Category Archives: Chinese Military – Network & Space Forces

China Information Warfare – China’s Basic Form of a Future War //中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

中國信息化戰爭—中國未來戰爭基本形態

In the 21st century, the rapid development of high technology and extensive application, and promote the development and evolution of combat weapons and equipment, and promote the transformation and innovation and the development of institutional military doctrine, which triggered a new revolution in military affairs. Information warfare will eventually replace mechanized war, become the basic form of war. Information warfare refers to occur in the information age, information-based, using information technology as a tool of war weaponry of war. Information warfare does not change the nature of war, but the war must take into account the outcome of the mentor and the consequences of war, first in the pursuit of strategic guidance on how to achieve “the enemy without fighting the soldiers,” the strategic victory, the kind of large-scale physical destruction at the expense of traditional warfare will be greatly constraints and limitations.

Knowledge has become the main source of war to destroy the force  on the right in terms of information (quantity and quality) dependence, the past is not any war and information war. In conventional war, the two sides focus more on comprehensive contest on the basis of physical force. Such as mechanized war, mainly for steel contest, contest the whole country is full of large industrial machinery production capacity. Information war contest does not exclude physical force, but more important is the contest of knowledge, innovation ability and speed of innovation contest. Knowledge will become the main source of war to destroy force, “an ounce of effect of silicon computer generated perhaps more than a ton of uranium is also big.”

Firepower, mobility, information, constitute an important part of modern military combat capability, and the ability of information has become the primary indicator to measure the level of combat capability. Information capabilities, performance in terms of information acquisition, processing, transmission, and use of confrontation, to be manifested through information superiority and competition control. Information superiority, in essence, in the understanding of the enemy at the same time prevent the enemy to understand one’s own situation, confrontation is a dynamic process. It has become a fight for air supremacy, command of the sea, land control of the premise of a direct impact on the process and outcome of the war. Of course, people will always be the master of information warfare. Plan and organize and direct the war from people completely dominated increasingly dependent on technology to develop human-machine combination of military quality requirements are higher. Information from the advantages of competition to the final decision superiority into more competitive knowledge and wisdom.

War forces will move toward information, intelligence  forces of war are directly and indirectly referred to the various forces for war, to fight the information war, natural rely heavily on information, intelligence and information technology military weapons and equipment.

The most basic of war, the most significant feature is the use of the most advanced scientific and technological achievements to create the most advanced instruments of war. Information weapons and equipment is developed on the basis of mechanized equipment, such as C4ISR systems, precision-guided weapons, information warfare equipment and various high-tech combat platforms.They are highly knowledge-intensive tools of war, and thus can not be compared with the traditional tools of war performance, functionality, operational capabilities and effectiveness. At the same time, they play to the performance level and the operational level, directly restricted information, information systems and information capabilities.   The army is the army of information technology refers to using information technology to weapons armed with the information age. Its unprecedented level of integration will enhance the overall combat capability more powerful, emphasizing optimal combination of combat capability, the services are just part of joint combat forces. At the same time, the size of the forces become smaller, more flexible and diverse forms of grouping, vertical command structure will also benefit from the tree into a flat network architecture. From the subordinate command relationship changed multilayer horizontal communication, and down one command relationships, delayering, put as many combat units into the same level of information, information sharing, shorten the information flow to meet the real-time command decision Claim.

War mode will tend to systematic, precise  Technological development determines the evolution of tactics. With the development of weapons and equipment, the scale of war is also growing, the most prominent battlefield extended to three-dimensional space from the plane: from land to sea and air space, and then, from the visible to the invisible electromagnetic space and information space, it has formed armed day one dimensional, tangible and intangible space space Blending the new operational environment. This network battlefield is great depth, three-dimensional high, dilute the distinction between front and rear, major changes have taken place in time and space, both traditional air, naval, marine, electronic warfare, and more will be a new web-based attacks information warfare. Rely on the support of information networks, through the orderly flow of information, all combat operations within the space really blending together.

In the past, a new weapon tends to cause relatively large impact, obtain better operational effectiveness. But in the modern battlefield, the two sides are no longer hostile confrontation between a single or a few branches, but not a single weapon system confrontation, but confrontation between systems. In the information war, the extent of such a system of confrontation and even more will not emphasize the operational performance of tanks, aircraft, warships and other single combat platform, but rather to highlight the overall performance of information technology weaponry system, pay attention to multiple armed services, comprehensive combat effectiveness of a variety of weapons and equipment.

Destroy the enemy is an important part of the war. Mechanized warfare, anti-surface fire mostly destroyed, such as fire suppression, carpet bombing, saturation-type attacks. This operational mode corresponding to the extensive mode of production of the industrial age, reflecting the idea of a war of attrition, to victory in that time, space, energy, supplies and other aspects of continuous consumption and weaken the power of the enemy, and finally defeat the enemy. The precision strike in line with the characteristics and requirements of the information age, but also reflects the basic characteristics of information warfare. Intensive production model of the information age emphasizes effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness. Weapons and equipment level of intelligence and combat accuracy was greatly improved, can be done “pinpoint” type of destroyed; also can be accurate, non-physical damage, such as psychological warfare and information warfare. In addition, the precision strike can also significantly reduce collateral damage, so that the development and the process of social civilization synchronization war, war means more conducive to play its unique role.

Course of the war would be short, controlled – the rhythm of information warfare significantly accelerated course of the war will become shorter and shorter, but the intensity is getting high, and humanity as a whole control of the war also significantly enhanced.   Army should pay more attention to the quality of the information age and effectiveness. Winning quality from quantity into winning, it is one of the significant change in the war. Such as the combination of high-tech precision-guided weapons and combat platforms used to enhance the ability of the enemy to combat the standoff embodiment, can greatly reduce the loss of one’s own operations; continually improve the accuracy of the attack, it can greatly reduce the number of weapons consumption. World War II in 9000 to use bombs to blow up a goal, now 1-2 as long as missiles or guided bombs can solve the problem, operational tempo and the natural process will be faster.

Layers of advancing successive war, set small victories, this contact, wire is typical of traditional methods of warfare combat visual feedback. In information warfare, from the contact, non-line operations will be the main form of combat operations will be launched simultaneously in all the whole depth of space combat and battlefield, the primary targets will point directly to the enemy center of gravity. Especially powerful information warfare, even in the enemy without the knowledge of the state, it is possible to make several hacker instant enemy paralyzed economic and social, to quickly achieve the purposes of war.

Source: http://www.china001.com/

Original Mandarin Chinese:

進入21世紀,高技術的迅猛發展和廣泛應用,推動了武器裝備的發展和作戰方式的演變,促進了軍事理論的創新和編制體制的變革,由此引發新的軍事革命。信息化戰爭最終將取代機械化戰爭,成為未來戰爭的基本形態。信息化戰爭是指發生在信息時代、以信息為基礎、以信息化武器裝備為戰爭工具的戰爭。信息化戰爭不會改變戰爭的本質,但戰爭指導者必須考慮到戰爭的結局和後果,在戰略指導上首先追求如何實現“不戰而屈人之兵”的全勝戰略,那種以大規模物理性破壞為代價的傳統戰爭必將受到極大的約束和限制。

知識成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源

就對信息(數量和質量)的依賴程度而言,過去的任何戰爭都不及信息化戰爭。在傳統戰爭中,雙方更注重在物質力量基礎上的綜合較量。如機械化戰爭,主要表現為鋼鐵的較量,是整個國家機器大工業生產能力的全面競賽。信息化戰爭並不排斥物質力量的較量,但更主要的是知識的較量,是創新能力和創新速度的競賽。知識將成為戰爭毀滅力的主要來源,“計算機中一盎司矽產生的效應也許比一噸鈾還大”。

火力、機動、信息,是構成現代軍隊作戰能力的重要內容,而信息能力已成為衡量作戰能力高低的首要標誌。信息能力,表現在信息獲取、處理、傳輸、利用和對抗等方面,通過信息優勢的爭奪和控制加以體現。信息優勢,實質就是在了解敵方的同時阻止敵方了解己方情況,是一種動態對抗過程。它已成為爭奪制空權、制海權、陸地控制權的前提,直接影響著整個戰爭的進程和結局。當然,人永遠是信息化戰爭的主宰​​者。戰爭的籌劃和組織指揮已從完全以人為主發展到日益依賴技術手段的人機結合,對軍人素質的要求也更高。從信息優勢的爭奪到最終轉化為決策優勢,更多的是知識和智慧的競爭。

戰爭力量將走向信息化、智能化

戰爭力量是可直接和間接用於戰爭的各種力量的統稱,打信息化戰爭,自然離不開信息化、智能化的武器裝備和信息化軍隊。

戰爭最基本、最顯著的特徵,就是利用當時最先進的科學技術成果製造最先進的戰爭工具。信息化武器裝備是在機械化裝備基礎上發展起來的,如C4ISR系統、精確制導武器、信息戰裝備和各種高技術作戰平台等。它們都是知識高度密集型的戰爭工具,因而具備傳統戰爭工具無法比擬的性能、功能、作戰能力和效果。同時,它們作戰效能的高低和發揮程度,直接受到信息、信息系統和信息能力的製約。

信息化軍隊是指用信息化武器裝備武裝起來的信息時代的軍隊。其一體化程度將空前提高,整體作戰能力更強大,強調作戰能力的優化組合,各軍種都只是聯合作戰力量的一部分。同時,兵力規模將趨於小型化,編組形式更加靈活多樣,指揮體制也將從垂直樹狀結構轉變為扁平網絡結構。即從上下級多層指揮關係改為橫向溝通、上下一體的指揮關係,減少層級,把盡可能多的作戰單元納入同一個信息層次,實現信息共享,縮短信息流程,以滿足實時化指揮決策的要求。

戰爭模式將趨於體系化、精確化

技術的發展決定著戰術的演變。隨著武器裝備的發展,戰爭規模也在日益擴大,突出表現為戰場從平面向立體空間擴展:由陸地到海洋再到空中和太空,從有形空間到無形的電磁和信息空間,已形成了陸海空天四維一體、有形空間與無形空間相互交融的新型作戰環境。這種網絡化戰場是大縱深、高立體的,前後方區別淡化,時空觀都發生了重大變化,既有傳統的空戰、海戰、陸戰、電子戰,更會出現全新的以網絡攻擊為主的信息戰。依靠信息網絡的支撐,通過信息的有序流動,所有作戰空間內的作戰行動真正地融合為一體。

過去,一件新式武器往往會造成比較大的影響,獲得較好的作戰效果。但在現代戰場上,敵對雙方已不再是單一或少數軍兵種之間的對抗,更不會是單一武器系統的對抗,而是體係與體系的對抗。在信息化戰爭中,這種體系化對抗的程度更甚,將不再強調坦克、飛機、軍艦等單件作戰平台的作戰性能,而是突出信息化武器裝備體系的整體效能,注重發揮多個軍種、多種武器裝備的綜合作戰效能。

消滅敵人是戰爭的重要內容。在機械化戰爭中,火力摧毀主要是面殺傷,如火力壓制、地毯式轟炸、飽和式攻擊等。這種作戰方式對應於工業時代的粗放型生產模式,反映了消耗戰的思想,制勝之道在於從時間、空間、能源、補給等方面不斷消耗和削弱敵人的力量,最後戰勝敵人。而精確打擊符合信息時代的特徵和要求,也反映了信息化戰爭的基本特點。信息時代的集約型生產模式講求效能、效率、效益。武器裝備的智能水平和打擊精度也獲得極大的提高,可做到“點穴式”的摧毀;同時還可以進行精確的非物理性毀傷,如心理戰、信息戰等。另外,精確打擊還可以大幅度降低附帶毀傷,使戰爭的發展與社會文明進程同步,更有利於戰爭手段發揮其獨特作用。

戰爭進程將是短暫的、可控的

信息化戰爭的節奏明顯加快,戰爭進程將變得越來越短,但強度卻越來越高,而人類對戰爭的整體控制能力也在顯著增強。

信息時代的軍隊更注重質量和效能。由數量製勝轉變為質量製勝,是戰爭發生的顯著變化之一。如精確制導武器和高技術作戰平台的結合使用,增強了從敵人防區外實施打擊的能力,可大大降低己方的作戰損失;攻擊精度的不斷提高,可大大減少武器消耗數量。第二次世界大戰中要用9000枚普通炸彈才能炸毀一個目標,現在只要1-2枚導彈或製導炸彈就可以解決問題,作戰節奏和進程自然會越來越快。

層層推進,逐次交戰,集小胜為大勝,這種接觸式、線式作戰是傳統作戰方法的典型直觀反映。而在信息化戰爭中,脫離接觸式、非線式作戰將成為主要形式,作戰行動將在所有作戰空間和戰場全縱深同時展開,首要打擊目標將直接指向敵人重心。尤其是信息戰威力巨大,甚至在敵人毫不知情的狀態下,幾個黑客頃刻間就有可能令敵國經濟和社會陷入癱瘓,從而迅速達成戰爭目的。

China Military Space Power: War to Seize Commanding Heights // 中國網絡戰爭太空力量:抢占战争制高点

中國網絡戰爭太空力量:抢占战争制高点

With the continuous development of space technology, space, military applications increasingly widespread, more and more countries joined the ranks of the space race –

Source:
Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China
 Author: Zhang Zhi Time: 2016-01-29

 

    “Who controls the universe, whoever controls the earth; who controls the space, whoever controls the initiative in war.” Former US President John F. Kennedy is determined to promote the development of American space technology, space will also be incorporated into the great power game and competition category. With the development of space technology and space forces, military space is used widely in shaping the international strategic pattern, pushing the world’s new revolution in military affairs, and played a key role.

    Two-hegemony, the main purpose of the service strategy

July 1961, the United States has just successfully developed the use of “Samos” satellites, captured Soviet SS-7 and SS-8 deployed intercontinental ballistic missile tests, the Soviet Union opened a “missile gap” truth became the third the key Berlin crisis resolved smoothly, marking the space support forces boarded the stage of history.

Since then, the United States, the two superpowers, the Soviet Union from the strategic objective of global hegemony starting to build a more complete support for space power systems.

