Russian cyberwarfare the “people’s war” in cyberspace an important battleground
Information war era, control of information warfare is the first to compete. Network warfare from soft kill to the physical destruction of its implementation hidden, accurate, rapid, controllable, and low cost but high return, both offensive and defensive, with the political war, diplomatic warfare, economic warfare, media warfare, psychological warfare, and other non-legal battle be combined with military means, it is possible to obtain the effect of traditional military means difficult to obtain.
Russia attaches great importance to network warfare troops, the Russian military will “Network Attack” treated as equivalent to fire assault combat style. In 2007 the Red Army statue in Estonia event, the 2008 Russia – Georgia war in 2014, the crisis in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, and in 2015 the Turkish warplanes shot down Russian event, cyberspace is an important battleground.
Today, cyberspace is the most important way to disseminate information, interconnection of the global information network and expand the connotation of the national security interests of the extension. Russia attaches great importance to information security and network security closely related, that the social stability, civil rights, freedom and democracy, order and the rule of law, the wealth of nations, territorial integrity, depends largely on information and network security.
Putin pointed out many times, information resources and political and economic infrastructure plays a decisive role for the country’s future, vital interests and security, we must be prepared to deal with the threat of information, enhance the related infrastructure facilities, especially the strategic defense capabilities information warfare and cyber warfare have been used in various countries to achieve military and political objectives, its power is even greater than conventional weapons.
Russia’s new “National Security Strategy” to enhance the status of network warfare
Russia’s new “National Security Strategy” that the global fight against big nowadays between countries, to take a more “indirect” route, the West provoked Russia’s domestic political turmoil, rise to social conflicts, to impose economic and financial sanctions, support for separatism, nationalism, religious extremism and the local armed forces, the network is one of the main tools.
Russian more use of “information warfare” that term. Information warfare includes intelligence and counter-intelligence, information deception, electronic warfare, communications interference, and navigation warfare, psychological warfare, computer sabotage warfare. Under conditions of modern warfare, information warfare is to ensure the effectiveness of nuclear deterrence, accounting basis against conventional superiority, and network warfare capability is the core of information warfare.
By using a network of weapons of mass repression, civil disturbance or military command, communications system, has become an important part of modern local wars and armed conflicts. Information warfare is not only used by the military for countries, extremist and terrorist organizations are also widely used.
As we all know, Russia’s implementation of the “strategy of containment” strategy and “nuclear deterrence” to “containment strategy” of the highest priority, which is a realistic choice based on its own strength and the international balance of power, but Russia also believes that the prevention of external armed conflict, nuclear deterrence is not always effective in preventing internal conflicts, nuclear deterrence is completely ineffective.
In recent years, many cases of local wars and armed conflicts exhibit remarkable feature is their integrated use of military and non-military means, against the extensive use of information and network attack and defense, in order to achieve military and political objectives. Russia’s new “military doctrine” Emphasizing and enhancing the “non-nuclear containment” status and role in the “containment strategy” in, and information warfare and network warfare capability is an important part of non-nuclear containment capability.
In North Africa and the Middle East countries “color revolutions”, the social networks are the primary means of insurgent groups and proliferation.”Color Revolution” in these countries caused internal conflicts, upgrade to bloodshed and armed conflict, bring down the government, to the detriment of national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Russia’s new “military doctrine” that, in the foreseeable future, Russia is also facing the same danger.
Russia’s new “military doctrine” that, in order to ensure national security and military, against the West in the field of information and ideological offensive penetration, Russia will closely follow the development of information and network technology, to take concrete measures to continuously improve and upgrade the national and military information infrastructure, defense and protection.
Cyberwar is “hybrid war” major combat style
Russia’s actions in Crimea crisis in eastern Ukraine dispute, the distinction between military and non-military actions indistinguishable from conventional and unconventional means integrated use, combines formal and informal style of warfare, and there are large conventional war the difference between this style of warfare by NATO military experts called “hybrid war.”
Mixing the war, through the adoption of small-scale military actions have a decisive effect, with the use of non-military means of diplomacy, energy, economy, network, etc., is applied to the other decision-makers as well as people with physical, practical information can affect the feelings of the other party’s leadership shake the confrontation will thus reach a political purpose of war.
In a mixed war, cyber attacks can give each other military and civilian targets causing destruction of hard and soft, reducing resistance in one’s own military operations. Disseminate targeted information on the network, international and domestic public opinion, create favorable conditions for political, military, diplomatic and economic struggle.
