Category Archives: Russian Cyber Warfare

Russian cyberwarfare the “people’s war” in cyberspace an important battleground // 中國軍方認為俄軍網絡戰擅長打”人民戰爭” 網絡空間成重要戰場

中國軍方認為俄軍網絡戰擅長打”人民戰爭” 網絡空間成重要戰場

Russian cyberwarfare the “people’s war” in cyberspace an important battleground 

俄羅斯網絡戰爭

2016年03月11日

Information war era, control of information warfare is the first to compete. Network warfare from soft kill to the physical destruction of its implementation hidden, accurate, rapid, controllable, and low cost but high return, both offensive and defensive, with the political war, diplomatic warfare, economic warfare, media warfare, psychological warfare, and other non-legal battle be combined with military means, it is possible to obtain the effect of traditional military means difficult to obtain.

Russia attaches great importance to network warfare troops, the Russian military will “Network Attack” treated as equivalent to fire assault combat style. In 2007 the Red Army statue in Estonia event, the 2008 Russia – Georgia war in 2014, the crisis in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, and in 2015 the Turkish warplanes shot down Russian event, cyberspace is an important battleground.

Today, cyberspace is the most important way to disseminate information, interconnection of the global information network and expand the connotation of the national security interests of the extension. Russia attaches great importance to information security and network security closely related, that the social stability, civil rights, freedom and democracy, order and the rule of law, the wealth of nations, territorial integrity, depends largely on information and network security.

Putin pointed out many times, information resources and political and economic infrastructure plays a decisive role for the country’s future, vital interests and security, we must be prepared to deal with the threat of information, enhance the related infrastructure facilities, especially the strategic defense capabilities information warfare and cyber warfare have been used in various countries to achieve military and political objectives, its power is even greater than conventional weapons.

Russia’s new “National Security Strategy” to enhance the status of network warfare

Russia’s new “National Security Strategy” that the global fight against big nowadays between countries, to take a more “indirect” route, the West provoked Russia’s domestic political turmoil, rise to social conflicts, to impose economic and financial sanctions, support for separatism, nationalism, religious extremism and the local armed forces, the network is one of the main tools.

Russian more use of “information warfare” that term. Information warfare includes intelligence and counter-intelligence, information deception, electronic warfare, communications interference, and navigation warfare, psychological warfare, computer sabotage warfare. Under conditions of modern warfare, information warfare is to ensure the effectiveness of nuclear deterrence, accounting basis against conventional superiority, and network warfare capability is the core of information warfare.

By using a network of weapons of mass repression, civil disturbance or military command, communications system, has become an important part of modern local wars and armed conflicts. Information warfare is not only used by the military for countries, extremist and terrorist organizations are also widely used.

As we all know, Russia’s implementation of the “strategy of containment” strategy and “nuclear deterrence” to “containment strategy” of the highest priority, which is a realistic choice based on its own strength and the international balance of power, but Russia also believes that the prevention of external armed conflict, nuclear deterrence is not always effective in preventing internal conflicts, nuclear deterrence is completely ineffective.

In recent years, many cases of local wars and armed conflicts exhibit remarkable feature is their integrated use of military and non-military means, against the extensive use of information and network attack and defense, in order to achieve military and political objectives. Russia’s new “military doctrine” Emphasizing and enhancing the “non-nuclear containment” status and role in the “containment strategy” in, and information warfare and network warfare capability is an important part of non-nuclear containment capability.

In North Africa and the Middle East countries “color revolutions”, the social networks are the primary means of insurgent groups and proliferation.”Color Revolution” in these countries caused internal conflicts, upgrade to bloodshed and armed conflict, bring down the government, to the detriment of national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Russia’s new “military doctrine” that, in the foreseeable future, Russia is also facing the same danger.

Russia’s new “military doctrine” that, in order to ensure national security and military, against the West in the field of information and ideological offensive penetration, Russia will closely follow the development of information and network technology, to take concrete measures to continuously improve and upgrade the national and military information infrastructure, defense and protection.

Cyberwar is “hybrid war” major combat style

Russia’s actions in Crimea crisis in eastern Ukraine dispute, the distinction between military and non-military actions indistinguishable from conventional and unconventional means integrated use, combines formal and informal style of warfare, and there are large conventional war the difference between this style of warfare by NATO military experts called “hybrid war.”