Since an important strategic position, it has been solely responsible for the construction of satellites by the US intelligence community, in order to facilitate confidential. US Department of Defense is leading the “Defense Satellite Communications System,” “Fleet Satellite Communication”, “Military Star” three communications satellite system construction, on this basis, build a “Air Force satellite communications” system for the US national command structure and strategic nuclear forces provided between the safe, reliable, high viability of the global two-way communications capability. Meanwhile, the US Department of Defense has also developed strategies for the deployment of ballistic missile early warning “Defense Support Program” satellite navigation for nuclear submarines “TRANSIT” satellite for global meteorological observation “DMSP” and other systems, the formation of a relatively complete system.

In order to compete with the United States, the Soviet Union launched a comprehensive space forces, from the development of “Zenith”, “amber” reconnaissance satellite “Lightning” communications satellite, “sail” navigation satellite, the “eye” early warning satellites and “Meteor” weather as the representative of satellite space power system.

Throughout the Cold War, the role of the US-Soviet space power is mainly reflected at the strategic level, both the use of near-real-time reconnaissance and early warning satellites to detect each other’s strategic dynamic use of communication satellites and navigation satellites for command and control of strategic nuclear forces, formation of an effective nuclear deterrence combat system, a profound impact on the world strategic pattern of the Cold war.

With space development focus to shift from military spacecraft launch vehicles, various military satellite systems gradually have the ability to use large-scale, the Soviet Union began to build a dedicated space forces command structure. In 1985, the US military set up a joint Space Command. Administration of the Soviet spacecraft in 1982, the formerly strategic rocket forces, responsible for the development of space power transfer scribe to support the Department of Defense, and later upgraded to bureau director of the spacecraft, so space support force directly under the arms of the Soviet Union became the Department of Defense.

    Pack and play, to expand the role of tactical action

The 1991 Gulf War, the US military space forces operations provided critical reconnaissance, early warning, communications, navigation, meteorological services, marking the beginning of space support from the strategic level into the tactical level.

Subsequently, the US military began to develop better able to support tactical space combat support forces launched a large-scale construction of various types of military satellites and upgrading. “Global Positioning System” fully completed “keyhole -12” “Future Imagery Architecture”, “space-based infrared system” and “Global Broadband Satellite Communication”, “Advanced Extremely High Frequency”, “Mobile User Objective System” and other new generation of satellites have been put into use. 2003 Iraq war, the total number up to 167 US satellite. By the end of 2015, US satellites in orbit nearly 400, of which more than 120 pieces of military satellites, forming a powerful space support operations capabilities.

In strengthening the power of construction, the US military in 2002, the Joint Space Command Strategic Command incorporated, unified management of the armed forces Space Command, in order to better organize and direct the power of space support strategic, operational and tactical military operations at all levels. The military services also formed their own space support forces and support the preparation of models to successfully achieve tactical level space support.

Russia’s lack of independence early strength, inherited the former Soviet space support force can maintain normal, resulting in a sharp decline in the number of satellites in orbit, and only 97 in orbit until 2002. In view of this situation, the Russian military space forces carried out the reform, the establishment of an independent space force in 2001, began to recover and rebuild its military satellite system. After the start of the “new look” reform, the Russian space force in 2011 to form the basis of the air and space defense troops, again in 2015 and the Air Force air and space defense troops merge to form air and space forces, responsible for the Russian spacecraft control, missile warning management system attacks and space monitoring system operation.

After the reform and adjustment, all kinds of Russian satellite system gradually restored. By the end of 2015, Russian satellites in orbit nearly 130, of which nearly 80 military satellites. But Russian military believes that blow from the air and space will be the main threat facing Russia, decide the future of air and space warfare has become the key to victory in the field, and therefore the full development of the Russian aerospace defense forces, space support forces in a subordinate position or service. In the previous reform, satellite surveillance, satellite communications, satellite navigation and other space support system construction management still the Russian Defense Ministry and General Staff Operations Department under the relevant commitment, the services are generally lacking space support personnel, operational and tactical levels than use low. During the Russia-Georgia war of 2008, the Russian military satellite reconnaissance had revealed not timely, satellite communication services and poor.

While the US and Russia to develop space forces, more and more countries joined the ranks of the space race. India announced in 2007 to establish the “Aerospace Defense Command”, to manage India’s national space assets, and space warfare weapon concept study, the Indian Air Force has been established aerospace brigade. Japan in 2009 adopted the “Basic Law Aviation”, the Japanese Air Self Defense Force to take advantage of space resources, and expand research-related policy formulation and planning to lay the legal basis for future space operations. Some other countries have also expressed varying degrees of military commitment to the development and use of space and plans.

    Defense against US efforts to seize the initiative

As more and more countries enter the field of space, space security environment has undergone significant changes. Especially in the US view, the space has a non-former “safe harbor.” US Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2013 edition of “space war” doctrine stated that the commander must take into account a malicious adversary action may be taken, and can continue to maintain military capability in the case of space capabilities downgrade. For this purpose, a step the US took the lead in the field of space, launched a series of offensive and defensive measures.

– Improve space surveillance capability. February 2015, the US Air Force and Lockheed – Martin launched the new “Space Fence” radar system construction work. The system can be monitored for the first time all over the United States via satellite from the master satellite elapsed time, attitude and orbit, etc., can also detect low orbit target as small as 10 cm in diameter, thereby greatly enhancing the US space situational awareness ability.The US Air Force ground-based photovoltaic system and deep space exploration systems, missile warning and space surveillance radar network system together constitute from low earth orbit to deep space orbit space surveillance systems perspective.

– Improve the existing space forces invulnerability. 2013 US military issued a “survivability and distributed space systems architecture” white paper proposes the use of structural separation, functional decomposition, load carrying, decentralized multi-track, multi-domain decomposition operations and other measures to improve the survivability of space systems support.

– Emphasis on the integrated use of space technology and traditional techniques. 2014 US release of “Towards a new strategy to offset the” proposed in the report, the US needs to soaring losses caused by the loss of the base system, the measures include accelerating the development of alternative GPS system, equipped with long endurance and / or aerial refueling capability. ” mixed level “intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance UAVs.

– The establishment of the development model construction space forces and civilian integration. US military plans to use leased wartime civil and commercial space systems and services, carrying a military payload on a commercial satellite, direct purchase of advanced commercial or commercial systems to the military, etc., to supplement the existing space support capabilities.

– By conducting military exercises in the development of space power construction using the theory. US Joint Staff, Air Force, Navy and Army space support operations in both the theme of military exercises. In 2001 the US Air Force Space Command began to dominate “Schriever” space war military exercises have been organized nine times.

– Strengthening Space Operations organization and command. September 2015, the US Defense Department and intelligence community established an inter-agency Joint Space Operations Center, responsible for the integration of satellite reconnaissance data, strengthening space reconnaissance capability, military satellite monitoring operation, to prevent potential adversaries to attack US space assets.

– Strengthening Space offensive forces. May 2015, the US X-37B flight test for the fourth time. Although the Americans called it “Orbital Test Vehicle,” but it remained silent on key information. Speculation, X-37B has the ability to take military action including control, capture and destroy enemy spacecraft, military reconnaissance on the enemy. In this sense, X-37B is likely to be the first human space fighter. In addition, the United States has stepped up the construction of space attack power laser, microwave, anti-satellite missiles, hoping to keep the lead in the space race in the future, continue to maintain its dominance.

    Overall, the world’s military powers have attached great importance to space support the construction and development of power, but the situation near several local wars, the only United States and Russia have a more comprehensive strategic, operational and tactical levels of space capabilities, other countries space is still the main force in the strategic use of the service. In the new space, the security situation, the US military has launched a new round of space forces change the face of the future US military space forces are likely to be a qualitative change occurs, information warfare appearance may therefore profoundly changed.

Original Manadrin Chinese:

随着太空技术不断发展,太空军事应用日益广泛,越来越多的国家加入了太空竞争行列

“谁控制了宇宙,谁就控制了地球;谁控制了空间,谁就控制了战争的主动权。”美国前总统肯尼迪的判断,推动了美国太空技术的发展,也将太空纳入了大国博弈和竞争的范畴。随着太空技术和太空力量的不断发展,太空军事应用日益广泛,在塑造国际战略格局、推动世界新军事变革等方面发挥了关键性作用。

    两强争霸,主要服务战略目的

1961年7月,美国利用刚刚研制成功的“萨莫斯”侦察卫星,拍摄到苏联SS-7和SS-8洲际弹道导弹试验部署情况,揭开了美苏“导弹差距”真相,成为第三次柏林危机顺利解决的关键,标志着太空支援力量登上了历史舞台。

此后,美、苏两个超级大国从全球争霸的战略目的出发,建起了较为完备的太空支援力量体系。

由于战略地位重要,侦察卫星的建设一直由美国情报界独立负责,以利保密。美国国防部则主导了“国防卫星通信系统”“舰队卫星通信”“军事星”三大通信卫星系统建设,在此基础上构建了“空军卫星通信”系统,为美国国家指挥机构和战略核部队之间提供安全、可靠、高存活性的双向全球通信能力。同时,美国国防部还研制部署了用于战略弹道导弹预警的“国防支援计划”卫星、用于核潜艇导航的“子午仪”卫星、用于全球气象探测的“国防气象卫星”等系统,形成了较为完备的体系。

为了与美国抗衡,苏联也开展了全面的太空力量建设,发展起以“天顶”“琥珀”侦察卫星、“闪电”通信卫星、“帆”导航卫星、“眼睛”预警卫星及“流星”气象卫星等为代表的太空力量体系。

整个冷战期间,美苏太空力量的作用主要体现在战略层面,双方利用侦察卫星和预警卫星近实时侦测对方的战略动态,利用通信卫星和导航卫星进行战略核部队指挥控制,形成了有效的核威慑作战体系,深刻影响了冷战时期的世界战略格局。

随着航天发展重点由运载火箭向军用航天器转变,各种军用卫星系统逐渐具备规模化运用能力,美苏开始组建专门的太空力量指挥机构。1985年,美军成立了联合太空司令部。苏联则于1982年把原属战略火箭军、负责发展太空支援力量的航天器总局转隶给国防部,而后又升格为航天器主任局,使太空支援力量成为了苏联国防部的直属兵种。

    群雄并起,作用向战役战术行动拓展

1991年的海湾战争中,太空力量为美军作战行动提供了关键的侦察、预警、通信、导航、气象等服务,标志着太空支援开始从战略层次进入到战役战术层次。

随后,美军开始大力发展能够更好地支持战役战术作战的太空支援力量,启动了各类军用卫星的大规模建设和升级换代。“全球定位系统”全面建成,“锁眼-12”“未来成像体系结构”“天基红外系统”“宽带全球卫星通信”“先进极高频”“移动用户目标系统”等新一代卫星相继投入使用。2003年的伊拉克战争中,美国使用卫星总数达167颗。截至2015年底,美国在轨卫星近400颗,其中军用卫星120余颗,形成了强大的太空支援作战能力。

在加强力量建设的同时,美军于2002年把联合太空司令部并入战略司令部,统管三军太空司令部,以更好地组织指挥太空支援力量战略、战役、战术各层次的军事行动。各军种也形成了各自的太空支援力量编制和支援模式,以顺利实现战役战术层次的太空支援。

俄罗斯独立初期国力不足,所继承的前苏联太空支援力量也无法正常维系,导致在轨卫星数量急剧下降,到2002年为止只有97颗在轨运行。针对这种局面,俄军进行了太空力量改革,于2001年成立了独立的航天兵,开始恢复和重建其军用卫星系统。“新面貌”改革开始后,俄于2011年以航天兵为基础组建了空天防御兵,2015年又把空军和空天防御兵合并组建了空天军,负责俄航天器发射控制、导弹预警袭击系统与太空监视系统的管理运行。

经过改革调整,俄各类卫星系统逐渐得到恢复。截至2015年底,俄在轨卫星近130颗,其中军用卫星近80颗。但俄军认为,来自空天的打击将是俄面临的主要威胁,空天已成为决定未来战争胜负的关键领域,因此俄全力发展空天防御力量,太空支援力量处于从属或服务地位。在历次改革中,卫星侦察、卫星通信、卫星导航等太空支援系统的建设管理仍由俄国防部及总参谋部下属的相关业务局承担,各军种也普遍缺乏太空支援人才,战役战术运用水平较低。在2008年俄格战争期间,俄军就曾暴露出卫星侦察不及时、卫星通信服务差等问题。

在美俄大力发展太空力量的同时,越来越多的国家加入了太空竞争的行列。印度2007年宣布要筹建“航空航天防御司令部”,以管理印度全国的空间资产,并对太空战武器进行概念研究,印度空军已经成立了航空航天大队。日本于2009年通过了《航空基本法》,使日本航空自卫队得以利用太空资源,并展开相关政策的研究、制定和规划,为未来太空行动奠定法理基础。其他一些国家也不同程度表达出军事开发和利用太空的决心和计划。

    攻防对抗,美国着力抢占先机

随着越来越多的国家进入太空领域,太空安全环境发生了显著变化。特别是在美军看来,太空已非昔日的“安全港”。美军参联会在2013年版《太空作战》条令中指出,指挥官必须考虑到敌对方可能采取的恶意行动,并能够在太空能力降级的情况下继续保持军事能力。为达到这一目的,美军率先一步,在太空攻防领域推出了一系列措施。

——提高太空监视能力。2015年2月,美空军和洛克希德-马丁公司启动了新型“太空篱笆”雷达系统建设工作。该系统可在第一时间监控到所有从美国上空经过的卫星,掌握卫星经过的时间、姿态和轨道等,还可探测直径小至10厘米的中低轨道目标,从而大大增强美国的太空态势感知能力。该系统与美空军陆基光电深空探测系统、导弹预警雷达网和太空监视系统共同构成从近地轨道到深空轨道的立体空间目标监视系统。

——提高现有太空力量的抗毁性。2013年美军发布了《抗毁性与分散式太空系统体系结构》白皮书,提出采用结构分离、功能分解、载荷搭载、多轨道分散、多作战域分解等措施,来提高太空支援系统生存能力。

——重视太空技术与传统技术的综合使用。2014年美发布的《迈向新抵消战略》报告中提出,美国需要对冲天基系统丧失所带来的损失,措施包括加快研发GPS替代系统、装备具有长持久力和/或空中加油能力的“高低混合”情报监视与侦察无人机等。

