’s 18 and eighteenth session of the Third, Fourth, Fifth Plenum, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of “Three Represents”, the scientific concept of development as guidance, thoroughly implement the learning Chairman of the series especially important speech of defense and army building important expositions, in accordance with the “four comprehensive” strategic layout requirements in order to target the party strong army under the new situation for the lead, must implement the military strategic principle in the new situation, the full implementation of a strong army reform strategy, efforts to address the constraints of national defense and military development of institutional barriers and structural problems, policy issues, and promote the modernization of the military organizational form, further emancipate and develop combat effectiveness, further emancipate and enhance the vitality of the armed forces, building commensurate with China’s international status, with national security and development interests compatible consolidate national defense and powerful armed forces, to achieve “two hundred years” goal to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream to provide a strong guarantee power.

(C) the fundamental principles

– Adhere to the correct political orientation. Consolidate and improve the party’s absolute leadership over the army’s fundamental principle and system, keeping the nature and purpose of the people’s army, and carry forward the glorious tradition and fine style of our military, the full implementation of the CMC chairman has overall responsibility to ensure that the military command of the supreme leadership of the Party Central Committee to focus on, CMC.

– To insist on focusing war. To adapt the form of war and the world development trend of the evolution of the military, fighting the only firmly established the fundamental standards, and effectively solve the preparations for military struggle to overcome difficult problems and combat heavy construction weaknesses, build integrated joint operations system, to enhance the army can fight, the ability to win the war.

– Adhere to innovation-driven. Implement through science and technology strategy, give full play to innovation in military theory, military technological innovation, military organizational innovation, management innovation traction and military role in promoting efforts to achieve military modernization construction by leaps and bounds, to seek greater military competitive advantage.

– Adhere to the system design. Grasping the reform initiatives of relevance, coupling, correctly handle the top-level design and stratification docking, long-term layout and transitional arrangements, supporting policy reform and relations, so that the reform and promote each other, complement each other to form the overall effect, best effect.

– Uphold the rule of law thinking. Give full play the leading role of the rule of law and norms of the reform, so that major reforms in the legal basis, reform and harmonize legislation, focusing on the use of curing the results of reform laws and regulations, to promote the rule of law reform on track.

– Actively and steadily adhere. Both our minds, trying to make this reform a breakthrough in the reform, and based on reality, steady hoof walked quickly grasp the rhythm of reform, the reform of control risk, take progressive, open the path of reform, to ensure high degree of stability and centralized.

Second, the overall objectives of the reform and main tasks

(1) the overall goal. Firmly grasp the principle of “total JMC tube, main battle theater, built in the main military services” to the leadership of the management system, joint operational command system reform, focusing on promoting the coordination of the scale structure, policies and systems and the development of military and civilian integration depth reform. 2020, a breakthrough in the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, optimizing the size of the structure, improve the policy system to promote achieved important results on the integration of military and civilian aspects of the depth development of reform, efforts to build able to win the information war effectively fulfill its mission mandate Chinese characteristics of modern military system, and further improve the military system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Accordance with the overall objectives and requirements, in 2015, focused on the implementation of organizational leadership and management system, joint operational command system reform; in 2016, organizing the implementation of the military structure and the size of a combat force structure, institutions, armed forces reform, basically completed the task of reforming stage; 2017 2020, for further adjustments related areas of reform, optimize and improve, continue to promote the reform in various fields. Policy regimes and civilian integration depth development and reform, promoting a mature one.

(2) leadership and administration system. Focus on strengthening the Central Military Commission centralized and unified leadership, strengthen strategic planning JMC authorities, strategic command, strategic management functions, optimizing the CMC Organs configuration and institutional settings, improve military services and new combat forces leadership and management system, the formation of decision-making, enforcement and oversight powers both check each other and coordinate the operation of the system.

Starting from the positioning functions, according to prominent core functions, integrate similar functions and strengthen oversight functions, fulfilling the coordination function of thinking, adjustment and reform of the Central Military Commission of Organization, headquarters for the system to adjust the multi-sectoral system. JMC delegated authority to act in the military services building functions, stripped specific management functions, merge similar adjustment similar functions, reducing the level of leadership, streamlining staffing and units directly under the command make, construction, management and supervision of four link more clear, decision-making, planning, implementation , the evaluation function configuration is more reasonable.

Sound armed services leadership and management system, optimize the configuration and functions of the organs of the military services institutional settings play an important role in the construction and management of the armed services and Security. Logistical support adjustment and reform leading management system, based on the existing joint logistics system, adjust and optimize the configuration and security forces leadership and command relationships and build joint operational command system to adapt, sub-system integration, through logistical support system designed two lines. Reform equipment development leadership and management system, build centralized system managed by the Central Military equipment department, armed services concrete construction and management, theater joint use of the institutional framework, the development of equipment construction to the Central Military equipment sector – the military services and equipment sector institutions, equipment management to ensure the implementation of the Central Military equipment sector – the military services and equipment sector – force security sector institutions. Strengthen the unified leadership of the national defense mobilization system.

(3) the joint operational command system. Adaptation Integrated Joint Operational Command requirements, establish and improve the Central Military Commission, the theater two joint operational command system, build peacetime one, normal operation, specially the main, capable and efficient, strategic and operational command system. Readjust the designation of the theater.

According to joint operations, joint command of the requirements, adjust the specification refers to linking the Central Military Commission, the military services, operational command functions of the Union refers to the theater and theater military services. And joint operational command system to adapt, and improve joint training system.

(4) the size of the military structure. Adhere to the road of fewer but better troops with Chinese characteristics and speeding up the army from quantity to quality and efficiency changes. Active duty military posts cut 300,000 troops gradually reduced the size of the 2.3 million 2 million. Optimize the proportion of military services, reduce non-combat institutions and personnel. Yajian officer positions.Optimization of weaponry scale structure, reduce equipment types of models, elimination of old equipment, the development of new equipment.

(5) Force compiled. Depending on the strategic direction of the security requirements and operational tasks, adjusting the structure, enhanced functions, optimize the layout, promote the composition of forces to the full, synthesis, and more energy, flexible direction. Optimize the structure of reserve forces, militia Yajian quantity, adjust the layout and strength marshalling mode.

(6) New Military Talents. Training of military personnel to follow the law, to build military educational institutions, military training practice, military personnel training system trinity of professional military education. Sound Central Military Commission, the leadership of the armed services two institutions management system, improve the early, middle and high three training system, adjust and optimize the structure of the scale institutions. Sound professional military education system, building full gamut of full-time professional military education platform. Creative Talents institutional mechanisms to strengthen the institutions and armed forces personnel were sterile.

(7) policy regimes. Military mission requirements and adapt the functions of national policy institutional innovation, further improve the military human resource policies and systems and logistics policies and systems, building reflects the characteristics of military occupation, and enhance the military sense of honor pride policy institutional system. Adjustment of military personnel classification, and gradually establish the rank-dominated hierarchy, to promote the professional military officers, military service system reform, non-commissioned officers system, civilian system. Veterans resettlement policies and improve the management mechanism.Deepening the management of funds, material procurement reform, construction and military wages, housing, health care, insurance and other systems. Full cessation of the armed forces to carry out foreign paid services.

(8) development of military and civilian integration. Full focus on the formation of elements, multi-field, high-effective civil-military integration depth development pattern, building a unified leadership, military coordination, smooth and efficient organization and management system, state-led, demand traction, market unity of the work of running the system, the system is complete, Joining a complete, effective incentive policies institutional system. Categories related fields to promote the reform and improve the regulatory system and the development of military and civilian integration of innovation and development mechanisms.

(9) Wuzhuangjingcha Forces Command management system and force structure. Strengthening the Central Military Commission of the centralized and unified leadership of the armed forces, the armed forces command to adjust the management system, optimize the structure and troop strength compiled.

(10) the system of military rule. Fully implement the Law forces strictly policy, improved army, to achieve fundamental to the administration by law fundamental shift from the way of simply relying on experience working habits and working practices from relying solely on executive order to rely on rules and regulations of the transition from assault-style, campaign-style grab a fundamental change to the way work according to rules and regulations act. Improve the legal system for the military and military Falvguwen system, reform the military justice system and mechanism innovation discipline inspection and supervision system and inspection system, improve the audit system mechanisms to improve the military legal talent management system, establish the rule of law and procedural rules improve the organization, improve national defense and army the level of the rule of law.

Third, the reform of organizational leadership

Deepen defense and military reform is a holistic, revolutionary change, big efforts to promote the wide, deep touch interests, of unprecedented scope, must always be under the unified leadership of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the study, thoroughly implement the Central Military Commission the spirit of reform work conference, adhere to strengthen education and unity of thought throughout to strengthen the responsibility falls fine implementation throughout to promote the law, moving steadily through to the end, the bottom line thinking, risk control throughout, with strong organizational leadership to ensure that all reforms task is satisfactorily completed.

(A) strengthen the responsibility at all levels of play. Party committees at all levels should focus on reform initiatives landing capability as an important political responsibility, improve the leadership of reform, give full play to the core leadership role, mainly to be a good leader first responsibility. Investigation should run through the whole process of reform, deepen the major theoretical and practical issues research, to discover and solve new problems. To establish and improve the supervision and assessment mechanism reform, strengthen supervision and inspection of the implementation of the reform. Each institutional reform departments at all levels must closely cooperate to create synergy, the Central Military Commission to guide the working group set up to further adjust the unit to strengthen tracking guidance, specific guidance, full guidance, the Central Military Commission inspection teams launched simultaneously inspections. Reform of the Central Military Commission and the Office to improve the preparation of the relevant mechanisms play a good co-ordination, supervision, role. Four general headquarters is necessary to do their own adjustment and reform, reform of the army but also a good guide. The new Central Military Commission after the establishment of organs and departments should pay close attention to improve the operational mechanism, into the role as soon as possible, to perform their duties. Newly formed units to adjust and improve the timely establishment of Party organizations, to strengthen the organization and leadership of the reform implementation. Each institution should take responsibility for the aftermath, and properly handle all kinds of problems left.

(B) to strengthen ideological and political work. Organization officers and soldiers in-depth study President Xi series of important expositions on deepening defense and military reform, special education organizations do a good job, deepening ideological mobilization, the army unity of thought and action to the Central Military Commission and President Xi decision-making arrangements . Senior leading organs and Gaojiganbu first common understanding, lead politics, the overall situation, discipline, promoting reform, diligence, under the above rate, the army looks good.The ideological and political work throughout the entire process of reform, the ideological trend of concern at all levels, targeted to do the work, and guide all levels to strengthen political awareness, overall awareness, sense of command and guide the officers and men turn their concepts, new ideas, and consciously from the overall high level of awareness reform unified in emancipating the mind and thought, the correct treatment adjustment of interests, and actively support, support and participate in the reform. Attaches great importance to public opinion to guide online public opinion in particular, to work, take the initiative battle, spread positive energy, to promote the reform to create a good atmosphere for public opinion.

(C) improve solid adjustment of cadres placement. The reform process as a process of strengthening the construction of the contingent of cadres, cadres carry out military standards, establish the correct employment-oriented, adhere to all over the world, merit, ability and political integrity adhere to Germany first, do a good job with leadership adjustment, selecting the right with a good cadres to firmly implement strong military goals, and actively reform plan, strongly supported the reform, the courage to join in the reform of the cadres to use. The proper placement of the backbone with retention, improve the structure together, the scientific development of cadres and resettlement plan for the adjustment, reasonably determine the fate of the advance and retreat of cadres, cadres of concern and resolve practical difficulties. Cadres should promote the reform as a showcase for the best stage talent, tempered and tested in the reform, to become promoters of reform and doers. Veteran is a valuable asset of the party and the army, security services need to carefully prepare cadres continue to work.

(D) the transfer of well-organized transfer scribe. Do a good job of personnel, materials, and funds transfer work to ensure that the old system is not out of control during the transition staff, assets are not lost, all work seamlessly. Strict military land, barracks management and ensure the transfer of the camp barracks facilities to adjust and do remedial work in construction. Comprehensive verification, financial and material base. Follow organizational security of supply in a timely manner to resolve various contradictions and problems encountered in the supply, to ensure continuous supply, not for the leak. A solid job in the transfer of weapons and equipment inventory, well-organized deployment of security equipment, equipment management and strictly implement the provisions.

(E) the strict implementation of disciplinary regulations. The more critical time of reform, the more discipline and rules put in front of the very strict political discipline, organizational discipline, and personnel discipline, financial discipline, discipline, and discipline of secrecy. Strictly political discipline and political rules, resolutely oppose Ziyouzhuyi action on organizational politics. Serious organizational and personnel discipline, adhere to the principle of press policy outlaw follow procedures. Properly handle the reality of military conflicts and problems left by history. Discipline, inspection and auditing departments should strengthen supervision and discipline, and severely punish all kinds of violation of discipline problems during the adjustment and reform.

(F) do a good job overall troop readiness training management. Pay close attention to national security and social stability during the reform period, the development of a major emergency situations response plans to improve and strictly implement the provisions of Gongzuozhidu combat readiness, combat readiness duty to maintain efficient operation of the system at all levels, to ensure that if something happens to timely and effective response. Careful planning organization’s annual military training mission. Strengthen military management, the implementation of security responsibility, to discover and solve trends and tendencies problem, prevent the occurrence of major accidents and cases, maintaining stability and security forces centralized.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

戰略火箭軍

新華社北京1月1日電 經中央軍委主席習近平批准,中央軍委近日印發了《關於深化國防和軍隊改革的意見》。

《意見》強調,黨的十八大以來,黨中央、中央軍委和習主席圍繞實現強軍目標,統籌軍隊革命化、現代化、正規化建設,統籌軍事力量建設和運用,統籌經濟建設和國防建設,制定新形勢下軍事戰略方針,提出一系列重大方針原則,作出一系列重大決策部署。貫​​徹落實黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的重大戰略謀劃和戰略設計, 必須深化國防和軍隊改革,全面實施改革強軍戰略,堅定不移走中國特色強軍之路。

《意見》指出,深化國防和軍隊改革的指導思想是,深入貫徹黨的十八大和十八屆三中、四中、五中全會精神,以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、“三個代表”重要思想、科學發展觀為指導,深入貫徹習主席系列重要講話精神特別是國防和軍隊建設重要論述,按照“四個全面”戰略佈局要求,以黨在新形勢下的強軍目標為引領,貫徹新形勢下軍事戰略方針,全面實施改革強軍戰略,著力解決制約國防和軍隊發展的體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,推進軍隊組織形態現代化,進一步解放和發展戰鬥力,進一步解放和增強軍隊活力,建設同我國國際地位相稱、同國家安全和發展利益相適應的鞏固國防和強大軍隊,為實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供堅強力量保證。

《意見》強調,深化國防和軍隊改革要堅持以下基本原則:堅持正確政治方向,堅持向打仗聚焦,堅持創新驅動,堅持體系設計,堅持法治思維,堅持積極穩妥。

《意見》指出,深化國防和軍隊改革總體目標是,牢牢把握“軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建”的原則,以領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革為重點,協調推進規模結構、政策制度和軍民融合深度發展改革。 2020年前,在領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展,在優化規模結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合深度發展等方面改革上取得重要成果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現代軍事力量體系,進一步完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度。

《意見》明確了領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制、軍隊規模結構、部隊編成、新型軍事人才培養、政策制度、軍民融合發展、武裝警察部隊指揮管理體制和力量結構、軍事法治體係等方面的主要任務。

《意見》強調,深化國防和軍隊改革是一場整體性、革命性變革,必須始終在黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的統一領導下,深入貫徹中央軍委改革工作會議精神,堅持把加強教育、統一思想貫穿始終,把強化責任、落細落實貫穿始終,把依法推進、穩扎穩打貫穿始終,把底線思維、管控風險貫穿始終,以堅強有力的組織領導保證各項改革任務圓滿完成。

中央軍委關於深化國防和軍隊改革的意見(全文)

為貫徹落實黨中央、習主席的戰略部署和決策指示,紮實推進深化國防和軍隊改革,提出如下意見。

一、改革的重大意義、指導思想和基本原則

(一)重大意義。深化國防和軍隊改革,是實現中國夢、強軍夢的時代要求,是強軍興軍的必由之路,也是決定軍隊未來的關鍵一招。黨的十八大以來,黨中央、中央軍委和習主席圍繞實現強軍目標,統籌軍隊革命化、現代化、正規化建設,統籌軍事力量建設和運用,統籌經濟建設和國防建設,制定新形勢下軍事戰略方針,提出一系列重大方針原則,作出一系列重大決策部署。貫​​徹落實黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的重大戰略謀劃和戰略設計,必須深化國防和軍隊改革,全面實施改革強軍 戰略,堅定不移走中國特色強軍之路。這是應對當今世界前所未有之大變局,有效維護國家安全的必然要求;是堅持和發展中國特色社會主義,協調推進“四個全面”戰略佈局的必然要求;是貫徹落實強軍目標和軍事戰略方針,履行好軍隊使命任務的必然要求。全軍要充分認清深化國防和軍隊改革的重要性必要性緊迫性,以 高度的歷史自覺和強烈的使命擔當堅定不移深化國防和軍隊改革,努力交出黨和人民滿意的答卷。

(二)指導思想。深入貫徹黨的十八大和十八屆三中、四中、五中全會精神,以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、“三個代表”重要思想、科學發展觀為指導,深入貫徹習主席系列重要講話精神特別是國防和軍隊建設重要論述,按照“四個全面”戰略佈局要求,以黨在新形勢下的強軍目標為引領,貫徹新形勢下軍事戰略方針,全面實施改革強軍戰略,著力解決制約國防和軍隊發展的體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,推進軍隊組織形態現代化,進一步解放和發展戰鬥力, 進一步解放和增強軍隊活力,建設同我國國際地位相稱、同國家安全和發展利益相適應的鞏固國防和強大軍隊,為實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供堅強力量保證。

(三)基本原則

——堅持正確政治方向。鞏固完善黨對軍隊絶對領導的根本原則和製度,保持人民軍隊的性質和宗旨,發揚我軍的光榮傳統和優良作風,全面落實軍委主席負責制,確保軍隊最高領導權指揮權​​集中於黨中央、中央軍委。

——堅持向打仗聚焦。適應戰爭形態演變和世界軍事發展趨勢,牢固確立戰鬥力這個唯一的根本的標準,切實解決和克服軍事鬥爭準備重難點問題和戰鬥力建設薄弱環節,構建一體化聯合作戰體系,全面提升我軍能打仗、打勝仗能力。

——堅持創新驅動。貫​​徹科技強軍戰略,充分發揮軍事理論創新、軍事技術創新、軍事組織創新、軍事管理創新的牽引和推動作用,努力實現我軍現代化建設跨越式發展,謀取更大軍事競爭優勢。

——堅持體系設計。科學把握改革舉措的關聯性、耦合性,正確處理頂層設計與分層對接、長期佈局與過渡安排、體制改革與政策配套的關係,使各項改革相互促進、相得益彰,形成總體效應、取得最佳效果。

——堅持法治思維。充分發揮法治對改革的引領和規範作用,做到重大改革於法有據、改革與立法相協調,注重運用法規制度固化改革成果,在法治軌道上推進改革。

——堅持積極穩妥。既解放思想、與時俱進,努力使這次改革成為突破性的改革,又立足現實、蹄疾步穩,把握改革節奏,控制改革風險,走漸進式、開放式的改革路子,確保部隊高度穩定和集中統一。

二、改革的總體目標和主要任務

(一)總體目標。牢牢把握“軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建”的原則,以領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革為重點,協調推進規模結構、政策制度和軍民融合 深度發展改革。 2020年前,在領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展,在優化規模結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合深度發展等方面改革上取得重要成果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現代軍事力量體系,進一步完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度。

按照總體目標要求,2015年,重點組織實施領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革;2016年,組織實施軍隊規模結構和作戰力量體系、院校、武警部隊改革,基本完成階段性改革任務;2017年至2020年,對相關領域改革作進一步調整、優化和完善,持續推進各領域改革。政策制度和軍民融合深度發展改革, 成熟一項推進一項。

(二)領導管理體制。著眼加強軍委集中統一領導,強化軍委機關的戰略謀劃、戰略指揮、戰略管理職能,優化軍委機關職能配置和機構設置,完善軍種和新型作戰力量領導管理體制,形成決策權、執行權、監督權既相互制約又相互協調的運行體系。

從職能定位入手,按照突出核心職能、整合相近職能、加強監督職能、充實協調職能的思路,調整改革軍委機關設置,由總部製調整為多部門制。軍委機關下放代行的軍種建設職能,剝離具體管理職能,調整歸併同類相近職能,減少領導層級,精簡編製員額和直屬單位,使指揮、建設、管理、監督四條鏈路更加清晰,決策、規劃、執行、評估職能配置更加合理。

健全軍種領導管理體制,優化軍種機關職能配置和機構設置,發揮軍種在建設管理和保障中的重要作用。調整改革後勤保障領導管理體制,以現行聯勤保障體製為基 礎,調整優化保障力量配置和領導指揮關係,構建與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,統分結合、通專兩綫的後勤保障體制。改革裝備發展領導管理體制,構建由軍委裝備部門集中統管、軍種具體建管、戰區聯合運用的體制架構,裝備發展建設實行軍委裝備部門—軍種裝備部門體制,裝備管理保障實行軍委裝備部門—軍種裝備部門— 部隊保障部門體制。加強國防動員系統的統一領導。

(三)聯合作戰指揮體制。適應一體化聯合作戰指揮要求,建立健全軍委、戰區兩級聯合作戰指揮體制,構建平戰一體、常態運行、專司主營、精幹高效的戰略戰役指揮體系。重新調整劃設戰區。

按照聯合作戰、聯合指揮的要求,調整規範軍委聯指、各軍種、戰區聯指和戰區軍種的作戰指揮職能。與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,完善聯合訓練體制。

(四)軍隊規模結構。堅持走中國特色精兵之路,加快推進軍隊由數量規模型向質量效能型轉變。裁減軍隊現役員額30萬,軍隊規模由230萬逐步減至200 萬。優化軍種比例,減少非戰鬥機構和人員。壓減軍官崗位。優化武器裝備規模結構,減少裝備型號種類,淘汰老舊裝備,發展新型裝備。

(五)部隊編成。依據不同戰略方向安全需求和作戰任務,調整結構、強化功能、優化佈局,推動部隊編成向充實、合成、多能、靈活方向發展。優化預備役部隊結構,壓減民兵數量,調整力量佈局和編組模式。

(六)新型軍事人才培養。遵循軍事人才培養規律,構建軍隊院校教育、部隊訓練實踐、軍事職業教育三位一體的新型軍事人才培養體系。健全軍委、軍種兩級院校 領導管理體制,完善初、中、高三級培訓體系,調整優化院校規模結構。健全軍事職業教育體系,構建全員全時全域軍事職業教育平台。創新人才培養制度機制,加 強院校與部隊共育人才。

(七)政策制度。適應軍隊職能任務需求和國家政策制度創新,進一步完善軍事人力資源政策制度和後勤政策制度,構建體現軍事職業特點、增強軍人榮譽感自豪感 的政策制度體系。調整軍隊人員分類,逐步建立軍銜主導的等級制度,推進軍官職業化,改革兵役制度、士官制度、文職人員制度。完善退役軍人安置政策和管理機 構。深化經費管理、物資採購、工程建設和軍人工資、住房、醫療、保險等製度改革。全面停止軍隊開展對外有償服務。

(八)軍民融合發展。著眼形成全要素、多領域、高效益的軍民融合深度發展格局,構建統一領導、軍地協調、順暢高效的組織管理體系,國家主導、需求牽引、市場運作相統一的工作運行體系,系統完備、銜接配套、有效激勵的政策制度體系。分類推進相關領域改革,健全軍民融合發展法規制度和創新發展機制。

(九)武裝警察部隊指揮管理體制和力量結構。加強中央軍委對武裝力量的集中統一領導,調整武警部隊指揮管理體制,優化力量結構和部隊編成。

(十)軍事法治體系。全面貫徹依法治軍、從嚴治軍方針,改進治軍方式,實現從單純依靠行政命令的做法向依法行政的根本性轉變,從單純靠習慣和經驗開展工作的方式向依靠法規和製度開展工作的根本性轉變,從突擊式、運動式抓工作的方式向按條令條例辦事的根本性轉變。健全軍事法規制度體系和軍事法律顧問制度,改革軍事司法體制機制,創新紀檢監察體制和巡視制度,完善審計體制機制,改進軍事法律人才管理制度,建立健全組織法制和程序規則,全面提高國防和軍隊建設法治化水平。

三、改革的組織領導

深化國防和軍隊改革是一場整體性、革命性變革,推進力度之大、觸及利益之深、影響範圍之廣前所未有,必須始終在黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的統一領導下,深入貫徹中央軍委改革工作會議精神,堅持把加強教育、統一思想貫穿始終,把強化責任、落細落實貫穿始終,把依法推進、穩扎穩打貫穿始終,把底線思維、管控風險貫穿始終,以堅強有力的組織領導保證各項改革任務圓滿完成。

(一)強化各級責任擔當。各級黨委要把抓改革舉措落地作為重要政治責任,提高領導改革的能力,充分發揮核心領導作用,主要領導要當好第一責任人。要把調查 研究貫穿改革實施全過程,深化對重大理論和實踐問題研究,及時發現和解決新情況新問題。要建立健全改革評估和督查機制,加強對改革落實情況的督導檢查。各 級各部門各改革機構要密切配合、形成合力,軍委指導工作組要深入調整組建單位,加強跟蹤指導、具體指導、全程指導,軍委巡視組同步展開巡視工作。軍委改革 和編製辦公室要完善相關機制,發揮好統籌、協調、督促、推動作用。四總部既要做好自身調整改革,又要指導好全軍改革。新的軍委機關部門成立後,要抓緊完善 運行機制,盡快進入角色、履行職責。新調整組建的單位要及時建立健全黨組織,加強對改革實施工作的組織領導。各善後工作機構要負起責任,妥善處理各類遺留 問題。

(二)加強思想政治工作。組織全軍官兵深入學習習主席關於深化國防和軍隊改革一系列重要論述,組織抓好專題教育,深入進行思想發動,把全軍的思想和行動統一到黨中央、中央軍委和習主席決策部署上來。高層領率機關和高級幹部首先要統一認識,帶頭講政治、顧大局、守紀律、促改革、盡職責,以上率下,為全軍做好 樣子。把思想政治工作貫穿改革全過程,關注各級思想動態,有針對性地做工作,引導各級強化政治意識、大局意識、號令意識,引導官兵轉變理念、更新觀念,自覺站在全局高度認識改革,在解放思想中統一思想,正確對待利益調整,積極擁護、支持、參與改革。高度重視輿論引導特別是網上輿論工作,打好主動仗,傳播正 能量,為推進改革營造良好輿論氛圍。

(三)紮實搞好幹部調整安置。把推進改革的過程作為加強幹部隊伍建設的過程,貫徹軍隊好幹部標準,樹立正確用人導向,堅持五湖四海、任人唯賢,堅持德才兼備、以德為先,搞好領導班子調整配備,選準用好幹部,把堅定貫徹強軍目標、積極謀劃改革、堅決支持改革、勇於投身改​​革的好幹部用起來。把妥善安置同保留骨 幹、改善結構結合起來,科學制定幹部調整安置計劃方案,合理確定幹部進退去留,關心和解決幹部實際困難。廣大幹部要把推進改革作為展示才能的最好舞台,在 改革中經受鍛煉和考驗,爭做改革的促進派和實幹家。老乾部是黨和軍隊的寶貴財富,要精心做好老乾部服務保障接續工作。

(四)嚴密組織轉隸交接。認真搞好人員、物資、經費等交接工作,確保新舊體制轉換期間人員不失控,資産不流失,各項工作無縫銜接。嚴格軍用土地、營房管 理,抓好營區營房設施調整交接,做好在建工程善後工作。全面核實經費物資底數。跟進組織供應保障,及時解決供應中遇到的各種矛盾和問題,確保不斷供、不漏 供。紮實做好武器裝備清點移交,周密組織裝備調配保障,嚴格落實裝備管理各項規定。

(五)嚴格執行各項紀律規定。越是改革的關鍵時刻,越要把紀律和規矩挺在前面,嚴格政治紀律、組織紀律、人事紀律、財經紀律、群眾紀律、保密紀律。嚴守政 治紀律和政治規矩,堅決反對政治上組織上行動上的自由主義。嚴肅組織人事紀律,堅持按原則按政策按規矩按程序辦事。妥善處理軍地現實矛盾和歷史遺留問題。紀檢、巡視、審計部門要加強執紀監督,嚴肅查處調整改革期間各類違規違紀問題。

(六)統籌抓好部隊戰備訓練管理。密切關注改革期間國家安全和社會穩定,制定完善應對重大突發情況預案,嚴格落實戰備工作制度規定,保持各級戰備值班體系 高效運行,確保一旦有事能夠及時有效應對。周密籌劃組織年度軍事訓練任務。加強部隊管理,落實安全責任,及時發現和解決苗頭性、傾向性問題,防止發生重大 事故和案件,保持部隊安全穩定和集中統一。

Original Source: XinHua Military News

China Military Theater System Reform Era of Information Warfare //中國軍事戰區制改革信息化戰爭時代中國軍隊應對新安全形勢的重大保障

China Military Theater System Reform Era of Information Warfare 

中國軍事戰區制改革信息化戰爭時代中國軍隊應對新安全形勢的重大保障

習近平中國軍事改革

習近平中國軍事改革

February 1, the PLA theater inaugural meeting held in Beijing. CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping granted flag to the theater and five issued a bull. Theater set up joint operations command structure, the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission in accordance with domestic major strategic decision, made ​​by the international situation changes, China will further promote the reform process in military forces, and greatly enhance the combat capability of the PLA.