Mixing the war, through the adoption of small-scale military actions have a decisive effect, with the use of non-military means of diplomacy, energy, economy, network, etc., is applied to the other decision-makers as well as people with physical, practical information can affect the feelings of the other party’s leadership shake the confrontation will thus reach a political purpose of war.

In a mixed war, cyber attacks can give each other military and civilian targets causing destruction of hard and soft, reducing resistance in one’s own military operations. Disseminate targeted information on the network, international and domestic public opinion, create favorable conditions for political, military, diplomatic and economic struggle.

Russia in Syria against ISIS military operations, always firmly occupy the moral high ground, using the Internet to play the battle of public opinion, uphold justice of military operations, effective impact of the international community, national and public opinion to the relevant country to obtain an international community support, reducing the opposition, with the network consensus warfare effective military operations.

Russia fears NATO NATO war will be mixed for the surrounding, especially in the frontier with Russia against the Baltic States. Latvian Defense Minister Weiyuenisi believe that the first phase of hybrid warfare is information warfare, information and network attacks. In 2007, the Estonian government agencies and banks suffered large-scale cyber attacks, Russia was accused launched the attacks. In recent years, large-scale NATO exercises held in the Baltic region, will be “defensive cyber attacks” as a drill subjects, Estonia NATO also established a network warfare command center.

Russia and the United States, between NATO, the possibility of the outbreak of conventional war and nuclear war in the foreseeable future is extremely small, the two sides are also no such intention. But the Russian mixed war can solve political consultations between the military and control them better grasp of the US and NATO “without splitting” the propriety, while it also makes NATO’s collective defense mechanism is not the focal point.

In recent years, Russia has accumulated rich experience in cyber warfare

Like other fighting styles, including network warfare offensive and defensive aspects. Russia is facing a severe situation of network security, in fact, almost all of the information networks in developed countries the situation is the same, and, along with social development and technological progress, the network security situation also deteriorated sharply.

According to the Russian Federal Security Bureau statistics, since 2005, the Russian State authorities has been the site every year nearly 100 million times attacks, the President, the State Duma, strong institutions, banks and other sites is the focus of attack.

In the early 1990s, Russia on the establishment of a committee responsible for information security of network information security. In 1995, the information security management be included in the scope of national security of Russia, Russia has also promulgated the “Russian Federation information, information technology and information networks Protection Act.” In 2002, the Information Security Committee passed the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation”, put forward the guiding principles for information security.

In 2011, the International Convention on the Russian initiative to develop behavioral norms in cyberspace – “ensuring international information security”, which defined the network security threats and the precautionary principle, proposed a ban on the use of networking and communications technology interfere in internal affairs. The initiative with the US network strategy there is a big difference, so by the US boycott.

The following year, the Russian Armed Forces Chief of Staff Makarov said that in the development of the concept of cyber war, which Russia must be evaluated in order to respond to threats and challenges of Western military powers in the field of network to bring, preparing for cyber warfare. Russian military will focus on the development of network offensive and defensive capabilities, network-building combat power, with the ability to network deterrence, war methods and other research networks.

In 2013, Russian security forces set up the network, one year after the establishment of Network Warfare Command. In more than local wars and armed conflicts, the Russian military has accumulated a wealth of practical experience in the network, with a strong network reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, network penetration and reverse osmosis, network attacks and sabotage mental capacity, with advanced logic bomb network warfare weapons.

 Network warfare is combat system, requires the participation and collaboration of relevant sectors of society, Network Warfare Command and the network more combat troops is a leadership, guidance, mobilize and organize the action. Russia has a large number of hackers, software elite and many famous high-tech companies, if necessary, can quickly mobilize a network army, playing the “people’s war” in a space on the network, more than its power in local wars and armed conflicts It has been fully demonstrated.

Compared to land, sea, air, space, power and other battlespace, benefiting from the growing popularity of the global information network, tactics and enter the “threshold” cyberwar almost the lowest and technically distinct “latecomer” characterized in the short term there may be a breakthrough in one area, the formation of “asymmetric” advantage.