——建立军民融合的太空力量建设发展模式。美军计划采用战时租用民用与商用太空系统服务、在商业卫星上搭载军用载荷、直接购买先进的民用或商业系统转为军用等方式,补充现有太空支援能力的不足。

——通过开展军事演习发展太空力量建设运用理论。美军联合参谋部、空军、海军和陆军都有以太空支援作战为主题的军事演习。2001年美空军太空司令部开始主导“施里弗”太空战军事演习,迄今已举办9次。

——强化太空作战组织指挥。2015年9月,美国防部与情报界成立了机构间联合太空作战中心,负责整合卫星侦察数据、强化太空侦察能力,监控美军卫星运行情况,防范潜在对手攻击美国太空资产。

——加强太空进攻力量建设。2015年5月,美国X-37B进行了第四次飞行试验。虽然美国人将之称为“轨道试验飞行器”,但在关键信息上却三缄其口。外界猜测,X-37B有能力采取的军事行动包括控制、捕获和摧毁敌国航天器,对敌国进行军事侦察等。在这个意义上,X-37B很可能将是人类首架太空战斗机。此外,美国还加强了激光、微波、反卫星导弹等太空攻击力量的建设,希望在未来的太空竞赛中保持先机,继续维持其霸主地位。

总的看来,世界军事强国都高度重视太空支援力量的建设和发展,但就近几次局部战争情况来看,只有美、俄具备了较为完备的战略、战役和战术层次太空能力,其他国家的太空力量仍主要服务于战略运用。在新的太空安全形势下,美军又发起了新一轮太空力量变革,未来美军太空力量的面貌有可能会发生质的变化,信息化战争面貌也可能因此而发生深刻改变。

New Progress States space forces

    United States–

    Get rid of the GPS “dependency syndrome”

    Currently, almost all US military combat platforms and systems rely on GPS or GPS-based navigation system. However, GPS navigation presence signal is weak, poor penetration, vulnerable to interference, vulnerable to cyber attacks and other defects. To avoid huge risks due to excessive reliance GPS brought the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in recent years have launched the “micro-positioning, navigation, timing and technology”, “adaptive navigation system,” “Quantum Perception and auxiliary readout technology “” ultrafast laser Science and Engineering “,” get in the fight against environmental space, time, and location information “and does not rely on GPS navigation, positioning, timing and technology research projects.

    Russia –

    Restart “satellite killer” program

    Russia has shelved the case in the official anti-satellite weapons program, the “satellite killer” plan, but the Russian side the key technology in the field has never been completely lost. According to media reports, the Russian military had for launch in 2013, code-named “2014-28E” (also known as the Universe 2499) of the mysterious object. The object was observed using a series of non-normal but the engine very precise orbit maneuver, it seems have the ability to be able to sneak up on other satellites.

    Japan –

    Establishment of space surveillance units

    August 28, 2014, Japan’s defense ministry revised the “development and utilization of the basic principle of the universe,” clearly pointed out that Japan will set up a special space surveillance forces of the universe and garbage run dynamic satellite tracking and analysis, in order to gradually strengthen the perception of space ability. The move aims to strengthen the Japan-US cooperation in space, to deal with weapons to attack from satellites will strengthen the capacity to collect pictures from space using satellites for ballistic missile launch early monitoring and analysis, to enhance early warning capabilities.

    India –

    Construction of Regional Satellite Navigation System

    March 28, 2015, India’s fourth-navigation satellites successfully launched India’s regional satellite navigation system gradually formed. India according to plan, the work of the network system will be divided into two steps: The first step is to launch geostationary satellites covering the whole territory of India’s regional satellite navigation system, the second step is from regional satellite navigation systems to the Indian version of the global satellite positioning system forward. The system will provide civilian and military both services.

 各国太空力量建设新进展

    美国——

    摆脱GPS“依赖症”

    目前,美军几乎所有的军用系统和作战平台都依靠GPS或基于GPS的组合导航系统。但是,GPS导航存在信号较弱、穿透能力差、易受干扰、易受网络攻击等缺陷。为避免由于过度依赖GPS而带来的巨大风险,美国防高级研究计划局(DARPA)近年来陆续开展了“微型定位、导航、授时技术”“自适应导航系统”“量子辅助感知与读出技术”“超快激光科学与工程”“在对抗环境下获得空间、时间和定位信息”等不依赖GPS的导航、定位、授时技术研究项目。

    俄罗斯——

    重启“卫星杀手”计划

    俄罗斯曾在官方场合搁置了反卫星武器计划,即“卫星杀手”计划,但俄方在该领域的关键技术从未完全丢失。据媒体报道,俄军方曾于2013年发射代号为“2014-28E”(或称宇宙2499)的神秘物体。该物体被观测到使用发动机进行一系列非正常但非常精准的机动变轨,似乎具备能悄悄接近其他卫星的能力。

    日本——

    设立太空监视部队

    2014年8月28日,日本防卫省修改了《宇宙开发利用基本方针》,明确指出,日本将成立专门的太空监视部队,对宇宙卫星和垃圾的运行动态进行跟踪和分析,以逐步加强太空感知能力。此举旨在加强日美在太空的合作,应对来自卫星的武器攻击,将加强从太空收集图片的能力,利用人造卫星对弹道导弹的发射进行早期的监控和分析,增强早期预警能力。

    印度——

    构建区域卫星导航系统

    2015年3月28日,印度第四颗导航卫星发射成功,印度区域卫星导航系统逐渐成形。按照印度的计划,该系统的组网工作将分为两大步骤:第一步是发射地球同步卫星组成覆盖印度全境的区域卫星导航系统,第二步是从区域卫星导航系统向印度版全球卫星定位系统迈进。该系统将提供民用和军用两种服务。

Libya war action in space
■ Wang Pingping

Libya is the second war in Afghanistan and the US-led war in Iraq is not a scale but the high degree of information technology local war, preparations for war, initiated and progression to reconnaissance, navigation, communications support for the core space power to effectively support the multinational force and strategic campaign decisions to protect the fine planning and real-time command and control task.
Before the war, the US-led NATO military operations on the basis of the need for a full assessment on the strength of existing space system was substantial adjustment, built up by the imaging and electronic reconnaissance, maritime surveillance and missile warning, command and communications, space support system navigation, meteorological observation system consisting of satellites and satellite systems for civil use functionally complement in individual areas. In addition, according to operational needs, with fast access to space capability supplementary firing several satellites.
Libyan war, the multinational force to implement the diversification of space support operations.
Access to information on the battlefield, the multinational force by the imaging reconnaissance spacecraft, aerospace electronic reconnaissance means supplemented by special reconnaissance and surveillance network means, Libya’s strategic target architecture, an important goal distribution, composition and deployment of air defense systems, command and control relationship , means of communication and frequency distribution of a comprehensive reconnaissance. War is in progress, the multinational force by aerospace electronic reconnaissance and avionics reconnaissance combining means, real-time capture and analysis of radiation target operating parameter Libyan army, master Libyan army air defense system deployment adjustment, dynamic intelligence command and communications work full time monitoring Libya’s mobile communications and satellite communications, intelligence screening important clues.
In terms of battlefield information distribution, multinational force operations in front of more than 1100 kilometers wide, over a wide area of ​​more than 600 kilometers in depth expansion; air force were deployed in the war zone from 700 to more than 2800 km range and nearly 20 airports on aircraft carriers, a variety of information through a wide range of command and control, high-speed, high-capacity, high security satellite communications system to distribute real-time data sharing within the multinational force, for a variety of combat forces and the overall offensive and defensive operations provide linkage strong support.
In terms of navigation and positioning, navigation and positioning information needed for precision air strike all provided by space power, accuracy of less than meter-level positioning information to ensure effective control of collateral damage when clearing precision strike urban targets.
Throughout the war in Libya, the space forces to the multinational force to provide 80% of the intelligence information to help them achieve battlefield transparent way, firmly grasp the battlefield initiative. There are pre-prepared in the intelligence area, the US military to grasp the dynamics of the battlefield and complete the property identified in less than 5 minutes. Space power efficient support from discovery, to combat identification, evaluation precision air strike chains. Combat action against Gaddafi fled from Sirte, that is, by the space surveillance system to grasp the dynamics and guide warplanes and drones successful wars against the blockade.

利比亚战争中的太空行动

■王平平

    利比亚战争是继阿富汗和伊拉克战争之后美国主导的一场规模不大但信息化程度很高的局部战争,战争的准备、发起和进展过程,以侦察情报、导航定位、通信保障为核心的太空力量,有效支持了多国部队的战略与战役决策,保障了精细任务筹划和实时指挥控制。

战前,以美国为首的北约在对军事行动需要进行充分评估的基础上,对既有的太空力量体系进行了充实调整,构建起了由成像及电子侦察、海洋监视及导弹预警、指挥通信、导航定位、气象观测等卫星系统构成的太空支援体系,并利用民用卫星系统在个别领域进行功能性补充。此外,根据作战的需要,利用快速进入太空能力补充发射数颗卫星。

利比亚战争中,多国部队实施了多样化的太空支援行动。

在战场信息获取方面,多国部队通过航天成像侦察、航天电子侦察手段,辅之以特种侦察和网络侦察手段,对利比亚境内的战略目标体系结构、重要目标分布、防空体系构成及部署、指挥控制关系、通信手段及频率分布情况进行全面的侦察。战争进行过程中,多国部队通过航天电子侦察与航空电子侦察相结合的手段,实时截获和分析利比亚军队的辐射目标工作参数,掌握利比亚军队防空系统部署调整、指挥通信工作的动态情报,全时段监控利比亚的移动通信及卫星通信,筛选重要情报线索。

在战场信息分发方面,多国部队的作战行动在正面宽1100余千米、纵深600余千米的广阔区域内展开;空中力量分别部署在距战区700~2800余千米范围内近20个机场及航空母舰上,指挥控制的各种信息通过大范围、高速度、大容量、高保密性的卫星通信系统实时分发,在多国部队内部实现数据共享,为各种作战力量及攻防作战行动的整体联动提供有力支持。

在导航定位方面,空中精确打击所需要的导航定位信息全部由太空力量提供,精度小于米级的定位信息确保了对城区目标进行空地精确打击时有效控制附带损伤。

整个利比亚战争中,太空力量为多国部队提供了80%的情报信息,帮助其实现战场单向透明,牢牢掌握战场主动。在有预先情报准备的区域内,美军掌握战场动态情况并完成属性识别的时间小于5分钟。太空力量高效支持了从发现、识别到打击、评估的空中精确打击链。对从苏尔特出逃的卡扎菲进行的打击行动,就是由太空侦察系统掌握动态情况,并引导战机和无人机进行阻滞打击的成功战例。

Source:
Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China
 Author: Zhang Zhi Time: 2016-01-29

China’s Military, Information Warfare & Interpretation of the PLA’s Strategic Support Units

中國軍事信息戰解读解放军战略支援部队

20160104131249755

December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in August Building.The Army is the armed forces of our party was first built, which needless to say, the military rocket is an upgraded version of the Second Artillery Corps, reflects the strategic support great power status, do not need to deny self, then this strategy support troops may be too mysterious.

Because at the inaugural meeting, the CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping to the Army, rocket forces, strategic support units and granted the flag caused precepts. This means that the strategic support units, and the People’s Liberation Army is the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army rocket same level independent military services. And with respect to the Army’s “name” and the Second Artillery Rocket Army “named” upgrade, strategic support since the Second Artillery Force of the PLA has become established, the birth of the only new military services. From the point of view of modern high-tech local wars, armed forces and strategic nuclear strike force contains basically the main mode of combat and battlefield environment, then this strategy support troops, and what capability, turned out to be able to come to the fore?

Strategic support troops inaugural meeting, President Xi strategic support units carried out the following qualitative: strategic support units is to maintain national security of new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality. Strategic support units to adhere to all officers and soldiers system integration, civil-military integration, and strive to achieve leapfrog development in key areas, starting point to promote high standards of combat forces to accelerate the development of new, integrated development, strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

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There are a few key words: new combat forces, combat new quality capability, system integration, civil-military integration, key areas.

Xinhua News Agency news show, strategic support unit’s first commander was Gaojin. Network data shows he originally from Jiangsu Province, of the Jingjiang people. 1985 Gao-Jin enters the PLA Second Artillery Command College. July 2006, promoted to the rank of major general, served as the PLA Second Artillery Force 52 base commander. In December 2011, he served as chief of staff of the PLA Second Artillery Force. August 2013, promoted to the rank of lieutenant.In July 2014, he was transferred to the Assistant Chief of Staff. In December 2014, he was promoted to president of Academy of Military Sciences, and replace older than 1 year old deputy chief of staff YiXiaoguang will become the youngest Chinese Military general officer, Military Academy is the youngest president in history.

On November 2, 2015,Gaojin became a strategic support troops commander in the first 60 days, “Liberation Army Daily” published a paper entitled “deepen defense and military reform is the only way the army strong army Hing,” the signed article . Article specifically mentioned: the world’s new military revolution is an important component of the key variables in the world today and the great development and changes and major adjustments, the large its speed, scope, degree of depth, the impact of the unprecedented. Following another face of this epoch-making revolution in military weapon cold, hot weapons, mechanized military revolution after the world’s major countries competing to adjust its military strategy, stepping up military transformation, in order to reshape the military information as the core morphology, reconstruction of military force system. In the form of war from mechanization to informationization of qualitative leap, under conditions of nuclear deterrence armed Skynet electrical integration of joint operations is increasingly becoming a reality, from the battlefield to the traditional space high, deep, very far from the physical space and virtual space to expand non symmetric, non-contact, non-line combat style more mature, battle to seize control of information has become a comprehensive control over the core mechanism of winning the war profoundly changed.