Substantive reform: the military establishment system to adapt to new forms of information warfare needs

Military technology, military and military establishment system are the three basic elements of the new military revolution. Mankind has experienced a long weapon cold and hot steel age after the war and military technical thinking in the era of rapid development of mechanized warfare. The late 1970s, the Soviet Chief of Staff, Marshal of the Soviet Ogarkov Given the rapid development of military technology, forward-looking put forward the idea of ​​military technological revolution, which started a new military revolution sweeping the globe; 1997 , the US military put forward the “network-centric warfare” concepts, theories began to appear new military revolution prototype – each a full revolution in military affairs, the military establishment were to promote institutional change by a large development of military technology and weaponry – it by military personnel and weaponry so that the army can be effectively combined to form an overall combat power key.

In 1998, China put forward the “information warfare” concept, explicitly stated that mankind is the fourth military revolution of information technology revolution in military affairs, marking the technical form of human warfare into the information age warfare from mechanized war era. Against this background, the PLA is to follow the above rules, after weapons and equipment technology has made rapid progress, the military regime began vigorously to prepare a series of reforms: December 31, 2015, the armed services mechanism reform is completed, set up a new army, rocket forces, strategic support of three services – army, navy and air force combined with the previous, form a pattern of five armed services; January 11, 2016, to complete the formation of organs of the Central military Commission departments, from the previous four general headquarters, JMC became 15 functional departments; February 1, 2016, five theater adjustment is completed, the previous seven military regions, adjusted to five theater.

The main reason: “military” system become shackles China Military Revolution and the development of military

Original seven military system schematic

Original seven military system schematic

From the founding of the early century, by the comprehensive national strength and defense spending restrictions, military equipment levels remained low, failed to achieve the goal of complete mechanization construction; and, when low domestic railway, highway construction level, under difficult conditions in a nuclear war support large formation in the territory of strategic mobility. By the above two limitations, only the army at the time of partition of defense, so that each major military all have independent ability to respond to a threat of strategic direction.

Nearly 15 years, accumulated through investment in national defense and army reform, China’s transport network has been done, “accessible”, the level of military equipment have been greatly improved – Preliminary mechanization and mobility of fighting units sharply higher, with the from “area defensive shift basis “to” trans-regional mobility. “After greatly improved mobility, combat troops in wartime may implement in different zones under the command of, and therefore no longer need to implement the military management by a specific military.

Also, in the “military” system, military and navy and air force the same level, but also under the jurisdiction of the military air force, and even the fleet, in fact, is the embodiment of “Continental Army” thought, there are some drawbacks: military orders, regardless of military inefficient. This system has become the shackles of China Military Revolution and the development of the armed forces, can not effectively respond to security threats or China is likely to face.

Perimeter security situation and the international situation changes, “theater” made a timely decision.

Theater, from a geographic dimension in terms of a multi-dimensional space, including a broad front, greater depth and possible operational target, it is mainly based on strategic and operational tasks delineated strategic and operational activities of the regional corps with the leadership and command bodies, forces have on the area command, the command level is between the high command and strategic battle between the Legion.The main basis for division of the theater, including changes in the international pattern of perimeter security situation, military strategy, political, economic, military status and geographical characteristics of the country, and many other aspects.

Since the reform and opening up, China’s economic construction has made remarkable achievements in comprehensive national strength rising rapidly driven by changes in national strategy occurred; the Soviet Union, China land border security threat disappeared, and security threats from maritime direction is upward trend, originally established military regime on the basis of the Continental Army can not adapt to the new international situation and the security situation in neighboring China, thereby theater system came into being. In the People’s Liberation Army is divided into five theater, theater should correspond to the east of Japan and the East China Sea direction, corresponding to the western Central Asia and India theater direction, mainly the southern theater direction corresponding to the South China Sea, the northern war zone corresponds to the direction of Russia and Mongolia, as the central theater centered coordinate strategic reserve corps.

Officers appointed theater: Theater five display a mission and future trends

Five theater and officers appointed

Five theater and officers appointed

Officers from the theater can be seen in the appointment of some common: theater five ten military officers are “50,” so relatively young; most of them have experience working at the grassroots level, the so-called “starting in Reggie died five”, which two military officers have battlefield experience; most have received training integrated joint operations command. This shows the five main tasks entrusted to the theater and future trends:

First, combat and theater become the main task is to deter. Eastern theater commanderLiu PLA and western theater commander Zhao Zongqi are returning heroes from the battlefield, with actual combat experience, which is a valuable asset, but also the implementation of the “Military Commission to total, theater battle, armed services main building” in the implementation of the “theater of battle “organizational guarantee.

Second, the integrated joint operations will be the main model for future combat theater. The so-called “integrated joint operations” around unified combat purposes to the combat units, combat elements of highly integrated combat system as the main body, give full play to the overall combat effectiveness, in a multidimensional space combat or fight against the enemy’s fighting style. And the appointment of military officers have a theater at the National Defense University and other institutions of military education integrated joint operations experience.

Third, the theater system will be in constant development and improvement. The theater is a relatively young officers will and individual will, visionary, to accept new things, strong ability; In addition, the relatively young military officers also means working for a long time, can ensure coherence of policy implementation.

With the deepening of Chinese People’s Liberation Army to change the implementation of the system, this massive military force after the founding of foreign unbeaten mighty will rapidly improve combat effectiveness. This not only has a positive significance for peace and stability in the region and the world, but also for the new military revolution on a global scale provides a theoretical and practical aspects of the double “template.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习近平向五大战区授予军旗

习近平向五大战区授予军旗

2月1日,中国人民解放军战区成立大会在北京举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向五大战区授予军旗并发布训令。组建战区联合作战指挥机构,是党中央和中央军委根据国内、国际形势变化做出的重大战略决策,将进一步推动中国部队军事改革进程,并大大提升中国人民解放军的作战能力。

改革实质:使军队编制体制适应信息化战争形态新需要

军事技术、军事力量和军队编制体制是新军事革命的三个基本要素。人类经历了漫长的冷兵器和热兵器时代之后,战争技术与军事思想在机械化战争时代迅猛发展。20世纪70年代末,苏军总参谋长、苏联元帅奥加尔科夫鉴于军事技术的飞速发展,富有前瞻性的提出了军事技术革命的设想,由此展开一场席卷全球的新军事革命;1997年,美军提出“网络中心战”概念,新军事革命的理论开始出现雏形——在每一场全面的军事革命中,均是由军事技术和武器装备的大发展推动军队编制体制变革——它是通过保证军队人员和武器装备有效结合从而使军队能够形成整体作战力量的关键。

1998年,中国提出“信息战”概念,直接指出人类第四次军事革命就是信息化的军事革命,标志着人类战争的技术形态从机械化战争时代迈向信息化战争时代。在此种背景下,中国人民解放军正是遵循着上述规律,在武器装备技术水平得到长足发展后,开始着手大力对军事体制编制进行一系列改革:2015年12月31日,军种改革机制完成,新组建了陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队三个军种,加上此前的海军和空军,形成5个军种的格局;2016年1月11日,军委机关各部门组建完成,从以前的四总部,变成了15个军委职能部门;2016年2月1日,五大战区调整完毕,以前的七大军区,调整为五大战区。

主要原因:“军区”制成为中国军事革命与军队发展的桎梏

原有七大军区制示意图

原有七大军区制示意图

从建国初到上世纪末,受综合国力和国防投入限制,我军装备水平始终较低,未能实现完成机械化建设的目标;并且,当时国内铁路、公路建设水平较低,难以在核战争条件下支持大兵团在境内实施战略机动。受以上两点限制,我军在当时只能进行分区防御,使每个大军区都具备独立应对一个战略方向威胁的能力。

近15年以来,通过国防投入积累和军队体制改革,我国交通网络已经做到“四通八达”,我军装备水平已经得到大幅改善——初步实现机械化,部队机动作战能力大幅高,具备了从“区域防卫型”向“全域机动型”转变的基础。在机动性大大提高之后,部队在战时可能在不同区指挥下实施作战,因此就不再需要由特定的军区实施军政管理。

并且,在“军区”制度下,军区与海空军平级,又下辖军区空军,甚至是舰队,实际上是“大陆军”思想的体现,存在一定弊端:军政军令不分导致效率低下。这种体制已经成为中国军事革命与军队发展的桎梏,不能有效应对中国正在或可能面临的安全威胁。

国际格局和周边安全形势发生变化,“战区”制应时而生

战区,从地理层面来讲是一个多维空间,包括宽阔的正面、较大的纵深和可能的作战对象,它主要是根据战略战役任务而划定的战略战役军团活动区域,设有领导指挥机构,拥有对辖区部队的指挥权,是介于统帅部与战略战役军团之间的指挥层次。划分战区的主要依据包括国际格局的变化,周边安全形势,国家的军事战略,政治、经济、军事力量状况和地理环境特征等诸多方面。

改革开放以来,我国经济建设取得了举世瞩目的成就,综合国力迅速攀升带动国家战略发生变化;苏联解体后,中国陆地边境安全威胁基本消失,而来自海洋方向的安全威胁则呈上升趋势,原先建立在大陆军基础上的军区制度已经不能适应新的国际格局和中国周边安全形势,由此,战区制度应运而生。在此次解放军划分的五大战区之中,东部战区应该对应日本和东海方向,西部战区对应中亚和印度方向,南部战区则主要对应南海方向,北部战区则对应俄罗斯和蒙古方向,中部战区则作为战略预备总队居中策应。

战区主官任命:显示五大战区肩负使命与未来发展趋势

五大战区及主官任命

五大战区及主官任命

从此次任命的各战区主官中可以看到一些共性:五大战区的十位军政主官都是“50后”,相对年轻;大多有在基层任职经历,所谓“猛将起于卒伍”,其中有两位军事主官具有战场经历;大多接受过一体化联合作战的指挥训练。由此可见五大战区肩负的主要任务与未来发展趋势:

第一,作战和是威慑成为战区主要任务。东部战区司令员刘粤军和西部战区司令员赵宗岐都是从战场凯旋的英雄,具有实战经验,这是宝贵的财富,也是落实“军委管总、战区主战、军种主建”中落实“战区主战”的组织保证。

第二,一体化联合作战将成为未来战区的主要作战模式。所谓“一体化联合作战“,是围绕统一的作战目的,以各作战单元、作战要素高度融合的作战体系为主体,充分发挥整体作战效能,在多维作战空间打击或抗击敌方的作战样式。而此次任命的战区军事主官都有在国防大学等军事院校进修一体化联合作战的经历。

第三,战区制度还将处于不断的发展和完善中。此次战区主官都是相对年轻的上将和个别中将,思维开阔、接受新事物能力强;另外,军政主官相对年轻也意味着任职时间长,可以保证政策实施的连贯性。

随着中国人民解放军军改制度的不断深入实施,这支建国后对外大规模用兵保持全胜的威武之师将会快速提高战斗力。这不仅对于地区及世界的和平与稳定具有积极意义,也为全球范围内的新军事革命提供了理论与实践方面的双重“范本”。

Original Source: China MOD

Chinese Military Informatization Construction & Development Process // 中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

Chinese Military Informatization Construction & Development Process 

中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

部队信息化系统-国德建设

中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

For Chinese military informatization construction and development process, these unusual phenomena:

The convening of the National Science and Technology Awards Conference, the General Staff was not always an information technology research institute mountain dew, surprising to get a national scientific and technological progress, become the focus of the conference ……

Since last year, the army accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness model to improve the combat capability based information systems, has taken unprecedented steps ──

Northwest desert, the Air Force Military Air Force organize multiple consecutive number-field conditions at the combat maneuvers in high-performance logistics information system, the formation of a powerful strike capability.

Yellow Sea, the North Sea Fleet led joint exercises Army, Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery Force participation, navy and air-ground early warning radar network integration, surface ships and anti-air fighter pilot together, missiles and submarines Phangan firearms against contract .

At the same time, the military regions, the Second Artillery Force have also organized to improve the combat capability based information system for the goal of joint combat exercises ……

Some may be difficult to link these phenomena together, but military experts familiar with the matter knows: It is a breakthrough in the matter of the army information construction of some key global challenges, open up to accelerate the transformation of the mode of generating combat army ” Renduermo. ” This historic turning point, that is, information from the General Staff of the Institute for a joint military and civilian units of hundreds of thousands of scientists face the challenge, hard research made numerous fruits. Since only “fifteen”, the Institute will include a complete integrated command information system, tactical

200 number of important results such as the Internet, access to a national scientific and technological progress awards, three first prize, second prize 8, 54 military scientific and technological progress award for accelerating the transformation of the army burgeoning mode of generating combat upsurge It provides a strong boost. Heads of the Central Military Commission praised them as the vanguard of the army research front, information technology pioneer!

In the army information construction most need someone to stand up when it is equal to hesitate hesitate cold feet. Face the challenges of future wars, we have no right to say not ready —

“Goad” shock out a piece of paper “military order”

This is an important meeting on army construction and development of information technology, which is a certain integrated command information system project chief engineer, former director Wang Jianxin most unforgettable scene.

Beijing spring of that year, the sun was shining. Just defeated “SARS” Chinese people smile stretch to live in peace, and the Chinese military’s heart, but he is not easy ──

Just a year ago, the Iraq war started, the US military whistling “Tomahawk” missiles pierced the sky in the new century of peace and tranquility. Based on high-performance network-centric warfare command information systems, showing new information warfare style ── information war from the laboratory onto the stage of human warfare.

Before being able to fight the war ended. The rapid development of military reform, a strong impact on the survival and to bring peace and challenges, but also to our military struggle preparation task even more urgent.

By this time, our military information construction has suffered difficulties: the army’s troops, although a lot of built command and information systems, but the larger institutional differences between these systems, interoperability is difficult, restricting the ability to improve our military information warfare.

To achieve “building computerized armed forces and winning the information war,” the strategic goal to come up with effective measures to solve practical problems of our military presence in information technology, according to the head of the Central Military Commission instructions, held at the headquarters of the combat troops comprehensive integration of information technology seminar.

部队信息化系统-国德建设

People are anxious: the meeting has been open for two days, appeared to be the end of Understanding more, talk less approach, and sometimes into the tangle. Chair of the headquarters-led sit still, convened an emergency officer: “so many problems, but we could not get a way, there would not care either weight, simply tell our enemies that we are not ready, a war? Wait?”

“In the military information technology is most needed someone to stand up when it is equal to hesitate hesitate chickened face challenges of information war, we have no right to say not ready!” After listening to headquarters-led criticism Zhefan half and half “dare”, then when Wang Jianxin, director-blood straight forehead: “heads, I recommend a project to develop an integrated command information system as soon as possible.”

Wang Jianxin proposal is certainly not a passing fad. When the world changes in the surging tide of the military, he led the researchers to track real-time, in-depth research to find countermeasures, see the scenes deeply hurt him ──

Participate in exercises of the army, the head of the field in front of the headquarters of the command of all military branches placed a dozen different command terminal system. Force exercises, field command post two command vehicles but not close Unicom, staff officers can only braved the pouring rain to stand outside the car, umbrella propaganda to pass information to each other.

Information technology is the soul of “Fabric capability.” “Village ignition, household smoke,” How can mean clenched into a fist?

As a research institute, to courageously pioneer information technology.Facing the challenges of the times, Wang Jianxin and his research team has already launched a pre-integrated command information system, the development of related software, and even tried in individual exercises.

From that day, leaving them for only 40 days.

Military no joke. Wang Jianxin and lead the struggle of the people day and night, relying on the existing common software, load the temporary transformation of Arms Command messaging software, the fastest to build a simple simulation system, scheduled for the Central Military Commission, the headquarters of the army leadership and senior commanders were three games in a row demo.

First end of the presentation, the scene silence. Shortly after, the head of the headquarters slowly stood up: “This is the prototype of the future integrated command information system in the right direction, ideas and feasible!”

In this regard, the development of an integrated command information system officially approved. Wang Jianxin, representing the whole of the researchers set a “military order”: time node, the timely completion of development tasks!

Thus, only the beginning of the scene: the National Science and Technology Awards Conference, Wang Jianxin as a chief engineer and project representatives, by the party and state leaders cordially received.

Lessons “bombs and one satellite” successful experience, to carry out military and civilian research collaboration to fully mobilize all forces and resources on doing big things, play a game of information construction congress battle —

Take the road with Chinese characteristics and create a miracle latecomer

An order!

That year, the institute researchers to fully weigh the crushing weight of these four words.

New Year’s bell had just struck, two official documents issued at the same time it posthaste: one was hosted by the Institute developed an integrated command information system; another is also an important research project hosted by their research.

Two projects, each of which is winning the information war relations overall are major innovation projects. Complete a separate no easy task, not to mention two projects rolled into one. This allows both up and down the whole feel honored, but also feel unprecedented pressure.

However, duty-bound. You can only forge ahead, no turning back. The Party scientific deployment forces, forces were divided into mouth. When Wang Jianxin as a director-integrated command information system chief engineer, deputy director Yin Hao as the other information systems chief engineer.

Determination difficult, the more difficult road to go. When the research really opened the curtain, threw himself into research, they found the complex and difficult challenge, unspeakable. To develop an integrated command information system, for example, when all military branches have been built all kinds of command information systems have hundreds, thousands more related software.

In the past, they have tried to help an army division engaged in comprehensive integration of information systems, centralized crack hard work half a year before shaping. At this rate, integrated command information system to drag these years to build?

Foreign experience shows that the development of large-scale information systems with high investment, high risk and low success rate characteristics, and construction costs are often substantial period than expected.

How to get rid of this curse? How this mess in the group clarify ideas, scientific and efficient way to find innovation? Party decisions in-depth research, listen to opinions from all parties based on the completion of this major information technology projects, can not copy foreign experience, you must break a large-scale information system with Chinese characteristics developed road.

── Information Integration. Make full use of information technology has been the outcome of troops, not to engage reinvent the wheel, reinvent the wheel, through a unified technical standards and the development of a common software for comprehensive integration. Their army has a variety of command and information systems technology research, software model to build thousands of repeated technical tests, more than 8.5 million words written out feasibility reports, thousands of software will integrate the army into three categories 1700 More than a software component, integrated command post transformed into a typical information system, cross military services, cross-business, cross the comprehensive integration.

── integration of military and civilian research. Lessons “bombs and one satellite” successful experience, to carry out a large collaborative research outside the military, concentrating power. In the headquarters of a unified leadership and strong support, their combined more than 300 military and civilian research institutes, more than 8,000 scientific research personnel integrated command information system research team to carry out joint research.In order to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of scientific research play parties, they proposed “system we build, to build a unified basis, their application to build” collaborative research ideas, pay attention to the wisdom of relying on the team to crack research problems.

── innovative research model. Innovative research and development group model, organizational group of military experts, technical experts, test force three teams simultaneously entering participate in research. Military experts mention needs technical experts engaged in research, test force to verify, identify problems and make improvements, while research and reform in scientific research like the beginning, being kind, setting three stages alike.

Thinking of a change world wide. An outcomes come out on schedule, took home one award after another. Practice has fully proved, based on the actual break our military information construction of this unique research and development path to shorten the maximum period of scientific research, improve research efficiency, to create a miracle after the hair plays an important role.

Like war, like the need to engage in scientific research is not afraid of difficulties and obstacles, indomitable commandos, we are to use this information for the military spirit blaze a new trail construction —

Adhere to the spirit of the Highlands to climb the peak technology

Full year convened That people passionate research mobilization meeting, many speakers we all remember, only when the founding director Wang Jianxin, said the sentence still echo in everyone ear: “engage in scientific research as war need not afraid difficulties and obstacles, indomitable commandos, we need this spirit is for the military information technology to blaze a new trail! ”

You can never erase the memory, because it is deep in the heart ──

That year, an integrated command information system complete prototype development, ushered in the first big test: the headquarters of the organization associated test drills. Early all goes well, it’s when we secretly delight in the core database server system suddenly can not start.

Lunch in the cold days, drill off frosty, indoor tension has reached boiling point. Some commanders and staff officers participating are red eyes, researchers responsible for troubleshooting is sweating, anxiety.

Although failure ruled out, but the exercise was interrupted for half an hour.

“If this scene took place in wartime, will have what dire consequences!” Although the head of the General Staff encourage everyone to put down the burden of traveling light, but Wang Jianxin and researchers know that such systems must not be on the battlefield!

To this end, they began their own “hard hand”: all systems must meet the reliability, all data must be stored on backup, all aspects need to develop contingency plans for the whole process and all elements of the system test.

In those days, each test is full full participation of thousands of software each test cycle, we must work day and night 7 days and 7 nights. Everyone eating instant noodles hungry, thirsty to drink mineral water, sleepy lying in a chair.

There are memorable old expert Dr. Luo Jiangyi starry night for risk. It was a time when information systems joint trial is about to begin, suddenly found an army command information system failure. If not timely troubleshooting, joint trial would be postponed, security testing and commissioning of ten thousand soldiers and equipment will regroup numerous deployments, military leaders and related personnel recite.

3:00, is the director of the Department of Luo Qiang after a busy that situation, the director refused to apply to the Ministry of the vehicle, rushed stopped a taxi on the dark streets, straight over 200 kilometers outside the command post, has been working to 9:00, solve problems and then non-stop back to directing department, continue to participate in joint trial exercise.

Afterwards, a leading training ground said with deep feeling: “This Institute researchers has been able to research a critical moment on the dash, hold up, was under attack, the key is promising army information construction indomitable, selfless dedication pillar. ”

Adhere to the spirit of the Highlands, in order to climb the heights of science. Wang Jianxin father was the army’s telecommunications industry pioneer ── Wang Zheng. War years by his father inherited that spirit, huh research to life, is commonly known as “Tie person.”

Tactical Internet division of the total in the whole, an information systems division vice president Luo Qiang many first-class research backbone, have experience studying abroad, but they are not favorable for foreign material temptations treatment, insist on returning to their careers.

It is this spirit inspired everyone, so, sacrifice commando war years, fear of fatigue, courageously break ──

An integrated command information systems division vice president Cao Jiang for several days and nights of continuous fighting to overcome the difficulties without a break, actually tired late at night on his way home against a tree and fell asleep, woke up until the big rain-fed.

It Zhidong young scientists, for the command and information systems need to adapt to high altitude operations, seven on the snow-covered plateau, overcome severe altitude sickness, collect relevant data, commissioning and installation systems, quality engineering system acceptance by the parent organizations.

Tang Hong, director of a center for the early completion of border command and information system development, and his comrades lianzhouzhuan day and night, working is more than 40 days, collapsed of a heart attack in the field of research. The doctor asked him to be hospitalized, but he took the oral drug in the back, and continue to work overtime until the task is completed.

An information systems division vice president Chen Qiang, the child was born 10 days, he rushed to the field to participate in scientific research work.Years, he rarely home conquests war, like the system from the beginning, being kind to stereotypes, to achieve results, the children have grown up ……

Core technology can not be bought, bought there are risks; mere imitation is not far away, Zhaomaohuahu only produce short-term benefits; rely on the introduction unreliable, dependent on people must be controlled by others —

Independent innovation as information technology basis points

A few years ago, when several major information technology research progressed, one must answer the question put in the front: point where scientific work?

A debate about how to build information systems around the first core part ── “software component” broke out. To reduce the development difficulty, to avoid the risk of the development, it was a standard move member countries, and called for the preparation as such.

Liu Hong, director of a center firmly opposed: “The core software technology, information related to the construction of the foundation of our military problem, we must now independent innovation ‘Zhaomaohuahu’ petty advantages, the future will suffer a great deal on the battlefield..”

Debate the truth. Liu Hung finally persuaded related cooperative units using innovation program, although several times to spend the effort, but it is essential for safe and reliable battlefield.

Debate, has aroused great concern of the Party: In recent years, around the major research projects, the researchers collected a lot of foreign technical information, how to use? It is not copy, or selective absorption?

Security is an integrated command information system “lifeline”, it is also the highest part of the innovation requirements. Young chief engineer Yang led his research team to develop inventive security system. Unexpectedly, a drill, a new virus has led to the chain of command all but paralyzed.

Since that safe, reliable, foolproof protection system was breached. Face the harsh reality, Yanglin they realize there is no innovation in scientific research, once on the battlefield, it is likely to occur “as also Xiao Xiao loser”!

