Category Archives: Strategic Support Forces

Chinese Military Information Warfare: The First Game of Modern Warfare // 中國軍事信息戰:現代戰爭的第一場戰爭

Chinese Military Information Warfare: The First Game of Modern Warfare //

中國軍事信息戰:現代戰爭的第一場戰爭

  The transformation of the characteristics of war is always motivated by the advancement of science and technology. If “information-led” is the characteristic of the era of today’s war, then the essence of this feature is “the dominance of information technology.” Information warfare is a new combat force that is fostered and fueled by information technology innovation.

Information warfare is the new quality of combat power

三、衛星在現代戰爭中扮演的角色為何? 四、資訊戰有哪兩種主要模式?

“knowing one’s own confidant, no wars, no war” has always been the only rule of war victory, it actually embodies the important role of “information” in the war. Since ancient times, the military has always been pursuing the dispelling of “the fog of war”, reducing the probabilistic nature of the war, and taking the lead. At the same time, it hopes to quickly gather the fighting energy with accurate and timely information to make the enemy win the enemy. Nowadays, the heroic pace of human innovation in information technology has driven the rapid development of society. The myth of “thousands of eyes and ears” has long been a reality. While the results of information technology innovation and development are fully utilized for war, they are also constantly promoting the transformation of the combat capability generation model.
The germination of information warfare can be traced back to the beginning of the last century. Shortly after the advent of the radio telegraph, Russian scientist Popov proposed the idea of ​​radio communication struggle in 1903. In the Japanese-Russian War that broke out in 1904, the two sides used radio communication for the first time. One day in April of that year, the Russian military operator subconsciously used the radio station to interfere with the shooting and guiding communication of the Japanese fleet, forcing the Japanese to return without success. The original sprout of this technical idea gave birth to a new way of warfare, and the information war began to enter the stage of war. The highly developed information technology has made “systems based on information systems” a feature of today’s war. It should be said that systemic confrontation is not a form of engagement that exists today. Both sides of the war have sought to form a strong operational system. In different historical periods, the system has different manifestations. Today’s combat system is an unprecedentedly powerful combat system that relies on networked information systems. An important manifestation of information technology playing a leading role in modern warfare is to promote the rapid development of information warfare. At the same time that “information-led” became the identifier of modern warfare, information warfare began to leap into a new kind of combat power.
Having a strong information power makes an army savvy and responsive, and the integration of information power into the strike force increases the military’s operational effectiveness into a geometric progression. Information warfare is the first sword to break the efficient integration of information firepower.
Information power is the ability to acquire, transmit, process, and use information. The enhancement of information means that information is acquired more and more comprehensively, information transmission is faster and more accurate, information processing is automated, and information usage tends to be intelligent. This makes the military’s command efficient, precise control, quick action, and powerful. From the perspective of operational mechanism, the effectiveness of information power in the combat system is manifested in the synergy of the strike force and the transformation of combat effectiveness. Although the information itself cannot directly kill the enemy, the information is used to realize the intelligent control of the combat weapon. Produced a powerful and powerful strike and non-contact strike.
Information deterrence is an important information warfare action, which can reduce the intensity of confrontation, and even force the opponent to give up resistance. It may produce a satisfactory combat effect and achieve the highest pursuit of “no war and defeated soldiers”. The principle is that the opponent It is a huge blow to the coming, and it is limited to the ability to stop the information. The achievement of the deterrent effect is the fusion effect of the multiple elements of strength, ability and determination. As a result of the high degree of integration of information and firepower, information multiplies the effectiveness of firepower, and firepower transforms information energy. The goal of information warfare is the opponent’s information system, which plays the role of “covering ears, obstructing, chaos”, so that the information power of the opponent is weakened and even lost, and the fusion of information firepower cannot be discussed. During the Gulf War, when the multinational forces scraped the “Desert Storm”, they first used a variety of electronic interference methods in the air and on the ground. At the same time, they used firepower to prioritize the communication and radar systems of the Iraqi army, making the Iraqi defense system still not in use. The powerful information power is completely lost, so it is stable. In the Kosovo war, the US military used a mistake in information warfare to provide a good opportunity for the Yugoslav army to make its air defense units cleverly use the less advanced information system to achieve effective integration of information firepower and shoot down the US military stealth fighters. Practice has proved that under the conditions of informationization, information warfare has become the first sword to break the efficient integration of opponents’ information firepower.
Information warfare is the primary action of transforming the enemy and the enemy
. The competition between the spear and the shield will never stop and escalate. When “information-led” shows great advantages, it will inevitably lead to “information counter-measure”. The containment of information will immediately reverse the original advantage. Information warfare is the primary action to transform the enemy and the enemy.
The basic types of combat are offense and defense, and the material means used for combat can also be divided into two types of weapons and equipment: spear and shield. Today, when combat weapons have unprecedented lethality, no one will use concentrated forces to concentrate their advantages. Synchronous strikes in different places can be an effective way to “eliminate the enemy and save oneself”, that is, the strike forces scattered in different locations simultaneously target the same target. Attacks are initiated, but only if there is precise time coordination.
Keeping time synchronized, it is obviously impossible to rely on the past manual pairing. Advanced techniques such as navigation satellite timing must be used, and once the timing synchronization information is destroyed by the opponent, the action will be completely disrupted. A force with high engine power and strike force, if attacked by the opponent’s information, causes information to be ineffective and information blocked, will not be able to figure out the direction of the action, can not find the target of the attack, become sluggish and weak. . Although the precision strike power is large, once the accurate guidance information is lost, the advantage is immediately lost. Command and control If the information is subject to control, it will lead to chaos, which will inevitably lead to chaos in the overall situation of the war.
Attacking the enemy’s information system is the focus and effort to break the battle system. The acquisition and use of information, counter-acquisition, and counter-utilization have become the focus of the battle between the two armies on the informationized battlefield. Information warfare is the preferred style for competing for battlefield control and even for war initiative.
While greatly improving the effectiveness of the combat system, the information system naturally becomes the target of the opponent’s attack, and it is the key target. Information warfare is to blinden the enemy battlefield perception system, weaken its information acquisition ability, interfere with its analysis and judgment; to block the enemy information transmission system, disrupt its coordination and destroy its actions; to deter the enemy accusation system by deception, reduce its command efficiency, Lead to mistakes in their decision-making. The more the information technology is developed and the more highly dependent on the information system, the more serious the consequences of its information system attack. Quaker, former chairman of the American “Old Ravens” Association, once wrote: “Advanced technology makes us highly dependent on the electromagnetic spectrum, but at the same time, we are not well invested in building electronic protection capabilities.” “The enemy uses cheap commercial technology. It can reduce or even destroy the performance of our expensive ISR equipment and weapon platforms, thereby limiting or even seriously weakening our technological advantages.” Because military electronic information systems are being widely used worldwide, in fact, the degree of dependence of national military on information systems It is constantly deepening. Therefore, all military powers are competing to develop information warfare. Some small countries are not willing to lag behind and follow suit. In modern warfare, it is of vital importance to seize the comprehensive control of the battlefield. The right to make information has become an indispensable commanding height, and it is the primary means of controlling the battlefield and mastering the initiative of war.
The information war has stood at the forefront of the contemporary military game. The
war is usually based on crossfire. The information war is invisible, the threshold is low, and the controllability is good. In peacetime, it is possible to start a dark battle and quietly extend the border of war. Information warfare has stood at the forefront of contemporary military games.
In today’s world, the use of military means is becoming more complex. War is not only a continuation of politics, but also a close integration of politics and military, subject to the overall strategy of political strategy. The use of force will also interact with politics, economy, diplomacy, and public opinion in a multi-dimensional, organically connected and closely coordinated. Information warfare is active on an invisible front, spanning peacetime and wartime. For example, the confrontation between information warfare reconnaissance and counter-reconnaissance between major powers is now almost every day. Although it is widely believed that the engagement of fire is a watershed between war and peace, the boundaries of war are changing due to the particularity of the use of new military struggle styles such as information warfare. According to reports, the US government recently publicly stated that the law of war applies to cyberattacks. It believes that certain cyber attacks are equivalent to the “use of force” legal concept as defined in the UN Charter. The attacked countries can use conventional military forces or cyber weapons. Counterattack. At the same time, we also see that the arrival of the information age has made the shadow of information warfare often appear in the struggle in the ideological field. The construction and development of information warfare capabilities have received increasing attention from all countries. In December 2011, Iran comprehensively used information warfare methods such as interference suppression, data deception, and link control to successfully deceive and capture a US military RQ-170 “sentinel” unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, which shocked the US military.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

戰爭特徵的嬗變總是由科學技術進步來激發,如果說“信息主導”是當今戰爭的時代特徵,那麼這一特徵的實質則是“信息技術的主導”。信息戰是信息技術創新孕育和助長的新質戰鬥力。

信息戰是新質戰鬥力

三、衛星在現代戰爭中扮演的角色為何? 四、資訊戰有哪兩種主要模式?