Armed Skynet electrical integration joint commander Gaojin said nuclear deterrence combat conditions, where “day”, it never refers to the Army’s rocket missile, but in outer space, “net” is in cyberspace, “power” is the electromagnetic space. Modern high-tech local wars, armed forces military remains the key to victory, but also the main battleground in the sea and air space, but a typical characteristic of information warfare is asymmetrical, non-contact, non-line operations, and achieve the key to this transformation is in outer space, cyberspace and electromagnetic space “three special battlefield.” Due to the large electromagnetic space and physical isolation from the impact, typically have only tactical significance. Whereas outer space and cyberspace, it is high, deep, very far from ubiquitous in the physical space and virtual space, which has a strategic significance. On both the battlefield flame, not flesh and blood flying, but dangerous worse than conventional battlefield, troops could have a corresponding force building and sound command response agencies, the result will be a conventional battlefield the outcome must have an important and even qualitative impact.

This is the meaning of China’s “strategic support” forces. Reasoning logically, Chinese strategic support units, it may be in outer space and cyberspace “new combat forces” for giving our military the “new mass combat capability” new growth point.

In order to achieve this capability “strategic support” of military power have set up competing celestial army (troops outer space) and Cyber ​​Army (network warfare units). US troops in outer space, from the “Decree” system, troops belonging to the armed forces, including missile and space defense forces, the Navy’s carrier-based anti-missile forces, the Air Force C4ISR and the use of space satellites Army troops, and in the “military orders on “system, these forces are unified owned by the US strategic command headquarters. In 2009, under the US Strategic Command has established a new subordinate command, namely Network Warfare Command, the unified command of the US Armed Corps network warfare units.

Russia in December 2011 set up air and space defense troops, but it was such a force has only arms and the operational level status, the military power of the central air and space defense forces only jurisdiction, but can not solve Russia’s air defense force under unified command of proposal question. August 1, 2015, the Russian air force and air defense forces, air defense forces merged to form the air and space forces. Which it is now Russia has no air force in the traditional sense. Air and space defense forces will remain the unified command of the Russian General Staff, and the direct leadership of the day will be empty Army General Headquarters. Aerospace duty Army is responsible for unified management of air, anti-aircraft and anti-missile forces, and Russian satellite orbit Cluster spacecraft launch and management. In addition, the missile attack warning systems and space surveillance systems within the scope of the jurisdiction of military air and space.

From the public point of view, so far Russia has not yet set up as a dedicated network warfare units like the US, but does not have a special unified command structure.

Advances in technology, to make human use of outer space and cyberspace, to achieve the purpose of the military, but that does not mean big opportunities for state-owned, have the ability and courage to break the old military system, to adapt to the new form of war requirements. How to build a national unified command and outer space and cyberspace defense system. Russia and the United States gave us a lot of lessons.

The United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War hegemony, had spent heavily in the development of military platforms and a lot of space weapons systems, but the US military space systems, almost all rests in the hands of the Air Force, and the Soviet Union established the Strategic Rocket Forces troops. Visible, the US military is relying on the armed services to build space defense system, and the former Soviet Union is the establishment of a new military services.

At the end of the Cold War, the Russian strategic rocket forces in the original, based on an independent arms to draw a military space forces. March 2011, the Russian military space forces again, based on the formation of air and space defense troops.However, under the oppression of US nuclear weapons, global strike, anti-missile and other space powers, Russia and aerospace field is still fragmented, air and space attack threats it faces increasingly severe pain, while there is no uniform national air and space defense command structure . To safeguard the security of Russian aerospace field, create a better organizational and technical conditions for the implementation of the strategic future of air and space battles, the Russians in August 2015 set up air and space forces. But have to say is that the so-called empty space forces, the Russian equivalent of the US back to the old way, both relying on a unified air defense system to re-member space. This shows that, although Russia considers itself aerospace suffered a big threat, but the economic and technological strength, has been insufficient to support the establishment of a development, a separate military services promising, but only on the basis of the Air Force “linger.”

Russian frustration with respect to the United States the development of air and space power is somewhat intentional play balance. The main part of the US Air Force air and space power, but in the “ABM” the US military in the 21st century the most important military operation of air and space, is the main operator of the US Army. In addition to the Navy’s “Aegis” missile defense system, the US military’s ground-based midcourse ABM, THAAD and Patriot anti-missile terminal, they are in control of the US Army, and a bunch of computer manipulation Army Air Force Base. Of course, whether it is armed soldiers, they eventually unify obey the command of US Strategic Command. But the US military services rely on different building space defense system, military services still reflects the inherent ideological balance thinking. This is because the US military very large volume, especially during the Cold War, which makes the US military services have funding research challenges of new technologies. And after 1986, the new Department of Defense Reorganization Act by the US military approach is from the perspective of the Joint Operations Command, the unified “collection” command the services of new combat forces to integrate. US Network Warfare Command was established, also a product of this approach.

US military advantage of this approach is that the services Eight Immortals recount, the final choice can be optimized in the competition, but the disadvantage is that there is a huge waste, and the services in peacetime and do not belong to the system, it is difficult wartime unity of action. Although the US military reform highlights the joint operations of thought, but the individual military services after all are not the same culture, and outer space and cyberspace, the required military personnel are a small number of capable staff, if the artificial formation of different military services background, a bit “for the United the joint “deliberate sense.

With respect to the United States and Russia, China’s military advantage is the revolution in military time scale, technological change and changes in the army almost simultaneously, the synchronization off, which makes the Chinese military have the opportunity to design the height from the top, in the lessons learned from military based on the construction of military services and more rational planning. While China’s national strength and technological level of rapid growth, but also to the construction of China’s new military services will not fall into the “make bricks without straw,” the fantasy embarrassment.

In the field of anti-missile, the Chinese Defense Ministry has confirmed that the January 11, 2010, September 11, 2012, January 27, 2013, July 23, 2014 were carried out four ground-based midcourse missile interception technical tests. In the field of anti-satellite, the Chinese Foreign Ministry acknowledged in January 2007 anti-satellite missile test. Out media speculation in 2010 and 2013. China has conducted two tests of anti-satellite weapons, but did not get China confirmed. Platform in space, China from 2010 into more than 15 times the average annual emission intensive stage, reaching an average growth of around 20 the number of satellites, the establishment of a chain of day, the Beidou, high scores, and a series of remote sensing satellites family now the number of satellites in orbit over Russia, after the United States. In 2014 MH370 lost contact incident, China urgent mobilization of four models ocean, clouds, high, remote sensing, nearly 10 satellites to provide technical support for ground search and rescue operations.

In network technology, China has become the world’s Internet and mobile Internet users than any other country, not only the birth of a group of like Alibaba, Tencent world-class Internet companies, such as Huawei also appeared in network technology giant. China in the next generation of Internet technology, has become one rule-makers. But while China has become the network against the most affected countries by the world, which means that China must consider the network security of the country from a strategic height, including the establishment of a unified defense force and a network system.

There is no doubt that the new military revolution has proved that outer space is to promote our army “system integration” an important heights, and cyberspace is the embodiment of “civil-military integration,” a typical example of these two historic space is the Chinese army reform the key areas. China established strategic support units, will likely be the world’s first and do not rely on traditional military services to establish a unified military force in outer space and cyberspace defense system. This initiative is bound to leave an indelible mark in the world’s new military revolution.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

凤凰军事作者:郑文浩

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在八一大楼隆重举行。陆军是我党最早建立的武装力量,这就不用说了,火箭军是二炮的升级版,体现了大国地位的战略支撑,自不需要讳言,那么这支战略支援部队可就太神秘了。

因为在成立大会上,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队授予军旗并致训词。这就意味着,战略支援部队,是和解放军陆军、海军、空军、火箭军平级的独立军种部队。而相对于陆军的“正名”和第二炮兵到火箭军的“命名”升级,战略支援部队成为解放军自二炮成立以来,诞生的唯一新军种部队。从现代化高技术局部战争来看,陆海空军以及战略核打击部队基本上囊括了主要的作战方式和战场环境,那么这支战略支援部队,又有哪些能耐,能够脱颖而出横空出世呢?

在战略支援部队成立大会上,习主席对战略支援部队进行了如下的定性:战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。战略支援部队全体官兵要坚持体系融合、军民融合,努力在关键领域实现跨越发展,高标准高起点推进新型作战力量加速发展、一体发展,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

这里面有几个关键词:新型作战力量、新质作战能力、体系融合、军民融合、关键领域。

新华社新闻显示,战略支援部队的首任司令员是高津。网络资料显示高津是江苏靖江人。1985年高津进入解放军第二炮兵指挥学院。2006年7月,晋升少将军衔,担任解放军第二炮兵第52基地司令员。2011年12月,担任中国人民解放军第二炮兵参谋长。2013年8月,晋升中将军衔。2014年7月,调任总参谋长助理。2014年12月,升任军事科学院院长,并取代比其年长1岁的副总参谋长乙晓光中将,成为最年轻的正大军区级将领,也是军事科学院历史上最年轻的院长。

在2015年11月2日,也就是高津在成为战略支援部队司令员的前60天,在《解放军报》上发表了题为“深化国防和军队改革是强军兴军的必由之路”的署名文章。文章中特别提到:世界新军事革命是当今世界大发展大变革大调整的重要构成和关键变量,其速度之快、范围之广、程度之深、影响之大前所未有。面对这场继冷兵器、热兵器、机械化军事革命之后的又一次划时代军事革命,世界主要国家竞相调整军事战略,加紧推进军事转型,以信息化为核心重塑军队组织形态、重构军事力量体系。战争形态处于由机械化向信息化跃升的质变期,核威慑条件下陆海空天网电一体化联合作战日益成为现实,战场从传统空间向极高、极深、极远物理空间和虚拟空间拓展,非对称、非接触、非线式作战样式更趋成熟,制信息权成为夺取战场综合控制权的核心,战争制胜机理深刻改变。

高津司令员所说的核威慑条件下陆海空天网电一体化联合作战,其中的“天”,就绝不是指的火箭军部队的导弹,而是外层空间,“网”则是网络空间,“电”则是电磁空间。现代化高技术局部战争,陆海空军部队仍然是决胜的关键,而争夺的战场也主要在陆海空空间进行,但信息化战争的一个典型特色,就是非对称、非接触、非线式作战,而实现这一转变的关键环节,就是在外层空间、网络空间和电磁空间的“这三个特殊战场”。电磁空间由于受距离和物理隔绝的影响很大,通常只具有战术意义。而外层空间和网络空间,则是极高、极深、极远物理空间和无处不在的虚拟空间,从而具有战略上意义。在这两个战场上的拼杀,没有血肉横飞,但凶险却比常规战场有过之而无不及,军队能否拥有对应的力量建设和健全的指挥反应机构,其结果将对常规战场的胜负产生重要甚至绝定性影响。

这就是“战略支援”的含义所在。从逻辑上推理,中国战略支援部队,很可能就是针对外层空间和网络空间的“新型作战力量”,赋予我军“新质作战能力”新增长点。

为了获得这种“战略支援”的能力,军事大国都曾争相成立天军(外层空间部队)和网军(网络战部队)。美国的外层空间部队,从“政令”体制上,分属陆海空三军部队,包括陆军的空间和导弹防御部队,海军的舰载反导部队、空军的C4ISR和空间卫星使用部队,而在“军令”系统上,这些部队则统一归美国战略司令部指挥。在2009年,美军又在战略司令部之下成立了一个新的下级司令部,即网络战司令部,统一指挥美军陆海空陆战队的网络战部队。

俄罗斯在2011年12月成立了空天防御兵,但当时这一部队仅具有兵种和战役级地位,只有管辖中央军区空天防御部队的权力,但无法解决俄罗斯空提案防御力量统一指挥的问题。2015年8月1日,俄空天防御部队和空军、防空军合并,组成了空天军。也就是现在俄罗斯已经没有了传统意义上的空军。空天防御部队仍将由俄罗斯总参谋部统一指挥,而直接领导将是空天军总司令部。空天军将负责统一管理执勤的空中、防空和反导力量,以及俄罗斯轨道卫星集群航天器的发射和管理。另外,导弹袭击预警系统和太空监控系统也属于空天军管辖范围。

从公开资料上看,目前为止俄罗斯还没有像美军那样成立专门的网络战部队,更没有设立专门的统一指挥机构。

技术的进步,让人类的得以利用外层空间和网络空间,来实现军事上的目的,但这并不意味着大国有机会、有能力、有胆识打破旧有的军队体制,来适应新形态战争的要求。如何构建并统一指挥全国性的外层空间和网络空间防御体系。美国和俄罗斯给我们提供了很多经验教训。

美国和苏联在冷战争霸过程中,曾经耗费巨资开发了大量空间军事平台和武器系统,但美军的空间系统几乎都掌握在空军手中,而苏联则成立了战略火箭军部队。可见,美军是依托军种构建空间防御体系,而前苏联是成立新的军种。

在冷战结束后,俄罗斯在原有战略火箭军的基础上,划出了一个军事航天部队的独立兵种。2011年3月,俄罗斯又以军事航天部队为基础,组建了空天防御兵。然而在美国核武器、全球快速打击、反导等太空力量的压迫下,俄罗斯空天领域仍然是割裂的,痛感其面临的空天袭击威胁日益严峻,而同时本国又没有统一的空天防御指挥机构。为切实维护俄空天领域安全,为实施未来的空天战略性战役创造更好的组织和技术条件,俄军于2015年8月组建了空天军。然而不得不说的是,所谓的空天军,等于俄罗斯回到了美军的老路上,既依托空军重新构件统一的空间防御体系。这说明,俄罗斯虽然认为自身空天所遭受威胁很大,但其经济和技术实力,已经不足以支撑建立一个有发展、有前途的独立军种,而只能在空军的基础上”苟延残喘“。

相对于俄罗斯的无奈,美国空天力量发展则有些故意玩平衡。美国空天力量的主要部分在空军,然而在“反导”这个美军在21世纪最重要的空天军事动作上,主要的操作者却是美国陆军。除了海军的“宙斯盾”导弹防御系统之外,美军的陆基中段反导、THAAD和爱国者终端反导,都是美国陆军在掌控,而且是一帮陆军军人在美国空军基地中操纵电脑。当然,无论是陆海空军人,他们最终都统一听从美军战略司令部的指挥。但美国依托不同军种构建空间防御体系,仍然体现了固有军种平衡思维的思想。这是因为美国军费体量极为庞大,尤其在冷战期间,这使得美军各军种都有资金研究新技术的挑战。而1986年新国防部改组法通过后,美军的做法就是从联合作战司令部的角度,统一“收缴”指挥各军种新作战力量进行整合。而美国网络战司令部的成立,也同样是这一方法的产物。