By “stimulus” Yang Lin they followed through completely independent innovation, to create a “safe line of defense in depth”, and the headquarters of the organization in network of high-intensity offensive and defensive drills, and withstood the test.

Profound lesson, so that the party committee set determined: the core technology can not be bought, bought there are risks; simple imitation go far produced only short-term benefits rather than beyond capacity; rely on the introduction unreliable, dependent on people must be controlled by others.Guarantee winning strategic basis must be placed on innovation!

Vision to reach places, the pace to reach. This year, the early development of an information system, due to the electromagnetic information computational complexity, resulting in the battlefield situation map with the actual situation is not synchronized. If this difficulty is not a breakthrough, it may lead to wartime command to make wrong judgments and decisions. To break through this difficulty, a total of 17 members crowded group division in the lab for three days and three nights of research, testing hundreds of times, but never resolved.

Just when everyone was unable to do anything, has been meditating division vice president Cao Jiang suddenly stood up and asked:. “We change in thinking, not the traditional method, use the new algorithm,” everyone shines. Along the way, they not only look to solve the problem, but also to create new ideas developed by our military information systems.

It is even more gratifying that, by insisting on the scientific point of independent innovation, the past few years, this institute by the completion of major scientific research projects, gave birth to a large number of technological achievements with independent intellectual property rights. Only certain innovations integrated command information system generated by the project, it obtained a national scientific and technological progress awards, 22 military scientific and technological progress award, for winning future wars cast a sword.

Information system development is not a “turnkey” project, not once and for all, must follow the military change as demand increases, to achieve “one-year version of a three-year upgrade” —

Fighting services for the military research is the eternal mission

The research work on this history, this may be a unique exception ──

The end of November last year, Liu Hong, director of a center suddenly apply to the General Staff Operations Leadership: Please let me into combat duty on duty!

It turned out that two days ago, Liu Hung learned combat duty in some applications to operate is not easy, but the problem is they can not tell the user. Thus, the application of the special red Liu on duty. Upon approval, she walked into the duty room, find out the software design problems, led the researchers improved.

Research in respect of military service as a combat! Liu Hong won the headquarters-led approach of praise, but the familiar people know, this kind of thing at the Institute abound.

In recent years, some of the developed information systems, have been identified through the stereotypes, with the troops.

But they did not see this as a “turnkey” project, but keeping up with the changing needs of military struggle and technical progress, in accordance with the “one-year version, an upgrade for three years,” the idea, scroll improve and perfect outcomes, and enable improved information systems to keep up with the pace of military reform.

This year, in the promotion of an integrated command information system applications, business director Liu Dongbo found on the system of Artillery situation plotting is too simple and can not accurately display the cluster and related impacts range firepower for combat possible bias .

However, Cheng research unit has felt, due to lack of relevant data and model support, and sometimes difficult to improve. “Fighting for the service is the eternal mission of scientific research, but also solve another big problem.” 刘东波 difficulties and his comrades, the front line to collect data, repeated studies calculus, successfully designed three-dimensional, dynamic, multi-cluster artillery fire hit model , the problem is completely resolved.

According to statistics, only one direction of the theater, the researchers in the application, the size of the find and solve 275 problems and ensure an integrated information system for safe operation.

Deputy director of a center to promote the application of forces to the east in the next bud Tactical Internet, found a strange phenomenon: the equipment in good laboratory performance, when the exercise application, performance is often compromised, repeated analysis also found “root cause.”

East Lei went down to the communications company, together with the soldiers live, train together, and finally reveal the answer: some soldiers to improve maintenance of the new equipment, often after Cawan gun, pulled a gun oil to a new type of radio antenna also rub. The gun oil has an insulating effect, oiled antenna resistance increases, performance naturally weakened.

Thereafter, promote the use of Tactical Internet a few years time, east Lei troops under 20 times, the longest up to 3 months, has found nearly 16 aspects of a problem, and through timely improvement, so that research results fast Xian parade ground.

Only research and operational needs docking, vitality. In this institute, each regarded researchers from the voice forces deemed to promote research and development of the power of each of them reflect the views, the small nor ignored.

Once a theater communication department heads to Beijing act casually about some integrated command information system when displaying the battlefield situation, to show both the macro war on the same screen, and show the specific local situation is even more easy to use.

Speaker has no intention, the listener interested. The presence of a central leadership keenly felt this proposal, to enhance the service function of great value. Immediately, they assigned director Ning early-depth special investigations unit found: needs of the troops involved in many complex technical issues.

“As long as the operational command needs, hard to have to change.” First research tasks at hand rather put down, two local organizations Institute research staff, worked for six months in a row, and finally overcome the difficulties.

End of the year, the head of the theater authorities to apply the new situation display system, successfully organized troops cross maneuvers. To this end, they wrote a special letter of thanks to the headquarters.

Who is the first to occupy the commanding heights of the new technology will come in the future a little more chance of winning the war; who can look into the future direction of development, will have more chips in tomorrow’s game —

Change the world to catch up with the forefront of the military, we are still on the road

Solemn National Science and Technology Awards Conference held night, some information in the General Staff of the Institute hospital scene was emerging, a lot of people quite surprised:

Baitian Gang leaders just took over the award certificate hero who, calm face at night, walking hurriedly went into the research building, open the computer to carry out scientific and technological activities.

Although this day, we are very happy, but did not imagine the kind of people celebrating carnival, toast singing ……

In recent years, faced with fruitful results, the institute every soldiers always maintained an unusual calm:. “Our results compared with the development of military changes in the world, still walking on the road to catch up with neither have a shred of satisfaction, but can not have a shred of slack! ”

Words are the voice. After several important research setting, a research center director who was known as “arraigned” activities, then the whole of the expansion: according to the requirements of the Party Committee, director of the Center dozen turns on stage, mutatis mutandis, the world’s military development representation, find the problem allowed, ideas disarray, who can not “step down.”

Tang Hong, director of a center, focusing on the world’s new technological revolution, about 18 research projects presented. Unexpectedly, in its subsequent “arraigned” in no clearance because: some issues too frontier, some topics are too partial, and some issues too, some topics which makes the lack of maneuverability …… Tang Hong difficult “to step down.”

Management ideas, to find the starting point, to seek long-term. He led Tiaofenlvxi help him sort out, he finally put things into focus key issues, the six directions of information technology and other border and coastal defense.Today, there are six major research breakthrough. Wherein the direction of things declared three sub-topics of major national science and technology projects, border and coastal defense information technology has also been research project.

It is a field that special “arraigned” as they stride into the eternal power that often ranging from scientific research tasks at hand the dust settles, some key research direction has been quietly, struggling to seize the new high ground ─ ─

Just as a center took home dozens of major awards, like a “magician” new technology laboratory studio, created the first in the army, it may be applied to an item magical new technology experiment for the future, here quietly expand.

At the same time, the Institute has 11 research institutions in the United Nations on 34 kinds of products to carry out independent information integration experiment. These budding scientific research, is becoming a new means to meet future challenges.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

對於中國軍隊信息化建設發展進程來說,這些現像不同尋常:
國家召開科學技術獎勵大會,向來不顯山不露水的總參某信息化研究所,出人意料獲得1項國家科技進步特等獎,成為此次大會焦點……
去年以來,我軍加快轉變戰鬥力生成模式、提高基於信息系統的體係作戰能力,邁出前所未有步伐──
西北大漠,空軍組織多個軍區空軍部隊連續進行數場信息化條件下體係作戰對抗演習,在高效能信息系統運籌下,形成強大的打擊能力。
黃海之濱,北海艦隊牽頭,陸軍、海軍、空軍和第二砲兵部隊參加的聯合演練,海軍預警與陸空雷達融合組網,水面艦艇與空中戰機聯手抗導,潛艇導彈與岸島火器合同打擊。
與此同時,各大軍區、第二砲兵也相繼組織了以提高基於信息系統的體係作戰能力為目標的聯合作戰演練……

中國軍隊信息化建設和發展的過程

也許有人很難把這些現象聯繫在一起,但通曉內情的軍事專家深知:正是在事關我軍信息化建設全局的一些關鍵性難題取得突破,打通了加快轉變我軍戰鬥力生成模式的“任督二脈”。這個歷史性的轉折,就是來自總參某信息化研究所聯合軍內外數百家單位、數千科技工作者直面挑戰、刻苦攻關所取得的累累碩果。僅“十五”以來,該所就完成了包括某一體化指揮信息系統、戰術
互聯網等200多項重要成果,獲得1項國家科技進步特等獎、3項一等獎、8項二等獎,54項軍隊科技進步一等獎,為全軍蓬勃興起的加快轉變戰鬥力生成模式熱潮提供了有力助推。軍委首長稱讚他們是我軍科研戰線的排頭兵、信息化建設的先行者!
在軍隊信息化建設最需要有人站出來時,遲疑躊躇就等於臨陣退縮。面對未來戰爭的嚴峻挑戰,我們無權說還沒準備好———
“激將法”激出一紙“軍令狀”
這是有關我軍信息化建設發展的一次重要會議,也是讓某一體化指揮信息系統項目總師、原所長王建新最為刻骨銘心的一幕。
那年北京的初春,陽光明媚。剛剛戰勝“非典”的中國老百姓笑容舒展地享受和平生活,而中國軍人的心頭卻一點也不輕鬆──
就在一年前,伊拉克戰爭打響,美軍呼嘯的“戰斧”導彈劃破新世紀和平寧靜的天空。基於高效能指揮信息系統的網絡中心戰,展現出全新的信息化作戰樣式──信息化戰爭從實驗室走上了人類戰爭的舞台。
能戰方能止戰。快速發展的軍事變革,給生存與和平帶來的強烈衝擊和嚴峻挑戰,也使我軍軍事鬥爭準備任務愈加緊迫。
而此時,我軍信息化建設卻遭遇困難:全軍各部隊雖然建了不少指揮信息系統,但這些系統體制差異較大,難以互聯互通,制約了我軍信息化作戰能力提高。

部队信息化系统-国德建设
為實現“建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭”的戰略目標,拿出有效措施解決我軍信息化建設存在的現實問題,根據軍委首長指示,總部召開了作戰部隊信息化綜合集成研討會。
讓人心急如焚的是:會議已經開了兩天,眼看就要結束,談認識的多,講辦法的少,一時陷入糾結。主持會議的總部領導坐不住了,緊急召集有關人員:“這麼多問題,我們卻拿不出辦法,豈不有負重托?要不,乾脆告訴敵人,我們還沒準備好,請戰爭等一等?”
“在軍隊信息化建設最需要有人站出來時,遲疑躊躇就等於臨陣退縮。面對信息化戰爭的嚴峻挑戰,我們無權說還沒準備好!”聽了總部領導這番半是批評半是“激將”的話,時任所長王建新熱血直衝腦門:“首長,我建議盡快立項研製某一體化指揮信息系統。”
王建新的建議當然不是一時心血來潮。當世界軍事變革大潮湧動之時,他就帶領科研人員實時跟踪,深入研究,尋找對策,看到的一幕幕場景深深刺痛了他──
參加全軍性的演習,現場指揮的總部首長面前擺放著各軍兵種不同體制的十幾種指揮終端。部隊演習,野戰指揮所兩台指揮車近在咫尺卻不能聯通,參謀人員只能冒著瓢潑大雨站在車門外,打著雨傘互相喊話傳遞信息。
信息化的魂是“網聚能力”。 “村村點火、戶戶冒煙”,又怎能攥指成拳?
作為研究所,要勇當信息化建設的開路先鋒。迎著時代挑戰,王建新和他的團隊早已展開了某一體化指揮信息系統的預研,開發了相關軟件,甚至在個別演習中試用過。
從那天起,留給他們的時間只有40天。
軍中無戲言。王建新帶領全所人員不分晝夜拼搏,依托已有的共用軟件,加載臨時改造的軍兵種指揮信息軟件,以最快的速度搭建一個簡易的模擬系統,如期為軍委、總部領導和全軍高級指揮員連續作了3場演示。
首場演示結束,現場沉寂了。片刻之後,總部首長緩緩站起來:“這正是未來一體化指揮信息系統的雛形,方向正確,思路可行!”
就此,研製某一體化指揮信息系統正式立項。王建新代表全所科研人員立下“軍令狀”:按時間節點,如期完成研製任務!
如此,才有了開頭的一幕:國家科學技術獎勵大會上,王建新作為項目總師和代表,受到黨和國家領導人親切接見。
吸取“兩彈一星”成功經驗,開展軍內外科研協作,充分調動各方力量和資源辦大事,打一場信息化建設大會戰———
走中國特色之路創造後發奇蹟
軍令如山!
那年,該研究所科研人員充分掂量到這4個字的千鈞分​​量。
新年鐘聲剛剛敲過,兩份紅頭文件便急如星火同時下達:一項是由該研究所主持研製某一體化指揮信息系統;另一項同樣是由他們主持某重要科研項目攻關。
兩大工程,每一項都關係打贏信息化戰爭大局,都是重大創新工程。單獨完成一項決非易事,何況兩大工程集於一身。這讓全所上下既感到光榮,又感到前所未有的壓力。
然而,義不容辭,責無旁貸。只能奮勇前行,沒有後路可退。所黨委科學調配力量,分兵把口。時任所長王建新擔任某一體化指揮信息系統總師,副所長尹浩擔任另一個信息系統總師。
決心難下,路更難走。當科研大幕真正拉開,全身心投入攻關時,他們才發現面臨挑戰之複雜艱鉅,難以言表。以研製某一體化指揮信息系統為例,當時全軍各軍兵種已經建成各類指揮信息系統有數百種,相關軟件更是成千上萬。
過去,他們曾嘗試幫一個陸軍師搞信息系統綜合集成,集中精兵強將苦乾了半年時間才成形。照此速度,一體化指揮信息系統要拖到猴年馬月才能建成?
國外經驗表明,研製大型信息系統具有高投入、高風險和低成功率的特點,建設成本和周期往往會大幅度超出預計。
如何擺脫這一魔咒?如何從這團亂麻中理清思路,找到科學高效的創新之路?所黨委在深入調研、廣泛聽取各方意見的基礎上決定,完成這項重大信息化工程,不能照搬國外經驗,必須闖出一條中國特色大型信息系統研製開發之路。
──綜合信息集成。充分利用部隊信息化建設已有成果,不搞另起爐灶、推倒重來,通過統一技術標準和研製共用軟件進行綜合集成。他們對全軍已有的各種指揮信息系統進行技術調研,構建數千種軟件模型反復進行技術測試,撰寫出850多萬字論證報告,將全軍成千上萬種軟件整合成3大類1700餘個軟件構件,集成改造成一個個典型指揮所信息系統,實現跨軍種、跨業務、跨領域的綜合集成。
──軍民科研融合。吸取“兩彈一星”成功經驗,開展軍內外科研大協作,集中力量辦大事。在總部統一領導和大力支持下,他們聯合軍內外300多家科研單位、8000多名科研人員組成一體化指揮信息系統攻關團隊開展聯合攻關。為充分調動發揮各方科研積極性,他們提出“系統大家建、基礎統一建、應用各自建”科研協作思路,注重依靠團隊智慧破解科研難題。
──創新攻關模式。創新科研編組和研發模式,組織軍事專家組、技術專家組、試驗部隊3支隊伍同時進場參與科研。軍事專家提需求,技術專家搞攻關,試驗部隊來驗證,發現問題隨時改進,邊研邊改,在科研成果的初樣、正樣、定型3個階段都是如此。
思路一變天地寬。一項項成果如期問世,一個個大獎相繼捧回。實踐充分證明,立足我軍信息化建設實際闖出的這一獨特研發之路,對於最大限度縮短科研週期、提高科研效益,創造後發奇蹟發揮了重要作用。
搞科研像打仗一樣需要不怕艱難險阻、一往無前的突擊隊,我們就是要用這種精神為部隊信息化建設殺出一條血路———
堅守精神高地才能攀登科技高峰
當年全所召開的那場讓人熱血沸騰的科研動員大會,許多發言大家都記不得了,唯有時任所長王建新說的一句話至今還迴響在大家耳旁:“搞科研像打仗一樣需要不怕艱難險阻、一往無前的突擊隊,我們就是要用這種精神為部隊信息化建設殺出一條血路來!”
永遠磨滅不了的記憶,是因為它深深扎在心田──
那一年,某一體化指揮信息系統完成初樣研製,迎來第一次大考:總部組織聯試演練。前期一切順利,就在大家暗自歡欣之時,核心服務器數據庫系統突然無法啟動。
數九寒天,演練場外滴水成冰,室內緊張程度卻達到沸點。參演的一些指揮員和參謀人員都急紅了眼,負責故障排查的科研人員更是滿頭大汗,焦急萬分。
故障雖然排除了,但演練卻中斷了半小時。
“如果這一幕發生在戰時,將產生怎樣可怕的後果!”儘管總參首長鼓勵大家放下包袱、輕裝上陣,但王建新和科研人員都知道,這樣的系統決不能上戰場!
為此,他們對自己下起了“狠手”:所有系統必須達到可靠性指標、所有數據必須存有備份、所有環節必須制訂應急預案,對系統進行全過程全要素檢驗。
那段日子,每次測試都是全員全程參與,數以千計的軟件每測試一個週期,就要連軸轉上7天7夜。大家餓了啃方便麵,渴了喝礦泉水,困了就在椅子上躺一會。
讓人難忘的還有老專家羅強一博士星夜排險。那是一次某信息系統聯試即將開始時,突然發現某集團軍指揮信息系統有故障。如不及時排除故障,聯試就要延期,保障聯試的近萬名官兵和眾多裝備就要重新集結部署,部隊領導和相關人員急得團團轉。
凌晨3時,正在導演部忙碌的羅強一得知情況後,顧不得嚮導演部申請車輛,衝到漆黑的街道上攔了一輛出租車,直奔200多公里外的指揮所,一直工作到上午9時,解決問題後又馬不停蹄地趕回導演部,繼續參加聯試演練。
事後,演練場一位領導深有感觸地說:“這個研究所科研人員之所以能在科研關鍵時刻沖得上、頂得住、攻得下,關鍵是有為我軍信息化建設一往無前、無私奉獻的精神支柱。”
堅守精神高地,方能攀登科學高峰。王建新的父親是我軍通信事業的開創者──王諍。他把父親戰爭年代那種精神繼承下來,搞起科研不要命,被大家稱為“王鐵人”。
戰術互聯網總師於全,某信息系統副總師羅強一等所裡眾多科研骨幹,都有國外留學經歷,但他們不為國外優厚物質待遇誘惑,堅持回國干事業。
正是這種精神激勵大家,像戰爭年代的突擊隊那樣,不怕犧牲,不怕疲勞,奮勇突破──
某一體化指揮信息系統副總師曹江,為攻克難點連續奮戰幾晝夜不休息,竟累得深夜回家途中靠著大樹睡著了,直到被大雨澆醒。
青年科技工作者何志東,為使指揮信息系統適應高原作戰需要,七上雪域高原,克服嚴重高原反應,採集有關數據,調試安裝系統,以優質工程通過上級組織的系統驗收。
某中心主任唐宏,為儘早完成邊防指揮信息系統研製,和戰友們白天黑夜連軸轉,一干就是40多天,心髒病發作暈倒在攻關現場。醫生要求他住院治療,他卻拿著口服藥回到所裡,又繼續加班,直到任務完成。
某信息系統副總師陳強,孩子出生10天,就趕赴外地參加科研工作。幾年間,他東征西戰極少回家,系統從初樣、正樣到定型,取得成果了,孩子也長大了……
核心技術買不來,買來也存在隱患;單純模仿走不遠,照貓畫虎只能產生短期效益;依靠引進靠不住,依賴於人必然受制於人———
把自主創新作為信息化建設基點
幾年前,當幾大信息化科研項目陸續展開時,一個必須回答的問題擺在了眼前:科研工作的基點在哪兒?
一場爭論,首先圍繞如何構建信息系統核心部分──“軟件構件”爆發了。為減少研發難度,避免研發風險,有人搬出某發達國家構件標準,並主張照此編寫。
某中心主任劉東紅堅決反對:“核心軟件技術,事關我軍信息化建設根基問題,必須自主創新。現在‘照貓畫虎’佔點小便宜,將來在戰場上就會吃大虧。”
爭論出真知。劉東紅終於說服相關協作單位採用自主創新方案,雖然要多花出幾倍的力氣,但它的安全可靠對戰場至關重要。
這場爭論,引起了所黨委的高度關注:近些年,圍繞重大科研課題,科研人員收集整理了不少國外技術資料,怎樣使用?是照搬照抄,還是有選擇地消化吸收?
安全防護系統是某一體化指揮信息系統的“生命線”,也是對自主創新要求最高的部分。年輕的總師楊林帶領他的科研團隊,獨闢蹊徑研製安全防護系統。沒想到,一次演練,一種新型病毒就導致指揮系統全線癱瘓。
自認為安全可靠、萬無一失的防護體系卻被攻破了。面對殘酷的現實,楊林他們認識到,沒有自主創新的科研成果,一旦走上戰場,很有可能出現“成也蕭何敗也蕭何”!
受到“刺激”的楊林他們,隨後通過完全的自主創新,打造出“縱深安全防線”,並在總部組織的高強度網絡攻防演練中,經受住了考驗。
深刻的教訓,讓所黨委定下決心:核心技術買不來,買來也存在隱患;單純模仿走不遠,產生的也只是短期效益而不是超越能力;依靠引進靠不住,依賴於人必然受制於人。必須把保障打贏的戰略基點放在自主創新上!
眼光到達的地方,腳步才能到達。這一年,某信息系統研製初期,由於電磁信息運算複雜,造成態勢圖與戰場實際狀況不同步。如果這個難點不突破,可能導致戰時指揮做出錯誤判斷和決策。為突破這個難點,總師組17名成員擠在實驗室,連續3天3夜攻關,試驗數百次,但始終沒有解決。
就在大家一籌莫展的時候,一直在沉思的副總師曹江突然站起來提出:“我們換個思路,不用傳統算法,改用新的算法。”大家眼前一亮。沿著這個思路,他們不僅一下解決了難題,還開創我軍信息系統研發的新思路。
令人更加欣喜的是,由於堅持把科研基點放在自主創新上,幾年來,這個研究所通過完成重大科研項目,催生出一大批具有自主知識產權的技術成果。僅某一體化指揮信息系統一個項目產生的創新成果,就獲得1項國家科技進步特等獎,22項軍隊科技進步一等獎,為打贏未來戰爭鑄就一把把利劍。
信息系統研製不是“交鑰匙”工程,不能一勞永逸,必須緊跟軍事需求變化不斷提高,實現“一年一版本、三年一升級”———
為戰鬥力服務是軍事科研永恆使命
在這個所科研工作歷史上,這或許是一個絕無僅有的特例──
去年11月底,某中心主任劉東紅突然向總參作戰部領導提出申請:請讓我到戰備值班室值班!
原來,兩天前劉東紅獲悉,戰備值班某些應用程序操作起來不太方便,但問題用戶又說不清。因此,劉東紅申請了這次特殊值班。經批准,她走進了值班室,弄清了軟件設計的問題,帶領科研人員進行了改進。
軍事科研就該為戰鬥力服務!劉東紅的做法贏得了總部領導的讚許,但熟悉這個所的人都知道,這種事在該研究所比比皆是。
近年來,這個所研製的一些信息系統,相繼通過定型鑑定,配發部隊。
但他們並沒有把這當成“交鑰匙”工程,而是緊跟軍事鬥爭需求變化和技術進步,按照“一年一版本、三年一升級”的思路,滾動改進完善成果,使信息系統的改進跟上了軍事變革的步伐。
這一年,在推廣某一體化指揮信息系統應用中,業務室主任劉東波發現,系統關於砲兵火力打擊情況的標繪過於簡單,不能精確顯示集群火力打擊範圍及相關影響,用於實戰可能產生偏差。
然而,承研單位卻感到,因缺乏相關數據和模型支持,一時很難改進。 “為戰鬥力服務是科研的永恆使命,困難再大也要解決。”劉東波和戰友們迎難而上,深入一線採集數據,反复研究演算,成功設計出立體、動態、多層砲兵集群火力打擊模型,將問題徹底解決。
據統計,僅某戰區一個方向,這個所的科研人員就在推廣應用中,發現並解決275個大小問題,確保某一體化信息指揮系統安全運行。
某中心副主任向東蕾在下部隊推廣應用戰術互聯網時,發現一個奇怪現象:裝備在實驗室性能良好,可在演練應用時,性能卻時常打折扣,反複分析也找不到“病根”。
向東蕾就下到通信連隊,與戰士一起生活、一起訓練,終於將謎底揭開:有的戰士為了搞好新裝備維護保養,經常在擦完槍之後,順手用槍油把某新型電台天線也擦一擦。而槍油具有絕緣作用,塗油的天線電阻增大,性能自然減弱。
此後,在推廣應用戰術互聯網的幾年時間裡,向東蕾下部隊20多次,最長時間達到3個月,先後發現16個方面近百個問題,並通過及時改進,使這一科研成果快速顯威練兵場。
科研工作只有與作戰需求對接,才有生命力。在這個研究所,每名科研人員都把來自部隊的呼聲,視為推動科研發展的動力,對他們反映的每一條意見,再小也不忽略。
一次,某戰區通信部門領導來京辦事,隨口談起某一體化指揮信息系統在顯示戰場態勢時,要在同一屏幕既能顯示宏觀戰局,又能顯示局部具體情況就更好用了。
說者無意,聽者有心。在場的某中心領導敏銳地感到,這個建議,對提升系統服務功能很有價值。隨即,他們指派室主任初寧深入部隊專題調研,結果發現:部隊的需求涉及眾多複雜技術問題。
“只要作戰指揮需要,再難也要改。”初寧放下手頭科研任務,組織地方兩個研究所科研人員,連續乾了大半年,終於攻克難關。
年終,這個戰區首長機關應用新的態勢顯示系統,成功組織部隊跨區機動演習。為此,他們專門給總部寫來感謝信。
誰搶先佔領新的科技制高點,誰就在未來戰爭中多一分勝算;誰能夠洞察未來發展方向,誰就在明天的博弈中擁有更多籌碼———
追趕世界軍事變革潮頭,我們依然在路上
莊嚴隆重的國家科學技術獎勵大會召開當晚,在總參某信息化研究所院內出現的一幕情景,讓很多人頗為詫異:
白天剛剛從國家領導人手中接過獲獎證書的功臣們,晚上又面容平靜、步履匆匆地走進科研大樓,打開微機,開展科技攻關活動。
儘管這一天,大家都很高興,但卻沒有人們想像的那種狂歡慶祝、舉杯高歌……
幾年來,面對累累碩果,該研究所每名官兵始終保持著一種異乎尋常的冷靜:“我們的成果與世界軍事變革發展相比,依然行走在追趕的路上。既不能有一絲一毫的滿足,更不能有一絲一毫的懈怠!”
言為心聲。幾項重要科研成果定型之後,一項被科研中心主任們稱為“過堂”的活動,隨即在全所展開:根據黨委要求,十幾個中心主任輪流上台,比照世界軍事發展進行陳述,問題找不准、思路理不清,誰也不能“下台”。
某中心主任唐宏,著眼世界新技術革命,一下提出18個研究課題。沒想到,在隨後幾次“過堂”中都沒過關,原因是:有的課題太過前沿,有的課題太偏,有的課題太大,有的課題缺乏可操作性……這讓唐宏難以“下台”。
理思路,找抓手,謀長遠。所領導幫他條分縷析梳理,他最後把攻關課題聚焦到物聯網、邊海防信息化建設等6個方向上。如今,這6個研究方向都有重大突破。其中,物聯網方向申報3個國家重大科技專項子課題,邊海防信息化建設也已經立項研究。
正是這一場場特殊的“過堂”,為他們大步前進注入了永恆的動力,以至於往往不等手頭的科研任務塵埃落定,一些重點科研方向已悄然展開,奮力搶占新的製高點─ ─
就在某中心捧回幾十個重大獎項時,一個猶如“魔術師”工作室的新技術實驗室,率先在全軍創建,可能應用於未來的一項項神奇的新技術實驗,在這裡悄然展開。
與此同時,該所還聯合國內11家科研機構,對34種自主信息產品開展集成實驗。這些含苞待放的科研成果,正在成為迎接未來挑戰的新型手段。

Original Source: X

China Faces Challenge of Combat Interpretation of Latest US Military Information Warfare // 中國面臨美軍最新信息戰作戰解讀挑戰中國網絡戰能力

China Faces Challenge of Combat Interpretation of Latest US Military Information Warfare

中國面臨美軍最新信息戰作戰解讀挑戰

中國網絡戰能力

Soure: X

中國網絡戰

中國網絡戰能力

Reaching aspects during Chinese President Xi Jinping’s visit, the two countries to combat cybercrime and promote the development of codes of conduct in cyberspace consensus, developed a number of cooperation initiatives to maintain network security, the formation of some dispute settlement mechanism, it is intended to address global network security issues. However, the US military in cyber warfare, information warfare is a fight, and actively adjust operational concepts, organizational system, forms of organization, operational processes and information culture, accelerate the development of the field of information warfare capabilities to ensure the Navy to get in a confrontation with major combat rival China’s dominance.