Russian conform to the form of war and military technology trends, strengthen capacity building in information warfare as the core network warfare, when participating in the surrounding local wars and armed conflicts, the combat cyber warfare as a supplement to traditional style, is an alternative to strengthen even battlefield While reducing the smoke, but the combat efficiency has increased, and more conducive to shorten the course of the war and to promote a political settlement of the conflict.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

俄羅斯網絡戰爭

信息化戰爭時代,制信息權是戰爭中首先要爭奪的。網絡戰從軟殺傷到物理摧毀,其實施隱蔽、精確、迅速、可控、成本低但回報高、攻防兼備,可與政治戰、外交戰、經濟戰、輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰等非軍事手段結合進行,能夠獲得傳統軍事手段難以取得的效果。

俄羅斯軍隊極為重視網絡戰,俄軍將“網絡突擊”視作等同於火力突擊的作戰樣式。 2007年愛沙尼亞紅軍銅像事件、2008年俄羅斯-格魯吉亞戰爭、2014年克里米亞和烏克蘭東部地區危機以及2015年土耳其擊落俄軍戰機事件,網絡空間都是重要戰場。

如今,網絡空間是最重要的信息傳播途徑,互聯互通的全球信息網絡擴展了國家安全和利益的內涵、外延。俄羅斯非常重視信息安全以及與其密切相關的網絡安全,認為社會穩定、公民權利、自由民主、秩序法制、國家財富、領土完整等,很大程度上取決於信息和網絡安全。

普京多次指出,信息資源和基礎設施對政治和經濟起決定性作用,對國家前途、利益和安全至關重要,必須做好準備應對信息威脅,提升對相關基礎設施尤其是戰略性設施的防護能力,信息戰和網絡戰已被各國用於達成軍事和政治目的,其威力甚至會大於常規武器。

俄新版《國家安全戰略》提升網絡戰地位

俄新版《國家安全戰略》認為,當今全球性大國之間的對抗,多采取“間接”路線,西方挑起俄國內政治動盪,激發社會矛盾,實施經濟和金融制裁,支持分裂主義、民族主義、極端宗教主義和地方武裝,網絡是主要工具之一。

俄軍更多的使用“信息戰”這一術語。信息戰內容包括情報和反情報、信息​​欺騙、電子戰、通信干擾、導航戰、心理戰、計算機破壞戰等。現代戰爭條件下,信息戰能力是保證核威懾有效性、佔據常規對抗優勢的基礎,而網絡戰能力是信息作戰的核心。

通過大規模使用網絡武器壓制、干擾民用或軍用的指揮、通訊體系,成為現代局部戰爭和武裝衝突的重要內容。信息戰不僅為各國軍隊使用,也被極端和恐怖主義組織廣泛使用。

眾所周知,俄羅斯實施“戰略遏制”戰略,並將“核遏制”置於“戰略遏制”的最高優先權,這是基於自身實力和國際力量對比的現實選擇,但同時俄羅斯也認為,在防止外部武裝衝突中,核遏制並不總是有效的,而在防止國內衝突中,核遏制則完全無效。

近年來的多起局部戰爭和武裝衝突呈現出的顯著特徵就是它們綜合運用軍事和非軍事手段,大量採用信息對抗和網絡攻防,以達成軍事和政治目的。俄新版《軍事學說》強調,提高“非核遏制”在“戰略遏制”中的地位和作用,而信息戰和網絡戰能力是非核遏制能力的重要組成部分。

在北非和中東一些國家的“顏色革命”中,社交網絡是暴亂組織和擴散的主要手段。 “顏色革命”造成這些國家國內矛盾激化,升級為流血和武裝衝突,導致政府垮台,進而損害國家主權和領土完整。俄新版《軍事學說》認為,在可預見的將來,俄羅斯也面臨同樣的危險。

俄新版《軍事學說》指出,為保證國家和軍事安全,對抗西方在信息以及意識形態領域的進攻滲透,俄將密切跟踪信息和網絡技術的發展,採取具體措施,不斷完善、升級國家和軍事信息基礎設施的防禦體系和防護能力。

網絡戰是“混合戰爭”的主要作戰樣式

俄羅斯在克里米亞危機、烏克蘭東部爭端的行動中,軍事和非軍事行動的界限難以區分,常規和非常規手段綜合使用,融合了正規和非正規的作戰樣式,與傳統戰爭存在著較大區別,這種作戰樣式被北約軍事專家稱為“混合戰爭”。

混合戰爭中,通過採取具有決定性效果的小規模軍事行動,配合使用外交、能源、經濟、網絡等非軍事手段,施加給對方決策層以及民眾以切實可感受的物質、信息影響,動搖對方領導層的對抗意志,進而達成戰爭的政治目的。

在混合戰爭中,網絡攻擊可給對方軍事和非軍事目標造成軟硬殺傷,減少己方在軍事行動中的阻力。在網絡上傳播有針對性的信息,可影響國際國內輿論,為政治、軍事、外交和經濟鬥爭創造有利條件。