美军这种方法的优点在于,各军种八仙过海各显神通,最后可以在竞争中优化选择,但缺点在于存在巨大浪费,且各军种在平时互不统属,很难在战时统一行动。固然美军改革突出了联合作战的思想,但各个军种文化毕竟不相同,而且外层空间和网络空间,所需军事人员都数量少、人员精干,如果再人为形成不同军种背景,就有点“为了联合而联合”刻意之感。

相对于美俄,中国军队的优势,是在军事革命的时间尺度上,技术变革和军队变革几乎同步进行、同步起飞,这使得中国军队有机会从顶层设计的高度,在借鉴外军经验教训的基础上,更合理地规划军种建设。而中国国力和科技水平的快速增长,也让中国新军种的建设不至于陷入“巧妇难为无米之炊”的空想尴尬。

在反导领域,中国国防部已经证实,在2010年1月11日、2012年9月11日、2013年1月27日、2014年7月23日分别进行了四次陆基中段反导拦截技术试验。在反卫星领域,中国外交部在2007年1月承认进行了反卫星导弹试验。而外媒猜测在2010年和2013年中国还进行过两次反卫星武器试验,但未获得中方证实。在太空平台上,中国从2010年开始,进入年均15次以上的密集发射阶段,年均卫星增长数量达到20枚左右,建立了天链、北斗、高分、遥感等一系列卫星家族,目前在轨卫星数量已经超过俄罗斯,仅次于美国。在2014年的MH370失联事件中,中国紧急调动海洋、风云、高分、遥感等4个型号,近10颗卫星为地面搜救行动提供技术支持。

在网络技术上,中国已经成为全球互联网和移动互联网用户最多的国家,不但诞生了一批像阿里巴巴、腾讯的世界级网络企业,也出现了像华为这样的网络技术巨头。中国在新一代互联网技术上,已经成为规则的制定者之一。但同时中国也成为世界上受到网络侵害最严重的国家,这就意味着中国必须从战略高度考虑国家的网络安全,其中也包括建立统一的网络防卫力量和体系。

毫无疑问,新军事革命已经证明,外层空间是推进我军“体系融合”的重要高地,而网络空间则是体现“军民融合”的典型范例,这两个空间则是中国军队历史性改革的关键领域。中国战略支援部队的成立,将可能是世界上首次不依托传统军种而建立统一的外层空间和网络空间防御军事力量体系。这项创举必然会在世界新军事革命中写下浓墨重彩的一笔。

Original Source HERE

Chinese Military Reshuffle Carries Deep Significance

02FEB2016 Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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China on Monday inaugurated the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) five new theater commands. The northern, southern, eastern, western and central theater commands replace the seven previous military area commands. The change from “military area command” to “theater command” carries more weight than the change from “seven” to “five.”

The essence of the theater commands is clear. The commands are prepared for combat and winning wars, about which the military and the public share a deep understanding. With such a military system, China’s peaceful development will be more serious and gain more respect from the outside.

It has been decades since the PLA was involved in a war. The outside world focuses more on the Dongfeng ballistic missile and the construction of aircraft carriers than about the military itself. The Chinese army has not made much impression on the world.

Perhaps some would prefer the Chinese military to keep a low profile, and it is even better that they advocate peace. The establishment of the five theater commands heralds a revolutionary change, highlighting the fundamentals of the military and the troops.

From now on, the strength of the Chinese military not only exists in historical documents or rests upon newly developed weapons, but also in its determination for victory and in its preparations.

The more powerful the PLA grows and the more capable it is of engaging in a war, the country will embrace a peaceful rise all the more. This will contribute to the nation’s peaceful rise, otherwise the outside world will only consider that peace is only our compulsory choice. If this happens, the peace of China and the world will face a dangerous future.

A major power will attract all kinds of opportunities for the world’s development and can share in global wealth distribution. But without corresponding military might, instability may brew. The security of a big power relates to the security of the whole world. That a big power is capable of fighting in a war but not obsessed in launching wars fits the common interests of all mankind.

Frankly speaking, the strength of the Chinese military can ensure the country is not intruded on by foreign troops, but it is not enough to promote fair competition and the evolution of order in a globalized era. Some external forces do not accept China’s rise. If such sentiments spread with military aid without restraint, it will hurt China’s security and world peace. There needs to be a tipping point where China is more secure, but how to find the tipping point is a subtle issue.

The Chinese military will shoulder heavier responsibilities in the future. China is close to the historical mission of a national rejuvenation. We are facing an unprecedented landscape, hopes and risks. The PLA will play a key role in helping the Chinese people pass the transition period smoothly and helping the world release some external grievances due to the power shifts of major countries.

Original Source: HERE

China Military Focus of Main Effort in Information Warfare: Electromagnetic Spectrum

来源:解放军报作者:郝嘉 周宁 周任飞责任编辑:张硕

● electromagnetic spectrum owned by the state, is the core of strategic resources for national development, promote social progress

● direct support operations of the electromagnetic spectrum, is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war of the central nervous system

Soul of the information war: the electromagnetic spectrum

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Electromagnetic spectrum resources for humanity, as indispensable as water and sun. Information age, the electromagnetic spectrum is changing the world, changing the way people live

Core Tip

Electromagnetic spectrum exists in war by land, sea, air, space the whole time and space, is the only ideal medium capable of supporting mobile operations, decentralized operations and high intensity warfare. Important support elements of the electromagnetic spectrum management as joint operations, throughout the operational readiness, operational planning, operational implementation of the entire process, the role of command and control, intelligence and reconnaissance, weapons guidance, early warning and detection, navigation and other operational elements of the whole, is to improve the combat Important basic capabilities directly related weapons and equipment play information Operational Effectiveness.

Electromagnetic spectrum Past and Present

The physical world there is such a strange phenomenon, alternating current generated in the surrounding space alternating magnetic field, electric field and magnetic field variations mutual contacts to form an alternating electromagnetic field, and can spread from the wave source which produces the distance, this planted in the space at a constant speed of alternating electromagnetic field propagation is electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum, it is by electromagnetic waves lined up according to wavelength or frequency, a formed structure from zero to infinity pedigree, which 0-3000 gigahertz frequency range of radio waves.

Back in October 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent. However, the future Queen of Spain, six months before he heard the news, unfortunately sudden and devastating. April 14, 1865, US President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 13 days after the news spread was known industry’s most advanced British government, coping strategies are overtaken by events. Electromagnetic time unknown, human nature can not enjoy its magic.

In 1888, German physicist Hertz experiment is successful, humans finally touch the existence of electromagnetic waves. In 1901, as the “father of radio” Marconi trans-Atlantic radio communication test is successful, humanity has entered the era of electromagnetic radio communications sweeping the globe. In 1912, after the Titanic wreck, the United Kingdom, the United States and other maritime powers mandatory over a certain tonnage of the vessel must be installed radio stations, in order to protect the safety of life at sea. During World War I, the war all the major powers use radio communication to pass information and commands.

Since then, radio broadcasting, navigation, remote after another, to the development and progress of human society has brought great changes. Electromagnetic wave as an important carrier of information transmission, dash in land, sea, air, space four-dimensional space, accelerate the coming of the information age.

●电磁频谱属于国家所有,是促进国家发展、推动社会进步的核心战略资源

●电磁频谱直接支撑作战,是建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争的中枢神经

电磁频谱:信息化战争之魂

电磁频谱资源对人类的影响,就像水和太阳一样不可或缺。信息时代,电磁频谱正在改变世界,改变人们的生活方式。(图片合成:胡亚军

核心提示

电磁频谱存在于陆、海、空、天的作战全时空,是唯一能够支持机动作战、分散作战和高强度作战的理想媒介。电磁频谱管理作为联合作战的重要保障要素,贯穿于作战准备、作战筹划、作战实施的全过程,作用于指挥控制、情报侦察、武器制导、预警探测、导航定位等作战全要素,是提高体系作战能力的重要基础,直接关系信息化武器装备作战效能的发挥。

电磁频谱的前世今生

物理世界有这样一种奇特的现象,交变电流在周围空间会产生交变磁场,变化的电场和磁场相互联系,形成了交变的电磁场,并能脱离其产生的波源向远处传播,这种在空间以一定速度传播的交变电磁场就是电磁波。

电磁频谱,则是由电磁波按波长或频率排列起来,所形成的一个从零至无穷的结构谱系,其中0-3000吉赫兹频率范围为无线电波。

时间回到1492年10月,哥伦布发现了美洲大陆。然而,西班牙王后半年以后才得知这一消息,遗憾顿生。1865年4月14日,美国总统林肯惨遭暗杀,消息13天后才传到当时号称工业最为先进的英国政府,应对策略也时过境迁。电磁波那时不为人知,人类自然无法享受到它的神奇力量。

1888年,德国物理学家赫兹实验成功,人类终于触摸到电磁波的存在。1901年,随着“无线电之父”马可尼跨越大西洋的无线电通信试验成功,人类进入了电磁时代,无线电通讯席卷全球。1912年,泰坦尼克号失事后,英国、美国等航海大国强制规定,超过一定吨位的船只必须加装无线电台,以保障海上航行生命安全。在第一次世界大战期间,所有参战的大国都使用无线电通信传递情报和命令。

此后,无线电的广播、导航、遥控相继出现,给人类社会的发展进步带来了巨大变化。电磁波作为信息传递的重要载体,纵横驰骋在陆、海、空、天四维空间,加速了信息时代的到来。

Electromagnetic spectrum is a national resource strategy

Electromagnetic spectrum is the only human transmission of information over wireless media, owned by the state, land, forest, mineral and other resources, as it is both a scarce natural resource in the areas of economic development, national defense and social life indispensable , irreplaceable core strategic resources.

At present, humans can use the radio spectrum in the 275 gigahertz or less, mainly concentrated in the range of 30 Hz to 40 gigahertz, but most are in the 3 gigahertz or less, high-quality resources is extremely limited.Therefore, the world has become intense competition for them.

Frequency satellite orbit resources, for example, known as the 80% share of the “golden navigation frequency”, the US GPS and Russian GLONASS navigation system first to seize the countries in the world have to compete for the remaining resources.

Electromagnetic spectrum is widely used in the economic, military and other fields, combined with the scarcity of resources prominent contradictions, it gradually from the back to the front, electromagnetic space and the game become the world compete for important battlefield.

Each year, the US President issued specifically concerning electromagnetic spectrum “presidential memorandum”, leading the electromagnetic spectrum policy and national army. The British government published its “21st Century Spectrum Management” white paper, clearly the introduction of spectrum pricing, spectrum auction, spectrum trading and other means to encourage the efficient use of spectrum resources development and new technologies.

The study reports that the electromagnetic spectrum can contribute each year to 3-5 percent of the total national economy. From 1995 to 2011, the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other countries for the development of the third and fourth generation mobile communication network, spectrum auction value of $ 130 billion. Russia, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and other countries competing to improve the relevant laws and regulations, maintain the electromagnetic spectrum space to maximize their national interests, strongly promote the electromagnetic spectrum resources market and internationalization.

Manage electromagnetic space “traffic light”

Although the electromagnetic spectrum is present in the natural space, invisible, but it does not mean that the State, organizations and individuals are free to use occupied.

With modern urban traffic management have great similarities, at the technical level, the electromagnetic frequency spectrum management major from, space, time three-dimensional expansion, which is vividly called electromagnetic space “traffic lights.”

Currently, the international scope of the electromagnetic spectrum management mainly through the establishment of an international organization, signed an international agreement to allocate spectrum to resolve unified. States also set up frequency spectrum management and monitoring of the site, and to divide the spectrum resource use.

According to statistics, a US infantry division of about 70 radar, radio station 2800, a Russian motorized infantry division of about 60 radar, radio station 2040 to ensure so much electronic equipment to work smoothly, you need a strong power and spectrum management mechanism. After the baptism of several local wars, the US military high command from the field to have a specialized division of spectrum management agencies from the Department of Defense, the Joint Staff to the armed services, has established a complete set of joint campaign spectrum management system, formed a mature management mechanism.

According to the US Army website reported, the United States developed a new Joint Tactical Radio System, which contains the spectrum defragmentation technology, is not a continuous spectrum of debris re-polymerization, to achieve the integration of resources to meet the needs of purpose. European development of the “Spectrum pool” technology, but also the integration of free spectrum resource collection, and dynamically allocated based on customer needs, improve efficiency in the use of the spectrum.

Now, the world’s major countries are seeking to develop spectrum sharing technology, without changing the existing spectrum allocation rules, through technical analysis tools simulate actual combination, so that different systems can share the same frequency band compatible. In addition, many countries and organizations through the use of advanced signal transmission technology, using a frequency equipment to improve the level of technology, and other means to control the transmission frequency, both to avoid the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment, but also to achieve efficient use of spectrum.

“The 21st century will be the era of the spectrum war”

Traditional air and sea superiority play, must be based on the electromagnetic advantage, losing electromagnetic power, will lose control of the air, sea control, electromagnetic space and space has become, ground and ocean coexistence fourth dimension battlefield. It can be said that the future of information warfare, who won the electromagnetic power, grasps the initiative on the battlefield. Former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Thomas Muller said: “If a third world war, the winner will be the most adept at controlling the use of the electromagnetic spectrum and the party.”

Faced with escalating competition in the world of the electromagnetic spectrum, the US military has issued a joint spectrum vision, strategic planning and the Department of Defense Spectrum “Spectrum war” and other top-level strategic guidance documents, and to take away from the crowded band, the development of high-end spectrum, etc., developed microwave , laser, electromagnetic pulse weapons, etc., to actively seize the spectrum.British forces widely promote the use of intelligent and efficient radio modulation techniques to improve spectrum utilization efficiency of a wireless communication system.

In order to obtain the advantages of the spectrum in the future information warfare, Europe and the United States armed forces through the establishment of specialized agencies electromagnetic compatibility, the use of advanced simulation techniques to develop quality indicators management system, develop joint spectrum management system, etc., to improve battlefield electromagnetic spectrum management capabilities.