First, information warfare establishment of institution-building

In 2013, the US Navy Intelligence and Communication Networks merged unit information superiority by a Deputy Minister of Naval Operations is responsible for matters related to information superiority, with seven officers and some senior civilian fleet, as well as many professionals engaged in information warfare work in the field of change exist between intelligence gathering and fleet operations during the Cold war barriers, the US Navy to ensure safe use of the network environment to support access to information among the various operations. US Navy Fleet at Fort Dmitry set up Cyber ​​Command, the merger of the former Naval Network Warfare Command in Norfolk, Virginia naval base, he served as deputy commander of the Chief of Naval Operations is responsible for the integration of capabilities and resources, is responsible for the network attack and defense, management, operation and defense of the Navy’s network, as well as other activities related to cyber war, as both the US Cyber ​​Command, the Navy branch, to provide information to the US military combat support.

In the army building, the US Navy established the first 10 Fleet responsible for information warfare, information superiority as the US Navy forces, the development and delivery of information superiority capability to support operational requirements of the US Navy and allies, has formed intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, full operational capacity of the network, command and control, communications, intelligence, electronic warfare, aerospace and other aspects of the transition to the information operations after the US Navy intelligence and cyber warfare important step.

From US Navy surface ships, submarines and aviation sector includes allocated funds to ensure the daily operation of the Ministry of information superiority, training, equipment and procurement, taking into account the construction and development of unmanned aerial systems and electronic warfare systems. Although electronic warfare department, said the electronic attack items (such as the next generation of jammers) transferred from the Air Operations Department to the Ministry of information superiority will weaken budgetary support for electronic attack system, but the Navy said it had recognized that strengthening the field of electronic warfare offensive the importance of strengthening investment in the field of electronic warfare.

Second, the “joint information environment” guarantee the right to information system at sea

According to the US Department of Defense in September 2013 issued a “joint information environment implementation strategies”, “joint information environment” (JIE) is by far one of the largest joint military information technology operations, with the goal of network integration within the DoD overall IT footprint and infrastructure costs of the construction of the Ministry of Defence, the “chimney” of information systems development for the flat network of dynamic information system, providing interoperability of cloud-based enterprise network infrastructure and services, reduce to ensure that the US military battlefield obtain control of information, enhance the capacity of the Ministry of Defence to deal with cyber threats in the field.

“Joint Information Environment” construction focus is to strengthen information sharing and cooperation, the establishment of enterprise-class shared security protocol for configuration standardization, optimizing the routing of data, at the time and place needed to deliver confidential voice, data and information, including almost all joint information DoD information technology work. “Joint information environment” universal, global, based on cloud properties, including network operations center, data center and cloud-based applications and services, identity management systems, based data storage and sharing capabilities cloud structure and review computer technical support, allows the use of any device to achieve the edge of the network operator, to accelerate the integration of command and control network nodes, can guarantee the daily operations and administration while reducing the cost of network operation and management.

Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is responsible for technical management of a joint information environment, the development of the overall architecture of the safety standards, access issues and identity management. July 2013, the US European Command in Stuttgart established its first enterprise-class Operations Center (EOC), responsible for managing the access management information environment within the Joint Command of the US system in Europe and Africa, dozens of command and control nodes under the jurisdiction of merger . In 2014, the US Pacific Command, and enterprise-class operations center in the United States have also launched joint information environment “Delta 1” have reached initial operational capability.

US Department of Defense Joint Information Environment has given a total of $ 239 million to ensure funding for the purchase of core routers, optical network equipment, fiber optic, network devices, storage devices, security tools and other infrastructure, management and maintenance of the Defense Information Systems Network. In the context of budget cuts, the US military had more dependent on commercial space field, planned in 2016 by the local company responsible for global broadband communications satellite (WGS) in daily operations. In the civil-military cooperation in space operations, DISA need to focus on the potential threat so bring, make up the vulnerability of the physical transmission layer.

Third, the face of major combat operations rivals Applications

Navy Information Warfare future construction operations targeting China and other major rivals, based on the field of cyberspace under serious threat in the Western Pacific battlefield environment construction and operation of information and operational deployment to focus on the formation of forward-deployed real deterrent. US military flexibility and emphasizes the use of reliable satellite communications, to support joint information environment physical transport layer, especially for mobile and forward-deployed forces, command and control and ISR equipment to deal with the growing threat of space.

The initial stage of “joint information environment” design applications, the US Navy had stressed in its response cyber threats using a single security architecture (SSA) to reduce the Navy’s networks “cyber attack surface,” the US military response in the face of network damage, theft data and other forms of cyber attacks, to ensure that the US military’s combat information through various channels to secure smooth transmission. If the intruder’s goal is simply to prevent or delay transmission of information, there is no need to pursue a unified security architecture and security code.

Optical Fiber Communication Security System Operation Command Decision Support System is another focus of attention Navy. Currently, 99% of international data traffic through submarine cable transmission, optical fiber communication is the US military’s “joint information environment” an important transport route for the United States to protect allies and overseas military bases of communication and contact. Naval activities is the greatest threat to the submarine cable, submarine cable on the other side of the attack is difficult to prevent, once destroyed will take a long time to repair. Therefore, the Defense Information Systems Agency “Network infrastructure requirements” (NIPR) requires operators to repair the damaged cable within three days, the US Navy underwater submarine cable project team is also responsible for the maintenance and repair tasks to ensure safe and smooth optical fiber communication .

Fourth, call our army building appropriate information warfare capabilities

Faced with aggressive information warfare against the US military posture, Chinese military information warfare must face the challenge to build offensive and defensive information warfare system. Recently, Chinese President Xi Jinping has said it will vigorously promote the revolution in military affairs, the development of “information warfare” new strategies, innovative new military doctrine to fulfill the mission requirements of the system and setup, system equipment, strategy and tactics, management mode. Specific to the field of information warfare is to aim at the US military weaknesses, focusing on the development of anti-satellite missiles, land-based electronic jamming of satellite monitoring and control, high-energy laser to attack satellites and space-based weapons killer weapons, improve the ability of information systems most vulnerable to attack opponents nodes, enhanced network integrated Defense level clouds and terminal element transport layer, dependent on the US military “joint information environment” to implement the most damaging effect, in order to gain the initiative in the local military confrontation or war.

Origianl Mandarin Chinese:

中国国家主席习近平访美期间,中美两国就打击网络犯罪、推动制定网络空间行为准则等方面达成共识,制定了维护网络安全的若干合作举措,形成了某些争端解决机制,意图共同解决全球网络安全问题。然而,美军在网络战、信息战方面正在大动干戈,积极调整作战概念、编制体制、组织形式、作战流程和信息文化,加快发展信息领域作战能力,确保海军能够在与主要作战对手中国的对抗中取得优势地位。

一、信息战编制体制建设

2013年,美国海军将情报部和通信网络部合并成立信息优势部,由一名海军作战部副部长负责信息优势相关事务,配备7名舰队军官和一些高级文职,以及众多的专业人员从事信息战领域的工作,改变了冷战时期情报搜集和舰队作战之间存在的壁垒,保证美国海军利用安全的网络环境获取信息支持各种作战行动之中。美国海军在梅德堡组建了舰队赛博司令部,合并了弗吉尼亚州诺福克海军基地的原海军网络战司令部,由负责能力和资源整合的海军作战部副部长任司令,主要负责网络进攻和防御,管理、运作和保卫海军的网络,以及与赛博作战相关的其它活动,同时作为美军赛博司令部的海军分支,向美军提供信息作战支持。

在部队建设方面,美国海军成立了第10舰队专门负责信息战,作为美国海军的信息优势部队,发展和投送优势信息能力,支援美海和盟军的作战需求,目前已经形成情报监视与侦察、网络、指挥控制、通信情报、电子战、航天等方面的完全作战能力,向信息作战转型之后成为美国海军情报和网络战的重要步骤。

美国海军从水面舰艇、潜艇和航空兵部门划拔经费,保障信息优势部的日常运行、训练、装备和采购,兼顾无人航空系统和电子战系统的建设发展。尽管电子战部门表示将电子攻击项目(如下一代干扰器)从空中作战部门转移到信息优势部将削弱对电子攻击系统的预算支持,但是美国海军表示已经认识到在电子战领域加强攻击性的重要性,加强电子战领域的投入。

二、“联合信息环境”保证海上制信息权

根据美国国防部2013年9月发布的《联合信息环境实施战略》,“联合信息环境”(JIE)是美军迄今为止最大的联合信息技术行动之一,其目标是在国防部范围内进行网络一体化化建设,将“烟囱式”的信息体系发展为扁平网络化的动态信息体系,提供互联互通的基于云的网络基础架构和企业级服务,减少国防部整体的信息技术占用空间和基础设施成本,确保美军获得战场制信息权,提高国防部应对赛博领域威胁的能力。

“联合信息环境”的建设重点是加强信息共享和合作,建立企业级的共享安全协议,实现配置标准化,优化数据路由,在需要的时间和地点交付保密的语音、数据和情报,包括了几乎所有的国防部信息技术工作的联合信息。“联合信息环境”具有通用性、全球性、基于云的特性,包括网络作战中心、数据中心和基于云应用程序和服务的身份管理系统,提供基于云结构的数据存储和共享能力和可回顾的计算机技术支持,允许使用任何设备实现边缘网络操作,加速网络指挥与控制节点的融合,能够保障作战行动和日常行政管理,同时减少网络运行管理成本。

国防信息系统局(DISA)负责联合信息环境的技管理,制定整体架构中的安全标准、准入问题和身份管理等。2013年7月,美军欧洲司令部在斯图加特建立了首个企业级作战中心(EOC),负责管理美国欧洲和非洲司令部内联合信息环境系统的访问管理,合并下辖的几十个指挥和控制节点。2014年,美军太平洋司令部和美国本土的企业级作战中心也相继展开,联合信息环境“增量1”陆续达到初始作战能力。

美国国防部对联合信息环境建设给予了总计2.39亿美元的经费保证,用于采购核心路由器、光网设备、光纤、网络设备、存储设备、安全工具等基础设施,管理维护国防信息系统网。在预算削减的背景下,美军不得不更加倚重商业空间领域,计划在2016年由地方公司负责宽带全球通信卫星(WGS)的日常运营。在军民合作的空间运营中,DISA需要关注因此带来的潜在威胁,弥补物理传输层的脆弱性。

三、面对主要作战对手展开作战应用

美国海军未来信息战建设瞄准中国等主要作战对手,立足赛博领域严重威胁下的西太平洋战场,进行信息环境建设运营和作战部署,以前沿部署为重点形成现实威慑。美军强调使用弹性和可靠的卫星通信,支持联合信息环境物理传输层,特别是对机动和前沿部署的部队、指挥控制和ISR装备,应对日益增加的空间威胁。

“联合信息环境”设计应用的最初阶段,美国海军就强调以其应对赛博威胁,利用单一安全架构(SSA)减少海军网络面临的“赛博攻击面”,应对美军面对的网络破坏、窃取数据等多种形式的赛博攻击,保证美军的作战信息通过各种渠道安全通畅地传输。如果入侵者的目标只是阻止或迟滞信息传输,就没有必要追求统一的安全架构和保密码。

作战指挥辅助决策系统的体系结构光纤通信安全是美国海军关注的另一个重点。目前,99%的国际数据通信通过海底光缆传输,美军的光纤通信是“联合信息环境”的重要传输途径,用来保障美国本土与盟国和海外军事基地的通信联络。舰艇活动对是海底光缆的最大威胁,对方的对海底光缆的攻击很难防范,一旦遭到破坏需要很长时候修复。因此,国防信息系统局的“网络基础设施需求”(NIPR)要求运营商在3天之内修复受损光缆,美国海军水下工程队也担负海底光缆的维护和抢修任务,保证光纤通信安全顺畅。

四、呼唤我军建设相应的信息战能力

面对美军咄咄逼人的信息战对抗姿态,中国军队的信息战也要直面挑战,建设攻防兼备的信息战体系。日前,习近平主席已经表示中国将大力推进军事变革,制定“信息化战争”新战略,创新履行使命要求的新的军事理论、体制编制、装备体系、战略战术、管理模式。具体到信息作战领域,就是要瞄准美军弱点,重点发展反卫星导弹、陆基电子干扰卫星测控、高能激光攻击和天基卫星武器等杀手锏武器,提高攻击对手信息系统最脆弱节点的能力,增强网络云和终端元件传输层的综合攻防水平,对美军依赖的“联合信息环境”实施最大效应的破坏,才能在军事对抗或局部战争中占据主动。

China Military Review of US Cyberspace Development Strategy // 中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評

中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評

发布日期: 2015 – 10 – 15

中國軍方人士

With the dependence on cyberspace continues to improve, the US cyberspace security into national security strategy category, has promulgated the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment”, “Cyberspace International Strategy”, “cyberspace operations strategy” and a series of policy file, accelerate the construction of cyberspace security strategy system, vigorously strengthen the network combat forces, to achieve hegemony in cyberspace control. April 2015, the US Department of Defense has issued “Cyberspace Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “the new cyber strategy”) summary, for the first time publicly that the cyberspace operations as one of the options for future tactical military conflict that the United States has exceeded the network space combat preparation system, weapons and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, forming an effective mode of network attack and defense, has all the ability to launch cyber war.

  First, the US Cyberspace Strategy Evolution
  Cyberspace security strategy of the United States began in the late 20th century, at the Clinton and the Bush administration has been further strengthened and developed, eventually forming a “national strategy for cyberspace security.” Since 2009, the Obama administration has issued a series of strategic documents for the United States constructed a three-dimensional network security strategy system, international politics and international security situation had a significant impact.
  (A) in the Clinton and the Bush administration, cyberspace into context of US national security strategy, issued its first “cyberspace national strategy.”
  The Clinton administration information industry as an emerging pillar industries and vigorously support, promote the rapid development of the Internet, but also to the United States to rely on the network rose to an unprecedented degree, the information industry has become the largest industry in 1995 – growth in the US economy during 1998 The actual contribution rate of more than 35%. Published by the end of 1999, “US National Security Strategy Report” for the first time defined the US cyberspace security interests that network security threats to US national security posed challenges presented initial ideas to prevent security risks of cyberspace through international cooperation and other means. In early 2000 the introduction of “defending America’s cyberspace – to protect the national information system plan”, became the first programmatic document of the United States to maintain network security space. Release of this document is another important motivation is the US government tried to develop new rules of the game, to ensure American power distribution of wealth in cyberspace, to build a strong, growing and innovative US economy.[12]
  The Bush administration since the “September 11” incident, the United States has changed the concept of security, network spatial development strategy adjustment from “development priority” to “Security First”, and promulgated the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” in 2003. The strategy identifies strategic position cyberspace security, cyberspace is defined as “to ensure the nation’s critical infrastructure properly functioning ‘nervous system’ and the national control systems,” the security situation in cyberspace to make a new judgment, that the new situation combined with the hostile forces of terror and information technology to pose a serious threat to US national security, will clearly improve cyberspace security to national security strategic level. “US National Security Strategy,” the strategy report issued in 2002, “Homeland Security National Strategy” and other reports, constituted after the “9.11” incident the new US national security strategy system. [12]
  (B) The Obama administration efforts to build US cyberspace security strategy stereo system, and actively seek a higher degree of cyberspace world hegemony, to ensure that the three core interests prosperity, security, the US government values ​​determined in cyberspace
  President Obama took office, started the 60-day cyberspace security assessment, and in May 2009, issued a “cyberspace policy review.” In the report published ceremony, Obama delivered an important speech entitled “to protect the American network infrastructure”, specifies the development of new national cyberspace security strategy, led by the National Security Council, the integrated use of diplomatic, military, economic, intelligence and law enforcement “four in one” means ensuring security in cyberspace, so that the strategic concept of cyberspace Obama administration’s horizon.
  1, cyberspace security threats as an excuse to network infrastructure as a national strategic asset, by all means to protect the security of cyberspace
  US cyberspace strategy document, the threat is the highest frequency vocabulary appears. The United States believes in cyberspace Chiang Kai-shek himself facing a new invisible smoke of war, and has been at a disadvantage, worried about the future possible outbreak of “Network Pearl Harbor” or “medium” 9/11 “incident [10]. To this end, Obama came to power after repeatedly stressed, should the network security as part of national security strategy, the network infrastructure will be increased to protect national strategic asset. March 2009, the US Center for Strategic and International Studies, submitted to “ensure the new presidency cyberspace” first report’s recommendations is that the network is an important wealth of the country, “the United States will not hesitate to use all means of national power ensuring security in cyberspace. issued “cyberspace policy assessment report” in May 2009 that day, Obama said in a speech, cyber threats are “one of the most serious challenges to US economic and national security faced” network infrastructure will be regarded as a strategic national facility “to protect the facility will become a national security priority issue.” We can say that all US cyberspace strategy and policy documents are as a starting point.
  2, to improve leadership and command system as the focal point, accelerate the construction of cyberspace deterrence systems and to build capacity-building network attacks.
  Obama believes the US government cyberspace security agencies there strategic center of gravity is unknown, job functions overlap, lack of coordination and other issues, it is necessary to implement the leadership from the top, the overall coordination of network security mechanism. May 2009, the White House announced the formation of cyberspace security office, the president is responsible for the policy decision to provide cyberspace security, coordinate government policies and activities. A month later, the Defense Department announced the creation of Cyberspace Command, responsible for coordinating the US military deployment strategy and network security, unified US military command network warfare, network warfare forces to enter the United States so that harmonized development of the “fast track.” Thus, the United States to create an integrated and comprehensive national cybersecurity leadership system. Published in July 2011, “cyberspace operations strategy”, as the United States Department of Defense first report on cyberspace operations and comprehensive strategy to more effectively carry out military operations in cyberspace provides guidelines and a roadmap, marking the US military operations in cyberspace who has been officially transferred deployment and implementation phase. In 2012, US National Cyber ​​Range officially delivered military trial. In 2013, the United States Cyber ​​Command expanded from 900 people to 4900 people, announced the expansion of 40 network warfare units within three years. 2014, the US Department of Defense released the “Quadrennial Defense Review Report,” clearly put forward the “expansion of investment in new network capabilities, network building 133 task force.” It is noteworthy that from 2013 to the year 2014, the US declared war forces expansion of the network more than three times. Meanwhile, the US also increased efforts to carry out research and development of cyber weapons, arms only reached 2,000 kinds of viruses, and has already entered the US Weapon series. This series of actions that the objective to reach the US military in cyberspace than just ensure its own security in cyberspace, but to build a network to enhance deterrence system through cyberspace attack, towards the consolidation of its “system net power” in cyberspace . [2]
  3, in order to emphasize international cooperation in cyberspace as a means to change and influence the political system and values ​​of other countries, and strive to maintain US hegemony
  In May 2011 the United States issued “Cyberspace International Strategy”, the first time its foreign policy goals combined with cyberspace strategy, marking its focus has been disclosed by the ball itself will be extended to the entire range, while its output cyberspace has become an American an important platform for political models and values. Former Defense Secretary Robert Gates has publicly declared that the network is a “huge strategic American assets in favor of other countries to help promote democracy.” Since then the Department of Defense issued “cyberspace operations strategy” is the introduction of “collective defense” concept, showing the United States to establish a new military alliance in cyberspace intent. Obama Government has been changed over the years, the United States resisted, highly publicized international cooperation in cyberspace, partly because it recognizes that even a superpower like the United States, can not single-handedly solve the problems exist in cyberspace and, more importantly, the United States wants to use its strong network resources, through international action in cyberspace cyberspace control global leadership development, change and affect the political system and values ​​of other countries, to consolidate its hegemony in cyberspace . [4]
  Second, the US Department of Defense the main features of the new cyber strategy
  April 2015, the new cyber strategy US Department of Defense released a continuation of the Obama administration’s strategic vision of cyberspace, for the first time publicly that one should cyberwarfare as a future military conflict tactical options, an explicit proposal to improve cyberspace deterrence and offensive capability, put on active defense and deterrence posture initiative, reflects the next few years, the US space power network construction and distinctive features of related actions, highlighting the US attempts to dominate in cyberspace.
  (A) exaggerated the threat facing the United States in cyberspace, cyberspace has continued to spread fear destruction, wanton shaping cyberspace at the national level enemy
  The new cyber strategy with a larger strategic context described space, repeatedly stressed that the United States risks inherent in cyberspace environment, deliberately exaggerating the threat of cyberspace activities faced constantly looking for new threats, new enemy is the United States to shape the mindset of decision logic and tradition dictates . In the strategy paper publicly available, the “risk” and “threat” were two words appear up to 31 times and 46 times, claiming that the new cyber strategy risks and threats from both the basic structure of the Internet’s inherent ability to handle risks, but also from the interests of the enemies of the United States coveted American networks, systems and data intrusion and malicious damage. The new cyber strategy will be mainly determined by the previous target to prevent extremist network technology and combined adjusted to focus on the national level opponent, Russia, China, Iran, North Korea and other countries as the United States may constitute a threat to the network [1]. These presets national level opponents, both in order to show the necessity of the introduction of the new cyber strategy, but also the threat of the proliferation of network attacks fear of public opinion, and thus eliminate barriers for “Snowden” event generated between the private sector and , dilute the new cyber strategies on social interests and personal privacy violations, to further consolidate public support for DoD and government policies. This judgment with ideological bias and arbitrariness, high-handed and is a very dangerous act. In fact, the United States ahead of the field of security in cyberspace, no one country can be formed a fundamental threat to the United States.
  (B) expressly DoD cyberspace strategic tasks and objectives, publicly cyberspace operations as a future military conflict tactical options, highlighting the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture.
  The new cyber strategy identifies the Department of Defense “three major tasks” and “five strategic objectives,” first proposed to launch a cyber attack when US national interests are threatened, and asked the US Department of Defense “Developing viable network options into the DoD term plan “for the US president or secretary of defense to provide” full spectrum “of options, when it comes to their national interest to make a variety of decisions.Compared with 2011 the first release version of cyberspace emphasize defensive action by the major network security operations to “offensive action network” changes, and the new cyber strategy frequent word “deterrence”, a total appears 29 times, that the United States has gradually freedom “with precision-guided physical damage to cope with asymmetric means to deal with cyber attacks” on US deterrence into network attacks to protect US national cybersecurity strategy, squeezing US major strategic competitors cyberspace policy choices available. At the same time, the new cyber strategy first proposed holding cyberspace operations as a tactical option, option to control the use of network operations escalation of the conflict, create conflict environment. Visible, the new cyber strategy has been the traditional means of fighting the physical space and virtual cyberspace means of integration, clearly convey to the world the determination of the American retaliation and sufficient network capacity to implement retaliation, far beyond the active defense category, highlighting the United States will protect cyberspace, attacks and confrontation blend of deterrence and offensive posture. [1] [8]
  (Iii) strengthen the integration with traditional combat power, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, with the power to launch cyber warfare system
  US military cyberspace operations following the fifth field of land, sea, air, space after the new cyber cyberspace operations strategy requires the option into the Defense Department plans to ensure that all areas of military operations in cyberspace and physical space Action Action coordinated. The new cyber strategy proposed to mobilize all forces, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, including the Ministry of Defence led government departments, between government and enterprises and international concerted action. The new cyber strategy breakthrough in Cyberspace “civil-military separation” trend strategy, Cyberspace Command, National Security Agency, the organic integration of the Central Security Agency, the Ministry of Defence is responsible for network forces combat training and guidance to the intelligence network functions and network operations functions are distinguished by the Defense Department-led combat troops network. One important goal of the new cyber strategy is to build a 2018 offensive and defensive, flexible forms of cyberspace forces, including 133 teams from the 6200 Department of Defense and the military soldiers, civilian and contract employees and other components. Among them, 13 responsible for the national infrastructure network protection mandate national task forces and eight country support teams; 27 to assume the task of attacking the enemy’s network operations task force and 17 combat support units; 68 responsible for the protection of the United States Department of Defense and the military network protection force network and system security tasks. These actions show that the US military has been resolved cyberspace warfare establishment system, apparatus and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, explore the formation of an effective mode of generating combat capabilities of network attack and defense, with the power to launch cyber warfare system. [7]
  (Iv) continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, consolidate US leadership in the world in the field of network information for its dominate cyberspace to provide technical support.
  For a long time, the US military has the advantage of science and technology as an important part of the national security strategy, and always will be technological innovation as the key to maintaining US military strength and capacity. As a network of information technology and the birthplace of the leader, the United States Department of Defense to maintain and expand the leading edge technologies that will continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, technology continues to improve deterrence and offensive capabilities in cyberspace. The new cyber strategy proposed, the Defense Department must build and command and control systems to increase investment, continues to accelerate technological innovation in the field of cyberspace, vigorously carry out research and development with significant advantages over the technology, focusing on staff training to improve cyberspace, effective organization basic research and applied research capacity for action needed to fully develop the required DoD cyberspace capabilities. In recent years, the United States looks to shape the full spectrum cyberspace operations capability can cope with all types of threats in the successful development of “chute”, “Fire” and “shock web” more than 2,000 kinds of network warfare weapons on the basis of increasing network space war frontier technology investment, and actively develop a new generation of network technology and virtual battlefield assault weapons, and network warfare weapons and conventional weapons integration, in order to achieve a variety of battlefield environment flexible ways to combat.The new cyber strategy conference selection in the birthplace of Silicon Valley Stanford University, in person at the Secretary of Defense Carter, will seek to show that the Ministry of Defence and a new mechanism between the private sector and research institutions, technology, people and information and cooperation, and develop a wide range of industries channel sector R & D cooperation, greatly enhance the ability to act in cyberspace, to provide a solid technical support for the United States to expand the network space interests, safeguarding cyberspace hegemony. [7]
  Third, the construction of cyberspace security forces Inspiration
  The new US Defense Department cyber strategy highlights the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture, releasing its attempt hegemony in cyberspace danger signal, and to our country as one of its main rivals in cyberspace, cyberspace is bound for China safety and national security have a profound impact. Faced with the threat of US cyberspace strategy, China should accelerate the pace of construction of power networks, and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty interests in cyberspace, safeguard national cyberspace security.
  (A) firmly established Cyberspace Security Strategy in national security, strengthen national security in cyberspace top-level design, in line with China’s national conditions to speed up the formation of a military cyberspace security strategy system
  President Xi pointed out that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. This important exposition, clear cyberspace strategic position for the construction of the security forces of cyberspace provided a powerful impetus.Currently, the national cyberspace security forces involved in military dress, especially after fighting equipment sector, and national industry, finance, energy, transportation, education and other sectors. Therefore, we should focus on promoting the interdisciplinary, multisectoral cyberspace security system construction, the formation of strong guidance, perfect features, dynamic evolution of cyberspace security strategy system. National Cyberspace Security Strategy should carry out national cyberspace security situation assessment, clarify the department’s own cyberspace security policy, as well as the main tasks and the division of responsibilities in national security in cyberspace, military and civilian science linkage design, comprehensive coverage, responsive network space security forces system, organizational system and institutional system. Cyberspace military strategy should focus on military operations security, the implementation of self-defense and homeland defense needs collaboration, scientific planning cyberspace “reconnaissance, attack, defense, control” forces, specifically the construction of military use of cyberspace timing, principles and tasks, as well as synergies with local forces. Cyberspace International Strategy should focus oppose hegemony in cyberspace, cyberspace governance rights and fight for the right to speak, and resolutely safeguard national cyberspace sovereign interests and development interests, and actively promote the peaceful development and common prosperity of the international cyberspace.
  (Ii) accelerate the construction of an appropriate scale, combined offensive and defensive cyberspace security forces, and constantly improve the network space combat capability, to provide strategic support for the maintenance of national security in cyberspace
  To effectively respond to threats in cyberspace main rival joint operations and information technology support to high-quality compound talents as the main body, accelerate the construction of electricity network integration, hardware and software combination, both offensive and defensive cyberspace power system, focusing on the development of intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities, integrated attack, defense capabilities and affect the control system capacity to effectively meet the security and defense tasks require effective counterattack. At present, shall be in accordance with the strategic and operational level, based on the national and military security and electronic warfare forces network-based, command, reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” and six security forces to focus the power of the network set up directly under the army’s troops and the attachment of various branches / departments of strategic and security reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” four network power forces the enemy to achieve the Internet, critical infrastructure, national defense information network, information systems and other defense battlefield combat. Technical support base in accordance with cyberspace security needs, the establishment of core technology research and development equipment, offensive and defensive range, a number of joint combat exercises and other technical support base, to provide technical support for the network equipment research, development, testing and evaluation.
  (C) to strengthen cyberspace theoretical research, and actively explore cyberspace mode of generating combat, and strive to improve the combat capability of our army cyberspace
  In the process of the evolution of the war, military battlefield Game by plane, three-dimensional multi-dimensional virtual battlefield to battlefield extended form, combat and operational means of war is undergoing revolutionary change, to win victory in future wars but no longer rely on bullets and explosives byte strings and no longer rely on the military but on the scale of the number of botnets, will nurture and birth of a new doctrine. Accelerate innovation in cyberspace combat theory, system analysis of the historical evolution of human warfare, to find common characteristics and laws of war, exploring new ideas that may occur in the military field, the new theory, in-depth study of cyberspace doctrine, doctrine, combat styles, and elements cyberspace power system composed of the elements of its own scientific judgment and changes in the relationship between the shape of cyberspace changes and evolution. Increased interdependence cyberspace winning mechanism, system analysis cyberspace and physical space constraints and mutual enhancement of mutual relations, in-depth mechanism, attack and defense mechanism, the mechanism of the effect of war in cyberspace right, and the mechanism of self-organizing collaborative research, and actively explore cyberspace winning new mechanisms and new ways. Actively explore cyberspace combat formation mechanism, focusing on national cyberspace security strategies to enhance the combat effectiveness of troops starting point, the system analyzes cyberspace combat formation structure, composition and structure analysis of the interaction between the various elements of the fighting, a network of scientific space combat effectiveness the new model provides a solid theoretical innovation for our military in cyberspace can fight to win the war.
  (D) seize the new round of technological change information network a major opportunity, and vigorously promote the development of self-control cyberspace security core technology and key equipment, consolidate our network security space technology base.
  For a long time, the United States use of network information technology security threat to other countries, for the recent implementation of high-performance computing technology embargo, indicating that it will not easily give up the leading international cyberspace security right to speak. After the “Prism” incident, the world is generally recognized that there is no core technology, key equipment and self-controlled, cyberspace will be the lifeblood of the hands of others, have increased self-controlled information network construction. Currently, a new round of worldwide information network technology is ushering in a new wave of development, the development of large data, networking, quantum information, cutting-edge cloud computing and other emerging technologies are driving traditional information network technology to enter the replacement stage, to promote the network basis for, the system shape and space technology security mechanism profound changes. Should make full use of information network technology upgrading precious “time window”, to focus the forefront of key technologies in the emerging field of security basic, global impact of cyberspace, increase their own information network technology and independent information industry development efforts continue promoting the “nuclear high base” of major projects, and actively create the ecological environment of self-control application, determined to get rid of cyberspace security key technologies the kinds of passive situation, the lifeblood of the national cyberspace security technology and industrial development firmly in control of their own hands.
  (E) give full play to the advantages of our system, promote China’s cyberspace security forces and civilian integration development, to build military and civilian science linkage, peacetime and wartime national cyberspace security system
  Cyberspace has a “peacetime and wartime, civil-military one” determined by the characteristics of cyberspace security system must take military and civilian integration development model.Important features of the new US Department of Defense cyberspace security strategy is to mobilize the army of human, technical and industrial resources, accelerate the formation of cyberspace prominent military and technological superiority. China should give full play to the advantages of the system and network advantages of a big country, and actively promote the cyberspace combat forces military and civilian integration, fully absorb the military, local professional and technical strength and nurture talent in the private sector network attack and defense, national parties formed a unified command under the system of ” power system main force “and” guerrilla “a combination of; by improving the organization and leadership to build civil-military integration, program planning, collaborative innovation and industrial development at the national cyberspace security system, and promote the development of dual-use network information technology to optimize civil-military dual network information industry layout, accelerate the formation of “galloping market can not only battle-hardened” information technology industrial base; establish and improve civil-military integration network defense mobilization system, a clear linkage military and civilian cyberspace security system and operation mechanism, promote the integration of military and civilian network space action joint exercises, and actively explore how to play the power of the people’s war in cyberspace, condensed balance enemies, against tremendous energy hegemony, the realization of China’s power network by the network power to leap.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
隨著對網絡空間的依存度不斷提​​高,美國將網絡空間安全納入到國家安全戰略範疇,先後頒布《網絡空間政策評估》、《網絡空間國際戰略》、《網絡空間行動戰略》等一系列政策性文件,加快構建網絡空間安全的戰略體系,大力加強網絡作戰力量建設,以實現對網絡空間控制的霸權地位。 2015年4月,美國防部又發布《網絡空間戰略》(下文簡稱“新版網空戰略”)概要,首次公開表示將網絡空間行動作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,表明美國已突破了網絡空間作戰的編制體制、武器裝備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,形成了網絡攻防的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的全部能力。