“知彼知己,百戰不殆”一直是戰爭制勝的不二法則,它實際上體現了“信息”在戰爭中的重要作用。自古以來,兵家總是在不斷追求驅散“戰爭迷霧”,降低戰爭的蓋然性,搶占先機;同時希望能夠以準確及時的信息迅速聚集戰鬥能量,制敵勝敵。如今,人類創新信息技術的豪邁步伐,驅動了社會的迅猛發展,“千里眼、順風耳”的神話早已成為現實。信息技術創新發展成果在立即為戰爭所充分利用的同時,也在不斷推動戰鬥力生成模式的轉變。
信息戰的萌芽可以上溯到上個世紀初。當時無線電報問世不久,俄國科學家波波夫就於1903年提出了無線電通信鬥爭的思想。 1904年爆發的日俄戰爭中,作戰雙方首次運用了無線電通信,當年4月的一天,俄軍報務員下意識地利用無線電台干擾了日軍艦隊的射擊引導通信,迫使日軍無功而返。這種技術思想的原始萌動孕育了一種新的作戰方式,信息戰開始登上戰爭的舞台。信息技術的高度發達,使得“基於信息系統的體係作戰”成為當今戰爭的時代特徵。應該說,體係對抗並不是今天才有的交戰形式,戰爭中交戰雙方都力求形成一個強大的作戰體系,在不同歷史時期,體係有著不同的表現形態。今天的作戰體係是依靠網絡化的信息系統聯成的一個威力空前強大的作戰體系,信息技術在現代戰爭中發揮主導作用的一個重要表現,就是助長了信息戰的快速發展。在“信息主導”成為現代戰爭的標識符的同時,信息戰開始躍變為一種新質戰鬥力。
擁有強大的信息力使一支軍隊耳聰目明、反應敏捷,信息力融入打擊力則使軍隊的作戰效能成幾何級數增加。信息戰是打破信息火力高效融合的第一把利劍。
信息力是獲取、傳輸、處理、使用信息的能力。信息力的增強意味著信息的獲取更多、更全,信息的傳輸更快、更準,信息的處理具備自動化,信息的使用趨於智能化。這就使得軍隊的指揮高效,控制精準,行動迅捷,打擊有力。從作戰機理上看,信息力在作戰系統中的效能發揮,體現的是對打擊力的增效和向戰鬥力的轉化,信息本身雖不能直接殺傷敵人,但使用信息實現打擊兵器的智能化控制就產生了威力巨大的精確打擊和非接觸打擊。
信息威懾是一種重要的信息戰行動,可以降低對抗強度,甚至迫使對手放棄抵抗,可能產生令人滿意的戰鬥力效應,實現“不戰而屈人之兵”的最高追求,而其原理是對手懾於隨之會來的巨大打擊力,懾於能力而止於信息,威懾效果的達成是實力、能力、決心多元要素的融合效應。信息與火力的高度融合的結果就是,信息使火力效能倍增,火力讓信息能量轉化。信息戰的目標是對手的信息系統,起到的作用是“掩耳、障目、亂心”,使對手的信息力受到削弱以至喪失,信息火力的融合也就無從談起。海灣戰爭中,多國部隊刮起“沙漠風暴”之時,首先動用的就是空中和地面的多種電子乾擾手段,同時運用火力優先打擊伊軍的通信和雷達系統,使得伊軍防禦體系中尚不強大的信息力完全喪失,因而穩操勝券。而科索沃戰爭中,美軍使用信息戰的一次失誤,為南聯盟軍隊提供了良機,使其防空部隊巧妙運用不夠先進的信息系統,實現信息火力的有效融合,擊落了美軍隱形戰機。實踐證明,信息化條件下,信息戰已成為打破對手信息火力高效融合的第一把利劍。
信息戰是轉變敵我優劣對比的首要行動
矛與盾的較量永不停息、不斷升級。當“信息主導”顯現出巨大優勢時,就必然引發“信息反制”。信息的受制,會使原有的優勢立即逆轉。信息戰是轉變敵我優劣對比的首要行動。
作戰的基本類型就是進攻和防禦,用以作戰的物質手段也可以區分為矛和盾兩大類型的武器裝備。在打擊兵器具有空前殺傷力的今天,誰都不會再用集中兵力來集中優勢,而異地同步打擊不失為“消滅敵人、保存自己”的有效方式,即分散於不同地點的打擊力量同時對同一目標發起攻擊,但條件是必須有精確的時間協同。
保持時間同步,靠過去的人工對錶顯然已不可能,必須利用如導航衛星授時等先進技術,而授時同步信息一旦被對手破壞,行動就會被徹底打亂。一支具有高機動力和打擊力的部隊,如果受到對手的信息攻擊,導致信息不靈、信息受阻,將會搞不清行動的方向,找不到攻擊的目標,​​變得行動呆滯、打擊無力。精確打擊威力雖大,但一旦丟失精確制導信息而打不准,優勢即刻盡失。指揮控制如果信息受制,就會陣腳大亂,勢必造成作戰全局陷於混亂。
攻擊敵方的信息系統是打破其作戰體系的著力點和發力點。信息的獲取與反獲取、利用與反利用,已成為信息化戰場上兩軍爭鬥的焦點。信息戰是爭奪戰場控制權乃至戰爭主動權的首選樣式。
信息系統在極大地提升作戰體系效能的同時,也自然成為對手的攻擊目標,而且是要害目標。信息戰就是通過迷盲敵戰場感知系統,削弱其信息獲取能力、干擾其分析判斷;通過阻斷敵信息傳輸系統,擾亂其協同、破壞其行動;通過欺騙擾亂敵指控系統,降低其指揮效率、導致其決策失誤。愈是信息技術發達、愈是高度依賴信息系統的軍隊,其信息系統受到攻擊的後果愈嚴重。美國“老烏鴉”協會前主席奎克曾經撰文指出:“先進的技術使我們高度依賴電磁頻譜,但與此同時,我們沒有很好地投資建設電子防護能力。”“敵人利用廉價的商用技術就可以降低甚至破壞我們昂貴的ISR設備以及武器平台的效能,從而限制甚至嚴重削弱我們的技術優勢。”由於軍事電子信息系統正在世界範圍內得到廣泛運用,事實上各國軍隊對信息系統的依賴程度都在不斷加深,因此,各軍事大國競相發展信息戰,一些小國也不甘落後,紛紛效仿。現代戰爭中,奪取戰場綜合控制權至關重要,制信息權成為其中不可或缺的製高點,是控制戰場和掌握戰爭主動的首要。
信息戰已站在當代軍事博弈的前沿
戰爭通常是以交火為基本標誌。信息戰隱於無形,使用門檻低,可控性好,在平時就可能展開暗戰,悄然延伸了戰爭的邊界。信息戰已站在當代軍事博弈的前沿。
當今世界,軍事手段的使用愈加複雜。戰爭不僅是政治的繼續,而且政治軍事緊密結合,服從於政略戰略大局。武力使用也將與政治、經濟、外交、輿論鬥爭多維互動,有機銜接,密切配合。信息戰跨越平時與戰時,活躍在一條看不見的戰線上。比如,各大國相互之間的信息戰偵察與反偵察的對抗,現在幾乎每天都在進行暗中角力。雖然人們普遍認為開火交戰是戰爭與和平的分水嶺,但是,由於信息戰等新的軍事鬥爭樣式運用的特殊性,戰爭的邊界正在發生改變。據報導,美國政府最近公開表明戰爭法適用於網絡攻擊,認為某些網絡攻擊等同於《聯合國憲章》所定義的“使用武力”法律概念,受到攻擊的國家,可以使用常規軍事力量或網絡武器實施反擊。同時,我們還看到,信息時代的到來,使得意識形態領域的鬥爭中也常常閃現出信息戰的影子。信息戰能力的建設發展,已經愈來愈得到各國的重視。 2011年12月,伊朗綜合運用乾擾壓制、數據欺騙、鏈路控制等信息戰手段,成功誘騙並俘獲了美軍一架RQ-170“哨兵”無人偵察機,令美軍大為震驚。

Original Referring url: http://theory.people.com.cn/n/2012/1218/

Chinese Military Information Warfare Attacks on Mind and Spirit // 中國軍隊信息戰隊思想和精神的攻擊

Chinese Military Information Warfare Attacks on Mind and Spirit //

中國軍隊信息戰隊思想和精神的攻擊

June 01, 2004 08:58
  If the 1991 Gulf War was the first time that the United States brought information warfare from the research report to the actual battlefield, then the Iraq war that ended last year may be the further development of information warfare in actual combat. Information warfare, as the focus of the new military revolution in the 21st century, has increasingly attracted people’s attention. However, through the information campaign to study the lively scenes, we will find that quite a few people only understand information warfare from the perspective of military and technology alone, but information warfare is not so simple. 

  Information warfare is a new emergence of human beings entering the information age. a phenomenon of war. It is not a simple style of warfare, but a new form of warfare relative to firepower. The emergence of information warfare has formed a major breakthrough in many traditional war concepts such as the object of war, the boundaries of war, and the content of war. Among them, the focus should be on the ideological and spiritual side of information warfare. 

  What you see is only the tip of the iceberg 

  . There are dozens of concepts about information warfare in the world. However, many of them only understand information warfare from the military and technical perspectives. Even the United States, which is in the leading position of information warfare, is only from the last It was only at the end of the century that this issue was considered from a strategic and social point of view. This is not comprehensive. An important prerequisite for understanding information warfare is that information warfare should not be viewed simply with the war view of the industrial age. In the information age, computers and networks have dramatically changed the shape of war in the past. In the information war, the army and the society, the military and civilians, the war and the crime, the state and the individual have been intertwined in many cases, and they are unclear and unreasonable. 

  Information warfare broadly refers to the war against the information space and the competition for information resources in the military (including political, economic, cultural, scientific, and social fields). It mainly refers to the use of information to achieve the national strategic goals; narrowly Refers to the confrontation between the warring parties in the armed field in the field of information, and seizes the right to control the information. It should be emphasized that information warfare is not a simple military technical issue and should not be understood as a combat style. Information warfare is actually a form of war.

  The term “information” is understood relative to the times, and corresponds to the agricultural and industrial eras; in terms of social forms, it is also in line with agricultural and industrial societies. At the same time, it is one of the three major resources that human beings must compare with matter and energy. Investigating information warfare, only by knowing at this level can we reveal information warfare in the true sense. 

  The rise of information warfare lies not in what kind of nouns it uses, nor in the war nouns. It is as simple as the buzzwords of “information,” “information,” “information age,” and “digitalization.” It is the inevitable result of the development of society and science and technology, with revolutionary and epoch-making significance. The information wars that emerged at the end of the 20th century, or the information wars we have seen, are only the tip of the iceberg, and are only partial and limited information wars embodied in the military field. Only when the world reaches full network and the earth becomes a small village in the true sense can we see the broad and real information war. 

  Information warfare is not just  about the military. When it comes to information warfare, people often think of the army first. Indeed, in the traditional war, the army is the protagonist of the war, and the battlefield is also the stage of the military. Under the conditions of information warfare, the situation is very different. The scope of the battlefield has greatly expanded, and the war has become far more than just military affairs, but has developed into a national war under high-tech conditions. Information warfare is not only carried out through the military, but also through the entire social network. With the construction of the world information highway, information warfare has been difficult to define boundaries. Any social NGO or even an individual who has ordinary computer equipment and masters computer communication technology may use a globally connected computer and communication system to participate in an information war. 

  The information warfare is not only the main manifestation of the army: First, the participants in the information war are no longer limited to military personnel, but also include ordinary people. Information warfare combatants can be either regular soldiers or teenage hackers. Second, many of the weapons and equipment used in information warfare, such as computers and optical instruments, can no longer be military supplies, and are available in the civilian goods market. Take the United States, an information war powerhouse, as an example. The US military’s information warfare system relies heavily on civilian information infrastructure. Senior US military personnel referred to the informationization of the US military’s military as “buy from the market.” Third, information warfare is not only on the battlefield, but on the entire society. “The battlefield is only where the soldiers are killed. It no longer covers information warfare.”

  Information warfare is not only played in wartime. 