In recent years, cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum sensing, frequency control simulation deduction, emerging electromagnetic environmental adaptability analysis of new technologies, to the military electromagnetic spectrum management development has brought great opportunities and challenges. Experts predict that the future will share a common electromagnetic spectrum management towards spectrum resources, spectrum efficiency analysis and refinement of embedded dynamic spectrum management, direction and progress.

电磁频谱是一个国家的战略资源

电磁频谱是目前人类唯一理想的无线信息传输媒介,属于国家所有,与土地、森林、矿藏等资源一样,它既是一种稀缺的自然资源,也是经济发展、国防建设和社会生活各领域不可或缺、无法替代的核心战略资源。

目前,人类能够利用的无线电频谱在275吉赫兹以下,主要集中在30赫兹至40吉赫兹范围内,而且绝大部分是在3吉赫兹以下,优质资源极其有限。因此,世界各国对其争夺已经趋于白热化。

以卫星频率轨道资源为例,被誉为“黄金导航频率”80%的份额,被美国GPS和俄罗斯格洛纳斯导航系统率先抢占,世界各国不得不争夺剩余资源。

电磁频谱在经济、军事等领域的广泛应用,加之资源紧缺的突出矛盾,使其逐渐从后台走向前台,电磁空间成为世界各国争夺和博弈的重要战场。

每年,美国总统专门发表事关电磁频谱的《总统备忘录》,主导国家和军队的电磁频谱政策。英国政府在其发布的《21世纪的频谱管理》白皮书中,明确提出引入频谱定价、频谱拍卖、频谱贸易等手段,激励频谱资源的高效利用和新技术的研发。

有关研究报告表明,电磁频谱每年可为国家经济总量贡献3至5个百分点。1995年至2011年,美、英、法、德等国家,为发展第三、第四代移动通信网,所拍卖的频谱价值高达1300多亿美元。俄、法、德、日、澳等国家竞相完善相关法规,最大限度地维护本国的电磁频谱空间利益,极力推进电磁频谱资源市场化和国际化。

管好电磁空间的“红绿灯”

电磁频谱虽然是存在于自然空间,看不见摸不着,但并不意味着国家、组织和个人可以随意使用侵占。

同现代城市交通管理有很大的相似之处,在技术层面上,电磁频谱管理主要从频率、空间、时间三维展开,这也被形象地称为电磁空间的“红绿灯”。

目前,国际范围的电磁频谱管理主要是通过建立国际组织、签订国际协议、统一划分频谱来解决。各国也设立了频谱管理部门和监测站点,对频谱资源进行划分和使用。

据统计,美军一个步兵师约有70部雷达、2800部电台,俄罗斯一个摩托化步兵师约有60部雷达、2040部电台,保证如此多的电子装备有条不紊地工作,需要强大的频谱管理力量和机制。经过几次局部战争的洗礼后,美军从统帅部到野战师都设有专门的频谱管理机构,从国防部、联合参谋部到各军兵种,都建立了一整套完整的联合战役频谱管理体系,形成了成熟的管理机制。

根据美国陆军网站报道,美国研发的新型联合战术无线电系统,其中包含了频谱碎片整理技术,就是将不连续的频谱碎片重新聚合,实现整合资源、满足需求的目的。欧洲开发的“频谱池”技术,也是将空闲频谱资源收集整合,并根据用户需求进行动态分配,提高频谱的使用效益。

现在,世界主要国家都在大力发展频谱共享技术,在不改变现有的频谱分配规则下,通过仿真实测相结合的技术分析手段,使不同系统能够在同一频段兼容共用。此外,很多国家和组织通过采用先进信号传输技术、提高用频设备工艺水平、控制发射频率等手段,既避免了电磁环境的恶化,也实现频谱的高效利用。

“21世纪将是频谱战的时代”

传统海空优势的发挥,必须建立在电磁优势的基础上,失去制电磁权,必将失去制空权、制海权,电磁空间已成为与空间、地面和海洋并存的第四维战场。可以说,未来信息化作战,谁赢得了制电磁权,谁就掌握了战场主动权。美国前参谋长联席会议主席托马斯·穆勒曾说:“如果发生第三次世界大战,获胜者必将是最善于控制和运用电磁频谱的一方。”

面对世界范围内电磁频谱竞争的不断升级,美军先后出台联合频谱构想、国防部频谱战略规划以及“频谱战”战略等顶层指导文件,并采取避开拥挤频段、开发高端频谱等方式,研发微波、激光、电磁脉冲等武器装备,积极抢占频谱资源。英国在部队中广泛推广使用智能无线电和高效调制技术,提升无线通信系统的频谱使用效率。

为在未来信息作战中获得频谱优势,欧美等国军队还通过成立专门电磁兼容机构、采用先进仿真技术手段、制定质量指标管理体系、开发联合频谱管理系统等方式,提高战场电磁频谱管理能力。

近年来,随着认知无线电、动态频谱感知、频管仿真推演、电磁环境适应性分析等新技术的不断涌现,给军队电磁频谱管理发展带来了巨大机遇和挑战。专家预计,未来电磁频谱管理将朝着频谱资源共享共用、精细化频谱效能分析和频谱动态嵌入式管理等方向不断进步。

Classic examples of the electromagnetic spectrum

In 1914, the US Navy Atlantic Fleet in the first trial under the state of war radio communication equipment, results strongly spark near neighbor ship transmitters interference interrupt all radio communication, the participants had to make time allocation plan, assigned to the United States for two hours domestic radio transmitter, the other four countries 1 hour each. Thus, the Washington-based headquarters to an interval of 4 hours to its armed forces on the battlefield contact again.

In 1967, the US “Forrestal” aircraft carrier in the implementation of a particular military mission, carrier F-4 “Phantom” fighter ship radar beam is irradiated by the interference, the aircraft hanging space rocket was accidentally fired ignition, hit ship an a-4 “Skyhawk” attack aircraft fuel tank, causing a chain explosion, causing heavy casualties.

April 1980, the US Joint Task Force and local school Rangers joint implementation embassy hostage rescue mission in Iraq. In its way to evacuate due to a communication device and the Rangers are not compatible with the frequent collaboration errors, resulting in a helicopter and transport aircraft collided, eight commandos were burned to death and four serious burns.

May 4, 1982, the Falklands War, the British naval weapon known as a symbol and pride of the fleet, “Sheffield” cruiser by satellite communication and radar systems are not compatible, can only start work in turn, the result was Argentina “Super flag “aircraft launched the” flying fish “missile sunk.

June 9, 1982, the fifth Middle East war, Israel intercepted prior use of the Syrian army radar and “Sam” spectral parameters of the missile launch, just 6 minutes will be stationed in the Bekaa Valley which cost $ 2 billion in 19 “Sam” air defense missile sites completely destroyed. In the next two days of combat, Israeli fighter planes and electronic jamming aircraft with combat, created a miracle in the history of air combat.

After April 21, 1996, the Russian war in Chechnya, the hunting group through special electronic warfare, electronic signal war zone to collect, monitor, cell phone signal reconnaissance to Dudayev, was analyzed to confirm, and lock the phone signal coordinate system, cruise warplanes fired missiles on Dudayev was “targeted killings.”

May 2011, the US Navy Seals and Special Air Service regiment battle the implementation of “Neptune Spear” initiative. SEALs use of “Land Warrior” soldier system, and joint operations center for situation analysis and sharing of intelligence, special operations group UAV crew via satellite communication system commando operations return the White House and the Pentagon. Throughout its action, the US military weapons systems use spectrum resources covering all channels, in just 40 minutes, successfully kill Osama bin Laden.

1914年,美国海军大西洋舰队首次在战争状态下试验无线电通信设备,结果附近友邻舰艇发射机产生的强烈火花干扰中断了所有无线电通信,参加者不得不作出时间分配计划,分配2小时给美国对国内进行无线电发射,其他4个国家各1小时。这样,设在华盛顿的总部要间隔4小时才能与它在战场上的武装力量联络一次。

1967年,美军“福莱斯特”航母在执行某次军事任务时,舰载F-4“鬼怪”式战机受该舰雷达波束照射干扰,飞机悬挂的空地火箭弹被意外点火发射,击中舰上1架A-4“天鹰”式攻击机的副油箱,导致一系列连锁爆炸,造成重大伤亡。

1980年4月,美派联合特遣部队和当地别动队共同执行营救驻伊大使馆人质任务。在其撤离途中,由于和别动队的通信设备互不兼容,用频协同失误,造成1架直升机与运输机相撞,8名突击队员被烧死,4人严重烧伤。

1982年5月4日,英阿马岛之战,号称英海战利器和舰队骄傲象征的“谢菲尔德”号巡洋舰因卫星通信和雷达系统互不兼容,只能轮流开机工作,结果被阿根廷“超级军旗”飞机发射的“飞鱼”式导弹击沉。

1982年6月9日,第五次中东战争,以色列利用事先截获的叙利亚军队雷达和“萨姆”导弹发射的频谱参数,仅用6分钟就将其驻守在贝卡谷地的耗资20亿美元的19个“萨姆”防空导弹阵地彻底摧毁。在其后两天的空战中,以色列战斗机配合预警机和电子干扰机作战,创造了空战史上的奇迹。

1996年4月21日,俄罗斯在车臣战争中,通过特种电子战猎杀小组,对战区内的电子信号进行收集、监听,侦察到杜达耶夫的手机信号,进行分析确认后,锁定手机信号坐标,利用巡航战机发射导弹,对杜达耶夫进行了“定点清除”。

2011年5月,美军海豹突击队和特战空勤团实施“海王星之矛”行动。海豹突击队采用“陆地勇士”单兵系统,与联合行动中心进行态势分析和情报共享,特战空勤团无人机通过卫星通信系统将突击队行动回传白宫和五角大楼。整个行动过程,美军使用的武器系统频谱资源涵盖全频道,仅用时40分钟,便成功击杀本·拉登。

http://www.81.cn/rd/2015-06/18/

Chinese Military Focus on Future Innovation-driven Development & Competition Seize Strategic High Ground

By An Weiping

Source: 2015年12月29   来源:解放军报

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The use of “Internet +” to create a new quality of thinking and fighting

Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi Reform Work Conference, to focus on the future military competition to seize the strategic high ground, give full play to the role of innovation-driven development, cultivate new growth point of fighting. At present, China is the depth of promoting the “Internet +” action plan, which is the development trend of the Internet era of profound insight and wisdom to cope. Its essence is to promote the Internet, cloud computing, big data, networking integration and innovation as the representative of information technology and traditional industries, create new productivity. And viewed from the military point of view, the “Internet +” concept of thinking is also important for military innovation, foster new growth point fighting. But the military use of “Internet +”, not simply on the Internet “+” on, but in the military field dedicated “cyberspace” a “+”, and the use of “Internet +” thinking and a new generation of information technology, the establishment of improve the database, by fast and efficient flow of accurate data to improve reconnaissance, command and control, battlefield mobility, firepower, integrated security and information protection, and combat capability, to achieve accurate and timely release of aggregation and the overall combat effectiveness, thus creating adaptation of information technology The new mass combat operations.

“Internet” + target characteristic data, real-time sensing reconnaissance intelligence. Real-time reconnaissance capability is perceived to reach the battlefield transparent, seize the basis and key information superiority.Internet biggest feature is the remote control into the remote “touch” to achieve a seamless link between the sensor and processor, unimpeded access to battlefield information, real-time sensing reconnaissance intelligence. But the actual combat operations, the target is characterized by continuous change, if the lack of accurate target feature “full-dimensional” data, it is difficult to analyze, contrast, identify mass, low-density value of battlefield data, dig out the real and effective information, to achieve timely and accurate perception reconnaissance intelligence. Therefore, we should fully learn the “Internet +” big data analysis model, relying on accurate battlefield information and intelligence center to build, multi-dimensional and dynamic characteristics of the target database to database for support, fast and accurate analysis judged the enemy goal. “Accurate”, refers to a database of all the characteristics of the target data must be true, valuable information and data, can accurately reflect the different characteristics of the target property. “Multi-dimensional” refers to the use of land, sea, air, space, power and other means to obtain the same objective, the different nature of intelligence data and get the target from different angles appearance characteristics, as well as electromagnetic, infrared, and other information; “Dynamic “it refers to adapt to changes in weaponry and other targets, timely reconnaissance target feature information, the first perfect time to update the database, ensure that you always maintain a high accuracy of the data. Relying on the target database should also be characterized by the establishment of operational data analysis model, through the “cloud” on the large amount of data collection operations analysis of intelligence information to accurately determine and predict the enhanced situational awareness and decision support capabilities.

“Internet” + information system integration, to achieve accurate and efficient command and control. Accurate and efficient command and control capability is based on the core information system operational capability.Cyberspace so that all branches of the military combat information systems to achieve remote, synchronous, interactive connection, the commander combat global real-time grasp and mastery of the battlefield situation, belongs to all levels of command elements, each combat unit dynamic and effective action to implement the regulation. Integration must take an integrated approach, different branches of the military, information from different professions, different levels of system integration and other construction. First, functional integration, an integrated command platform, based on the relevant member information systems transformation, embedded sharing member, according to a unified configuration and management strategies, ensemble having interoperability integrated command and control system to ensure that all military branches, interrelated levels of command, synchronous interaction, information exchange command job sharing. Second, the system hinges primarily by branches of engineering and technical specifications according to a unified organization and implementation, through changing, modified (making) the existing command and control system, improve the various branches of the military command and control systems, enhancements and weapons platforms “hinge” capability . Third, data fusion, through a unified data format or data format conversion, data integration between branches Information System.

“Internet” + geographical information, fast place battlefield maneuvers.The essence of battlefield mobility, capacity utilization is decisive and overwhelming operational tempo seize the target location advantage. This requires full-dimensional perception by battlefield battlefield information system geographical information such day or night, we are well aware of how to maneuver the entire road, what factors affect mobility, in order to select the best motor route, timing and fast way to place . The rapid development of Internet intelligent navigation system, real-time provides a convenient quick and precise maneuvering. Therefore, to refer to the “Internet +” geographic information system, the establishment of geographic information as soon as military combat support systems, building geographic information database, and continuously enrich and perfect meteorological, hydrological and other data and road information and data information via satellite data links, etc. Real-time application queries and automatically senses the change, so that regional operational commanders real-time control, the rapid set-motorized determination, commanding troops quickly arrived combat area, to seize the fleeting fighters fighting to win the initiative.