一、美國網絡空間戰略演變
美國網絡空間安全戰略思想發端於20世紀中後期,在克林頓與布什政府時期得到進一步充實和發展,最終形成了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。自2009年奧巴馬政府以來,先後發布了一系列戰略文件,為美國建構了一個立體的網絡安全戰略體系,對國際政治和國際安全局勢產生了重大影響。
(一)在克林頓及布什政府時期,網絡空間安全進入到美國國家安全戰略範疇,頒布了首份《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。
克林頓政府將信息產業作為新興支柱產業大力扶持,推動了互聯網的高速發展,也使美國對於網絡的依賴上升到了前所未有的程度,信息產業成為美國最大的產業,1995-1998年期間對美國經濟增長的實際貢獻率達35%以上。 1999年底公佈的《美國國家安全戰略報告》首次界定了美國網絡空間安全利益構成,認為網絡安全威脅對美國國家安全構成挑戰,提出了通過國際合作等方式防範網絡空間安全風險的初步設想。 2000年初出台《保衛美國的網絡空間——保護信息系統的國家計劃》,成為美國維護網絡空間安全的第一份綱領性文件。推出這份文件的另一個重要動因是美國政府試圖通過制定新的遊戲規則,確保美國在網絡空間中分配財富的權力,建立強大的、不斷增長的創新型美國經濟。 [12]
布什政府自“9·11”事件後,改變了美國的安全觀,將網絡空間發展戰略從“發展優先”調整為“安全優先”,並於2003年頒布了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。該戰略明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,將網絡空間定義為“確保國家關鍵基礎設施正常運轉的’神經系統’和國家控制系統”,對網絡空間安全形勢做出了新的判斷,認為新形勢下恐怖敵對勢力與信息技術的結合對美國國家安全構成嚴峻威脅,明確將網絡空間安全提高到國家安全的戰略高度。該戰略報告與2002年頒布的《美國國家安全戰略》、《美國國土安全國家戰略》等報告,構成了“9·11”事件後美國新的國家安全戰略體系。 [12]
(二)奧巴馬政府著力打造美國網絡空間安全立體戰略體系,積極謀求更高程度的網絡空間世界霸權,確保美國政府在網絡空間所確定的繁榮、安全、價值觀三大核心利益
奧巴馬總統上任伊始,就啟動了為期60天的網絡空間安全評估,並於2009年5月,發布了《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​。在該報告的發布式上,奧巴馬發表了題為《保護美國網絡基礎設施》的重要講話,指定由國家安全委員會牽頭制定新的國家網絡空間安全戰略,綜合運用外交、軍事、經濟、情報與執法“四位一體”的手段確保網絡空間安全,從而使奧巴馬政府的網絡空間戰略構想初露端倪。
1、以網絡空間安全威脅為藉口,把網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產,將不惜一切手段保護網絡空間安全
美國網絡空間戰略文件中,威脅是出現頻率最高的詞彙。美國認為,自己在網絡空間中正面臨著一場新的看不見硝煙的戰爭,且已處於劣勢,擔心未來可能爆發“網絡珍珠港”或是“網上‘9·11’”事件[10]。為此,奧巴馬上台後不斷強調,應把網絡安全作為國家安全戰略的一部分,將網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產加以保護。 2009年3月,美國戰略與國際問題研究中心提交的《確保新總統任內網絡空間安全》報告提出的第一條建議就是,網絡是國家的重要財富,“美國將不惜動用一切國家力量之手段確保網絡空間安全。在2009年5月發布《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​的當日,奧巴馬發表講話稱,網絡威脅是“美國經濟和國家安全所面臨的最嚴重的挑戰之一”,網絡設施將被視為戰略性國家設施“保護該設施將成為國家安全的優先課題”。可以說,美國所有網絡空間戰略及相關政策文件都是以此為出發點。
2、以完善領導指揮體係為著力點,加快構建網絡空間威懾體系,著力打造網絡攻擊能力建設。
奧巴馬政府認為,美國政府網絡空間安全機構存在著戰略重心不明、工作職能重疊、缺乏協調配合等問題,因此必須從最高層實施領導,全面協調網絡安全機制。 2009年5月,白宮宣布組建網絡空間安全辦公室,負責為總統提供網絡空間安全方面的決策方針,協調政府相關政策與活動。一個月後,國防部宣布創建網絡空間司令部,負責協調美軍網絡安全策略及部署,統一指揮美軍網絡戰,使得美國網絡戰力量進入統一協調發展的“快車道”。由此,美國打造了一體化的綜合性國家網絡安全領導體制。 2011年7月公佈的《網絡空間行動戰略》,作為美國防部首份有關網絡空間作戰行動的綜合戰略,更為美軍有效開展網絡空間行動提供了指南和路線圖,標誌著美軍網絡空間軍事行動已正式轉人部署與實施階段。 2012年,美國家網絡靶場正式交付軍方試用。 2013年,美網絡司令部由900人擴編到4900人,宣布3年內擴建40支網絡戰部隊。 2014年,美國防部發布《四年防務評估報告》​​,明確提出“投資新擴展的網絡能力,建設133支網絡任務部隊”。值得關注的是,從2013年到2014年一年中,美軍宣稱網絡戰部隊擴編3倍以上。與此同時,美國還加大力度開展網絡武器的研發,僅病毒武器就達2000多種,且早已進入美軍武器序列。這一系列動作表明,美軍在網絡空間要達成的目標絕不僅僅是保證自身網絡空間安全,而是要通過提升網絡空間攻擊能力構建網絡威懾體系,實現鞏固其在網絡空間的“製網權” 。 [2]
3、以強調國際網絡空間合作為手段,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,力求維護美國霸權地位
2011年5月美國出台《網絡空間國際戰略》,首次將其外交政策目標與網絡空間戰略結合在一起,標誌著其關注重點已公開由自身擴展到整個球範圍,同時網絡空間也成為其輸出美式政治模式和價值觀的重要平台。原國防部長蓋茨曾公開宣稱,網絡是“美國巨大的戰略資產,有利於幫助其他國家推進民主”。此後出台的國防部《網絡空間行動戰略》更是引入“集體防禦”理念,展現了美國要在網絡空間建立新軍事同盟的意圖。奧巴馬政府之所以一改美國多年來的抵制態度,高調宣傳網絡空間國際合作,一方面是因為它認識到,即使是美國這樣的超級大國,也不可能憑一己之力解決網絡空間存在的種種問題,更重要的是,美國希望利用自己雄厚的網絡資源,通過在網絡空間的國際行動掌控全球網絡空間發展領導權,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,鞏固自身在網絡空間的霸權地位。 [4]
二、美國防部新版網空戰略主要特點
2015年4月,美國防部發布的新版網空戰略,延續了奧巴馬政府對網絡空間的戰略構想,首次公開表示要把網絡戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,明確提出要提高網絡空間的威懾和進攻能力,擺出積極防禦和主動威懾的姿態,折射出未來數年美軍網絡空間力量建設和相關行動的鮮明特點,彰顯了美國在網絡空間稱霸的圖謀。
(一)誇大美網絡空間面臨的威脅,不斷擴散網絡空間遭受破壞的恐懼,恣意塑造網絡空間國家層級的敵人
新版網空戰略用較大篇幅描述戰略背景,反復強調美國網絡空間環境蘊含的風險,蓄意誇大網絡空間活動面臨的威脅,不斷尋找新威脅、塑造新敵人是美國思維定勢和決策邏輯的傳統使然。在公開發布的戰略文件中,“風險”和“威脅”兩詞分別出現高達31次和46次,新版網空戰略聲稱這些風險和威脅既源於互聯網基本架構防範風險能力的先天不足,也源於覬覦美國利益的敵人對美國網絡、系統和數據的惡意入侵和破壞。新版網空戰略將主要目標確定由此前以防範網絡技術與極端主義結合為重點調整為國家層級的對手,將俄羅斯、中國、伊朗、朝鮮等列為可能對美國構成網絡威脅的國家[1]。預設這些國家層級的對手,既是為了顯示推出新版網空戰略的必要性,也是在公共輿論中擴散對網絡攻擊威脅的恐懼,進而消除因“斯諾登”事件與私營企業之間產生的隔閡,淡化新版網空戰略對社會利益和個人隱私的侵害,更進一步鞏固公眾對國防部和政府政策的支持。這種判斷帶有主觀隨意性和意識形態偏見,是一種霸道和非常危險的行徑。事實上,美國在網絡空間安全領域遙遙領先,沒有哪一個國家能對美國形成根本性威脅。
(二)明確國防部網絡空間戰略任務和目標,公開把網絡空間作戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項,凸顯了美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻態勢。
新版網空戰略明確了國防部“三大任務”和“五項戰略目標”,首次提出美國國家利益受到威脅時可發動網絡攻擊,並要求美國防部“開發可行的網絡選項,融入國防部各項規劃”,為美國總統​​或者國防部長提供“全頻譜”的選擇方案,以便其在涉及國家利益的時候能夠做出各種決策。與2011年首次發布版本相比,網絡空間行動由主要強調防禦性的網絡安全行動向“採取進攻性網絡行動”轉變,並且新版網空戰略中頻繁出現“威懾”一詞,共出現29次,表明美國已經逐漸將“用精確制導的物理毀傷來應對網絡攻擊的不對稱應對手段”,納入到威懾對美國網絡攻擊、保障美國國家網絡安全戰略、擠壓美國主要戰略競爭對手的網絡空間行動自由的策略選擇之中。同時,新版網空戰略第一次提出將保持網絡空間行動作為戰術選項,運用網絡行動選項控制衝突升級,塑造衝突環境。可見,新版網空戰略已將傳統的物理空間作戰手段與虛擬的網絡空間作戰手段相融合,向世界清晰地傳遞了美國進行網絡報復的決心和實施報復的足夠能力,遠遠超出了主動防禦的範疇,凸顯了美國將網絡空間的保護、攻擊和對抗融為一體的威懾和進攻態勢。 [1] [8]
(三)加強與傳統作戰力量融合,構建全方位聯合作戰體系,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系
網絡空間是美軍繼陸地、海洋、天空、太空後的第五作戰領域,新版網空戰略要求把網絡空間行動選項融入到國防部計劃中,確保軍事行動的所有領域中網絡空間行動與物理空間行動協調一致。新版網空戰略提出要動員各方力量,​​構建全方位的聯合作戰體系,包括由國防部主導政府部門間、政企間和國際間的協同行動。新版網空戰略突破了網絡空間戰略“軍民分隔”的態勢,將網絡空間司令部、國家安全局、中央安全署有機融合,由國防部負責網絡部隊的作戰訓練和指導,從而將網絡情報職能與網絡作戰職能進行區分,由國防部主導網絡作戰部隊。新版網空戰略的重要目標之一是至2018年建成一支攻防兼備、形式靈活的網絡空間部隊,包括由6200名國防部和軍事部門的軍人、文職人員和合同員工等組成的133支小組。其中,13支擔負國家基礎設施網絡防護任務的國家任務部隊和8支國家支援小組;27支擔負攻擊敵網絡系統任務的作戰任務部隊和17支作戰支援部隊;68支擔負保護美國國防部及軍隊網絡和系統安全任務的網絡保護部隊。這些動作表明,美軍已經解決了網絡空間戰的編制體制、裝備設備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,探索形成了網絡攻防戰鬥力生成的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系。 [7]
(四)繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,鞏固美在網絡信息領域的世界領先優勢,為其稱霸網絡空間提供技術支撐。
長期以來,美軍一直將科學技術優勢作為國家安全戰略的重要組成部分,始終將科技創新作為維持美軍作戰優勢能力的關鍵。作為網絡信息技術的發源地和引領者,美國防部為保持和擴大技術領域的領先優勢,將繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,不斷提升網絡空間的技術威懾和進攻能力。新版網空戰略提出,國防部必須在人員培訓、有效組織構建和指揮控制系統方面加大投入,繼續加速網絡空間領域的技術創新,大力開展具有重大優勢的跨越性技術的研發,聚焦提高網絡空間行動能力所需的基礎研究和應用研究,全面發展國防部所需的網絡空間作戰能力。近年來,美國著眼塑造可應對各類威脅的全頻譜網絡空間作戰能力,在成功研發“舒特”、“火焰”和“震網”等2000多種網絡戰武器的基礎上,不斷加大網絡空間作戰前沿技術投入,積極研發虛擬戰場技術和新一代網絡攻擊性武器,並將網絡戰武器與傳統武器進行整合,以實現在戰場環境中靈活的多種打擊方式。新版網空戰略發布會選擇在矽谷發源地的斯坦福大學進行,國防部長卡特親自前往,表明國防部將尋求與私營部門和研究機構間技術、人員和信息聯繫與合作的新機制,廣泛拓展與工業部門合作研發的渠道,大力提升網絡空間行動能力,為美國拓展​​網絡空間利益、維護網絡空間霸權提供堅實的技術支撐。 [7]
三、對我國網絡空間安全力量建設的啟示
美國國防部新版網空戰略凸顯了美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻姿態,釋放出其圖謀網絡空間霸權的危險信號,並把我國列為其網絡空間的主要對手之一,必將對我國網絡空間安全乃至國家安全帶來深刻影響。面對美國網絡空間戰略威脅,我國應加快網絡強國建設步伐,堅決捍衛國家網絡空間主權利益,維護國家網絡空間安全。
(一)牢固確立網絡空間安全在國家安全中的戰略地位,加強國家網絡空間安全的頂層設計,加快形成符合我國國情軍情的網絡空間安全戰略體系
習主席指出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。這一重要論述,明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,為我國網絡空間安全力量建設提供了強大動力。當前,國家網絡空間安全涉及軍隊軍政後裝尤其是作戰、裝備部門,以及國家工業、金融、能源、交通、教育等部門。為此,應著眼推進跨領域、多部門網絡空間安全體系構建,形成指導有力、要素完善、動態演化的網絡空間安全戰略體系。國家網絡空間安全戰略應深入開展國家網絡空間安全態勢評估,明確各部門自身網絡空間安全策略,以及在國家網絡空間安全中的主要任務和職責分工,科學設計軍民聯動、覆蓋全面、反應敏捷的網絡空間安全力量體系、組織體系和製度體系。網絡空間軍事戰略應著眼軍事行動安全、實施自衛反擊和協同國土防禦需要,科學規劃網絡空間“偵、攻、防、控”力量建設,明確網絡空間軍事力量建設運用的時機、原則和任務,以及與地方力量的協同關係。網絡空間國際戰略應著眼反對網絡空間霸權、爭奪網絡空間治理權和話語權,堅決維護國家網絡空間主權利益、發展利益,積極推動國際網絡空間的和平發展和共同繁榮。
(二)加快建設一支規模適度、攻防結合的網絡空間安全力量,不斷提高網絡空間實戰能力,為維護國家網絡空間安全提供戰略支撐
著眼有效應對網絡空間主要對手威脅和支撐信息化聯合作戰,以高素質複合型人才隊伍為主體,加快構建網電一體、軟硬結合、攻防兼備的網絡空間力量體系,重點發展情報偵察能力、綜合攻擊能力、體系防禦能力和影響控制能力,有效滿足安全防禦和有效反擊任務需要。當前,應按照戰略和戰役層次,立足國家和軍隊網絡安全和電子對抗力量基礎,以指揮、偵察、攻擊、防禦、“三戰”和保障六支力量為重點,設置直屬全軍的網絡力量部隊和配屬各軍兵種/戰略和安全部門的偵察、攻擊、防禦、“三戰”四支網絡力量部隊,能夠實現對敵國際互聯網、關鍵基礎設施、國防信息網、戰場信息系統等進行防禦作戰。技術保障基地按照網絡空間作戰保障需要,建立核心裝備技術研發、攻防靶場、聯合作戰演練等若干技術保障基地,為網絡裝備研究、開發、試驗與評估提供技術支撐。
(三)加強網絡空間作戰理論研究,積極探索網絡空間戰鬥力生成模式,著力提高我軍網絡空間作戰能力
在戰爭發展演變的進程中,軍事博弈已由平面戰場、立體戰場向虛擬多維戰場延伸,戰爭的形態、作戰方式和作戰手段正發生革命性變革,贏得未來戰爭勝利不再依靠子彈和炸藥而是字節和字符串,不再依靠軍隊規模而是依靠殭屍網絡的數量,必將孕育和催生新的作戰理論。加快網絡空間作戰理論創新研究,系統分析人類戰爭的歷史演變,尋找戰爭的共同特點和規律,探索軍事領域可能出現的新思想、新理論,深入研究網絡空間作戰理論、作戰原則、作戰樣式,以及網絡空間作戰的力量體系的要素組成,科學判斷各要素自身及相互關係的變化對網絡空間作戰形態的變化和演進。加強網絡空間作戰制勝機理研究,系統分析網絡空間與物理空間的相互依存、相互制約和相互增強等關係,深入開展網絡空間制權機理、攻擊與防禦機理、作戰效果機理、自組織協同機理等方面的研究,積極探索網絡空間作戰制胜新機理、新途徑。積極探索網絡空間戰鬥力生成機理,著眼國家網絡空間安全戰略,以提高部隊戰鬥力為基點,系統剖析網絡空間戰鬥力生成結構,分析結構中各戰鬥力要素的組成和相互作用關係,科學形成網絡空間戰鬥力生成的新模式,為我軍在網絡空間能打仗打勝仗提供堅實的創新理論。
(四)抓住新一輪信息網絡技術變革重大機遇,大力推動網絡空間安全核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控發展,夯實我國網絡空間安全的技術基礎。
長期以來,美國利用網絡信息技術優勢對別國進行安全威脅,近期針對我國高性能計算實施技術禁運,表明其不會輕易放棄主導國際網絡空間安全的話語權。 “棱鏡”事件後,世界各國普遍意識到,沒有核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控,網絡空間安全的命脈就會掌握在別人手裡,紛紛加大自主可控信息網絡建設力度。當前,世界範圍內新一輪信息網絡技術正迎來新的發展浪潮,大數據、物聯網、量子信息、雲計算等新興前沿技術的發展,正推動傳統信息網絡技術進入更新換代階段,推動網絡空間的技術基礎、系統形態和安全機理髮生深刻變化。應充分利用信息網絡技術更新換代的寶貴“時間窗”,聚焦前沿新興領域中對網絡空間安全具有基礎性、全局性影響的核心關鍵技術,加大自主信息網絡技術和自主信息產業發展力度,持續推進“核高基”重大專項,積極營造自主可控應用的生態環境,下決心擺脫網絡空間安全核心關鍵技術受制於人的被動局面,將國家網絡空間安全的技術和產業發展的命脈牢牢掌控在自己手中。
(五)充分發揮我國製度優勢,推進我國網絡空間安全力量軍民融合式發展,科學構建軍民聯動、平戰結合的國家網絡空間安全體系
網絡空間具有“平戰結合、軍民一體”的特點,決定了網絡空間安全體系必須採取軍民融合發展模式。美國國防部新版網絡空間安全戰略的重要特點,就是廣泛動員軍民人力、技術和產業資源,加快在網絡空間形成突出的軍事和技術優勢。我國應充分發揮制度優勢和網絡大國的優勢,積極推動網絡空間作戰力量的軍民融合發展,充分吸納軍隊、地方專業技術力量以及孕育在民間的網絡攻防人才,形成國家統一指揮體制下的各方“主力軍”和“游擊隊”相結合的力量體系;通過完善構建軍民融合的組織領導、規劃計劃、協同創新和產業發展的國家網絡空間安全體系,推動軍民兩用網絡信息技術的發展,優化軍民兩用網絡信息產業佈局,加快形成“既能馳騁市場又能決戰沙場”的信息科技產業基礎;建立完善軍民融合網絡國防動員體系,明確網絡空間安全軍民聯動體制和運行機制,推動軍民融合的網絡空間行動聯合演習,積極探索如何在網絡空間中發揮人民戰爭威力,凝聚制衡強敵、反對霸權的巨大能量,實現我國由網絡大國向網絡強國的飛躍。

China Information Warfare – China’s Basic Form of a Future War //中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

In the 21st century, the rapid development of high technology and extensive application, and promote the development and evolution of combat weapons and equipment, and promote the transformation and innovation and the development of institutional military doctrine, which triggered a new revolution in military affairs. Information warfare will eventually replace mechanized war, become the basic form of war. Information warfare refers to occur in the information age, information-based, using information technology as a tool of war weaponry of war. Information warfare does not change the nature of war, but the war must take into account the outcome of the mentor and the consequences of war, first in the pursuit of strategic guidance on how to achieve “the enemy without fighting the soldiers,” the strategic victory, the kind of large-scale physical destruction at the expense of traditional warfare will be greatly constraints and limitations.