  Since the war, the attackers launched wars, and the defenders resisted aggression, and they must be prepared for war. In particular, mechanized warfare has shown obvious phase and proceduralization. In the war of information age, the boundaries between war preparation and implementation are increasingly blurred and even mixed. Looking around the world, it is not difficult to find that information powers are fighting almost every day: public opinion, intelligence confrontation, network reconnaissance, and so on. These are actually information wars that have transformed form, and can be called public opinion warfare, intelligence warfare, and cyber warfare. 

  In the Iraq war, the power of public opinion wars opened the eyes of the world. It has been said that the “discussion war”, one of the forms of information warfare, has been going on since the war. Earlier cases of “public opinion wars” can be traced back to the “Oath of the Oath” of China’s Xia Dynasty and later “Looking for Cao Yuwen” and “Discussing Wushu”. The “discussion of public opinion” has no boundaries between wartime and peace. It controls, manipulates, plans, and utilizes various public opinion tools to systematically deliver selected information to the audience, affecting the audience’s emotions, motivations, judgments, and choices, thus having a major and direct impact on the outcome of the war. As for the information warfare and cyber warfare in the information war, it is even more ignoring the difference between wartime and peacetime. At that time, the US Clinton Administration put forward the idea of ​​building an information highway and promoting global informationization. This move has made the world believe that the United States is leading the human society into the information age. However, the strategic intention of the United States is actually that when the informationization of human society is still in a blank, it will expand the information territory of the United States in order to occupy the opportunity of informationization. As a result, the future development of global informationization will follow the US road map. The United States can integrate the countries of the world into the informatization map of the United States. Looking at it now, this strategic attempt by the United States is far more effective than winning a war of blood and hurricanes.

  When information warfare is not only a battle, this is not only manifested in the blurring of the preparation and implementation of information warfare, especially in the attack of information warfare on people’s thoughts and spirit. The formation of thoughts and spirits is a subtle process. Through the information superiority, we can achieve the goal of “no war and defeated soldiers” or “less war and defeated soldiers”. The general approach is to use information superiority to create contrast between the enemy and the enemy, use psychological warfare and strategic deception to shake, frustrate the enemy’s military, people’s hearts and government beliefs, and destroy the enemy’s normal political and economic operation system. Means can put the enemy in a state of paralysis, curb the will of the hostile country to wage war, or deprive it of its ability to war. 

  In the 1980s, the scenes of the US-Soviet confrontation were very interesting. Reagan, the US president who is good at acting, has proposed an aggressive “Star Wars” plan, claiming to make all the strategic nuclear missiles of the Soviet Union useless. As soon as the plan was announced, the United States started to promote all the propaganda machines and caused a great sensation in the world. The Soviet leaders convened an emergency meeting in succession and decided to resolutely respond to the blood and establish a strategic defense shield of the Soviet Union. In fact, the “Star Wars” program in the United States only carried out a little bit of technical experimentation. It didn’t cost much at all, but a movie of the same name “Star Ball” was popular in the world. However, the Soviets were very hardworking and hard work. When the national economy was on the verge of collapse, the vast ruble was still thrown into the arms race. The Soviet Union, which had been unable to do so, ran out of the last drop of blood after seven years. It cannot be said that the collapse of the Soviet economy and the collapse of the regime were not dragged down by the US information war. 

  Paying attention to the people’s war that defends the boundaries of 

  information. Under the conditions of information warfare, national sovereignty has a new content. The extension of national security has expanded and its connotation has become more abundant. The influence of information warfare is no longer limited to the military field, but radiates to the whole. Human society. Under the conditions of information warfare, the important magic weapon for a weak country to defeat a powerful country is the people’s war. Only by insisting on the people’s war under the conditions of information warfare can we effectively defend the national information territory and safeguard national information sovereignty. In addition to information technology and tactics, the most important thing is to grasp the construction of the information talent team and build the two lines of the national spirit defense line in the information age. 

  Those who have talents are in the world. The outcome of the information warfare depends to a large extent on human factors, and must be supported by a large number of high-tech information warfare personnel.

  In the information warfare, a small number of top information talents can often play a key role in the outcome of the war. During the Second World War, in order to grab a German atomic physicist, the US military changed the direction of the attack of the three Army divisions. After the end of World War II, the history of “the wise man grabbed the people, the fools took the device” was even more intriguing. In the East, the Soviets were busy carrying the seized tanks and cannons; in the West, Americans hurriedly transported more than 3,000 German scientists back home. More than half a century has passed, and the country that grabbed talents is still continuing to write a history of robbing people, and its economy, technology and military are incomprehensible. The country that robbed the weapon was now facing the reality of being robbed. After the disintegration, the Soviet Union had tens of thousands of outstanding scientific and technological talents to change their positions to serve the opponents of the year. As a commanding height of military struggle, the struggle for talents is more decisive in the military contest of the information age. 

  Compared with the “hard killing” brought about by information warfare, the “soft killing” of information warfare is even more terrible. The spiritual realm is the most “window of vulnerability” under the conditions of information warfare. 

  As information technology becomes more developed, channels become more and more fluent, and information sources are more extensive. People will get more and more information and get information faster and faster. The means of modernization have transmitted the information to be transmitted to the countries of the world effectively without any restrictions. At present, developed countries pay great attention to using their advanced information technology to establish a global network of radio, television, and computer networks, thereby exporting their political opinions and values ​​on a large scale and expanding the information frontier. As a result, countries with backward informationization have been subjected to a strong spiritual impact. Therefore, in order to win the people’s war under the conditions of information warfare, from the individual, the media, the army to the whole country, we must comprehensively enhance the awareness of information and national defense, establish the concept of defending the national information territory and information boundary, and consciously build an invisible spiritual defense line. 

  Related Links 

  Scanning the overall situation of the world information war It 

  can be said that the development of the world information warfare has gone through three stages. 

  The first stage: the period of information warfare before the Gulf War in 1991; the 

  second stage: the implementation and maturity of the information war after the Gulf War to 1998; the 

  third stage: the development period of the information warfare after 1998 .

  At present, the new military revolution triggered by information warfare is still going on around the world. The transformation of mechanized warfare into information warfare has been fully carried out in the world. The armed forces of major countries around the world are adjusting their strategies and tactics, preparing equipment, and combat training in accordance with the information warfare, in preparation for winning information warfare. All the wars after the Gulf War have been marked with traces of information warfare. The power of information warfare is impacting all areas of society. 

  Information warfare techniques and techniques click 

  Currently, the world’s countries in the application and development of information warfare technology are mainly: 

  1. Reconnaissance and surveillance technology. Various means of reconnaissance, surveillance, early warning and navigation, including space-based, space-based, sea-based and foundation. 

  2. Platform integrated information warfare system. Realize radar warning, missile launch and attack alarm, information support, information interference and avoidance, and synergistic integration, and integrate with other information equipment on the platform to achieve information sharing. 

  3. Network command and control warfare technology. 4. Computer virus technology. 

  5. Attacking weapons technology. Including electromagnetic pulse weapons, ultrasonic weapons and infrasound weapons. 6. Advanced electronic countermeasures technology. 

  The latest information warfare equipment glimpse 

  In the development of information warfare weapons, in recent years, the following equipments have been developed or put into active service in various countries. 

  1. The Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System is a battlefield information processing system that accurately detects moving and fixed targets to cope with the implementation of long-range precision strikes, and provides commanders with important information about combat development and combat management. 

  2. The Joint Tactical Air-to-Ground Information Station is a weapon support system that processes the vital information needed for space-based sensor data and operational capabilities for early warning missile launches. 

  3. A beam-energy weapon can penetrate targets hundreds of kilometers or even thousands of kilometers in an instant without leaving a “hard injury”, especially for the direct destruction of high-precision guided high-tech weapons. Therefore, it is considered to be tactical air defense and anti-armor. Optoelectronic countermeasures and even strategic anti-missile, anti-satellite, anti-satellite, multi-purpose ideal weapon for all spacecraft.

  4. Smart warfare, woven with a fiber optic network and a conductive polymer network, and a miniature measurement system that monitors the soldier’s physical condition. In the future battlefield, a soldier was injured. At the moment of his fall, the medical staff at the ambulance center can accurately determine whether it is a bullet or a knife wound, where the injured part is, and other basic injuries. 

  In addition, there are military robots, shipboard electronic warfare systems, high-power RF amplifier technology, advanced antenna technology and signal processing technology. 

  The information 

  warfare is fiercely competitive. Looking at the world, more than 20 countries including Britain, France, Israel, and Russia have conducted in-depth research on information warfare. The development of information warfare in the United States is at the forefront of the world, mainly in technology, equipment, and theory. 

  United States: The information war strategy was changed from defense to attack. In order to improve the US military’s information warfare technical capabilities, the US Department of Defense has a specialized information system processing agency responsible for maintaining the 2.5 million computers used by the US military. It is also studying how to improve the attack capabilities of computers and create communication networks and financial systems that destroy hostile countries. And the intrusion of the power system. As early as the fall of 2000, the US Space Command Center began to develop aggressive computer weapons. This means a major adjustment in the US military’s information war strategy—from strategic defense to strategic attack. 

  Russia: The focus of information warfare is on “Heavenly Soldiers.” The development of information warfare in Russia has concentrated on the development of “Heavenly Soldiers” — the astronauts. In 2002, Russia invested about 31.6 billion rubles for space research, 5.4 billion rubles for the development of global navigation systems, and strengthened the development of lasers, high-power microwaves and anti-satellite weapons. 

  Japan: Accelerate the formation of information warfare units. The Japanese Defense Agency is forming an information warfare force of 5,000 people, focusing on the development of cyber weapons as the focus of future defense plans, and speeding up the construction of the Japanese Army’s digital forces.

  EU and other Western countries: embarking on the construction of digital troops. Countries such as France, Germany, Britain, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands and Sweden are also developing platforms and individual C4I systems. More than 10 countries, including France, Britain, Germany, Australia, Canada, Italy, and Israel, are embarking on the implementation of digital military and digital battlefield construction plans. Among them, most countries are concentrating human and financial resources to develop the equipment needed for digital units, and a few countries in the past have conducted several digital force test exercises. In the future, while the above-mentioned countries continue to develop the digital “hardware” of the battlefield, they will begin to consider the composition of the digital units, and more countries will join the ranks of the digital construction of the troops.  