“Internet” + Detective play commentary system, the rapid reaction accurate firepower. The condition of information warfare biggest feature is the “information-led firepower battle,” Internet interconnection links are distributed to the effective integration of various weapons platforms, network-based firepower systems possible. But rapid reaction precision firepower and damage the effectiveness of the play, is an investigation, control, play, commentary closed circuit, the need to establish a body blow interconnected system, like “Internet” + taxi, a “Didi taxi” system software, can be the first to discover and pinpoint the user application, and then through the analysis of user needs, while according to the position information of the vehicle to determine who carried out the service, and the fastest way to push information to the user service vehicles, service vehicles last feedback, to complete the service process. Similarly, the rapid response fire precision strike, the urgent need to establish a “play Detective Comment on” one of the firepower system, surveillance systems, decision systems, control systems, sensor fusion interconnected, so that the data flow and operational processes and seamlessly links mutual drive, always monitor the target information and firepower cell information, a substantial increase in the ability to extract data from the mass targeted; the same time through real-time information exchange, sensor control, task allocation plan and fire damage assessment, greatly reducing identify the target, targeted, target and damage assessment time, effectively improve the dynamic ability to strike targets, found that the anti-forming ability of the best mode.

“Internet” + Things security system, to achieve timely and accurate comprehensive security. Accurate and timely comprehensive support, is adaptive, intelligent means to reach at the desired time and place to provide timely and accurate combat all kinds of resources needed. The adaptive, intelligent, must establish an integrated management and control, integrated transportation security system of things together, things like relying on the development of Internet technology, the Internet and radio frequency identification, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanning technology, achieve mutual connection between anything, and through the exchange of information and communication, positioning, tracking, monitoring and precise management. Therefore, we should actively learn things the idea, and establishing information under combat conditions was associated support systems, integrated use of two-dimensional bar code, electronic tags, automatic identification technology, real-time monitoring and access to supply battle group team strength, guarantee supplies storage and consumption of dynamic information, accurately grasp logistical needs and resources, timely and accurate to the command structure at all levels, to provide comprehensive support group team information security needs. By precise control of the security resources to achieve transparent visualization controllable security process and improve efficiency battlefield support, logistical support adaptive capacity.

“Internet” + preset encrypted information, information protection security control. Effective delivery system based on the combat capability of information systems, data security depends combat controllable. As a result of the “Internet +” and bring the system vulnerability and threats and attacks from internal, external, so that security issues in information systems is very prominent. Therefore for the ever-changing battlefield, the effective implementation of dynamic data encryption. For example, by installing a micro-channel information encryption software that can encrypt messages on demand, voice, video and other information; another example, the terminal end smartphone encryption, anti-eavesdropping technology and SMS encryption and other network information security technology has gradually applied.Therefore, we should make full use of information technology, Internet security, cyberspace whole process of the implementation of dynamic encryption to ensure the confidentiality of information transmission, to ensure the integrity and non-repudiation of the information, communication channel resistance may be active or passive attacks. On the one hand “hard encryption”, and vigorously develop the user terminal installation of secrecy or confidentiality card machine; on the other hand is “soft encryption”, the development of intelligent terminal encryption software, use dynamic encryption algorithm, encrypted instant messages.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习主席在中央军委改革工作会议上提出,要着眼于抢占未来军事竞争战略制高点,充分发挥创新驱动发展作用,培育战斗力新的增长点。当前,我国正在深度推进“互联网+”行动计划,这是对互联网时代发展潮流的深刻洞察和智慧因应。其实质就是促进以互联网、云计算、大数据、物联网为代表的信息技术与传统产业的融合创新,打造新的生产力。而从军事角度观察,“互联网+”思维理念对于军事创新,培育新的战斗力增长点同样重要。但军事领域运用“互联网+”,不是简单地在互联网上“+”,而是在军事领域专用的“网络空间”上进行“+”,并运用“互联网+”思维和新一代信息技术,建立完善的数据库,通过精准数据的快速高效流动,提高侦察情报、指挥控制、战场机动、火力打击、综合保障和信息防护等作战能力,达成整体作战效能的聚集和准确及时释放,进而打造适应信息化作战的新质战斗力。

“互联网”+目标特征数据,实现侦察情报的实时感知。实时感知的侦察能力是达成战场透明,夺取信息优势的基础和关键。互联网最大的特点就是将远程控制变为远程“触觉”,实现传感器与处理器间无缝链接,畅通战场信息获取渠道,实现侦察情报的实时感知。但实际作战行动中,目标特征是连续不断变化的,如果缺少目标特征准确的“全维”数据,就难以在海量的、价值密度低的战场数据中进行分析、对比、识别,挖掘出真实有效的信息,实现侦察情报的及时准确感知。为此,应充分借鉴“互联网+”大数据分析模式,依托战场信息情报中心构建准确、多维、动态的目标特征数据库,以数据库作支撑,快速准确分析研判敌情目标。“准确”,是指数据库中的所有目标特征数据必须是真实、有价值的信息数据,能够准确反映目标的不同属性特征。“多维”,是指运用陆、海、空、天、电等多种手段获取同类目标、不同性质的情报数据信息,并从不同角度获得目标的外观特征,以及电磁、红外等信息;“动态”,是指适应武器装备等目标的发展变化,及时侦搜目标特征信息,第一时间更新完善数据库,确保始终保持较高的数据精确度。同时应依托目标特征数据库建立作战数据分析模型,通过“云技术”对大量数据集合进行作战分析,对情报信息进行准确判断和预测,增强战场感知和辅助决策能力。

“互联网”+信息系统融合,实现指挥控制的精准高效。精准高效的指挥控制能力是基于信息系统作战能力的核心。网络空间使各个军兵种作战信息系统实现异地、同步、交互连接,指挥员可实时把握作战全局和掌握战场情况,对所属各级指挥要素、各个作战单元行动实施动态有效调控。必须采取综合集成的方式,进行不同军兵种、不同专业、不同层次等系统的信息融合建设。一是功能整合,以一体化指挥平台为基础,对相关信息系统进行构件化改造,嵌入共用功能构件,按照统一的配置和管理策略,组合集成为具有互操作能力的一体化指控系统,确保各军兵种、各级指挥相互衔接、同步互动,指挥作业信息互通共享。二是系统铰链,主要由各军兵种按照统一的工程技术规范组织实施,通过换装、改装(造)现有指挥控制系统,完善各军兵种指挥控制系统,增强与武器平台的“铰链”能力。三是数据融合,通过统一的数据格式或数据格式转换,实现军兵种间信息系统的数据融合。

“互联网”+地理环境信息,实现战场机动的快速到位。战场机动的实质,是利用决定性和压倒性作战节奏夺占目标位置优势的能力。这就需要通过全维战场信息系统感知战场地理环境信息,使得无论白天还是黑夜,都清楚知道机动全程路况怎么样、影响机动的因素有哪些,从而选择最佳的机动路线、时机、方式快速到位。互联网智能导航系统的迅速发展,为实时快速精确机动提供了便利。因此,要借鉴“互联网+”地理信息系统方式,尽快建立军事地理信息作战保障系统,构建地理信息基础数据库,不断充实完善气象、水文以及道路等数据信息,并通过卫星、数据链等实现数据信息的实时申请查询和变化自动感知,使指挥员实时掌握作战地域情况、快速定下机动决心,指挥部队快速抵达作战地域,抓住稍纵即逝的战机,赢得作战主动权。

“互联网”+侦控打评系统,实现火力打击的快反精确。信息化条件作战最大的特征就是“信息主导、火力主战”,互联网的互联互通为有效融合链接分散配置的各个武器平台,实现火力打击系统的网络化提供了可能。但火力打击的快反精确以及毁伤效能的发挥,是一个侦、控、打、评的闭合回路,需要建立互联一体的打击系统,就像“互联网”+出租车,出现“滴滴打车”系统软件一样,能够第一时间发现和准确锁定用户申请,然后通过分析用户需求,同时根据车辆的位置信息,确定由谁进行服务,并以最快的方式将用户信息推送至服务车辆,最后服务车辆进行反馈,完成整个服务过程。同样,实现火力精确打击的快速反应,亟须建立“侦控打评”一体的火力打击系统,将侦察系统、决策系统、控制系统、传感器进行互联融合,使数据流程与作战流程无缝链接并相互驱动,随时监控目标信息和火力单元信息,大幅提高从海量数据中提取锁定目标的能力;同时通过实时的信息交互、传感器控制、任务计划分配以及火力毁伤评估,大大缩短识别目标、锁定目标、攻击目标和毁伤评估时间,有效提高对动态目标的打击能力,形成发现即打击的最佳能力模式。

“互联网”+物联保障系统,实现综合保障的及时准确。准确及时的综合保障,就是以自适应、智能化的手段,达成在需要的时间、地点及时准确提供作战所需的各类资源。而实现自适应、智能化,必须建立综合管控、综合调运的物联保障系统,就像依托互联网技术发展的物联网,通过互联网以及射频识别、红外感应器、全球定位系统、激光扫描等技术,实现了任何物品间的相互连接,并通过信息交换和通信、定位、跟踪,实现精确的监控和管理。为此,应积极借鉴物联网的理念,建立适应信息化条件下作战的物联保障系统,综合运用二维条码、电子标签、自动识别等技术,实时监测和获取作战群队供应实力、保障物资的存储量及消耗等动态信息,准确掌握后勤保障需求和资源,及时准确向各级指挥机构、综合保障群队提供保障需求信息。通过对保障资源的精确控制,实现保障过程的透明可视可控,提高战场保障效益,实现自适应的后勤保障能力。

“互联网”+信息预置加密,实现信息防护的安全可控。基于信息系统的体系作战能力的有效释放,有赖于作战数据信息的安全可控。由于采用“互联网+”而带来的系统脆弱性和来自内、外部的各种威胁和攻击,使得安全问题在信息系统中十分突出。因此要针对瞬息万变的战场,对数据实施动态有效的信息加密。比如,微信通过安装一种信息加密软件,可以实现对短信、语音、视频等信息的按需加密;再比如,智能手机终端的端到端加密、防窃听技术和短信加密等网络信息安全技术已逐渐得到应用。为此,应充分借助互联网安全信息技术,对网络空间实施全过程的动态加密,保证信息传输的保密性,确保信息的完整性和不可抵赖性,抵抗对通信通道可能的主动或被动攻击。一方面要“硬加密”,大力开发用户终端加装保密卡或保密机;另一方面是“软加密”,开发智能终端加密软件,使用动态加密算法,实现信息的即时加密。

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2015/1229/

China PLA General An Weiping: Developing Asymetric & Cyber Forces A Requirement for Winning

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By Major General An Weiping, Deputy Chinese Army Commander of the PLA 16th Group Army

China’s new-type combat forces have developed rapidly in the past five years with great achievements, but we still lag far behind world military powers in that regard.

Going forward, the construction of new-type combat forces is of critical importance. China should focus on fostering advanced forces and means that are essential for us to seize the high ground in military competition and win information-based battles, and improve our combat capacity through leapfrog development.

New-type combat forces are the important source that leads military reform

Considering the development of the form of warfare, we should have a clear idea of the position and role of new-type combat forces.

First, it is a sharp weapon to win future warfare. The world history of military development shows us that new-type combat forces always decide the outcome of wars with “intergenerational” advantages.

Today, the U.S. and Russia still insist on the path of high-end technological advantages and emphasize the possession of strategic advantages over rivals. This tells us that whoever takes a preemptive step in fostering new-type combat forces will establish winning advantages in the war.

Second, it is the supportive force that pushes tactical innovation. New-type combat forces are a relative term that carries the characteristics of the time. It not only refers to the latest military practices in each period, but also directly drives tactical innovation.

From the famous theories on air/sea supremacy in military history to theories on blitzkrieg and firefight and to today’s air-sea integrated operations, precise and fast operations, cyberspace warfare and long-distance coordinated operations, they have all experienced the same process from emergence to development. The appearance of every tactical theory is backed by corresponding new-type combat forces.

Third, it is an important source that leads the military reform. With special combat mechanism, unique fighting efficiency and brand new fighting approaches, new-type combat forces are the vanguards that push the military reform.

We shall establish advantages featuring “we have what the enemy has not, we excel in what the enemy has”.

The several recent local warfare has proven that “all-domain, long-distance, integrated and precise” have become the typical features of combats in information-based conditions. To adapt to the needs of future warfare, we shall accelerate the construction of a range of new-type combat forces and establish advantages featuring “we have what the enemy has not, we excel in what the enemy has”.

We shall reinforce the aerospace early warning forces. Seizing the room for aerospace combat is not only an effective means to ensure a transparent status on the battlefield, but also an important way of forming relative advantages.

Based on our military aerospace weapon and reconnaissance satellites operating in the space, we shall form the aerospace support forces. Meanwhile, we shall also develop space weapon and foster space strike capability to secure the space supremacy.

We shall strengthen the strategic delivery force. Given its long strategic depth, China urgently needs a long-distance delivery force commensurate with its position as a strong power to effectively deal with international situations and safeguard the nation’s strategic security.

We shall insist on the development direction of military-civilian integration, rely on a number of military and civilian departments to build strategic delivery platforms and transportation mechanisms integrating railway, road, water transport, aviation and spaceflight, so as to guarantee military-civilian coordination, fast combat readiness and deployments in case of any situation.

We shall expand the unmanned combat force. Boasting such advantages as strong adaptability, fast response, long working hours and high functional integration, unmanned combat force is an important means to reduce casualties in future manned combats.

At present, China’s military unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been developed and used at a fast rate, but the development of emerging unmanned forces such as unmanned vehicle, vessel and underwater vehicle is backward.

Therefore, we shall step up comprehensive construction and form a professional unmanned troop that can both fight independently and cooperate with manned troops, integrating reconnaissance, strike and evaluation.

Cyberspace combat is the strategic means to obtain asymmetrical advantages.

The cyberspace is an important battlefield to obtain the information supremacy and a strategic means to obtain asymmetrical advantages. As the U.S. has applied a string of cyber virus weapons such as Stuxnet, Flame and Suter, main countries around the world are all building their “cyber forces”.