Knowledge has become the main source of war to destroy the force  on the right in terms of information (quantity and quality) dependence, the past is not any war and information war. In conventional war, the two sides focus more on comprehensive contest on the basis of physical force. Such as mechanized war, mainly for steel contest, contest the whole country is full of large industrial machinery production capacity. Information war contest does not exclude physical force, but more important is the contest of knowledge, innovation ability and speed of innovation contest. Knowledge will become the main source of war to destroy force, “an ounce of effect of silicon computer generated perhaps more than a ton of uranium is also big.”

Firepower, mobility, information, constitute an important part of modern military combat capability, and the ability of information has become the primary indicator to measure the level of combat capability. Information capabilities, performance in terms of information acquisition, processing, transmission, and use of confrontation, to be manifested through information superiority and competition control. Information superiority, in essence, in the understanding of the enemy at the same time prevent the enemy to understand one’s own situation, confrontation is a dynamic process. It has become a fight for air supremacy, command of the sea, land control of the premise of a direct impact on the process and outcome of the war. Of course, people will always be the master of information warfare. Plan and organize and direct the war from people completely dominated increasingly dependent on technology to develop human-machine combination of military quality requirements are higher. Information from the advantages of competition to the final decision superiority into more competitive knowledge and wisdom.

War forces will move toward information, intelligence  forces of war are directly and indirectly referred to the various forces for war, to fight the information war, natural rely heavily on information, intelligence and information technology military weapons and equipment.

The most basic of war, the most significant feature is the use of the most advanced scientific and technological achievements to create the most advanced instruments of war. Information weapons and equipment is developed on the basis of mechanized equipment, such as C4ISR systems, precision-guided weapons, information warfare equipment and various high-tech combat platforms.They are highly knowledge-intensive tools of war, and thus can not be compared with the traditional tools of war performance, functionality, operational capabilities and effectiveness. At the same time, they play to the performance level and the operational level, directly restricted information, information systems and information capabilities.   The army is the army of information technology refers to using information technology to weapons armed with the information age. Its unprecedented level of integration will enhance the overall combat capability more powerful, emphasizing optimal combination of combat capability, the services are just part of joint combat forces. At the same time, the size of the forces become smaller, more flexible and diverse forms of grouping, vertical command structure will also benefit from the tree into a flat network architecture. From the subordinate command relationship changed multilayer horizontal communication, and down one command relationships, delayering, put as many combat units into the same level of information, information sharing, shorten the information flow to meet the real-time command decision Claim.

War mode will tend to systematic, precise  Technological development determines the evolution of tactics. With the development of weapons and equipment, the scale of war is also growing, the most prominent battlefield extended to three-dimensional space from the plane: from land to sea and air space, and then, from the visible to the invisible electromagnetic space and information space, it has formed armed day one dimensional, tangible and intangible space space Blending the new operational environment. This network battlefield is great depth, three-dimensional high, dilute the distinction between front and rear, major changes have taken place in time and space, both traditional air, naval, marine, electronic warfare, and more will be a new web-based attacks information warfare. Rely on the support of information networks, through the orderly flow of information, all combat operations within the space really blending together.

In the past, a new weapon tends to cause relatively large impact, obtain better operational effectiveness. But in the modern battlefield, the two sides are no longer hostile confrontation between a single or a few branches, but not a single weapon system confrontation, but confrontation between systems. In the information war, the extent of such a system of confrontation and even more will not emphasize the operational performance of tanks, aircraft, warships and other single combat platform, but rather to highlight the overall performance of information technology weaponry system, pay attention to multiple armed services, comprehensive combat effectiveness of a variety of weapons and equipment.

Destroy the enemy is an important part of the war. Mechanized warfare, anti-surface fire mostly destroyed, such as fire suppression, carpet bombing, saturation-type attacks. This operational mode corresponding to the extensive mode of production of the industrial age, reflecting the idea of a war of attrition, to victory in that time, space, energy, supplies and other aspects of continuous consumption and weaken the power of the enemy, and finally defeat the enemy. The precision strike in line with the characteristics and requirements of the information age, but also reflects the basic characteristics of information warfare. Intensive production model of the information age emphasizes effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness. Weapons and equipment level of intelligence and combat accuracy was greatly improved, can be done “pinpoint” type of destroyed; also can be accurate, non-physical damage, such as psychological warfare and information warfare. In addition, the precision strike can also significantly reduce collateral damage, so that the development and the process of social civilization synchronization war, war means more conducive to play its unique role.

Course of the war would be short, controlled – the rhythm of information warfare significantly accelerated course of the war will become shorter and shorter, but the intensity is getting high, and humanity as a whole control of the war also significantly enhanced.   Army should pay more attention to the quality of the information age and effectiveness. Winning quality from quantity into winning, it is one of the significant change in the war. Such as the combination of high-tech precision-guided weapons and combat platforms used to enhance the ability of the enemy to combat the standoff embodiment, can greatly reduce the loss of one’s own operations; continually improve the accuracy of the attack, it can greatly reduce the number of weapons consumption. World War II in 9000 to use bombs to blow up a goal, now 1-2 as long as missiles or guided bombs can solve the problem, operational tempo and the natural process will be faster.

Layers of advancing successive war, set small victories, this contact, wire is typical of traditional methods of warfare combat visual feedback. In information warfare, from the contact, non-line operations will be the main form of combat operations will be launched simultaneously in all the whole depth of space combat and battlefield, the primary targets will point directly to the enemy center of gravity. Especially powerful information warfare, even in the enemy without the knowledge of the state, it is possible to make several hacker instant enemy paralyzed economic and social, to quickly achieve the purposes of war.

Source: http://www.china001.com/

Original Mandarin Chinese:

進入21世紀,高技術的迅猛發展和廣泛應用,推動了武器裝備的發展和作戰方式的演變,促進了軍事理論的創新和編制體制的變革,由此引發新的軍事革命。信息化戰爭最終將取代機械化戰爭,成為未來戰爭的基本形態。信息化戰爭是指發生在信息時代、以信息為基礎、以信息化武器裝備為戰爭工具的戰爭。信息化戰爭不會改變戰爭的本質,但戰爭指導者必須考慮到戰爭的結局和後果,在戰略指導上首先追求如何實現“不戰而屈人之兵”的全勝戰略,那種以大規模物理性破壞為代價的傳統戰爭必將受到極大的約束和限制。

知識成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源

就對信息(數量和質量)的依賴程度而言,過去的任何戰爭都不及信息化戰爭。在傳統戰爭中,雙方更注重在物質力量基礎上的綜合較量。如機械化戰爭,主要表現為鋼鐵的較量,是整個國家機器大工業生產能力的全面競賽。信息化戰爭並不排斥物質力量的較量,但更主要的是知識的較量,是創新能力和創新速度的競賽。知識將成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源,“計算機中一盎司矽產生的效應也許比一噸鈾還大”。

火力、機動、信息,是構成現代軍隊作戰能力的重要內容,而信息能力已成為衡量作戰能力高低的首要標誌。信息能力,表現在信息獲取、處理、傳輸、利用和對抗等方面,通過信息優勢的爭奪和控制加以體現。信息優勢,實質就是在了解敵方的同時阻止敵方了解己方情況,是一種動態對抗過程。它已成為爭奪制空權、制海權、陸地控制權的前提,直接影響著整個戰爭的進程和結局。當然,人永遠是信息化戰爭的主宰​​者。戰爭的籌劃和組織指揮已從完全以人為主發展到日益依賴技術手段的人機結合,對軍人素質的要求也更高。從信息優勢的爭奪到最終轉化為決策優勢,更多的是知識和智慧的競爭。

戰爭力量將走向信息化、智能化

戰爭力量是可直接和間接用於戰爭的各種力量的統稱,打信息化戰爭,自然離不開信息化、智能化的武器裝備和信息化軍隊。

戰爭最基本、最顯著的特徵,就是利用當時最先進的科學技術成果製造最先進的戰爭工具。信息化武器裝備是在機械化裝備基礎上發展起來的,如C4ISR系統、精確制導武器、信息戰裝備和各種高技術作戰平台等。它們都是知識高度密集型的戰爭工具,因而具備傳統戰爭工具無法比擬的性能、功能、作戰能力和效果。同時,它們作戰效能的高低和發揮程度,直接受到信息、信息系統和信息能力的製約。

信息化軍隊是指用信息化武器裝備武裝起來的信息時代的軍隊。其一體化程度將空前提高,整體作戰能力更強大,強調作戰能力的優化組合,各軍種都只是聯合作戰力量的一部分。同時,兵力規模將趨於小型化,編組形式更加靈活多樣,指揮體制也將從垂直樹狀結構轉變為扁平網絡結構。即從上下級多層指揮關係改為橫向溝通、上下一體的指揮關係,減少層級,把盡可能多的作戰單元納入同一個信息層次,實現信息共享,縮短信息流程,以滿足實時化指揮決策的要求。

戰爭模式將趨於體系化、精確化

技術的發展決定著戰術的演變。隨著武器裝備的發展,戰爭規模也在日益擴大,突出表現為戰場從平面向立體空間擴展:由陸地到海洋再到空中和太空,從有形空間到無形的電磁和信息空間,已形成了陸海空天四維一體、有形空間與無形空間相互交融的新型作戰環境。這種網絡化戰場是大縱深、高立體的,前後方區別淡化,時空觀都發生了重大變化,既有傳統的空戰、海戰、陸戰、電子戰,更會出現全新的以網絡攻擊為主的信息戰。依靠信息網絡的支撐,通過信息的有序流動,所有作戰空間內的作戰行動真正地融合為一體。

過去,一件新式武器往往會造成比較大的影響,獲得較好的作戰效果。但在現代戰場上,敵對雙方已不再是單一或少數軍兵種之間的對抗,更不會是單一武器系統的對抗,而是體係與體系的對抗。在信息化戰爭中,這種體系化對抗的程度更甚,將不再強調坦克、飛機、軍艦等單件作戰平台的作戰性能,而是突出信息化武器裝備體系的整體效能,注重發揮多個軍種、多種武器裝備的綜合作戰效能。

消滅敵人是戰爭的重要內容。在機械化戰爭中,火力摧毀主要是面殺傷,如火力壓制、地毯式轟炸、飽和式攻擊等。這種作戰方式對應於工業時代的粗放型生產模式,反映了消耗戰的思想,制勝之道在於從時間、空間、能源、補給等方面不斷消耗和削弱敵人的力量,最後戰勝敵人。而精確打擊符合信息時代的特徵和要求,也反映了信息化戰爭的基本特點。信息時代的集約型生產模式講求效能、效率、效益。武器裝備的智能水平和打擊精度也獲得極大的提高,可做到“點穴式”的摧毀;同時還可以進行精確的非物理性毀傷,如心理戰、信息戰等。另外,精確打擊還可以大幅度降低附帶毀傷,使戰爭的發展與社會文明進程同步,更有利於戰爭手段發揮其獨特作用。

戰爭進程將是短暫的、可控的

信息化戰爭的節奏明顯加快,戰爭進程將變得越來越短,但強度卻越來越高,而人類對戰爭的整體控制能力也在顯著增強。

信息時代的軍隊更注重質量和效能。由數量製勝轉變為質量製勝,是戰爭發生的顯著變化之一。如精確制導武器和高技術作戰平台的結合使用,增強了從敵人防區外實施打擊的能力,可大大降低己方的作戰損失;攻擊精度的不斷提高,可大大減少武器消耗數量。第二次世界大戰中要用9000枚普通炸彈才能炸毀一個目標,現在只要1-2枚導彈或製導炸彈就可以解決問題,作戰節奏和進程自然會越來越快。

層層推進,逐次交戰,集小胜為大勝,這種接觸式、線式作戰是傳統作戰方法的典型直觀反映。而在信息化戰爭中,脫離接觸式、非線式作戰將成為主要形式,作戰行動將在所有作戰空間和戰場全縱深同時展開,首要打擊目標將直接指向敵人重心。尤其是信息戰威力巨大,甚至在敵人毫不知情的狀態下,幾個黑客頃刻間就有可能令敵國經濟和社會陷入癱瘓,從而迅速達成戰爭目的。

China Military Space Power: War to Seize Commanding Heights // 中國網絡戰爭太空力量:抢占战争制高点

中國網絡戰爭太空力量:抢占战争制高点

With the continuous development of space technology, space, military applications increasingly widespread, more and more countries joined the ranks of the space race –

Source:
Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China
 Author: Zhang Zhi Time: 2016-01-29

 

    “Who controls the universe, whoever controls the earth; who controls the space, whoever controls the initiative in war.” Former US President John F. Kennedy is determined to promote the development of American space technology, space will also be incorporated into the great power game and competition category. With the development of space technology and space forces, military space is used widely in shaping the international strategic pattern, pushing the world’s new revolution in military affairs, and played a key role.

    Two-hegemony, the main purpose of the service strategy

July 1961, the United States has just successfully developed the use of “Samos” satellites, captured Soviet SS-7 and SS-8 deployed intercontinental ballistic missile tests, the Soviet Union opened a “missile gap” truth became the third the key Berlin crisis resolved smoothly, marking the space support forces boarded the stage of history.

Since then, the United States, the two superpowers, the Soviet Union from the strategic objective of global hegemony starting to build a more complete support for space power systems.

Since an important strategic position, it has been solely responsible for the construction of satellites by the US intelligence community, in order to facilitate confidential. US Department of Defense is leading the “Defense Satellite Communications System,” “Fleet Satellite Communication”, “Military Star” three communications satellite system construction, on this basis, build a “Air Force satellite communications” system for the US national command structure and strategic nuclear forces provided between the safe, reliable, high viability of the global two-way communications capability. Meanwhile, the US Department of Defense has also developed strategies for the deployment of ballistic missile early warning “Defense Support Program” satellite navigation for nuclear submarines “TRANSIT” satellite for global meteorological observation “DMSP” and other systems, the formation of a relatively complete system.

In order to compete with the United States, the Soviet Union launched a comprehensive space forces, from the development of “Zenith”, “amber” reconnaissance satellite “Lightning” communications satellite, “sail” navigation satellite, the “eye” early warning satellites and “Meteor” weather as the representative of satellite space power system.

Throughout the Cold War, the role of the US-Soviet space power is mainly reflected at the strategic level, both the use of near-real-time reconnaissance and early warning satellites to detect each other’s strategic dynamic use of communication satellites and navigation satellites for command and control of strategic nuclear forces, formation of an effective nuclear deterrence combat system, a profound impact on the world strategic pattern of the Cold war.

With space development focus to shift from military spacecraft launch vehicles, various military satellite systems gradually have the ability to use large-scale, the Soviet Union began to build a dedicated space forces command structure. In 1985, the US military set up a joint Space Command. Administration of the Soviet spacecraft in 1982, the formerly strategic rocket forces, responsible for the development of space power transfer scribe to support the Department of Defense, and later upgraded to bureau director of the spacecraft, so space support force directly under the arms of the Soviet Union became the Department of Defense.

    Pack and play, to expand the role of tactical action

The 1991 Gulf War, the US military space forces operations provided critical reconnaissance, early warning, communications, navigation, meteorological services, marking the beginning of space support from the strategic level into the tactical level.

Subsequently, the US military began to develop better able to support tactical space combat support forces launched a large-scale construction of various types of military satellites and upgrading. “Global Positioning System” fully completed “keyhole -12” “Future Imagery Architecture”, “space-based infrared system” and “Global Broadband Satellite Communication”, “Advanced Extremely High Frequency”, “Mobile User Objective System” and other new generation of satellites have been put into use. 2003 Iraq war, the total number up to 167 US satellite. By the end of 2015, US satellites in orbit nearly 400, of which more than 120 pieces of military satellites, forming a powerful space support operations capabilities.

In strengthening the power of construction, the US military in 2002, the Joint Space Command Strategic Command incorporated, unified management of the armed forces Space Command, in order to better organize and direct the power of space support strategic, operational and tactical military operations at all levels. The military services also formed their own space support forces and support the preparation of models to successfully achieve tactical level space support.

Russia’s lack of independence early strength, inherited the former Soviet space support force can maintain normal, resulting in a sharp decline in the number of satellites in orbit, and only 97 in orbit until 2002. In view of this situation, the Russian military space forces carried out the reform, the establishment of an independent space force in 2001, began to recover and rebuild its military satellite system. After the start of the “new look” reform, the Russian space force in 2011 to form the basis of the air and space defense troops, again in 2015 and the Air Force air and space defense troops merge to form air and space forces, responsible for the Russian spacecraft control, missile warning management system attacks and space monitoring system operation.

After the reform and adjustment, all kinds of Russian satellite system gradually restored. By the end of 2015, Russian satellites in orbit nearly 130, of which nearly 80 military satellites. But Russian military believes that blow from the air and space will be the main threat facing Russia, decide the future of air and space warfare has become the key to victory in the field, and therefore the full development of the Russian aerospace defense forces, space support forces in a subordinate position or service. In the previous reform, satellite surveillance, satellite communications, satellite navigation and other space support system construction management still the Russian Defense Ministry and General Staff Operations Department under the relevant commitment, the services are generally lacking space support personnel, operational and tactical levels than use low. During the Russia-Georgia war of 2008, the Russian military satellite reconnaissance had revealed not timely, satellite communication services and poor.

While the US and Russia to develop space forces, more and more countries joined the ranks of the space race. India announced in 2007 to establish the “Aerospace Defense Command”, to manage India’s national space assets, and space warfare weapon concept study, the Indian Air Force has been established aerospace brigade. Japan in 2009 adopted the “Basic Law Aviation”, the Japanese Air Self Defense Force to take advantage of space resources, and expand research-related policy formulation and planning to lay the legal basis for future space operations. Some other countries have also expressed varying degrees of military commitment to the development and use of space and plans.

    Defense against US efforts to seize the initiative

As more and more countries enter the field of space, space security environment has undergone significant changes. Especially in the US view, the space has a non-former “safe harbor.” US Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2013 edition of “space war” doctrine stated that the commander must take into account a malicious adversary action may be taken, and can continue to maintain military capability in the case of space capabilities downgrade. For this purpose, a step the US took the lead in the field of space, launched a series of offensive and defensive measures.

– Improve space surveillance capability. February 2015, the US Air Force and Lockheed – Martin launched the new “Space Fence” radar system construction work. The system can be monitored for the first time all over the United States via satellite from the master satellite elapsed time, attitude and orbit, etc., can also detect low orbit target as small as 10 cm in diameter, thereby greatly enhancing the US space situational awareness ability.The US Air Force ground-based photovoltaic system and deep space exploration systems, missile warning and space surveillance radar network system together constitute from low earth orbit to deep space orbit space surveillance systems perspective.

– Improve the existing space forces invulnerability. 2013 US military issued a “survivability and distributed space systems architecture” white paper proposes the use of structural separation, functional decomposition, load carrying, decentralized multi-track, multi-domain decomposition operations and other measures to improve the survivability of space systems support.

– Emphasis on the integrated use of space technology and traditional techniques. 2014 US release of “Towards a new strategy to offset the” proposed in the report, the US needs to soaring losses caused by the loss of the base system, the measures include accelerating the development of alternative GPS system, equipped with long endurance and / or aerial refueling capability. ” mixed level “intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance UAVs.

– The establishment of the development model construction space forces and civilian integration. US military plans to use leased wartime civil and commercial space systems and services, carrying a military payload on a commercial satellite, direct purchase of advanced commercial or commercial systems to the military, etc., to supplement the existing space support capabilities.

– By conducting military exercises in the development of space power construction using the theory. US Joint Staff, Air Force, Navy and Army space support operations in both the theme of military exercises. In 2001 the US Air Force Space Command began to dominate “Schriever” space war military exercises have been organized nine times.

– Strengthening Space Operations organization and command. September 2015, the US Defense Department and intelligence community established an inter-agency Joint Space Operations Center, responsible for the integration of satellite reconnaissance data, strengthening space reconnaissance capability, military satellite monitoring operation, to prevent potential adversaries to attack US space assets.

– Strengthening Space offensive forces. May 2015, the US X-37B flight test for the fourth time. Although the Americans called it “Orbital Test Vehicle,” but it remained silent on key information. Speculation, X-37B has the ability to take military action including control, capture and destroy enemy spacecraft, military reconnaissance on the enemy. In this sense, X-37B is likely to be the first human space fighter. In addition, the United States has stepped up the construction of space attack power laser, microwave, anti-satellite missiles, hoping to keep the lead in the space race in the future, continue to maintain its dominance.

    Overall, the world’s military powers have attached great importance to space support the construction and development of power, but the situation near several local wars, the only United States and Russia have a more comprehensive strategic, operational and tactical levels of space capabilities, other countries space is still the main force in the strategic use of the service. In the new space, the security situation, the US military has launched a new round of space forces change the face of the future US military space forces are likely to be a qualitative change occurs, information warfare appearance may therefore profoundly changed.

Original Manadrin Chinese:

随着太空技术不断发展,太空军事应用日益广泛,越来越多的国家加入了太空竞争行列

“谁控制了宇宙,谁就控制了地球;谁控制了空间,谁就控制了战争的主动权。”美国前总统肯尼迪的判断,推动了美国太空技术的发展,也将太空纳入了大国博弈和竞争的范畴。随着太空技术和太空力量的不断发展,太空军事应用日益广泛,在塑造国际战略格局、推动世界新军事变革等方面发挥了关键性作用。

    两强争霸,主要服务战略目的

1961年7月,美国利用刚刚研制成功的“萨莫斯”侦察卫星,拍摄到苏联SS-7和SS-8洲际弹道导弹试验部署情况,揭开了美苏“导弹差距”真相,成为第三次柏林危机顺利解决的关键,标志着太空支援力量登上了历史舞台。

此后,美、苏两个超级大国从全球争霸的战略目的出发,建起了较为完备的太空支援力量体系。

由于战略地位重要,侦察卫星的建设一直由美国情报界独立负责,以利保密。美国国防部则主导了“国防卫星通信系统”“舰队卫星通信”“军事星”三大通信卫星系统建设,在此基础上构建了“空军卫星通信”系统,为美国国家指挥机构和战略核部队之间提供安全、可靠、高存活性的双向全球通信能力。同时,美国国防部还研制部署了用于战略弹道导弹预警的“国防支援计划”卫星、用于核潜艇导航的“子午仪”卫星、用于全球气象探测的“国防气象卫星”等系统,形成了较为完备的体系。

为了与美国抗衡,苏联也开展了全面的太空力量建设,发展起以“天顶”“琥珀”侦察卫星、“闪电”通信卫星、“帆”导航卫星、“眼睛”预警卫星及“流星”气象卫星等为代表的太空力量体系。

整个冷战期间,美苏太空力量的作用主要体现在战略层面,双方利用侦察卫星和预警卫星近实时侦测对方的战略动态,利用通信卫星和导航卫星进行战略核部队指挥控制,形成了有效的核威慑作战体系,深刻影响了冷战时期的世界战略格局。

随着航天发展重点由运载火箭向军用航天器转变,各种军用卫星系统逐渐具备规模化运用能力,美苏开始组建专门的太空力量指挥机构。1985年,美军成立了联合太空司令部。苏联则于1982年把原属战略火箭军、负责发展太空支援力量的航天器总局转隶给国防部,而后又升格为航天器主任局,使太空支援力量成为了苏联国防部的直属兵种。

    群雄并起,作用向战役战术行动拓展

1991年的海湾战争中,太空力量为美军作战行动提供了关键的侦察、预警、通信、导航、气象等服务,标志着太空支援开始从战略层次进入到战役战术层次。

随后,美军开始大力发展能够更好地支持战役战术作战的太空支援力量,启动了各类军用卫星的大规模建设和升级换代。“全球定位系统”全面建成,“锁眼-12”“未来成像体系结构”“天基红外系统”“宽带全球卫星通信”“先进极高频”“移动用户目标系统”等新一代卫星相继投入使用。2003年的伊拉克战争中,美国使用卫星总数达167颗。截至2015年底,美国在轨卫星近400颗,其中军用卫星120余颗,形成了强大的太空支援作战能力。

在加强力量建设的同时,美军于2002年把联合太空司令部并入战略司令部,统管三军太空司令部,以更好地组织指挥太空支援力量战略、战役、战术各层次的军事行动。各军种也形成了各自的太空支援力量编制和支援模式,以顺利实现战役战术层次的太空支援。

俄罗斯独立初期国力不足,所继承的前苏联太空支援力量也无法正常维系,导致在轨卫星数量急剧下降,到2002年为止只有97颗在轨运行。针对这种局面,俄军进行了太空力量改革,于2001年成立了独立的航天兵,开始恢复和重建其军用卫星系统。“新面貌”改革开始后,俄于2011年以航天兵为基础组建了空天防御兵,2015年又把空军和空天防御兵合并组建了空天军,负责俄航天器发射控制、导弹预警袭击系统与太空监视系统的管理运行。