Source: China National Defense News

Original Mandarin Chinese:

如果說,1991年的海灣戰爭是美國第一次把信息戰從研究報告中搬上實戰戰場,那麼去年結束的伊拉克戰爭也許就是信息戰在實戰中的進一步發展。信息戰,作為21世紀新軍事革命狂飆的重心,已經越來越引起人們的重視。然而,透過信息戰研究熱鬧的場面,我們會發現,相當多的人們只是從單純軍事和技術的角度認識信息戰的,但信息戰其實並不這麼簡單——

信息戰是人類進入信息時代新出現的一種戰爭現象。它不是一種簡單的作戰樣式,而是相對於火力戰的一種新的戰爭形態。信息戰的出現對諸如戰爭對象、戰爭界限、戰爭內容等許多傳統戰爭理念都形成了重大突破,其中尤其應該引起關注的是信息戰攻擊思想和精神的一面。

看到的只是冰山一角

目前世界上關於信息戰的概念有幾十種,然而,很多卻只是單純從軍事和技術的角度來認識信息戰的,即使處於信息戰領先地位的美國也只是從上個世紀末才開始從戰略高度和社會意義上思考這個問題,這很不全面。認識信息戰的一個重要前提是,不應該簡單地用工業時代的戰爭觀來看待信息戰。信息時代,電腦和網絡大大改變了以往的戰爭形態。信息戰中,軍隊與社會、軍人與平民、戰爭與犯罪、國家與個人在很多情況下已經交織在一起,分不清,理還亂。

信息戰廣義地指對壘的軍事(也包括政治、經濟、文化、科技及社會一切領域)集團搶佔信息空間和爭奪信息資源的戰爭,主要是指利用信息達成國家大戰略目標的行動﹔狹義地是指武力戰中交戰雙方在信息領域的對抗,奪取制信息權。需要強調的是,信息戰不是一個簡單的軍事技術問題,不應該被理解為一種作戰樣式。信息戰實際上是一種戰爭形態。

“信息”這個名詞相對於時代來理解,是與農業時代、工業時代相對應的﹔就社會形態而言,又是與農業社會、工業社會相呼應。同時,它又是與物質、能量相提並論的人類必須的三大資源之一。考察信息戰,隻有從這個層次上去認識,才能揭示真正意義上的信息戰。

信息戰的崛起不在於它用了什麼樣的名詞,也不是戰爭名詞上冠以“信息化 ”、“信息”、“信息時代”、“數字化”這些時髦的詞藻那麼簡單。它是社會和科技發展的必然結果,帶有革命性、劃時代的意義。 20世紀末出現的信息戰,或者說我們已經看到的信息戰只是冰山之一角,僅僅是體現在軍事領域中的局部和有限的信息戰。隻有當世界達到全面網絡化,地球成為真正意義上的小村落時,我們才能看到那種廣義上、真正的信息戰。

信息戰不隻靠軍隊打

一提起打信息戰,人們往往首先就想到軍隊。確實,傳統戰爭中,軍隊是戰爭的主角,戰場也主要是軍人的舞台。信息戰條件下,情況則大不一樣。戰場的範疇大大擴展,戰爭變得遠遠不只是軍隊的事情,而是發展成高技術條件下的全民戰。信息戰不只是通過軍隊,同時也可以通過全社會網絡來實施。隨著世界信息高速公路的建設,信息戰已難以劃定界限。任何社會民間組織甚至個人隻要擁有普通計算機設備、掌握計算機通訊技術,都有可能利用全球聯網的計算機與通信系統參與一場信息戰。

信息戰不隻打軍隊主要表現在:第一,信息戰的參與者不再僅限於軍人,而且還包括普通民眾。信息戰作戰人員既可以是正規軍人,也可以是十幾歲的少年黑客。第二,信息戰所使用的許多武器裝備,如計算機、光學儀器等可以不再是軍用品,在民用品市場上都可買到。以信息戰強國美國為例,美軍的信息戰系統在很大程度上依賴民用信息基礎設施。美國軍方高層人士把美軍軍隊信息化變革稱為“從市場上買來的”。第三,信息戰作戰不單在戰場,而是分佈於整個社會。 “戰場只是士兵陣亡的地方,已不再囊括信息戰交戰場所。”

信息戰不隻在戰時打

自有戰爭以來,進攻者發動戰爭,防御者抵禦侵略,都要進行周密的戰爭準備。特別是機械化戰爭,呈現出明顯的階段性、程序化。而信息時代的戰爭,戰爭準備與實施的界限則日趨模糊,甚至混為一體。環顧世界,不難發現,信息強國幾乎每天都在進行戰爭:輿論宣傳、情報對抗、網絡偵察等等。這些實際上都是轉化了形式的信息戰,可以稱之為輿論戰、情報戰、網絡戰。

伊拉克戰爭中,輿論戰的威力讓世人大開眼界。有人說,作為信息戰作戰形式之一的“輿論戰”自有戰爭以來就一直在進行著。進行“輿論戰”的較早案例甚至可以追溯到中國夏朝的《甘誓》以及後來的《討曹檄文》與《討武檄文》。 “輿論戰”的進行完全沒有戰時與平時的界限。它通過控制、操縱、策劃、利用各種輿論工具,有計劃地向受眾傳遞經過選擇的信息,影響受眾的情感、動機、判斷和抉擇,從而對戰爭結果產生重大而直接的影響。至於信息戰中的情報戰、網絡戰就更是無視戰時與平時的分別了。當年,美國克林頓政府提出了構建信息高速公路、推進全球信息化的主張。此舉曾讓世人認為美國正在引領人類社會步入信息化時代。然而,美國的戰略意圖其實是趁人類社會的信息化尚處於一片空白之時,跑馬圈地,擴張美國的信息疆域,以期佔住信息化的先機。如此一來,全球信息化未來的發展就將按美國的路線圖行進。美國可以一舉將世界各國納入美國規劃的信息化版圖。現在看,美國的這一戰略企圖,其成效已遠遠勝於贏得一場硝煙彌漫、血雨腥風的戰爭。

信息戰不隻打戰時,這不僅表現為信息戰戰爭的準備與實施界限模糊,尤其體現在信息戰對人的思想和精神的攻擊上。思想和精神的形成是一個潛移默化的過程,通過信息優勢可以達成“不戰而屈人之兵”或“少戰而屈人之兵”的目標。其一般做法是:利用信息優勢在敵我之間製造反差,運用心理戰和戰略欺騙等手段,動搖、沮喪敵方軍心、民心和政府信念,破壞敵方正常的政治、經濟運行體系,通過上述手段可以使敵國處於癱瘓狀態,遏制敵對國家發動戰爭的意志,或使其喪失戰爭能力。

上個世紀80年代美蘇對峙中的一幕場景很值得人玩味。擅長演戲的美國總統裡根提出了一個咄咄逼人的“星球大戰”計劃,號稱要讓蘇聯的所有戰略核導彈失去作用。該計劃一宣布,美國就開動全部的宣傳機器拼命鼓吹,在全世界引起了巨大轟動。蘇聯領導人連續召開緊急會議,決定不惜血本堅決應對,建立起蘇聯的戰略防禦盾牌。其實,美國的“星球大戰”計劃隻進行了星星點點的技術實驗,壓根就沒有花多少錢,倒是一部同名的《星球大球》的電影風靡世界。而蘇聯人卻非常認真地埋頭苦幹,在國民經濟已經瀕臨崩潰的情況下,仍然把大把的盧布投向軍備競賽。本來已經力不從心的蘇聯在7年之後流盡了最後一滴血。不能說,蘇聯經濟的崩潰及政權的垮台沒有受美國信息戰的拖累。

關注保衛信息邊界的人民戰爭

在信息戰條件下,國家主權有了新的內容,國家安全的外延擴大了、內涵更豐富了,信息戰的影響也不再僅僅局限於軍事領域,而且輻射到整個人類社會。在信息戰條件下,弱國戰勝強國的重要法寶就是人民戰爭。隻有堅持打信息戰條件下的人民戰爭才能切實保衛國家信息疆域,維護國家信息主權。這其中除了信息技術和戰法等因素外,最主要的是抓住信息人才隊伍建設與構築信息時代的全民精神防線兩個環節。

得人才者興天下。信息戰的戰果如何,在很大程度上取決於人的因素,必須有大量的高技術信息戰人才作支撐。

在信息戰中,為數不多的頂尖信息人才往往能對戰爭的勝負起到關鍵作用。二戰期間,美軍為了把一個德國原子物理學家搶到手,竟然將3個陸軍師的進攻方向作了改變。二戰結束後那段“智者搶人,愚者奪器”的歷史更是耐人尋味。在東方,蘇聯人忙著搬運繳獲來的坦克大砲﹔在西方,美國人卻急急把3000多名德國科學家運回國內。半個多世紀過去了,當年搶人才的國家如今仍然在續寫著搶人的歷史,其經濟、科技和軍事不可一世。當年搶兵器的國家如今則在無奈地面對著被搶的現實。解體後的蘇聯有上萬名優秀科技人才改換門庭,服務於當年的對手。人才之爭作為軍事鬥爭的一個制高點,在信息時代的軍事較量中,更具有決定性的意義。

與信息戰所帶來的“硬殺傷”相比,信息戰的“軟殺傷”更為可怕。信息戰條件下精神領域是最“易受攻擊之窗”。

隨著信息技術越來越發達,信道越來越流暢,信息來源更為廣泛,人們獲取的信息將越來越多,獲取信息的速度也越來越快。現代化的傳播手段把所要傳遞的信息幾乎不受任何限制,有效地傳到世界各國。當前,發達國家十分注意利用它們的先進信息技術,建立覆蓋全球的廣播、電視、計算機網絡,藉此大規模輸出其政治主張和價值觀念,擴充信息疆域。其結果是信息化發展落後的國家受到強烈的精神沖擊。因此,要想打贏信息戰條件下的人民戰爭,從個人、媒體、軍隊到整個國家都必須全面增強信息國防意識,樹立保衛國家信息疆域和信息邊界的觀念,自覺築起無形的精神防線。

相關鏈接

世界信息戰總體形勢掃描

可以認為,世界信息戰的發展經歷了3個階段。

第一階段:1991年海灣戰爭以前信息戰的醞釀和提出時期﹔

第二階段:海灣戰爭後至1998年前信息戰的實施和成熟時期﹔

第三階段:1998年後至今遏制信息戰的發展時期。

當前,信息戰引發的新軍事革命仍在全球進行。機械化戰爭向信息戰的轉變已在全球全面展開。全世界各主要國家的軍隊正按照信息戰思想調整戰略戰術、編制裝備、作戰訓練等,為打贏信息戰作準備。海灣戰爭以後的所有戰爭無不烙上信息戰的痕跡。信息戰的威力正沖擊著社會的各個領域。

信息戰實戰技法點擊

當前,世界各國在信息戰技術手段的應用與發展上主要有:

1.偵察監視技術。包括天基、空基、海基和地基在內的各種偵察、監視、預警、導航等手段。

2.平台一體化信息戰系統。實現雷達告警、導彈發射和攻擊告警、信息支援、信息幹擾及規避、協同一體化,而且與平台上其他信息設備綜合為一體,達成信息共享。

3.網絡指揮控制戰技術。 4.計算機病毒技術。

5.攻心武器技術。包括電磁脈沖武器、超聲波武器和次聲波武器。 6.先進電子對抗技術。

最新信息戰裝備掠影

在信息戰武器發展上,近年來各國研製或已投入現役的主要有以下裝備。

1.聯合監視與目標攻擊雷達系統,是一種戰場信息處理系統,能精確探測移動的和固定的目標,以配合實施遠距離精確打擊,還能向指揮官提供有關戰況發展和戰鬥管理的重要情報。

2.聯合戰術空對地信息站,是一種武器支援系統,能處理供預警導彈發射用的天基傳感器數據、作戰能力所需的重要信息。

3.束能武器,能在瞬間穿透數百公裡甚至數千公裡外的目標而不留下“硬傷”,尤其對精確制導高技術武器有直接的破壞作用,因此被認為是戰術防空、反裝甲、光電對抗乃至戰略反導、反衛星、反一切航天器的多功能理想武器。

4.智能戰衣,編織有光纖網絡和導電聚合網絡,並有監視士兵身體狀態的微型測量系統。在未來戰場上,一名士兵受了傷,就在其倒地的瞬間,救護中心的醫務人員就能準確判斷出是彈傷還是刀傷、受傷部位在何處以及其他基本傷情。

此外,還有軍用機器人、艦載電子戰系統、強功率射頻放大器技術、先進的天線技術和信號處理技術等等。

信息戰國力競爭激烈

放眼世界,現在已有英國、法國、以色列、俄羅斯等20多個國家對信息戰展開深入研究。美國信息戰發展走在世界前列,主要體現在技術、裝備、理論等方面。

美國:信息戰戰略由防轉攻。為了提高美軍信息戰技術能力,美國國防部有專門信息系統處理機構負責維護美國軍方使用的250萬台電腦,並在抓緊研究如何提高電腦的攻擊能力,製造破壞敵對國的通信網絡、金融系統及電力系統的入侵病毒。早在2000年秋天,美國太空指揮中心已開始研製攻擊性電腦武器。這意味著美軍信息戰戰略的重大調整———由戰略防禦轉向戰略進攻。

俄羅斯:信息戰重心在“天兵”。俄羅斯的信息戰發展集中力量發展“天兵 ”———航天兵。 2002年俄羅斯投入約316億盧布用於太空專項研究,54億盧布用於全球導航系統的研發,還加強了激光、高功率微波和反衛星武器的研製。

日本:加快組建信息戰部隊。日本防衛廳正在組建5000人規模的信息戰部隊,把網絡武器的開發作為今后防衛計劃的重點,並加快了日本陸軍數字化部隊的建設。

歐盟和其他西方國家:著手數字化部隊建設。法、德、英、加、澳、荷蘭和瑞典等國也在研製平台和單兵的C4I系統。法國、英國、德國、澳大利亞、加拿大、意大利、以色列等10多個國家都在著手執行數字化部隊和數字化戰場建設計劃。其中,多數國家正在集中人力財力開發數字化部隊所需要的裝備,少數走在前面的國家已進行過多次數字化部隊試驗演習。今後,上述國家在繼續開發戰場數字化“硬件”的同時,將開始考慮數字化部隊的編成結構,並將有更多的國家加入部隊數字化建設的行列。

來源:中國國防報

Original Referring URL: http://people.com.cn/BIG5/junshi/1078/

 

 

How Chinese Cyber Warfare Rejects Foreign Intruders Focuses on National Security // 中國網絡戰如何拒絕外國入侵者關注國家安全

How Chinese Cyber Warfare Rejects Foreign Intruders Focuses on National Security //

中國網絡戰如何拒絕外國入侵者關注國家安全

In the information age, cybersecurity has taken the lead in national security. The Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy emphasizes that it should actively adapt to the new changes in the national security situation, new trends in information technology development, and new requirements for strong military objectives, build an information security defense system, and comprehensively improve the ability to win localized information warfare. Cyberspace has become a new field that affects national security, social stability, economic development and cultural communication. Cyberspace security has become an important topic of increasing concern to the international community.

The United States has clearly declared that cyberspace is a new field of operations, and has significantly expanded its network command and combat forces to continue to focus on cyberspace weapons development. Since entering the summer, the US military network exercises have been one after another, and the invisible wars are filled with smoke. At the beginning of March, “Network Storm 5” took the lead in kicking off the drill; in April, “Network Aegis 2016” completed the fifth-generation upgrade; in June, “Network Defense” and “Network Capture” as the core re-installation of the annual joint exercise Debut.

The essence of network security lies in the ability to attack and defend both ends. Currently, static, isolated, passive defenses such as firewalls, intrusion detection technologies, and anti-virus software are difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity network attacks. To build a cyberspace security defense line, we need to get rid of the idea of ​​falling behind and win the counterattack on the defensive concept.

New “Thirty-six” mobile target defense

Increase the difficulty of attack by building a dynamic network

Network attacks require a certain amount of time to scan and research the target network, detect and utilize system “vulnerabilities” to achieve intrusion control purposes. In theory, the attacker has unlimited time to start the scanning and detecting work, and always find the weak point of defense, and finally achieve the purpose of the invasion. To this end, the network pioneer USA is committed to planning and deploying security defense transformation work, striving to break through the traditional defense concept and develop revolutionary technology that can “change the rules of the game”. Mobile target defense is one of them.

Mobile target defense is called the new paradigm of cyberspace security defense. The technical strategy is to construct a dynamic network through the processing and control of the protection target itself, increasing randomness and reducing predictability to improve the difficulty of attack. If the static cyberspace is likened to a constant “city defense deployment”, it is difficult to stick to it; and the dynamic network configuration can be called the ever-changing “eight squad”, which is difficult to crack. At present, mobile target defense technology has priority in various US government and military research, covering dynamic platform technology, dynamic operating environment technology, dynamic software and data technology. In August 2012, the US Army awarded Raytheon’s “Deformation Network Facility” project to study the dynamic adjustment and configuration of networks, hosts and applications in case the enemy could not detect and predict, thus preventing, delaying or blocking the network. attack.

As a new idea in the field of cyberspace security, mobile target defense reflects the technological development trend of future network defenses to turn “dead” networks into “live” networks.

The new “Thirty-six” honey cans deceive defense

Reduce cyberattack threats by consuming attacker resources

Conventional network security protection is mainly to defend against cyber attacks from the front. Although the defensive measures have made great progress, they have not changed the basic situation of cyberspace “easy to attack and defend”. In recent years, the development of “Honeypot Deception Defense” has proposed a new concept of “bypass guidance”, which is to reduce the threat of cyber attacks to the real protection target by absorbing network intrusion and consuming the resources of attackers, thereby winning time. Strengthen protection measures to make up for the shortcomings of the traditional cyberspace defense system.

Similar to the intentional setting of false positions on the battlefield, honeypot deception defense is to actively use the computer network with lower security defense level to lure all kinds of network attacks, monitor its attack means and attributes, and set corresponding defenses on the target system that needs to be protected. System to stop similar attacks. Honeypots can be divided into two types, product-type honeypots and research-type honeypots. The main purpose of the former is to “attract firepower” and reduce the pressure of defense. The latter is designed for research and acquisition of attack information. It is an intelligence gathering system that not only needs network attack resistance but also strives to monitor powerfully to capture the attack behavior data to the maximum extent.

In addition to the establishment of a virtual network environment attack and defense laboratory consisting of four sub-networks of gray, yellow, black and green, the US military has also carefully deployed a honeypot decoy system on the Internet. What is certain is that the network defense idea based on deception will be further emphasized, and the technical means to achieve deception will be more and more.

New “Thirty-six Meters” linkage synergy defense

Integrate multiple defense technologies to “reject enemy from outside the country”

At present, most of the security protection devices and defense technologies are “individually fighting”. The data between network protection nodes is difficult to share, and the protection technologies are not related. As a result, the current defense system is isolated and static, which cannot meet the increasingly complex network security situation. need. The original motivation of the US “Einstein Plan” was that all federal agencies had exclusive access to the Internet, making overall security difficult to guarantee. Through the collaborative linkage mechanism, the relatively independent security protection devices and technologies in the network are organically combined to complement each other and cooperate with each other to defend against various attacks. It has become an inevitable choice for the future development of cyberspace security defense.

Collaborative collaborative defense refers to the use of existing security technologies, measures and equipment to organically organize multiple security systems that are separated in time, spatially distributed, and work and interdependent, so that the entire security system can maximize its effectiveness. Vertically, it is the coordinated defense of multiple security technologies, that is, one security technology directly includes or links to another security technology through some communication method. For example, the “deep defense” mechanism adopted by the US Navy network defense system targets the core deployment layer protection measures, including flag-based attack detection, WAN security audit, vulnerability alert, etc., and the attacker must break through multiple defense layers to enter the system. Thereby reducing its attack success rate. When a node in the system is threatened, it can forward the threat information to other nodes in time and take corresponding protective measures to adjust and deploy the protection strategy.

In the past, individual combat operations have been unable to meet the needs of today’s network security defenses, and coordinated collaborative defense will leap into the mainstream of network security. Integrate a variety of defense technologies, establish an organized defense system, and “reject the enemy outside the country” to effectively prevent problems before they occur.

The optimal strategy defense of the new “Thirty-six”

Seeking a balance between cybersecurity risks and investments

The attacks in cyberspace are more and more complicated. The ideal network security protection is to protect all the weak or attack behaviors. However, from the perspective of defense resources limitation, it is obviously unrealistic to pursue absolute security defense. Based on the concept of “moderate security”, the optimal strategy defense is on the horizon.

Optimal policy defense can be understood as seeking a balance between cyber security risks and inputs, and using limited resources to make the most reasonable decision defense. As far as investment is concerned, even the strong United States is trying to build a collective defense system for cyberspace. The United States and Australia cyberspace defense alliance agreement, as well as the Japan-US network defense cooperation joint statement, its “share of results” behind the “cost sharing” shadow. From the perspective of risk, the pursuit of absolute security will adhere to the principle of safety supremacy. When formulating relevant strategic objectives and responding to threats, it is easy to ignore the limited and legitimacy of the resources and means available, and it is difficult to grasp the advance and retreat.

The optimal strategy defense is mainly focused on the “optimal” strategy of game theory, focusing on the research direction of cyberspace security assessment, cost analysis, security defense model construction and evolution. Applying the idea of ​​game theory to cyber attacks and defenses provides a new way to solve the problem of optimal defense decision-making.