Russia in Syria against ISIS military operations, always firmly occupy the moral high ground, using the Internet to play the battle of public opinion, uphold justice of military operations, effective impact of the international community, national and public opinion to the relevant country to obtain an international community support, reducing the opposition, with the network consensus warfare effective military operations.
Russia fears NATO NATO war will be mixed for the surrounding, especially in the frontier with Russia against the Baltic States. Latvian Defense Minister Weiyuenisi believe that the first phase of hybrid warfare is information warfare, information and network attacks. In 2007, the Estonian government agencies and banks suffered large-scale cyber attacks, Russia was accused launched the attacks. In recent years, large-scale NATO exercises held in the Baltic region, will be “defensive cyber attacks” as a drill subjects, Estonia NATO also established a network warfare command center.
Russia and the United States, between NATO, the possibility of the outbreak of conventional war and nuclear war in the foreseeable future is extremely small, the two sides are also no such intention. But the Russian mixed war can solve political consultations between the military and control them better grasp of the US and NATO “without splitting” the propriety, while it also makes NATO’s collective defense mechanism is not the focal point.
In recent years, Russia has accumulated rich experience in cyber warfare
Like other fighting styles, including network warfare offensive and defensive aspects. Russia is facing a severe situation of network security, in fact, almost all of the information networks in developed countries the situation is the same, and, along with social development and technological progress, the network security situation also deteriorated sharply.
According to the Russian Federal Security Bureau statistics, since 2005, the Russian State authorities has been the site every year nearly 100 million times attacks, the President, the State Duma, strong institutions, banks and other sites is the focus of attack.
In the early 1990s, Russia on the establishment of a committee responsible for information security of network information security. In 1995, the information security management be included in the scope of national security of Russia, Russia has also promulgated the “Russian Federation information, information technology and information networks Protection Act.” In 2002, the Information Security Committee passed the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation”, put forward the guiding principles for information security.
In 2011, the International Convention on the Russian initiative to develop behavioral norms in cyberspace – “ensuring international information security”, which defined the network security threats and the precautionary principle, proposed a ban on the use of networking and communications technology interfere in internal affairs. The initiative with the US network strategy there is a big difference, so by the US boycott.
The following year, the Russian Armed Forces Chief of Staff Makarov said that in the development of the concept of cyber war, which Russia must be evaluated in order to respond to threats and challenges of Western military powers in the field of network to bring, preparing for cyber warfare. Russian military will focus on the development of network offensive and defensive capabilities, network-building combat power, with the ability to network deterrence, war methods and other research networks.
In 2013, Russian security forces set up the network, one year after the establishment of Network Warfare Command. In more than local wars and armed conflicts, the Russian military has accumulated a wealth of practical experience in the network, with a strong network reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, network penetration and reverse osmosis, network attacks and sabotage mental capacity, with advanced logic bomb network warfare weapons.
Network warfare is combat system, requires the participation and collaboration of relevant sectors of society, Network Warfare Command and the network more combat troops is a leadership, guidance, mobilize and organize the action. Russia has a large number of hackers, software elite and many famous high-tech companies, if necessary, can quickly mobilize a network army, playing the “people’s war” in a space on the network, more than its power in local wars and armed conflicts It has been fully demonstrated.
Compared to land, sea, air, space, power and other battlespace, benefiting from the growing popularity of the global information network, tactics and enter the “threshold” cyberwar almost the lowest and technically distinct “latecomer” characterized in the short term there may be a breakthrough in one area, the formation of “asymmetric” advantage.
Russian conform to the form of war and military technology trends, strengthen capacity building in information warfare as the core network warfare, when participating in the surrounding local wars and armed conflicts, the combat cyber warfare as a supplement to traditional style, is an alternative to strengthen even battlefield While reducing the smoke, but the combat efficiency has increased, and more conducive to shorten the course of the war and to promote a political settlement of the conflict.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
早在20世紀90年代初，俄就設立了專門負責網絡信息安全的信息安全委員會。 1995年，信息安全被納入俄國家安全管理範疇，俄羅斯還頒布了《俄聯邦信息、信息化和信息網絡保護法》。 2002年，信息安全委員會通過了《俄聯邦信息安全學說》，提出了保障信息安全的指導原則。