经过改革调整,俄各类卫星系统逐渐得到恢复。截至2015年底,俄在轨卫星近130颗,其中军用卫星近80颗。但俄军认为,来自空天的打击将是俄面临的主要威胁,空天已成为决定未来战争胜负的关键领域,因此俄全力发展空天防御力量,太空支援力量处于从属或服务地位。在历次改革中,卫星侦察、卫星通信、卫星导航等太空支援系统的建设管理仍由俄国防部及总参谋部下属的相关业务局承担,各军种也普遍缺乏太空支援人才,战役战术运用水平较低。在2008年俄格战争期间,俄军就曾暴露出卫星侦察不及时、卫星通信服务差等问题。

在美俄大力发展太空力量的同时,越来越多的国家加入了太空竞争的行列。印度2007年宣布要筹建“航空航天防御司令部”,以管理印度全国的空间资产,并对太空战武器进行概念研究,印度空军已经成立了航空航天大队。日本于2009年通过了《航空基本法》,使日本航空自卫队得以利用太空资源,并展开相关政策的研究、制定和规划,为未来太空行动奠定法理基础。其他一些国家也不同程度表达出军事开发和利用太空的决心和计划。

    攻防对抗,美国着力抢占先机

随着越来越多的国家进入太空领域,太空安全环境发生了显著变化。特别是在美军看来,太空已非昔日的“安全港”。美军参联会在2013年版《太空作战》条令中指出,指挥官必须考虑到敌对方可能采取的恶意行动,并能够在太空能力降级的情况下继续保持军事能力。为达到这一目的,美军率先一步,在太空攻防领域推出了一系列措施。

——提高太空监视能力。2015年2月,美空军和洛克希德-马丁公司启动了新型“太空篱笆”雷达系统建设工作。该系统可在第一时间监控到所有从美国上空经过的卫星,掌握卫星经过的时间、姿态和轨道等,还可探测直径小至10厘米的中低轨道目标,从而大大增强美国的太空态势感知能力。该系统与美空军陆基光电深空探测系统、导弹预警雷达网和太空监视系统共同构成从近地轨道到深空轨道的立体空间目标监视系统。

——提高现有太空力量的抗毁性。2013年美军发布了《抗毁性与分散式太空系统体系结构》白皮书,提出采用结构分离、功能分解、载荷搭载、多轨道分散、多作战域分解等措施,来提高太空支援系统生存能力。

——重视太空技术与传统技术的综合使用。2014年美发布的《迈向新抵消战略》报告中提出,美国需要对冲天基系统丧失所带来的损失,措施包括加快研发GPS替代系统、装备具有长持久力和/或空中加油能力的“高低混合”情报监视与侦察无人机等。

——建立军民融合的太空力量建设发展模式。美军计划采用战时租用民用与商用太空系统服务、在商业卫星上搭载军用载荷、直接购买先进的民用或商业系统转为军用等方式,补充现有太空支援能力的不足。

——通过开展军事演习发展太空力量建设运用理论。美军联合参谋部、空军、海军和陆军都有以太空支援作战为主题的军事演习。2001年美空军太空司令部开始主导“施里弗”太空战军事演习,迄今已举办9次。

——强化太空作战组织指挥。2015年9月,美国防部与情报界成立了机构间联合太空作战中心,负责整合卫星侦察数据、强化太空侦察能力,监控美军卫星运行情况,防范潜在对手攻击美国太空资产。

——加强太空进攻力量建设。2015年5月,美国X-37B进行了第四次飞行试验。虽然美国人将之称为“轨道试验飞行器”,但在关键信息上却三缄其口。外界猜测,X-37B有能力采取的军事行动包括控制、捕获和摧毁敌国航天器,对敌国进行军事侦察等。在这个意义上,X-37B很可能将是人类首架太空战斗机。此外,美国还加强了激光、微波、反卫星导弹等太空攻击力量的建设,希望在未来的太空竞赛中保持先机,继续维持其霸主地位。

总的看来,世界军事强国都高度重视太空支援力量的建设和发展,但就近几次局部战争情况来看,只有美、俄具备了较为完备的战略、战役和战术层次太空能力,其他国家的太空力量仍主要服务于战略运用。在新的太空安全形势下,美军又发起了新一轮太空力量变革,未来美军太空力量的面貌有可能会发生质的变化,信息化战争面貌也可能因此而发生深刻改变。

New Progress States space forces

    United States–

    Get rid of the GPS “dependency syndrome”

    Currently, almost all US military combat platforms and systems rely on GPS or GPS-based navigation system. However, GPS navigation presence signal is weak, poor penetration, vulnerable to interference, vulnerable to cyber attacks and other defects. To avoid huge risks due to excessive reliance GPS brought the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in recent years have launched the “micro-positioning, navigation, timing and technology”, “adaptive navigation system,” “Quantum Perception and auxiliary readout technology “” ultrafast laser Science and Engineering “,” get in the fight against environmental space, time, and location information “and does not rely on GPS navigation, positioning, timing and technology research projects.

    Russia –

    Restart “satellite killer” program

    Russia has shelved the case in the official anti-satellite weapons program, the “satellite killer” plan, but the Russian side the key technology in the field has never been completely lost. According to media reports, the Russian military had for launch in 2013, code-named “2014-28E” (also known as the Universe 2499) of the mysterious object. The object was observed using a series of non-normal but the engine very precise orbit maneuver, it seems have the ability to be able to sneak up on other satellites.

    Japan –

    Establishment of space surveillance units

    August 28, 2014, Japan’s defense ministry revised the “development and utilization of the basic principle of the universe,” clearly pointed out that Japan will set up a special space surveillance forces of the universe and garbage run dynamic satellite tracking and analysis, in order to gradually strengthen the perception of space ability. The move aims to strengthen the Japan-US cooperation in space, to deal with weapons to attack from satellites will strengthen the capacity to collect pictures from space using satellites for ballistic missile launch early monitoring and analysis, to enhance early warning capabilities.

    India –

    Construction of Regional Satellite Navigation System

    March 28, 2015, India’s fourth-navigation satellites successfully launched India’s regional satellite navigation system gradually formed. India according to plan, the work of the network system will be divided into two steps: The first step is to launch geostationary satellites covering the whole territory of India’s regional satellite navigation system, the second step is from regional satellite navigation systems to the Indian version of the global satellite positioning system forward. The system will provide civilian and military both services.

 各国太空力量建设新进展

    美国——

    摆脱GPS“依赖症”

    目前,美军几乎所有的军用系统和作战平台都依靠GPS或基于GPS的组合导航系统。但是,GPS导航存在信号较弱、穿透能力差、易受干扰、易受网络攻击等缺陷。为避免由于过度依赖GPS而带来的巨大风险,美国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)近年来陆续开展了“微型定位、导航、授时技术”“自适应导航系统”“量子辅助感知与读出技术”“超快激光科学与工程”“在对抗环境下获得空间、时间和定位信息”等不依赖GPS的导航、定位、授时技术研究项目。

    俄罗斯——

    重启“卫星杀手”计划

    俄罗斯曾在官方场合搁置了反卫星武器计划,即“卫星杀手”计划,但俄方在该领域的关键技术从未完全丢失。据媒体报道,俄军方曾于2013年发射代号为“2014-28E”(或称宇宙2499)的神秘物体。该物体被观测到使用发动机进行一系列非正常但非常精准的机动变轨,似乎具备能悄悄接近其他卫星的能力。

    日本——

    设立太空监视部队

    2014年8月28日,日本防卫省修改了《宇宙开发利用基本方针》,明确指出,日本将成立专门的太空监视部队,对宇宙卫星和垃圾的运行动态进行跟踪和分析,以逐步加强太空感知能力。此举旨在加强日美在太空的合作,应对来自卫星的武器攻击,将加强从太空收集图片的能力,利用人造卫星对弹道导弹的发射进行早期的监控和分析,增强早期预警能力。

    印度——

    构建区域卫星导航系统

    2015年3月28日,印度第四颗导航卫星发射成功,印度区域卫星导航系统逐渐成形。按照印度的计划,该系统的组网工作将分为两大步骤:第一步是发射地球同步卫星组成覆盖印度全境的区域卫星导航系统,第二步是从区域卫星导航系统向印度版全球卫星定位系统迈进。该系统将提供民用和军用两种服务。

Libya war action in space
■ Wang Pingping

Libya is the second war in Afghanistan and the US-led war in Iraq is not a scale but the high degree of information technology local war, preparations for war, initiated and progression to reconnaissance, navigation, communications support for the core space power to effectively support the multinational force and strategic campaign decisions to protect the fine planning and real-time command and control task.
Before the war, the US-led NATO military operations on the basis of the need for a full assessment on the strength of existing space system was substantial adjustment, built up by the imaging and electronic reconnaissance, maritime surveillance and missile warning, command and communications, space support system navigation, meteorological observation system consisting of satellites and satellite systems for civil use functionally complement in individual areas. In addition, according to operational needs, with fast access to space capability supplementary firing several satellites.
Libyan war, the multinational force to implement the diversification of space support operations.
Access to information on the battlefield, the multinational force by the imaging reconnaissance spacecraft, aerospace electronic reconnaissance means supplemented by special reconnaissance and surveillance network means, Libya’s strategic target architecture, an important goal distribution, composition and deployment of air defense systems, command and control relationship , means of communication and frequency distribution of a comprehensive reconnaissance. War is in progress, the multinational force by aerospace electronic reconnaissance and avionics reconnaissance combining means, real-time capture and analysis of radiation target operating parameter Libyan army, master Libyan army air defense system deployment adjustment, dynamic intelligence command and communications work full time monitoring Libya’s mobile communications and satellite communications, intelligence screening important clues.
In terms of battlefield information distribution, multinational force operations in front of more than 1100 kilometers wide, over a wide area of ​​more than 600 kilometers in depth expansion; air force were deployed in the war zone from 700 to more than 2800 km range and nearly 20 airports on aircraft carriers, a variety of information through a wide range of command and control, high-speed, high-capacity, high security satellite communications system to distribute real-time data sharing within the multinational force, for a variety of combat forces and the overall offensive and defensive operations provide linkage strong support.
In terms of navigation and positioning, navigation and positioning information needed for precision air strike all provided by space power, accuracy of less than meter-level positioning information to ensure effective control of collateral damage when clearing precision strike urban targets.
Throughout the war in Libya, the space forces to the multinational force to provide 80% of the intelligence information to help them achieve battlefield transparent way, firmly grasp the battlefield initiative. There are pre-prepared in the intelligence area, the US military to grasp the dynamics of the battlefield and complete the property identified in less than 5 minutes. Space power efficient support from discovery, to combat identification, evaluation precision air strike chains. Combat action against Gaddafi fled from Sirte, that is, by the space surveillance system to grasp the dynamics and guide warplanes and drones successful wars against the blockade.

利比亚战争中的太空行动

■王平平

    利比亚战争是继阿富汗和伊拉克战争之后美国主导的一场规模不大但信息化程度很高的局部战争,战争的准备、发起和进展过程,以侦察情报、导航定位、通信保障为核心的太空力量,有效支持了多国部队的战略与战役决策,保障了精细任务筹划和实时指挥控制。

战前,以美国为首的北约在对军事行动需要进行充分评估的基础上,对既有的太空力量体系进行了充实调整,构建起了由成像及电子侦察、海洋监视及导弹预警、指挥通信、导航定位、气象观测等卫星系统构成的太空支援体系,并利用民用卫星系统在个别领域进行功能性补充。此外,根据作战的需要,利用快速进入太空能力补充发射数颗卫星。

利比亚战争中,多国部队实施了多样化的太空支援行动。

在战场信息获取方面,多国部队通过航天成像侦察、航天电子侦察手段,辅之以特种侦察和网络侦察手段,对利比亚境内的战略目标体系结构、重要目标分布、防空体系构成及部署、指挥控制关系、通信手段及频率分布情况进行全面的侦察。战争进行过程中,多国部队通过航天电子侦察与航空电子侦察相结合的手段,实时截获和分析利比亚军队的辐射目标工作参数,掌握利比亚军队防空系统部署调整、指挥通信工作的动态情报,全时段监控利比亚的移动通信及卫星通信,筛选重要情报线索。

在战场信息分发方面,多国部队的作战行动在正面宽1100余千米、纵深600余千米的广阔区域内展开;空中力量分别部署在距战区700~2800余千米范围内近20个机场及航空母舰上,指挥控制的各种信息通过大范围、高速度、大容量、高保密性的卫星通信系统实时分发,在多国部队内部实现数据共享,为各种作战力量及攻防作战行动的整体联动提供有力支持。

在导航定位方面,空中精确打击所需要的导航定位信息全部由太空力量提供,精度小于米级的定位信息确保了对城区目标进行空地精确打击时有效控制附带损伤。

整个利比亚战争中,太空力量为多国部队提供了80%的情报信息,帮助其实现战场单向透明,牢牢掌握战场主动。在有预先情报准备的区域内,美军掌握战场动态情况并完成属性识别的时间小于5分钟。太空力量高效支持了从发现、识别到打击、评估的空中精确打击链。对从苏尔特出逃的卡扎菲进行的打击行动,就是由太空侦察系统掌握动态情况,并引导战机和无人机进行阻滞打击的成功战例。

Source:
Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China
 Author: Zhang Zhi Time: 2016-01-29

China’s Military, Information Warfare & Interpretation of the PLA’s Strategic Support Units

中國軍事信息戰解读解放军战略支援部队

20160104131249755

December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in August Building.The Army is the armed forces of our party was first built, which needless to say, the military rocket is an upgraded version of the Second Artillery Corps, reflects the strategic support great power status, do not need to deny self, then this strategy support troops may be too mysterious.

Because at the inaugural meeting, the CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping to the Army, rocket forces, strategic support units and granted the flag caused precepts. This means that the strategic support units, and the People’s Liberation Army is the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army rocket same level independent military services. And with respect to the Army’s “name” and the Second Artillery Rocket Army “named” upgrade, strategic support since the Second Artillery Force of the PLA has become established, the birth of the only new military services. From the point of view of modern high-tech local wars, armed forces and strategic nuclear strike force contains basically the main mode of combat and battlefield environment, then this strategy support troops, and what capability, turned out to be able to come to the fore?

Strategic support troops inaugural meeting, President Xi strategic support units carried out the following qualitative: strategic support units is to maintain national security of new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality. Strategic support units to adhere to all officers and soldiers system integration, civil-military integration, and strive to achieve leapfrog development in key areas, starting point to promote high standards of combat forces to accelerate the development of new, integrated development, strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

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There are a few key words: new combat forces, combat new quality capability, system integration, civil-military integration, key areas.

Xinhua News Agency news show, strategic support unit’s first commander was Gaojin. Network data shows he originally from Jiangsu Province, of the Jingjiang people. 1985 Gao-Jin enters the PLA Second Artillery Command College. July 2006, promoted to the rank of major general, served as the PLA Second Artillery Force 52 base commander. In December 2011, he served as chief of staff of the PLA Second Artillery Force. August 2013, promoted to the rank of lieutenant.In July 2014, he was transferred to the Assistant Chief of Staff. In December 2014, he was promoted to president of Academy of Military Sciences, and replace older than 1 year old deputy chief of staff YiXiaoguang will become the youngest Chinese Military general officer, Military Academy is the youngest president in history.

On November 2, 2015,Gaojin became a strategic support troops commander in the first 60 days, “Liberation Army Daily” published a paper entitled “deepen defense and military reform is the only way the army strong army Hing,” the signed article . Article specifically mentioned: the world’s new military revolution is an important component of the key variables in the world today and the great development and changes and major adjustments, the large its speed, scope, degree of depth, the impact of the unprecedented. Following another face of this epoch-making revolution in military weapon cold, hot weapons, mechanized military revolution after the world’s major countries competing to adjust its military strategy, stepping up military transformation, in order to reshape the military information as the core morphology, reconstruction of military force system. In the form of war from mechanization to informationization of qualitative leap, under conditions of nuclear deterrence armed Skynet electrical integration of joint operations is increasingly becoming a reality, from the battlefield to the traditional space high, deep, very far from the physical space and virtual space to expand non symmetric, non-contact, non-line combat style more mature, battle to seize control of information has become a comprehensive control over the core mechanism of winning the war profoundly changed.

Armed Skynet electrical integration joint commander Gaojin said nuclear deterrence combat conditions, where “day”, it never refers to the Army’s rocket missile, but in outer space, “net” is in cyberspace, “power” is the electromagnetic space. Modern high-tech local wars, armed forces military remains the key to victory, but also the main battleground in the sea and air space, but a typical characteristic of information warfare is asymmetrical, non-contact, non-line operations, and achieve the key to this transformation is in outer space, cyberspace and electromagnetic space “three special battlefield.” Due to the large electromagnetic space and physical isolation from the impact, typically have only tactical significance. Whereas outer space and cyberspace, it is high, deep, very far from ubiquitous in the physical space and virtual space, which has a strategic significance. On both the battlefield flame, not flesh and blood flying, but dangerous worse than conventional battlefield, troops could have a corresponding force building and sound command response agencies, the result will be a conventional battlefield the outcome must have an important and even qualitative impact.

This is the meaning of China’s “strategic support” forces. Reasoning logically, Chinese strategic support units, it may be in outer space and cyberspace “new combat forces” for giving our military the “new mass combat capability” new growth point.

In order to achieve this capability “strategic support” of military power have set up competing celestial army (troops outer space) and Cyber ​​Army (network warfare units). US troops in outer space, from the “Decree” system, troops belonging to the armed forces, including missile and space defense forces, the Navy’s carrier-based anti-missile forces, the Air Force C4ISR and the use of space satellites Army troops, and in the “military orders on “system, these forces are unified owned by the US strategic command headquarters. In 2009, under the US Strategic Command has established a new subordinate command, namely Network Warfare Command, the unified command of the US Armed Corps network warfare units.

Russia in December 2011 set up air and space defense troops, but it was such a force has only arms and the operational level status, the military power of the central air and space defense forces only jurisdiction, but can not solve Russia’s air defense force under unified command of proposal question. August 1, 2015, the Russian air force and air defense forces, air defense forces merged to form the air and space forces. Which it is now Russia has no air force in the traditional sense. Air and space defense forces will remain the unified command of the Russian General Staff, and the direct leadership of the day will be empty Army General Headquarters. Aerospace duty Army is responsible for unified management of air, anti-aircraft and anti-missile forces, and Russian satellite orbit Cluster spacecraft launch and management. In addition, the missile attack warning systems and space surveillance systems within the scope of the jurisdiction of military air and space.

From the public point of view, so far Russia has not yet set up as a dedicated network warfare units like the US, but does not have a special unified command structure.

Advances in technology, to make human use of outer space and cyberspace, to achieve the purpose of the military, but that does not mean big opportunities for state-owned, have the ability and courage to break the old military system, to adapt to the new form of war requirements. How to build a national unified command and outer space and cyberspace defense system. Russia and the United States gave us a lot of lessons.

The United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War hegemony, had spent heavily in the development of military platforms and a lot of space weapons systems, but the US military space systems, almost all rests in the hands of the Air Force, and the Soviet Union established the Strategic Rocket Forces troops. Visible, the US military is relying on the armed services to build space defense system, and the former Soviet Union is the establishment of a new military services.

At the end of the Cold War, the Russian strategic rocket forces in the original, based on an independent arms to draw a military space forces. March 2011, the Russian military space forces again, based on the formation of air and space defense troops.However, under the oppression of US nuclear weapons, global strike, anti-missile and other space powers, Russia and aerospace field is still fragmented, air and space attack threats it faces increasingly severe pain, while there is no uniform national air and space defense command structure . To safeguard the security of Russian aerospace field, create a better organizational and technical conditions for the implementation of the strategic future of air and space battles, the Russians in August 2015 set up air and space forces. But have to say is that the so-called empty space forces, the Russian equivalent of the US back to the old way, both relying on a unified air defense system to re-member space. This shows that, although Russia considers itself aerospace suffered a big threat, but the economic and technological strength, has been insufficient to support the establishment of a development, a separate military services promising, but only on the basis of the Air Force “linger.”

Russian frustration with respect to the United States the development of air and space power is somewhat intentional play balance. The main part of the US Air Force air and space power, but in the “ABM” the US military in the 21st century the most important military operation of air and space, is the main operator of the US Army. In addition to the Navy’s “Aegis” missile defense system, the US military’s ground-based midcourse ABM, THAAD and Patriot anti-missile terminal, they are in control of the US Army, and a bunch of computer manipulation Army Air Force Base. Of course, whether it is armed soldiers, they eventually unify obey the command of US Strategic Command. But the US military services rely on different building space defense system, military services still reflects the inherent ideological balance thinking. This is because the US military very large volume, especially during the Cold War, which makes the US military services have funding research challenges of new technologies. And after 1986, the new Department of Defense Reorganization Act by the US military approach is from the perspective of the Joint Operations Command, the unified “collection” command the services of new combat forces to integrate. US Network Warfare Command was established, also a product of this approach.

US military advantage of this approach is that the services Eight Immortals recount, the final choice can be optimized in the competition, but the disadvantage is that there is a huge waste, and the services in peacetime and do not belong to the system, it is difficult wartime unity of action. Although the US military reform highlights the joint operations of thought, but the individual military services after all are not the same culture, and outer space and cyberspace, the required military personnel are a small number of capable staff, if the artificial formation of different military services background, a bit “for the United the joint “deliberate sense.

With respect to the United States and Russia, China’s military advantage is the revolution in military time scale, technological change and changes in the army almost simultaneously, the synchronization off, which makes the Chinese military have the opportunity to design the height from the top, in the lessons learned from military based on the construction of military services and more rational planning. While China’s national strength and technological level of rapid growth, but also to the construction of China’s new military services will not fall into the “make bricks without straw,” the fantasy embarrassment.

In the field of anti-missile, the Chinese Defense Ministry has confirmed that the January 11, 2010, September 11, 2012, January 27, 2013, July 23, 2014 were carried out four ground-based midcourse missile interception technical tests. In the field of anti-satellite, the Chinese Foreign Ministry acknowledged in January 2007 anti-satellite missile test. Out media speculation in 2010 and 2013. China has conducted two tests of anti-satellite weapons, but did not get China confirmed. Platform in space, China from 2010 into more than 15 times the average annual emission intensive stage, reaching an average growth of around 20 the number of satellites, the establishment of a chain of day, the Beidou, high scores, and a series of remote sensing satellites family now the number of satellites in orbit over Russia, after the United States. In 2014 MH370 lost contact incident, China urgent mobilization of four models ocean, clouds, high, remote sensing, nearly 10 satellites to provide technical support for ground search and rescue operations.

In network technology, China has become the world’s Internet and mobile Internet users than any other country, not only the birth of a group of like Alibaba, Tencent world-class Internet companies, such as Huawei also appeared in network technology giant. China in the next generation of Internet technology, has become one rule-makers. But while China has become the network against the most affected countries by the world, which means that China must consider the network security of the country from a strategic height, including the establishment of a unified defense force and a network system.

There is no doubt that the new military revolution has proved that outer space is to promote our army “system integration” an important heights, and cyberspace is the embodiment of “civil-military integration,” a typical example of these two historic space is the Chinese army reform the key areas. China established strategic support units, will likely be the world’s first and do not rely on traditional military services to establish a unified military force in outer space and cyberspace defense system. This initiative is bound to leave an indelible mark in the world’s new military revolution.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

凤凰军事作者:郑文浩

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在八一大楼隆重举行。陆军是我党最早建立的武装力量,这就不用说了,火箭军是二炮的升级版,体现了大国地位的战略支撑,自不需要讳言,那么这支战略支援部队可就太神秘了。

因为在成立大会上,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队授予军旗并致训词。这就意味着,战略支援部队,是和解放军陆军、海军、空军、火箭军平级的独立军种部队。而相对于陆军的“正名”和第二炮兵到火箭军的“命名”升级,战略支援部队成为解放军自二炮成立以来,诞生的唯一新军种部队。从现代化高技术局部战争来看,陆海空军以及战略核打击部队基本上囊括了主要的作战方式和战场环境,那么这支战略支援部队,又有哪些能耐,能够脱颖而出横空出世呢?