The new “Thirty-six” intrusion tolerance defense

Create a “last line of defense” for cyberspace security

The threats to cyberspace are unpredictable, irresistible, and unpredictable. Protection can’t completely avoid system failure or even collapse. Traditional reliability theory and fault-tolerant computing technology are difficult to meet the actual needs, which has to consider more comprehensive and deeper problems than pure protection. In this context, a new generation of intrusion-tolerance defenses has received increasing attention.

Intrusion tolerance is the third-generation network security technology, which belongs to the category of information survival technology and is called the “last line of defense” for cyberspace security defense. Unlike traditional cybersecurity defenses, intrusion-tolerant defenses recognize the existence of vulnerabilities and assume that some of them may be exploited by attackers to attack the system. When the target of protection is attacked or even some parts have been destroyed or manipulated, the target system can “kill the tail” like a gecko to complete the healing and regeneration of the target system.

Intrusion-tolerance technology is no longer based on “defense”, but on how to reduce losses and recover as soon as the system has been damaged. However, intrusion tolerance is an emerging research field. Its cost, cost and benefit will be the next research direction.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

新聞緣由

信息時代,網絡安全對國家安全牽一發而動全身。 《國家信息化發展戰略綱要》強調,積極適應國家安全形勢新變化、信息技術發展新趨勢和強軍目標新要求,構建信息安全防禦體系,全面提高打贏信息化局部戰爭能力。網絡空間已經成為影響國家安全、社會穩定、經濟發展和文化傳播的全新領域,網絡空間安全隨之成為國際社會日益關注的重要議題。

美國明確宣稱網絡空間為新的作戰領域,大幅擴編網絡司令部和作戰部隊,持續聚力網絡空間武器研發。進入夏季以來,美軍網絡演習接二連三,隱形戰火硝煙瀰漫。 3月初,“網絡風暴5”率先拉開演練戰幕;4月,“網絡神盾2016”完成第五代升級;6月,“網絡防衛”“網絡奪旗”作為年度聯合演習的核心重裝登場。

網絡安全的本質在於攻防兩端能力較量,目前依賴防火牆、入侵檢測技術和反病毒軟件等靜態的、孤立的、被動式防禦難以有效應對有組織的高強度網絡攻擊。構築網絡空間安全防線,需要革除落伍思想,打贏防禦理念上的反擊戰。

新“三十六計”之移動目標防禦

通過構建動態網絡增加攻擊難度

網絡攻擊行動均需要一定的時間用於掃描和研究目標網絡,探測並利用系統“漏洞”,達到入侵控制目的。從理論上說,攻擊者有無限的時間展開掃描探測工作,總能找到防禦薄弱點,最終達成入侵目的。為此,網絡先行者美國致力於籌劃和部署安全防禦轉型工作,力求突破傳統防禦理念,發展能“改變遊戲規則”的革命性技術,移動目標防禦即是其中之一。

移動目標防禦被稱為網絡空間安全防禦新範式,技術策略上通過對防護目標本身的處理和控制,致力於構建一種動態的網絡,增加隨機性、減少可預見性,以提高攻擊難度。若將靜態的網絡空間比喻為一成不變的“城防部署”,勢難固守;而動態的網絡配置堪稱變幻無窮的“八卦陣”,難以破解。目前,移動目標防禦技術在美國政府和軍方各類研究中均享有優先權,涵蓋動態平台技術、動態運行環境技術、動態軟件和數據技術等方面。 2012年8月,美陸軍授予雷神公司“變形網絡設施”項目,主要研究在敵方無法探測和預知的情況下,對網絡、主機和應用程序進行動態調整和配置,從而預防、遲滯或阻止網絡攻擊。

作為網絡空間安全領域的新思路,移動目標防禦反映了未來網絡防禦將“死”網絡變成“活”網絡的技術發展趨勢。

新“三十六計”之蜜罐誘騙防禦

通過消耗攻擊者的資源減少網絡攻擊威脅

常規的網絡安全防護主要是從正面抵禦網絡攻擊,雖然防禦措施取得了長足進步,但仍未能改變網絡空間“易攻難守”的基本局面。近年來發展的“蜜罐誘騙防禦”則提出了一個“旁路引導”的新理念,即通過吸納網絡入侵和消耗攻擊者的資源來減少網絡攻擊對真正要防護目標的威脅,進而贏得時間以增強防護措施,彌補傳統網絡空間防禦體系的不足。

與戰場上有意設置假陣地相仿,蜜罐誘騙防禦是主動利用安全防禦層級較低的計算機網絡,引誘各類網絡攻擊,監測其攻擊手段和屬性,在真正需要做防護的目標系統上設置相應防禦體系,以阻止類似攻擊。蜜罐可分為兩種類型,即產品型蜜罐和研究型蜜罐。前者主要目的是“吸引火力”,減輕防禦壓力,後者則為研究和獲取攻擊信息而設計,堪稱情報蒐集系統,不僅需要網絡耐攻擊而且力求監視能力強大,以最大限度捕獲攻擊行為數據。

美軍除了建立由灰網、黃網、黑網、綠網4個子網絡組成的虛擬網絡環境攻防實驗室外,還在國際互聯網上精心部署有蜜罐誘騙系統。可以肯定的是,基於誘騙的網絡防禦思想將被進一步重視,實現誘騙的技術途徑也將會越來越多。

新“三十六計”之聯動協同防禦

整合多種防禦技術“拒敵於國門之外”

目前的安全防護設備和防禦技術大都是“各自為戰”,網絡防護節點間的數據難共享,防護技術不關聯,導致目前的防禦體係是孤立和靜態的,已不能滿足日趨複雜的網絡安全形勢需要。美國“愛因斯坦計劃”最初的動因就在於各聯邦機構獨享互聯網出口,使得整體安全性難以保障。通過協同聯動機制把網絡中相對獨立的安全防護設備和技術有機組合起來,取長補短,互相配合,共同抵禦各種攻擊,已成為未來網絡空間安全防禦發展的必然選擇。

聯動協同防禦是指利用現有安全技術、措施和設備,將時間上分離、空間上分佈而工作上又相互依賴的多個安全系統有機組織起來,從而使整個安全系統能夠最大程度地發揮效能。縱向上,是多個安全技術的聯動協同防禦,即一種安全技術直接包含或是通過某種通信方式鏈接另一種安全技術。如美國海軍網絡防禦體係採用的“縱深防禦”機制,針對核心部署層層防護措施,包括基於標誌的攻擊檢測、廣域網安全審計、脆弱性警報等,攻擊方須突破多個防禦層才能進入系統,從而降低其攻擊成功率。當系統中某節點受到威脅時,能夠及時將威脅信息轉發給其他節點並採取相應防護措施,進行一體化調整和部署防護策略。

昔日的單兵作戰已不能適應當今網絡安全防禦的需要,聯動協同防禦將躍升為網絡安全領域的主流。整合多種防禦技術,建立有組織性的防禦體系,“拒敵於國門之外”才能有效防患於未然。

新“三十六計”之最優策略防禦

在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡

網絡空間的攻擊越來越複雜,理想的網絡安全防護當然是對所有的弱項或攻擊行為都做出對應的防護,但是從防禦資源限制等情況考慮,追求絕對安全的防禦顯然是不現實的。基於“適度安全”的理念,最優策略防禦呼之欲出。

最優策略防禦可以理解為在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡,利用有限的資源做出最合理決策的防禦。就投入而言,即便是實力雄厚的美國,也是盡量打造網絡空間集體防禦體系。美國與澳大利亞網絡空間防禦同盟協定,以及日美網絡防禦合作聯合聲明,其“成果共享”背後亦有“成本分攤”的影子。從風險角度看,對絕對安全的追求將會秉持安全至上原則,在製定相關戰略目標和對威脅作出反應時,易忽視所擁有資源和手段的有限性、合法性,難以掌握進退。

最優策略防禦主要圍繞博弈論的策略“最優”而展開,集中在網絡空間安全測評、代價分析、安全防禦模型構建與演化等研究方向上。將博弈論的思想應用到網絡攻擊和防禦中,為解決最優防禦決策等難題研究提供了一種新思路。

新“三十六計”之入侵容忍防禦

打造網絡空間安全 “最後一道防線”

網絡空間面臨的威脅很多是不可預見、無法抗拒和防不勝防的,防護再好也不能完全避免系統失效甚至崩潰的發生。傳統的可靠性理論和容錯計算技術難以滿足實際需要,這就不得不思考比單純防護更全面、更深層次的問題。在此背景下,新一代入侵容忍防禦愈發受到重視。

入侵容忍是第三代網絡安全技術,隸屬於信息生存技術的範疇,被稱作是網絡空間安全防禦“最後一道防線”。與傳統網絡安全防禦思路不同,入侵容忍防禦承認脆弱點的存在,並假定其中某些脆弱點可能會被攻擊者利用而使系統遭到攻擊。防護目標在受到攻擊甚至某些部分已被破壞或被操控時,防護目標系統可以像壁虎一樣“斷尾求生”,完成目標系統的癒合和再生。

入侵容忍技術不再以“防”為主,而是重在系統已遭破壞的情況下如何減少損失,盡快恢復。但入侵容忍畢竟是一個新興研究領域,其成本、代價、效益等將是下一步的研究方向。

Original Referring URL:  http://www.81.cn/jskj/2016-08/11/

China analysis for winning mechanisms of victory on the cyberspace battlefield // 中國對網絡空間戰場胜利機制的分析

China analysis for winning mechanisms of victory on the cyberspace battlefield //

中國對網絡空間戰場胜利機制的分析

2017年04月17日 15:xx:xx

If the First World War was a chemist’s war and the Second World War was a physicist’s war, then the 21st century war would undoubtedly become a game between informatics. The cyberspace war has moved from the background to the front. From the supporting role to the protagonist, become a new battlefield and combat platform. With the gradual emergence of the cyber warfare deterrent effect, countries have introduced network strategies and formed “cyber warfare forces”. The global network arms race has shown its tempo. At present, more than 20 countries have established “cyber warfare forces”. Committed to the application of network technology to war, the “seismic network” incident and the “hacker door” incident fully proved the remarkable power of cyber warfare in the new generation of war mode.

    We must profoundly understand the new forms of war reflected by these events and actively respond to the threats and challenges brought by cyber sovereignty, network defense, network frontiers, and cyber warfare, because whoever masters the new war winning mechanism will be able to Win the initiative in the round of war.