俄在敘利亞打擊ISIS的軍事行動中,始終牢牢佔據道義高地,利用網絡大打輿論戰,堅持軍事行動的正義性,有效影響了國際社會、本國和相關國家的輿論走向,從而獲得了國際社會支持,減少了反對聲音,網絡輿論戰有效配合了軍事行動。

北約擔憂俄羅斯會將混合戰爭用於周邊的北約成員國,尤其是處在與俄對抗前沿的波羅的海國家。拉脫維亞國防部長維約尼斯認為,混合戰爭的第一階段是信息戰、宣傳和網絡攻擊。 2007年,愛沙尼亞政府機構和銀行遭受大規模網絡攻擊,俄羅斯被指控發動了此次網絡攻擊。近年來,北約在波羅的海地區舉行的大規模演習中,都將“防禦網絡攻擊”作為演練課目,北約還在愛沙尼亞設立了一個網絡戰指揮中心。

俄與美國、北約之間,在可預見的將來爆發常規戰爭和核​​戰爭的可能性極小,雙方也都無此意願。但俄進行混合戰爭,可在軍事解決與政治磋商之間進退自如,更好地把握與美國和北約“鬥而不破”的分寸,同時,這也使得北約的集體防禦機制沒有著力點。

俄近年來積累了豐富的網絡戰經驗

如同其他作戰樣式一樣,網絡戰也包括進攻和防禦兩個方面。俄羅斯面臨著嚴峻的網絡安全形勢,事實上,幾乎所有信息網絡發達國家的處境都是一樣的,而且,隨著社會發展和科技進步,網絡安全形勢還在急劇惡化。

據俄聯邦安全局統計,自2005年以來,俄國家機關網站每年都會遭到近100萬次網絡攻擊,總統、國家杜馬、強力機構、銀行等網站是攻擊重點。

早在20世紀90年代初,俄就設立了專門負責網絡信息安全的信息安全委員會。 1995年,信息安全被納入俄國家安全管理範疇,俄羅斯還頒布了《俄聯邦信息、信息化和信息網絡保護法》。 2002年,信息安全委員會通過了《俄聯邦信息安全學說》,提出了保障信息安全的指導原則。

2011年,俄羅斯倡議制定規範網絡空間行為的國際公約——《保障國際信息安全》,其中,明確了網絡安全威脅及其防範原則,提議禁止利用網絡和通信技術干涉別國內政。該倡議與美國網絡戰略存在較大分歧,因此受到美國抵制。

次年,俄武裝力量總參謀長馬卡羅夫表示,網絡戰爭的概念在發展,俄須對此進行評估,以應對西方軍事強國在網絡領域帶來的威脅和挑戰,為網絡戰做準備。俄軍將重點放在了發展網絡攻防能力、建設網絡作戰力量、具備網絡威懾能力、研究網絡戰戰法等。

2013年,俄軍組建網絡安全部隊,一年後成立網絡戰司令部。在多場局部戰爭和武裝衝突中,俄軍積累了豐富的網絡實戰經驗,具備較強的網絡偵察與反偵察、網絡滲透與反滲透、網絡心理攻擊和網絡破擊能力,擁有邏輯炸彈等先進的網絡戰武器。
網絡戰是體係作戰,需要社會相關部門的參與和協作,網絡戰司令部和網絡作戰部隊更多是起到領導、引導、動員和組織作用。俄羅斯擁有大量的黑客、軟件精英和許多著名的高技術公司,一旦需要,可迅速動員起一支網絡大軍,打一場網絡空間上的“人民戰爭”,其威力在多場局部戰爭和武裝衝突中已經充分展示。

相比陸、海、空、天、電等戰場空間,受益於日益普及的全球信息網絡,網絡戰的技戰術和進入“門檻”幾乎是最低的,且在技術上具有鮮明的“後發”特徵,短期內有可能在某一領域取得突破,形成“不對稱”優勢。

俄軍順應戰爭形態和軍事科技發展趨勢,大力加強以網絡戰為核心的信息戰能力建設,在參與周邊局部戰爭和武裝衝突時,將網絡戰作為傳統作戰樣式的補充、加強甚至是替代,戰場上的硝煙雖然減少了,但作戰效能卻提高了,且更有利於縮短戰爭進程和促進衝突的政治解決。

Source: 中國青年報