Building a “cyber force” as soon as possible is a requirement raised by the time to safeguard national cyber security and sovereignty and win information-based war.

We shall foster a standard and professional new-type “cyber force” integrating cyber attack and defense as well as information security to obtain the cyber supremacy.

Moreover, cyber terrorism is a new form of terrorism arising from the information network, and fighting cyber terrorism has become a prominent topic in national security, international policies and relation.

Therefore, it is imperative to carry out international cooperation and form an “international peacekeeping” force to fight against cyber terrorism.

http://english.chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/2016-01/

China’s PLA Secret Military Information Troop Strategy //中國軍隊揭秘我军首支战略支援部队

《 人民日报 》( 2016年01月24日 )

中国解放军事科学院_lit

China’s People’s Liberation Army in 2016, a new combat force joins the PLA combat organization, it will become an important growth point of China’s  military combat capability and key strength leading to decisive nature of future wars…Secret military first team strategy support troops

December 31, 2015, and the Army leadership organization, listed with rocket forces, strategic support troops officially unveiled the PLA’s “family”!

“Strategic Support Unit is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces, is an important qualitative growth of our military combat capability.” Chairman Xi Jinping stressed that the establishment of strategic support troops, military help to optimize the structure, improve the comprehensive support capabilities.Strategic support troops to adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, and strive to achieve leapfrog development in key areas, starting point to promote high standards of combat forces to accelerate the development of new, integrated development, strive to build a strong, modern strategic support units.

This is exactly what the troops support? Where highlights? Inception, the soldiers doing? Recently, this reporter approached the strategic support units, truly feel this nascent boom strong army troops.

“Without a high degree of integration, there will be no joint operations”

What is the strategic support? Case before us:

May 2011, the US military killed Osama bin Laden’s operations for the armed forces around the world a vivid lesson. On the surface, is the two “Black Hawk” helicopters and 24 “seal” commando on a mission, but behind it has a huge support system: Several pieces of reconnaissance and communications satellites, one responsible for real-time transmission and radio listening stealth unmanned reconnaissance missions, more aerial cover for the war to be F / A-18 fighter, an aircraft carrier battle groups responsible for strategic support, two of the five Central Asian bases and command centers, as well as various support guarantee ten thousand personnel……

This small-scale operations, major systems supporting combat style, demonstrating the winning mechanism of modern warfare. Information leading, system support, elite combat, joint victory, has become the basic characteristics of modern warfare.

“Strategic Support Unit is to support the battlefield, to ensure smooth operations, it is an important force in joint operations.” Military experts briefed reporters, figuratively speaking, strategic support troops for the army to provide accurate and reliable information to support efficient and strategies support guarantee, propped army system “information umbrella” that will blend action and armed with rocket forces, and throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

“Without a high degree of integration, there will be no joint operations.” Strategic support units formed at the beginning, tightly pegged to the bottleneck restricting military joint operations in order to organize the work of planning military research started around how to understand the task, how construction and development, and how a good beginning in a higher starting point, different organizations Category troops, military leaders and experts in related fields, extensive research and discussion exchange, on major issues troop positioning functions, organization and structure, leadership and command system and other ongoing research and feasibility studies.Recently, the main leaders also dispatched military forces to the relevant units, mass fighting around the new generation to carry out special investigations.

Civil-military integration is the information war “nature.” According to statistics, the First World War, the number of industries involved in the development of weapons and equipment technology categories to ten dollars; World War II, extended to hundreds; to the Gulf War, it is in the thousands. In recent years, the proportion of military special technology United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other developed countries, more and more low, while military and civilian technology for more than 80%, the construction of military information technology for more than 80% are from the civil information systems.

Around the realization of civil-military integration, strategic support units proposed aspects from planning, mechanisms, resources, projects, and talent continue to promote the use of the depth of integration. New Year’s a start, force planning construction of a number of strategies, many military enterprises, scientific research institutions, experts figure has emerged, based on a unit, for the country, strong army service, “says think-tank” on the horizon.

“Accelerate the cultivation of new mass combat capability, create new combat forces.”

In the 21st century, the new military revolution shock avalanche. Especially with the continuous breakthroughs in information, intelligence, invisible, nanotechnology and other emerging technologies strategy, the new combat forces into a military capability leapfrog development “growth pole”, a new military power to compete, “darling.”

Public information, the United States set up space combat troops, built a Cyber ​​Command under the jurisdiction of 100,000 troops, to create the world’s largest network warfare forces. Russia’s integration with the Air Force Space combat forces to establish air and space forces, formed a network warfare command structure and the forces. British promoter cutting-edge network warfare units “77th Brigade”, specializing in “unconventional information warfare” by Facebook website platform. Japan through the “Basic Universe” speed up the process of militarization of space, and actively organize a “cyberspace defense team.”

Faced with surging wave of this new revolution in military affairs, who insight into the initiative, who will win in the future. Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi and decisive decision-making, the formation of strategic support units, to create a new type of war to safeguard national security forces, and the quality of our military combat capability as an important growth point.

Around accelerate the cultivation of new mass combat troops established a technology weaponization of power systems, the ability to combat the direction of development, to enter the combat readiness as an index, advancing step by step actual combat capacity building.

Military construction focus to the war, the work to fight hard. Reporters in an interview that the strategic support units, at all levels of urgency in order to focus on reform, promote transformation, many feel accustomed to the keyboard and mouse of science and technology experts put training uniform, embarked on a parade ground. He has been shelved, parked in the research paper, was taken to the test site and the development of weapons and equipment training ground troop maneuvers, become a new quality to enhance the operational capability of the “multiplier.”

It is understood that a unit of strategic support troops adhere to seek a breakthrough in the prospective, pilot, exploration, disruptive technology, research and development of a new type of combat equipment has passed the preliminary assessment, damage the effectiveness of the equipment reached the international advanced level.

“Only innovation, to seize the strategic high ground military competition”

This year New Year period, strategic support military leaders by telephone, video and checking to your combat troops on duty. From the deep ocean to mountain forests, from the Gobi desert to the border of the motherland, the troops together full member, combat readiness, to meet the troops in combat roles established.

As a safeguard national security, new combat forces, strategic support troops to innovation as a source of power to seize the strategic high ground of military competition, cohesion innovative new combat forces in combat theory, organizational form and mode of development.

On the organizational form of innovation, focusing on a new command structure, strengthen research and exploration of new combat forces woven patterns and leadership and command relationships. Focus to achieve leapfrog development, troops raised to operational requirements for traction, with technological breakthroughs driven, problem-oriented Forced to compete for the development of model approaches beyond, out to chase style, imitative development of passive situation.

“The best way to maintain peace, in accordance with their own terms to redefine the war.” Focus on accelerating the transformation of troops functions, and actively adapt to the mission mandate expansion, strategic support troops keep up with world trends of new military revolution, advance planning the layout of the new combat forces, to establish their own led “war rules” to achieve asymmetric competitive advantage.

Reporters in an interview that the strategic support units, to the troops from the authorities, from the laboratory to the training ground, a “brainstorming” is being rolled rushes –

A unit organized the workshop, big data, cloud computing, 3D printing, a new term nanotechnology often blurted out in the discussion. Graduated from a prestigious university, Dr. Young told reporters a firm voice, “the military planning and preparation is always tomorrow’s war, and even the day after the war.”

In this interview, the reporter for the officers and soldiers often high-spirited spirit, sharp shock of forward thinking on the future of this nascent force confidence.

Orriginal Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,与陆军领导机构、火箭军一同挂牌,战略支援部队正式亮相中国人民解放军的“大家庭”!

“战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。”习近平主席强调,成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。战略支援部队要坚持体系融合、军民融合,努力在关键领域实现跨越发展,高标准高起点推进新型作战力量加速发展、一体发展,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

这究竟是支什么样的部队?亮点在哪里?成立之初,官兵们在做些什么?近日,本报记者走近战略支援部队,真切感受这支新生部队的强军热潮。

“没有高度融合,就没有联合作战”

什么是战略支援?案例摆在眼前:

2011年5月,美军击毙本·拉登的作战行动,为世界各国军队上了生动一课。表面看来,是两架“黑鹰”直升机和24名“海豹”突击队员在执行任务,但其背后却有着一个庞大系统在支撑:若干颗侦察和通信卫星、一架担负实时传输和无线监听任务的隐形无人侦察机、多架空中待战掩护的F/A—18战斗机、一支担负战略支援的航母编队、两个中亚基地和五个指挥中心,以及近万名各类支援保障人员……

这种小规模行动、大体系支撑的作战样式,充分展示了现代作战的制胜机理。信息主导、体系支撑、精兵作战、联合制胜,已成为现代战争的基本特点。

“战略支援部队就是支援战场作战,保证作战的顺利进行,它是联合作战的重要力量。”有军事专家向记者介绍,形象地说,战略支援部队为全军提供准确高效可靠的信息支撑和战略支援保障,撑起全军体系的“信息伞”,它将与陆海空和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

“没有高度融合,就没有联合作战”。战略支援部队组建之初,就紧紧盯住制约我军联合作战的瓶颈,以组织开展军事工作筹划研究起步,围绕如何理解任务、如何建设发展、如何在更高起点上开好局,组织不同类别部队、军地相关领域的领导和专家,广泛开展调查研究和座谈交流,对部队职能定位、编成结构、领导指挥体制等重大问题进行持续研究论证。近日,部队主要领导还分赴军地相关单位,围绕新质战斗力生成开展专题调研。

军民融合是信息化战争的“天性”。据统计,一战时期,武器装备研制涉及的工业行业技术门类数以十计;二战时期,扩展到数以百计;到海湾战争时期,则是数以千计。近些年来,美、英、法、德、日等发达国家军事专用技术比重越来越低,而军民通用技术已超过80%,军队信息化建设80%以上的技术均来自民用信息系统。

围绕实现军民融合,战略支援部队提出,要从规划、机制、资源、项目、运用和人才等方面持续推动深度融合。新年一开局,部队谋划建设的多项战略工程中,已出现不少军工企业、科研院校专家的身影,一座立足部队、面向全国、服务强军的“云智库”初露端倪。

“加速培育新质作战能力,打造新型作战力量”

进入21世纪,新军事革命的冲击波汹涌而来。特别是随着信息、智能、隐形、纳米等战略新兴技术的持续突破,新型作战力量成为军事能力跨越式发展的“增长极”,成为军事强国竞争的新“宠儿”。

公开资料显示,美国组建太空作战部队,建成了下辖10万部队的网络司令部,打造了世界上规模最大的网络战力量。俄罗斯整合空军与航天作战力量建立空天军,组建了网络战指挥机构和部队。英国启动新锐网络战部队“第77旅”,通过脸书网站平台专攻“非常规信息战”。日本则通过《宇宙基本法》加快太空军事化进程,积极组建“网络空间防卫队”。

面对这场新军事革命的汹涌浪潮,谁洞察先机,谁就能赢得未来。习主席和中央军委果断决策,组建战略支援部队,打造维护国家安全的新型作战力量,并将其作为我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。

围绕加速培育新质作战能力,部队确立了技术武器化、力量体系化、能力实战化的发展方向,以进入战备为指标,分阶段推进实战化能力建设。

部队建设向打仗聚焦,各项工作向打仗用力。记者在战略支援部队采访时看到,各级都在以时不我待的紧迫感抓改革、促转型,许多摸惯了键盘鼠标的科技专家穿上了作训服、走上了练兵场。曾经束之高阁、停在纸上的科研成果,被带到了武器装备研制试验现场和部队演习训练场,成为提升新质作战能力的“倍增器”。

据了解,战略支援部队某部坚持在前瞻性、先导性、探索性、颠覆性技术手段上求突破,研发的某新型作战装备已通过初步评估,毁伤效能达到国际同类装备先进水平。

“只有锐意创新,才能抢占军事竞争战略制高点”

今年元旦期间,战略支援部队领导通过电话、视频抽查所属部队作战值班情况。从深山密林到深海远洋,从大漠戈壁到祖国边陲,部队官兵齐装满员、枕戈待旦,在战斗岗位上迎接部队组建。

作为一支维护国家安全的新型作战力量,战略支援部队把创新视为抢占军事竞争战略制高点的动力之源,聚力创新新型作战力量的作战理论、组织形态和发展模式。

在组织形态创新上,着眼新的领导指挥体制,加强对新型作战力量编成模式和领导指挥关系的研究探索。着眼实现跨越发展,部队提出了以作战需求为牵引、以技术突破为驱动、以问题倒逼为导向、以竞争超越为途径的发展模式,摆脱尾追式、模仿式发展的被动局面。

“维护和平的最好方法,就是根据自己的条件来重新定义战争”。围绕加快部队职能转型、积极适应使命任务拓展,战略支援部队紧跟世界新军事革命发展趋势,超前谋划新型作战力量布局,确立自己主导的“战争规则”,实现非对称竞争优势。

记者在战略支援部队采访时看到,从机关到部队,从实验室到演兵场,一场“头脑风暴”正在翻卷奔涌——

某部组织的研讨会上,大数据、云计算、3D打印、纳米技术等新名词不时在讨论中脱口而出。一位毕业自名牌大学的青年博士语气坚定地告诉记者,“军人谋划和准备的,永远是明天的战争,甚至后天的战争。”

在这里采访,记者每每为官兵昂扬的精神面貌、敏锐的前瞻思考所震撼,对这支新生部队的未来充满信心。

 

Source: 《 人民日报 》( 2016年01月24日 )

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

20160104131249755

Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)

中国解放军事科学院_lit

People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces

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Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Source:

http://chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/photo-reports/2016-01/01/content_6840094.htm

Major PLA Structural Announcements on a weekend?

Is anyone else out there wondering why China would make significant military announcements when the USGOV isn’t paying attention?

3259521140

China upgrades missile force, adds space and cyber war forces

China on Friday unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars.

Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing.

This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

Rocket force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert.

The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said.

The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy.

Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security.

“We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Cyber and space forces

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces.

But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security.

Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

Army command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department.

The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song.

At Thursday’s conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics.

It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting.

According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development.

The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

Xinhua contributed to this story


The General Command of Army Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.


The PLA Rocket Force Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.
 

The PLA Strategic Support ForceBadge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.