Network Sovereignty: A New Dimension

  

  The world today is moving rapidly toward informationization, and cyberspace has become the “fifth largest territory” beyond land, sea, air and sky. The original sovereignty is the sovereignty of physical space, while the network sovereignty is the sovereign space of network electromagnetic space; national sovereignty is a concept that expands with the expansion of human activity space. Network sovereignty is a new content and an important part of national sovereignty.

    (1) Cyber ​​sovereignty has become the “commanding height” of national sovereignty. The network carries a large amount of content such as politics, economy, military, culture, transportation and social, and becomes the basic platform for the efficient operation and accelerated progress of the entire society. Once the cyber sovereignty is lost, the network public opinion orientation will be out of control. The national industrial, transportation, energy and other national economic lifeline industry control systems and military information networks will be out of control, just as sea power challenges land rights and air rights challenges sea power and land rights. The latecomers of cyber sovereignty have become the “commanding heights” of national sovereignty, directly affecting the security and stability of all areas of the country.

    (2) The violation of cyber sovereignty will directly affect the “heart” of the country. Compared with traditional physical space, the existence and defense of cyberspace sovereignty is not only easily overlooked, but also vulnerable to violations. The network hinges the information nodes on the earth that are thousands of miles apart. Through it, it can be easily and easily moved from one country to the heart of another country to the heart. A keystroke can surround the Earth for two weeks in a period of 0.3 seconds, and the attack is difficult to locate.

    (3) The use of “combination boxing” is required to defend the cyberspace sovereignty. In the Google turmoil in 2010, the Chinese government categorically rejected Google’s request for “freedom” beyond Chinese legal management, which is a firm defense of cyber sovereignty. For any violation of the cyber sovereignty of our network, we must not only resist and counterattack in the cyberspace, but also play a “combination boxing” of politics, economy, and diplomacy to counterattack if necessary.

Network Frontiers – A New Border of National Security

    China’s Internet users have reached 731 million. In this context, the network frontier far surpasses the status of the Great Wall in history and has become an important “warning line” for national security in the information age.

    (1) Fully recognize the “new situation” of the network frontier. The first is the lack of network protection awareness among the people. Many systems have the same firewall, the network security problem is serious, and the cyber crime is increasing. Secondly, the network security products and security equipment in key areas rely on imports. The mainstream firewall technology and anti-virus technology are mostly from abroad, and they can control themselves independently. The lack of high-tech network security products; the third is that as China is increasingly connected to the world, the introduction of technology and equipment network remote services increases, the foreign party can monitor the operation and production of the equipment in real time, making me “portal opening”; finally In actual network operations, Western network powers monopolize a large number of network resources. For example, most of the world’s online information comes from or passes through the United States.

    (2) Accurately define the “new boundary” of cyberspace. On the one hand, we must correctly understand the essential meaning of the network frontier. A country’s network infrastructure, state-specific Internet domain names and their domains, as well as financial, telecommunications, transportation, energy and other national core network systems in the national economy and the people’s livelihood should be regarded as an important part of the national network frontier, and no vandalism is allowed. On the one hand, we must correctly understand the importance of guarding the network frontier. Watching the network frontier is actually an authorization relationship, that is, it must meet the requirements and be allowed to enter. Otherwise, it cannot enter. For example, national financial, power, transportation and other systems of protection measures, firewalls and bank card cryptosystems are the “watchers” of the network frontier.

    (3) Focus on creating a “new sword” that guards the frontiers of the network. The frontiers of guarding the network must be supported by powerful technical means. Various firewalls, cryptosystems, etc. are equivalent to building thick lines on the frontiers of the network, but this is not enough to resist external “invasion”, but also requires “patrol sentinels” and “frontier forces” to detect “intrusion” in a timely manner. In 2003, the US Einstein Plan for monitoring abnormal traffic at government agencies and institutional networks was the world’s first intrusion detection system. By the end of 2008, the Einstein system had been deployed in 600 government agency website systems, forming an intrusion detection system that supports dynamic protection.

Network Defense – The New Great Wall of National Defense

    Sovereignty without armed protection is a fragile sovereignty, and frontiers without defense and defense are endangered frontiers. Therefore, people have a strong sense of border defense, coastal defense, and air defense.

    (1) Firmly establishing a network defense concept is a “premise.” The countries of the world, especially the western developed countries, have not only woke up early, got up early, but also ran fast in the construction of network defense. Among them, the United States is both the creator of the Internet and the country that first paid attention to the construction of network security protection. The United States not only took the lead in formulating a series of policy documents such as the National Strategy for Ensuring Cyberspace Security, but also established a strong “net army” and a strong network defense.

    (2) Vigorously building the network’s national defense force is a “trend.” The United States, Britain, Japan, Russia and other countries, as well as Taiwan, have formed cyber warfare units and command agencies. Strengthening the construction of cyber security forces and improving the national cyber defense capabilities are both the general trend and the successful practices of all countries in the world. They are also an urgent task for safeguarding China’s national security.

    (III) Overall planning of network defense construction is “key”. The overall strategic concept should be proposed for the current cyberspace struggle, and the “three hands” should be highlighted in the top-level design: that is, to compete as a “flag-bearer” in public opinion, to select “hands-on” in the construction focus, and to stay on the struggle strategy. There is a “backhand”.

Cyber ​​Warfare: A New Battlefield for the Game of Great Powers

    In today’s world, the globalization of network battlefields, the normalization of network attack and defense, and the white-hotness of network attacks have made it possible to scientifically and effectively control cyberspace and occupy cyberspace, and become a new battlefield for strategic games of big countries.

    The first is to regard the cyberspace situational awareness as the core of the power system. The four capabilities of “network security, situational awareness, network defense, and network deterrence” are the core capabilities for comprehensively promoting the construction of the cyberspace capability system. The war first requires the commander to grasp and understand the enemy’s and his own situation, make correct decisions based on the real-time situation, and the ever-changing characteristics of the network situation determine the success or failure of the network operation. Therefore, network situational awareness has become the primary capability of the cyberspace combat confrontation system.

    The second is to use offensive operations as the main way to seize the initiative of cyberspace. The US military has strategically considered the cyberspace attacks as aggression in real space and has been attacked by the military. At present, the US military has built 100 teams to operate in cyberspace. In cyberspace operations, the offensive and defensive subjects have a certain degree of separation, and the offensive and defensive effects have asymmetry. The key to seizing the initiative in cyberspace operations is to use the offensive action to contain enemy attacks and ensure my stability.

    The third is to establish a cyberspace defense force system with national co-ordination and military-civilian integration. To attack and defend, not to ignore the defense. Therefore, in accordance with the idea of ​​“optimizing the overall existing strength, developing the gap to fill the gap, and building a new mechanism to protect the forces”, the company will build a professional, support and reserve based on the requirements of “moderate scale, structural optimization, integration of technology and warfare, and complementary functions”. The new cyberspace security defense force system composed of other forces will enhance the national network counterattack capability and form a network deterrent. (Li Yiyang: School of Secondary School Affiliated to Renmin University of China; Li Minghai: Deputy Director, Network Space Research Center, National Defense University) 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

如果說第一次世界大戰是化學家的戰爭,第二次世界大戰是物理學家的戰爭,那麼,21世紀的戰爭無疑將成為信息學家之間的博弈,網絡空間戰已從後台走向前台,從配角轉向主角,成為新的戰場和作戰平台隨著網絡戰威懾效果的逐步顯現,各國紛紛出台網絡戰略,組建“網絡戰部隊”,全球網絡軍備競賽呈燎原之勢 – 目前已有20多個國家組建了“網絡戰部隊”,各國都致力於將網絡技術運用於戰爭“震網”事件,“黑客門”事件充分證明了網絡戰在新一代戰爭模式中的顯著威力。

我們必須深刻認識這些事件所折射出來的新的戰爭形態,積極應對網絡主權,網絡國防,網絡邊疆,網絡戰爭帶來的威脅和挑戰,因為,誰掌握新的戰爭制勝機理,誰就能在下一輪戰爭中贏得主動。

網絡主權 – 國家主權的新維度

當今世界正在向著信息化快速邁進,網絡空間成為繼陸,海,空,天之外的“第五大疆域”原有的主權均為物理空間的主權,而網絡主權是網絡電磁空間主權。國家主權是一個隨著人類活動空間的拓展而不斷拓展的概念,網絡主權是國家主權的全新內容和重要組成部分。

(一)網絡主權已成為國家主權的“制高點”。網絡承載了政治,經濟,軍事,文化,交通和社交等大量內容,成為整個社會高效運轉和加速進步的基本平台。一旦喪失網絡主權,網絡輿情導向將會失控,國家工業,交通,能源等國民經濟命脈行業控制系統和軍事信息網絡都將會失控,如同海權挑戰陸權,空權挑戰海權與陸權一樣,網絡主權後來者居上,成為國家主權的“制高點”,直接影響國家各領域的安全穩定。

(二)網絡主權的侵犯將直逼國家的“心臟”。與傳統實體空間相比,網絡空間主權的存在與捍衛不僅易被忽視,而且易遭侵犯。網絡把地球上相距萬里的信息節點鉸鏈為一體,通過它可以悄無聲息,輕而易舉地從一國進入另一國腹地直至心臟部位。一次擊鍵0.3秒時間內即可環繞地球兩週,而且,攻擊很難被定位。

(三)捍衛網絡空間主權需用“組合拳”。2010年谷歌風波中,中國政府斷然拒絕谷歌要求超越中國法律管理的“自由”,就是對網絡主權的堅決捍衛。對於任何侵犯我網絡主權的行為,不僅要在網絡空間予以抵制和反擊,必要時還可打出政治,經濟,外交等“組合拳”給予還擊。

網絡邊疆 – 國家安全的新邊界

中國網民已達7.31億,在這個背景下,網絡邊疆遠超歷史上萬里長城的地位,成為信息時代國家安全的重要“警戒線”。

(一)充分認清網絡邊疆的“新形勢”首先是民眾缺乏網絡防護意識,很多系統的防火牆形同虛設,網絡安全問題嚴重,網絡犯罪日益增加;其次是網絡安全產品和關鍵領域安全設備依賴進口,主流防火牆技術和殺毒技術大都來自國外,自主可控,高技術含量的網絡安全產品匱乏;第三是隨著我國日益與世界接軌,引進技術設備的網絡遠程服務增加,外方能實時監控設備運轉和生產情況,令我自身“門戶洞開”;最後是在實際網絡運營上,西方網絡大國壟斷著大量網絡資源,比如,全球大多數網上信息發自或經過美國。