在战略支援部队成立大会上,习主席对战略支援部队进行了如下的定性:战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。战略支援部队全体官兵要坚持体系融合、军民融合,努力在关键领域实现跨越发展,高标准高起点推进新型作战力量加速发展、一体发展,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

这里面有几个关键词:新型作战力量、新质作战能力、体系融合、军民融合、关键领域。

新华社新闻显示,战略支援部队的首任司令员是高津。网络资料显示高津是江苏靖江人。1985年高津进入解放军第二炮兵指挥学院。2006年7月,晋升少将军衔,担任解放军第二炮兵第52基地司令员。2011年12月,担任中国人民解放军第二炮兵参谋长。2013年8月,晋升中将军衔。2014年7月,调任总参谋长助理。2014年12月,升任军事科学院院长,并取代比其年长1岁的副总参谋长乙晓光中将,成为最年轻的正大军区级将领,也是军事科学院历史上最年轻的院长。

在2015年11月2日,也就是高津在成为战略支援部队司令员的前60天,在《解放军报》上发表了题为“深化国防和军队改革是强军兴军的必由之路”的署名文章。文章中特别提到:世界新军事革命是当今世界大发展大变革大调整的重要构成和关键变量,其速度之快、范围之广、程度之深、影响之大前所未有。面对这场继冷兵器、热兵器、机械化军事革命之后的又一次划时代军事革命,世界主要国家竞相调整军事战略,加紧推进军事转型,以信息化为核心重塑军队组织形态、重构军事力量体系。战争形态处于由机械化向信息化跃升的质变期,核威慑条件下陆海空天网电一体化联合作战日益成为现实,战场从传统空间向极高、极深、极远物理空间和虚拟空间拓展,非对称、非接触、非线式作战样式更趋成熟,制信息权成为夺取战场综合控制权的核心,战争制胜机理深刻改变。

高津司令员所说的核威慑条件下陆海空天网电一体化联合作战,其中的“天”,就绝不是指的火箭军部队的导弹,而是外层空间,“网”则是网络空间,“电”则是电磁空间。现代化高技术局部战争,陆海空军部队仍然是决胜的关键,而争夺的战场也主要在陆海空空间进行,但信息化战争的一个典型特色,就是非对称、非接触、非线式作战,而实现这一转变的关键环节,就是在外层空间、网络空间和电磁空间的“这三个特殊战场”。电磁空间由于受距离和物理隔绝的影响很大,通常只具有战术意义。而外层空间和网络空间,则是极高、极深、极远物理空间和无处不在的虚拟空间,从而具有战略上意义。在这两个战场上的拼杀,没有血肉横飞,但凶险却比常规战场有过之而无不及,军队能否拥有对应的力量建设和健全的指挥反应机构,其结果将对常规战场的胜负产生重要甚至绝定性影响。

这就是“战略支援”的含义所在。从逻辑上推理,中国战略支援部队,很可能就是针对外层空间和网络空间的“新型作战力量”,赋予我军“新质作战能力”新增长点。

为了获得这种“战略支援”的能力,军事大国都曾争相成立天军(外层空间部队)和网军(网络战部队)。美国的外层空间部队,从“政令”体制上,分属陆海空三军部队,包括陆军的空间和导弹防御部队,海军的舰载反导部队、空军的C4ISR和空间卫星使用部队,而在“军令”系统上,这些部队则统一归美国战略司令部指挥。在2009年,美军又在战略司令部之下成立了一个新的下级司令部,即网络战司令部,统一指挥美军陆海空陆战队的网络战部队。

俄罗斯在2011年12月成立了空天防御兵,但当时这一部队仅具有兵种和战役级地位,只有管辖中央军区空天防御部队的权力,但无法解决俄罗斯空提案防御力量统一指挥的问题。2015年8月1日,俄空天防御部队和空军、防空军合并,组成了空天军。也就是现在俄罗斯已经没有了传统意义上的空军。空天防御部队仍将由俄罗斯总参谋部统一指挥,而直接领导将是空天军总司令部。空天军将负责统一管理执勤的空中、防空和反导力量,以及俄罗斯轨道卫星集群航天器的发射和管理。另外,导弹袭击预警系统和太空监控系统也属于空天军管辖范围。

从公开资料上看,目前为止俄罗斯还没有像美军那样成立专门的网络战部队,更没有设立专门的统一指挥机构。

技术的进步,让人类的得以利用外层空间和网络空间,来实现军事上的目的,但这并不意味着大国有机会、有能力、有胆识打破旧有的军队体制,来适应新形态战争的要求。如何构建并统一指挥全国性的外层空间和网络空间防御体系。美国和俄罗斯给我们提供了很多经验教训。

美国和苏联在冷战争霸过程中,曾经耗费巨资开发了大量空间军事平台和武器系统,但美军的空间系统几乎都掌握在空军手中,而苏联则成立了战略火箭军部队。可见,美军是依托军种构建空间防御体系,而前苏联是成立新的军种。

在冷战结束后,俄罗斯在原有战略火箭军的基础上,划出了一个军事航天部队的独立兵种。2011年3月,俄罗斯又以军事航天部队为基础,组建了空天防御兵。然而在美国核武器、全球快速打击、反导等太空力量的压迫下,俄罗斯空天领域仍然是割裂的,痛感其面临的空天袭击威胁日益严峻,而同时本国又没有统一的空天防御指挥机构。为切实维护俄空天领域安全,为实施未来的空天战略性战役创造更好的组织和技术条件,俄军于2015年8月组建了空天军。然而不得不说的是,所谓的空天军,等于俄罗斯回到了美军的老路上,既依托空军重新构件统一的空间防御体系。这说明,俄罗斯虽然认为自身空天所遭受威胁很大,但其经济和技术实力,已经不足以支撑建立一个有发展、有前途的独立军种,而只能在空军的基础上”苟延残喘“。

相对于俄罗斯的无奈,美国空天力量发展则有些故意玩平衡。美国空天力量的主要部分在空军,然而在“反导”这个美军在21世纪最重要的空天军事动作上,主要的操作者却是美国陆军。除了海军的“宙斯盾”导弹防御系统之外,美军的陆基中段反导、THAAD和爱国者终端反导,都是美国陆军在掌控,而且是一帮陆军军人在美国空军基地中操纵电脑。当然,无论是陆海空军人,他们最终都统一听从美军战略司令部的指挥。但美国依托不同军种构建空间防御体系,仍然体现了固有军种平衡思维的思想。这是因为美国军费体量极为庞大,尤其在冷战期间,这使得美军各军种都有资金研究新技术的挑战。而1986年新国防部改组法通过后,美军的做法就是从联合作战司令部的角度,统一“收缴”指挥各军种新作战力量进行整合。而美国网络战司令部的成立,也同样是这一方法的产物。

美军这种方法的优点在于,各军种八仙过海各显神通,最后可以在竞争中优化选择,但缺点在于存在巨大浪费,且各军种在平时互不统属,很难在战时统一行动。固然美军改革突出了联合作战的思想,但各个军种文化毕竟不相同,而且外层空间和网络空间,所需军事人员都数量少、人员精干,如果再人为形成不同军种背景,就有点“为了联合而联合”刻意之感。

相对于美俄,中国军队的优势,是在军事革命的时间尺度上,技术变革和军队变革几乎同步进行、同步起飞,这使得中国军队有机会从顶层设计的高度,在借鉴外军经验教训的基础上,更合理地规划军种建设。而中国国力和科技水平的快速增长,也让中国新军种的建设不至于陷入“巧妇难为无米之炊”的空想尴尬。

在反导领域,中国国防部已经证实,在2010年1月11日、2012年9月11日、2013年1月27日、2014年7月23日分别进行了四次陆基中段反导拦截技术试验。在反卫星领域,中国外交部在2007年1月承认进行了反卫星导弹试验。而外媒猜测在2010年和2013年中国还进行过两次反卫星武器试验,但未获得中方证实。在太空平台上,中国从2010年开始,进入年均15次以上的密集发射阶段,年均卫星增长数量达到20枚左右,建立了天链、北斗、高分、遥感等一系列卫星家族,目前在轨卫星数量已经超过俄罗斯,仅次于美国。在2014年的MH370失联事件中,中国紧急调动海洋、风云、高分、遥感等4个型号,近10颗卫星为地面搜救行动提供技术支持。

在网络技术上,中国已经成为全球互联网和移动互联网用户最多的国家,不但诞生了一批像阿里巴巴、腾讯的世界级网络企业,也出现了像华为这样的网络技术巨头。中国在新一代互联网技术上,已经成为规则的制定者之一。但同时中国也成为世界上受到网络侵害最严重的国家,这就意味着中国必须从战略高度考虑国家的网络安全,其中也包括建立统一的网络防卫力量和体系。

毫无疑问,新军事革命已经证明,外层空间是推进我军“体系融合”的重要高地,而网络空间则是体现“军民融合”的典型范例,这两个空间则是中国军队历史性改革的关键领域。中国战略支援部队的成立,将可能是世界上首次不依托传统军种而建立统一的外层空间和网络空间防御军事力量体系。这项创举必然会在世界新军事革命中写下浓墨重彩的一笔。

Original Source HERE

Chinese Military Reshuffle Carries Deep Significance

02FEB2016 Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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China on Monday inaugurated the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) five new theater commands. The northern, southern, eastern, western and central theater commands replace the seven previous military area commands. The change from “military area command” to “theater command” carries more weight than the change from “seven” to “five.”

The essence of the theater commands is clear. The commands are prepared for combat and winning wars, about which the military and the public share a deep understanding. With such a military system, China’s peaceful development will be more serious and gain more respect from the outside.

It has been decades since the PLA was involved in a war. The outside world focuses more on the Dongfeng ballistic missile and the construction of aircraft carriers than about the military itself. The Chinese army has not made much impression on the world.

Perhaps some would prefer the Chinese military to keep a low profile, and it is even better that they advocate peace. The establishment of the five theater commands heralds a revolutionary change, highlighting the fundamentals of the military and the troops.

From now on, the strength of the Chinese military not only exists in historical documents or rests upon newly developed weapons, but also in its determination for victory and in its preparations.

The more powerful the PLA grows and the more capable it is of engaging in a war, the country will embrace a peaceful rise all the more. This will contribute to the nation’s peaceful rise, otherwise the outside world will only consider that peace is only our compulsory choice. If this happens, the peace of China and the world will face a dangerous future.

A major power will attract all kinds of opportunities for the world’s development and can share in global wealth distribution. But without corresponding military might, instability may brew. The security of a big power relates to the security of the whole world. That a big power is capable of fighting in a war but not obsessed in launching wars fits the common interests of all mankind.

Frankly speaking, the strength of the Chinese military can ensure the country is not intruded on by foreign troops, but it is not enough to promote fair competition and the evolution of order in a globalized era. Some external forces do not accept China’s rise. If such sentiments spread with military aid without restraint, it will hurt China’s security and world peace. There needs to be a tipping point where China is more secure, but how to find the tipping point is a subtle issue.

The Chinese military will shoulder heavier responsibilities in the future. China is close to the historical mission of a national rejuvenation. We are facing an unprecedented landscape, hopes and risks. The PLA will play a key role in helping the Chinese people pass the transition period smoothly and helping the world release some external grievances due to the power shifts of major countries.

Original Source: HERE

China Military Focus of Main Effort in Information Warfare: Electromagnetic Spectrum

来源:解放军报作者:郝嘉 周宁 周任飞责任编辑:张硕

● electromagnetic spectrum owned by the state, is the core of strategic resources for national development, promote social progress

● direct support operations of the electromagnetic spectrum, is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war of the central nervous system

Soul of the information war: the electromagnetic spectrum

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Electromagnetic spectrum resources for humanity, as indispensable as water and sun. Information age, the electromagnetic spectrum is changing the world, changing the way people live

Core Tip

Electromagnetic spectrum exists in war by land, sea, air, space the whole time and space, is the only ideal medium capable of supporting mobile operations, decentralized operations and high intensity warfare. Important support elements of the electromagnetic spectrum management as joint operations, throughout the operational readiness, operational planning, operational implementation of the entire process, the role of command and control, intelligence and reconnaissance, weapons guidance, early warning and detection, navigation and other operational elements of the whole, is to improve the combat Important basic capabilities directly related weapons and equipment play information Operational Effectiveness.

Electromagnetic spectrum Past and Present

The physical world there is such a strange phenomenon, alternating current generated in the surrounding space alternating magnetic field, electric field and magnetic field variations mutual contacts to form an alternating electromagnetic field, and can spread from the wave source which produces the distance, this planted in the space at a constant speed of alternating electromagnetic field propagation is electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum, it is by electromagnetic waves lined up according to wavelength or frequency, a formed structure from zero to infinity pedigree, which 0-3000 gigahertz frequency range of radio waves.

Back in October 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent. However, the future Queen of Spain, six months before he heard the news, unfortunately sudden and devastating. April 14, 1865, US President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 13 days after the news spread was known industry’s most advanced British government, coping strategies are overtaken by events. Electromagnetic time unknown, human nature can not enjoy its magic.

In 1888, German physicist Hertz experiment is successful, humans finally touch the existence of electromagnetic waves. In 1901, as the “father of radio” Marconi trans-Atlantic radio communication test is successful, humanity has entered the era of electromagnetic radio communications sweeping the globe. In 1912, after the Titanic wreck, the United Kingdom, the United States and other maritime powers mandatory over a certain tonnage of the vessel must be installed radio stations, in order to protect the safety of life at sea. During World War I, the war all the major powers use radio communication to pass information and commands.

Since then, radio broadcasting, navigation, remote after another, to the development and progress of human society has brought great changes. Electromagnetic wave as an important carrier of information transmission, dash in land, sea, air, space four-dimensional space, accelerate the coming of the information age.

●电磁频谱属于国家所有,是促进国家发展、推动社会进步的核心战略资源

●电磁频谱直接支撑作战,是建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争的中枢神经

电磁频谱:信息化战争之魂

电磁频谱资源对人类的影响,就像水和太阳一样不可或缺。信息时代,电磁频谱正在改变世界,改变人们的生活方式。(图片合成:胡亚军

核心提示

电磁频谱存在于陆、海、空、天的作战全时空,是唯一能够支持机动作战、分散作战和高强度作战的理想媒介。电磁频谱管理作为联合作战的重要保障要素,贯穿于作战准备、作战筹划、作战实施的全过程,作用于指挥控制、情报侦察、武器制导、预警探测、导航定位等作战全要素,是提高体系作战能力的重要基础,直接关系信息化武器装备作战效能的发挥。

电磁频谱的前世今生

物理世界有这样一种奇特的现象,交变电流在周围空间会产生交变磁场,变化的电场和磁场相互联系,形成了交变的电磁场,并能脱离其产生的波源向远处传播,这种在空间以一定速度传播的交变电磁场就是电磁波。

电磁频谱,则是由电磁波按波长或频率排列起来,所形成的一个从零至无穷的结构谱系,其中0-3000吉赫兹频率范围为无线电波。

时间回到1492年10月,哥伦布发现了美洲大陆。然而,西班牙王后半年以后才得知这一消息,遗憾顿生。1865年4月14日,美国总统林肯惨遭暗杀,消息13天后才传到当时号称工业最为先进的英国政府,应对策略也时过境迁。电磁波那时不为人知,人类自然无法享受到它的神奇力量。

1888年,德国物理学家赫兹实验成功,人类终于触摸到电磁波的存在。1901年,随着“无线电之父”马可尼跨越大西洋的无线电通信试验成功,人类进入了电磁时代,无线电通讯席卷全球。1912年,泰坦尼克号失事后,英国、美国等航海大国强制规定,超过一定吨位的船只必须加装无线电台,以保障海上航行生命安全。在第一次世界大战期间,所有参战的大国都使用无线电通信传递情报和命令。

此后,无线电的广播、导航、遥控相继出现,给人类社会的发展进步带来了巨大变化。电磁波作为信息传递的重要载体,纵横驰骋在陆、海、空、天四维空间,加速了信息时代的到来。

Electromagnetic spectrum is a national resource strategy

Electromagnetic spectrum is the only human transmission of information over wireless media, owned by the state, land, forest, mineral and other resources, as it is both a scarce natural resource in the areas of economic development, national defense and social life indispensable , irreplaceable core strategic resources.

At present, humans can use the radio spectrum in the 275 gigahertz or less, mainly concentrated in the range of 30 Hz to 40 gigahertz, but most are in the 3 gigahertz or less, high-quality resources is extremely limited.Therefore, the world has become intense competition for them.

Frequency satellite orbit resources, for example, known as the 80% share of the “golden navigation frequency”, the US GPS and Russian GLONASS navigation system first to seize the countries in the world have to compete for the remaining resources.

Electromagnetic spectrum is widely used in the economic, military and other fields, combined with the scarcity of resources prominent contradictions, it gradually from the back to the front, electromagnetic space and the game become the world compete for important battlefield.

Each year, the US President issued specifically concerning electromagnetic spectrum “presidential memorandum”, leading the electromagnetic spectrum policy and national army. The British government published its “21st Century Spectrum Management” white paper, clearly the introduction of spectrum pricing, spectrum auction, spectrum trading and other means to encourage the efficient use of spectrum resources development and new technologies.

The study reports that the electromagnetic spectrum can contribute each year to 3-5 percent of the total national economy. From 1995 to 2011, the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other countries for the development of the third and fourth generation mobile communication network, spectrum auction value of $ 130 billion. Russia, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and other countries competing to improve the relevant laws and regulations, maintain the electromagnetic spectrum space to maximize their national interests, strongly promote the electromagnetic spectrum resources market and internationalization.

Manage electromagnetic space “traffic light”

Although the electromagnetic spectrum is present in the natural space, invisible, but it does not mean that the State, organizations and individuals are free to use occupied.

With modern urban traffic management have great similarities, at the technical level, the electromagnetic frequency spectrum management major from, space, time three-dimensional expansion, which is vividly called electromagnetic space “traffic lights.”

Currently, the international scope of the electromagnetic spectrum management mainly through the establishment of an international organization, signed an international agreement to allocate spectrum to resolve unified. States also set up frequency spectrum management and monitoring of the site, and to divide the spectrum resource use.

According to statistics, a US infantry division of about 70 radar, radio station 2800, a Russian motorized infantry division of about 60 radar, radio station 2040 to ensure so much electronic equipment to work smoothly, you need a strong power and spectrum management mechanism. After the baptism of several local wars, the US military high command from the field to have a specialized division of spectrum management agencies from the Department of Defense, the Joint Staff to the armed services, has established a complete set of joint campaign spectrum management system, formed a mature management mechanism.

According to the US Army website reported, the United States developed a new Joint Tactical Radio System, which contains the spectrum defragmentation technology, is not a continuous spectrum of debris re-polymerization, to achieve the integration of resources to meet the needs of purpose. European development of the “Spectrum pool” technology, but also the integration of free spectrum resource collection, and dynamically allocated based on customer needs, improve efficiency in the use of the spectrum.

Now, the world’s major countries are seeking to develop spectrum sharing technology, without changing the existing spectrum allocation rules, through technical analysis tools simulate actual combination, so that different systems can share the same frequency band compatible. In addition, many countries and organizations through the use of advanced signal transmission technology, using a frequency equipment to improve the level of technology, and other means to control the transmission frequency, both to avoid the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment, but also to achieve efficient use of spectrum.

“The 21st century will be the era of the spectrum war”

Traditional air and sea superiority play, must be based on the electromagnetic advantage, losing electromagnetic power, will lose control of the air, sea control, electromagnetic space and space has become, ground and ocean coexistence fourth dimension battlefield. It can be said that the future of information warfare, who won the electromagnetic power, grasps the initiative on the battlefield. Former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Thomas Muller said: “If a third world war, the winner will be the most adept at controlling the use of the electromagnetic spectrum and the party.”

Faced with escalating competition in the world of the electromagnetic spectrum, the US military has issued a joint spectrum vision, strategic planning and the Department of Defense Spectrum “Spectrum war” and other top-level strategic guidance documents, and to take away from the crowded band, the development of high-end spectrum, etc., developed microwave , laser, electromagnetic pulse weapons, etc., to actively seize the spectrum.British forces widely promote the use of intelligent and efficient radio modulation techniques to improve spectrum utilization efficiency of a wireless communication system.

In order to obtain the advantages of the spectrum in the future information warfare, Europe and the United States armed forces through the establishment of specialized agencies electromagnetic compatibility, the use of advanced simulation techniques to develop quality indicators management system, develop joint spectrum management system, etc., to improve battlefield electromagnetic spectrum management capabilities.

In recent years, cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum sensing, frequency control simulation deduction, emerging electromagnetic environmental adaptability analysis of new technologies, to the military electromagnetic spectrum management development has brought great opportunities and challenges. Experts predict that the future will share a common electromagnetic spectrum management towards spectrum resources, spectrum efficiency analysis and refinement of embedded dynamic spectrum management, direction and progress.

电磁频谱是一个国家的战略资源

电磁频谱是目前人类唯一理想的无线信息传输媒介,属于国家所有,与土地、森林、矿藏等资源一样,它既是一种稀缺的自然资源,也是经济发展、国防建设和社会生活各领域不可或缺、无法替代的核心战略资源。

目前,人类能够利用的无线电频谱在275吉赫兹以下,主要集中在30赫兹至40吉赫兹范围内,而且绝大部分是在3吉赫兹以下,优质资源极其有限。因此,世界各国对其争夺已经趋于白热化。

以卫星频率轨道资源为例,被誉为“黄金导航频率”80%的份额,被美国GPS和俄罗斯格洛纳斯导航系统率先抢占,世界各国不得不争夺剩余资源。

电磁频谱在经济、军事等领域的广泛应用,加之资源紧缺的突出矛盾,使其逐渐从后台走向前台,电磁空间成为世界各国争夺和博弈的重要战场。

每年,美国总统专门发表事关电磁频谱的《总统备忘录》,主导国家和军队的电磁频谱政策。英国政府在其发布的《21世纪的频谱管理》白皮书中,明确提出引入频谱定价、频谱拍卖、频谱贸易等手段,激励频谱资源的高效利用和新技术的研发。

有关研究报告表明,电磁频谱每年可为国家经济总量贡献3至5个百分点。1995年至2011年,美、英、法、德等国家,为发展第三、第四代移动通信网,所拍卖的频谱价值高达1300多亿美元。俄、法、德、日、澳等国家竞相完善相关法规,最大限度地维护本国的电磁频谱空间利益,极力推进电磁频谱资源市场化和国际化。

管好电磁空间的“红绿灯”

电磁频谱虽然是存在于自然空间,看不见摸不着,但并不意味着国家、组织和个人可以随意使用侵占。

同现代城市交通管理有很大的相似之处,在技术层面上,电磁频谱管理主要从频率、空间、时间三维展开,这也被形象地称为电磁空间的“红绿灯”。

目前,国际范围的电磁频谱管理主要是通过建立国际组织、签订国际协议、统一划分频谱来解决。各国也设立了频谱管理部门和监测站点,对频谱资源进行划分和使用。

据统计,美军一个步兵师约有70部雷达、2800部电台,俄罗斯一个摩托化步兵师约有60部雷达、2040部电台,保证如此多的电子装备有条不紊地工作,需要强大的频谱管理力量和机制。经过几次局部战争的洗礼后,美军从统帅部到野战师都设有专门的频谱管理机构,从国防部、联合参谋部到各军兵种,都建立了一整套完整的联合战役频谱管理体系,形成了成熟的管理机制。

根据美国陆军网站报道,美国研发的新型联合战术无线电系统,其中包含了频谱碎片整理技术,就是将不连续的频谱碎片重新聚合,实现整合资源、满足需求的目的。欧洲开发的“频谱池”技术,也是将空闲频谱资源收集整合,并根据用户需求进行动态分配,提高频谱的使用效益。

现在,世界主要国家都在大力发展频谱共享技术,在不改变现有的频谱分配规则下,通过仿真实测相结合的技术分析手段,使不同系统能够在同一频段兼容共用。此外,很多国家和组织通过采用先进信号传输技术、提高用频设备工艺水平、控制发射频率等手段,既避免了电磁环境的恶化,也实现频谱的高效利用。

“21世纪将是频谱战的时代”

传统海空优势的发挥,必须建立在电磁优势的基础上,失去制电磁权,必将失去制空权、制海权,电磁空间已成为与空间、地面和海洋并存的第四维战场。可以说,未来信息化作战,谁赢得了制电磁权,谁就掌握了战场主动权。美国前参谋长联席会议主席托马斯·穆勒曾说:“如果发生第三次世界大战,获胜者必将是最善于控制和运用电磁频谱的一方。”

面对世界范围内电磁频谱竞争的不断升级,美军先后出台联合频谱构想、国防部频谱战略规划以及“频谱战”战略等顶层指导文件,并采取避开拥挤频段、开发高端频谱等方式,研发微波、激光、电磁脉冲等武器装备,积极抢占频谱资源。英国在部队中广泛推广使用智能无线电和高效调制技术,提升无线通信系统的频谱使用效率。

为在未来信息作战中获得频谱优势,欧美等国军队还通过成立专门电磁兼容机构、采用先进仿真技术手段、制定质量指标管理体系、开发联合频谱管理系统等方式,提高战场电磁频谱管理能力。

近年来,随着认知无线电、动态频谱感知、频管仿真推演、电磁环境适应性分析等新技术的不断涌现,给军队电磁频谱管理发展带来了巨大机遇和挑战。专家预计,未来电磁频谱管理将朝着频谱资源共享共用、精细化频谱效能分析和频谱动态嵌入式管理等方向不断进步。

Classic examples of the electromagnetic spectrum

In 1914, the US Navy Atlantic Fleet in the first trial under the state of war radio communication equipment, results strongly spark near neighbor ship transmitters interference interrupt all radio communication, the participants had to make time allocation plan, assigned to the United States for two hours domestic radio transmitter, the other four countries 1 hour each. Thus, the Washington-based headquarters to an interval of 4 hours to its armed forces on the battlefield contact again.

In 1967, the US “Forrestal” aircraft carrier in the implementation of a particular military mission, carrier F-4 “Phantom” fighter ship radar beam is irradiated by the interference, the aircraft hanging space rocket was accidentally fired ignition, hit ship an a-4 “Skyhawk” attack aircraft fuel tank, causing a chain explosion, causing heavy casualties.

April 1980, the US Joint Task Force and local school Rangers joint implementation embassy hostage rescue mission in Iraq. In its way to evacuate due to a communication device and the Rangers are not compatible with the frequent collaboration errors, resulting in a helicopter and transport aircraft collided, eight commandos were burned to death and four serious burns.

May 4, 1982, the Falklands War, the British naval weapon known as a symbol and pride of the fleet, “Sheffield” cruiser by satellite communication and radar systems are not compatible, can only start work in turn, the result was Argentina “Super flag “aircraft launched the” flying fish “missile sunk.

June 9, 1982, the fifth Middle East war, Israel intercepted prior use of the Syrian army radar and “Sam” spectral parameters of the missile launch, just 6 minutes will be stationed in the Bekaa Valley which cost $ 2 billion in 19 “Sam” air defense missile sites completely destroyed. In the next two days of combat, Israeli fighter planes and electronic jamming aircraft with combat, created a miracle in the history of air combat.

After April 21, 1996, the Russian war in Chechnya, the hunting group through special electronic warfare, electronic signal war zone to collect, monitor, cell phone signal reconnaissance to Dudayev, was analyzed to confirm, and lock the phone signal coordinate system, cruise warplanes fired missiles on Dudayev was “targeted killings.”

May 2011, the US Navy Seals and Special Air Service regiment battle the implementation of “Neptune Spear” initiative. SEALs use of “Land Warrior” soldier system, and joint operations center for situation analysis and sharing of intelligence, special operations group UAV crew via satellite communication system commando operations return the White House and the Pentagon. Throughout its action, the US military weapons systems use spectrum resources covering all channels, in just 40 minutes, successfully kill Osama bin Laden.

1914年,美国海军大西洋舰队首次在战争状态下试验无线电通信设备,结果附近友邻舰艇发射机产生的强烈火花干扰中断了所有无线电通信,参加者不得不作出时间分配计划,分配2小时给美国对国内进行无线电发射,其他4个国家各1小时。这样,设在华盛顿的总部要间隔4小时才能与它在战场上的武装力量联络一次。

1967年,美军“福莱斯特”航母在执行某次军事任务时,舰载F-4“鬼怪”式战机受该舰雷达波束照射干扰,飞机悬挂的空地火箭弹被意外点火发射,击中舰上1架A-4“天鹰”式攻击机的副油箱,导致一系列连锁爆炸,造成重大伤亡。

1980年4月,美派联合特遣部队和当地别动队共同执行营救驻伊大使馆人质任务。在其撤离途中,由于和别动队的通信设备互不兼容,用频协同失误,造成1架直升机与运输机相撞,8名突击队员被烧死,4人严重烧伤。

1982年5月4日,英阿马岛之战,号称英海战利器和舰队骄傲象征的“谢菲尔德”号巡洋舰因卫星通信和雷达系统互不兼容,只能轮流开机工作,结果被阿根廷“超级军旗”飞机发射的“飞鱼”式导弹击沉。

1982年6月9日,第五次中东战争,以色列利用事先截获的叙利亚军队雷达和“萨姆”导弹发射的频谱参数,仅用6分钟就将其驻守在贝卡谷地的耗资20亿美元的19个“萨姆”防空导弹阵地彻底摧毁。在其后两天的空战中,以色列战斗机配合预警机和电子干扰机作战,创造了空战史上的奇迹。

1996年4月21日,俄罗斯在车臣战争中,通过特种电子战猎杀小组,对战区内的电子信号进行收集、监听,侦察到杜达耶夫的手机信号,进行分析确认后,锁定手机信号坐标,利用巡航战机发射导弹,对杜达耶夫进行了“定点清除”。

2011年5月,美军海豹突击队和特战空勤团实施“海王星之矛”行动。海豹突击队采用“陆地勇士”单兵系统,与联合行动中心进行态势分析和情报共享,特战空勤团无人机通过卫星通信系统将突击队行动回传白宫和五角大楼。整个行动过程,美军使用的武器系统频谱资源涵盖全频道,仅用时40分钟,便成功击杀本·拉登。

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