(二)準確界定網絡空間的“新邊界”。一方面,要正確理解網絡邊疆的本質內涵。一個國家的網絡基礎設施,國家專屬的互聯網域名及其域內以及金融,電信,交通,能源等關係國計民生領域的國家核心網絡系統都應視為國家網絡邊疆的重要組成部分,不允許肆意破壞;另一方面,要正確認識值守網絡邊疆的重要性值守網絡邊疆,其實是一種授權關係,即必須符合要求,得到允許才能進入,否則,不能進入。比如,國家金融,電力,交通等系統的防護措施,防火牆以及銀行卡密碼系統等都是網絡邊疆的“值守者”。

(三)著力打造守護網絡邊疆的“新利劍”。守護網絡邊疆必須以強大的技術手段為支撐。各種防火牆,密碼系統等相當於在網絡邊疆上建起了粗線條的籬笆,但這不足以抵禦外來“入侵”,還需要“巡邏哨兵”和“邊防部隊”及時檢測“入侵”行為。2003年,美國用於監測政府部門和機構網絡關口非正常流量的“愛因斯坦計劃”,就是世界上第一個入侵檢測系統。到2008年年底,愛因斯坦系統已部署在600個政府機構網站系統中,形成了一個支撐動態保護的入侵檢測系統。

網絡國防 – 國家防禦的新長城

沒有武裝保護的主權是脆弱的主權,沒有國防捍衛的邊疆是瀕危的邊疆。因此,人們才產生了強烈的邊防,海防,空防意識。

(一)牢固樹立網絡國防理念是“前提”。世界各國,尤其是西方發達國家在網絡國防建設上,不僅醒得早,起得早,而且跑得快。其中,美國既是互聯網的締造者,也是最早關注網絡安全防護建設的國家。美國不僅率先制定了“確保網絡空間安全的國家戰略”等一系列政策文件,而且建立了強大的“網軍”和強大的網絡國防。

(二)大力建設網絡國防力量是“勢趨”。美國,英國,日本,俄羅斯等國以及中國台灣地區,紛紛組建了網絡戰部隊和指揮機構。加強網絡安全力量建設,提高國家網絡防衛能力,這既是大勢所趨,也是世界各國的成功做法,更是維護我國國家安全的一項緊迫任務。

(三)整體統籌網絡國防建設是“關鍵”應針對當前網絡空間鬥爭實際提出總體戰略構想,並在頂層設計上突出“三手”:即在輿論造勢上爭當“旗手”,在建設重點上選好“抓手”,在鬥爭策略上留有“後手”。

網絡戰爭 – 大國博弈的新戰場

當今世界,網絡戰場的全球化,網絡攻防的常態化,網絡攻心的白熱化等突出特點,使得科學高效地管控網絡空間,佔領網絡空間,成為大國戰略博弈的新戰場。

一是把網絡空間態勢感知能力作為力量體系建設核心。“網絡安全保障,態勢感知,網絡防禦,網絡威懾”四大能力,是全面推進網絡空間能力體系建設的核心能力。戰爭首先需要指揮員能夠掌握和理解敵方,己方態勢,根據實時態勢作出正確決策,網絡態勢瞬息萬變的特點決定了網絡作戰的成敗。因此,網絡態勢感知能力就成為網絡空間作戰對抗體系的首要能力。

二是將攻勢作戰作為奪取網絡空間主動權的主要方式。美軍在戰略上已將網絡空間的攻擊行為視為現實空間的侵略行為,並予以軍事打擊。目前美軍已建成100個小組在網絡空間活動。網絡空間作戰,攻防主體具有一定的分離性,攻防效果具有不對稱性。奪取網絡空間作戰的主動權,關鍵在於以攻勢行動遏制敵攻擊,保證我穩定。

三是建立國家統籌,軍民融合的網絡空間防禦力量體系。以攻助防,不是忽視防禦。因此,需要按照“優化整體現有力量,發展填補空白力量,組建新機理防護力量”的思路,依據“規模適度,結構優化,技戰一體,功能互補”的要求,構建由專業,支援和預備役等力量構成的新型網絡空間安全防禦力量體系,提升國家網絡反擊能力,形成網絡威懾力(李昊洋:中國人民大學附屬中學分校;李明海:國防大學網絡空間研究中心副主任)

Original Referring URL:  http://www.cac.gov.cn/2017-04/

China’s One Belt One Road Justification for PLA Expeditionary Deployment // 中國解放軍遠征部署的一帶一路理由

China’s One Belt One Road Justification for PLA Expeditionary Deployment // 中國解放軍遠征部署的一帶一路理由

By National Defense University Professor Lieutenant General Qiao Lang 責任編輯︰姜紫微

“One Belt, One Road” cannot open up safety awareness

The Chinese have a problem, they like to talk about strategy, they don’t like to talk about strategies; they like to talk about goals, they don’t like to talk about indicators, so the final result is big and big. If there is no strategy, there is no possibility that this strategy will be realized. If there are targets and no indicators, then to what extent is this goal achieved? This time, the “One Belt and One Road” was proposed. The most worrying thing is that the thunder is loud and the rain is small. The talk is vigorous and vigorous, and finally it is gone. We have done this kind of thing many times, I hope this time is not. Because if the “Belt and Road” fails, it can be a very heavy blow to the revival of the Chinese economy and even the Chinese nation.

Many officials now talk about the “Belt and Road” without talking about security issues, nor about political issues, and no one talking about military issues. Some officials even emphasized that the “Belt and Road” has no political appeals and no ideological appeals. It is entirely an economic behavior. This kind of statement, if it is propaganda to countries along the line, is ok, because strategic intentions always have to be concealed. You say to others that I came with political intentions, with ideological intentions, who? Still accepting you? This is very necessary from the external publicity. However, if this becomes the consciousness of our officials, it is a big mistake. External propaganda said that we have no political demands, no ideological appeals, no military appeals, no geopolitical demands. Our only consideration is to develop the economy, mutual benefit and win-win. It is not wrong to use it as a propaganda, but it must not become our own consciousness. . 

Now I feel that some officials really want to exclude these things. When he says these words, he has already excluded the political demands that are inevitable in the “One Belt, One Road” strategic concept in his own consciousness, especially geopolitics. Appeals, as well as security claims and ideological appeals. In fact, no matter whether you are prepared to “export revolution”, President Xi has repeatedly said that China does not export revolutions, but since we now emphasize Chinese values, there is no doubt that you will export your values ​​through the “Belt and Road”. Then, this value output is actually an ideology output. In addition, in the process of advancing the “Belt and Road”, if you do not have political appeals, you do not have political binding with countries along the route, which will put you in an insecure state. In particular, the “one belt” of the land is accompanied by a very complicated factor, the so-called “Ottoman Wall”. That is, in the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire conquered the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, and its enormous empire became the “Ottoman Wall” that blocked the East and West. 300 years later, with the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and the “Ottoman Wall” collapsed, but if you follow this path, the places along the way are all Islamic worlds. This means that the implied “Ottoman Wall” is still there. How to break through this invisible wall? Your values ​​are different from those of the Islamic world. Don’t expect that you can completely tie everyone together by simply bundling economic interests. You know, those Islamic countries may just want to make a profit, and then take advantage of it before you open it. What should I do at that time? The biggest lesson for Chinese companies to go out is that after economic cooperation with those countries, people will open us after they have benefited, or they may not open our intentions subjectively, but the objective situation has changed. For example, in Sudan, we invested in it.

The West has to give us trouble. Then there are people in the local area who messed up with us. We bite our heads and start to fail to make a big impact on us. We should earn the money we earned. At this time, the Americans are paying their salaries and turning the Sudan into a North and South Sudan. We are dumbfounded. Your investment is in North Sudan, and the oil field is in South Sudan. At this time, you must suffer losses. However, we Chinese have a very strong ability, which is the ability to “engage” relations. Although the Sudan has split, we have “taken the way” to win South Sudan. It is said that the North and South Sudan will let you take it, should it be able to settle? But the United States has provoked the civil war in South Sudan, and the final goal is to make your investment in this place squander. This is just one example. In fact, our cooperation with all countries, the United States that the United States does not participate in, must oppose. The final outcome is that we have lost in many places, which is why we lacked the necessary security awareness from the beginning.

Original Mandarin Chinese :

“一帶一路”不能甩開安全意識

中國人有一個毛病,喜歡談戰略,不喜歡談策略;喜歡談目標,不喜歡談指標,這樣談來談去最後的結果就都是大而化之。有戰略沒有策略,這個戰略就沒有實現的可能性,有目標沒有指標,那這個目標實現到什麼程度算是實現?這次提出“一帶一路”,最擔心的就是雷聲大、雨點小,談得轟轟烈烈,最後不了了之。這樣的事情我們已經干過多次,但願這次不是。因為如果“一帶一路”失敗的話,那對于中國經濟甚至中華民族的復興都可能是非常沉重的打擊。

現在有很多官員談“一帶一路”都不談安全問題,也不談政治問題,更沒有人談軍事問題。甚至有些官員專門強調,“一帶一路”沒有政治訴求,沒有意識形態訴求,完全是一種經濟行為。這種說法,如果是對沿線國家的宣傳,是可以的,因為戰略意圖總是要有隱蔽性的,你對人家說我是帶著政治意圖來的,帶著意識形態意圖來的,那誰還接受你?這從對外宣傳上講是非常必要的。但是,假如這成了我們官員的自身意識,就大錯特錯了。對外宣傳說我們沒有政治訴求,沒有意識形態訴求,沒有軍事訴求,沒有地緣訴求,我們唯一的考慮就是發展經濟,互利共贏,把它作為一個宣傳口徑沒有錯,但是絕對不能變成我們自身的意識。現在感覺有些官員是真的要排除這些東西,當他說出這些話的時候,就已經在自己的意識中排除“一帶一路”戰略構想中不可避免地內含著的政治訴求,特別是地緣政治訴求,以及安全訴求、意識形態訴求。實際上,不管你準不準備“輸出革命”,習主席多次講到,中國不輸出革命,可是既然我們現在強調中國價值觀,毫無疑問你會通過“一帶一路”輸出自己的價值觀。那麼,這個價值觀輸出其實就是一種意識形態輸出。另外,在推進“一帶一路”的進程中,如果你沒有政治訴求,你沒有與沿線國家的政治綁定,這將使你處于不安全狀態。尤其是陸路的“一帶”,幾乎全程伴有一個非常復雜的因素,就是所謂的“奧斯曼牆”。即15世紀奧斯曼帝國攻克拜佔庭首都君士坦丁堡,使其龐大的帝國之軀成了阻斷東西方的“奧斯曼牆”。300年後,隨著第一次世界大戰的結束,奧斯曼帝國解體,“奧斯曼牆”轟然倒塌,但是如果你沿這條路走下去,沿途所經之地,全都是伊斯蘭世界。這就意味著隱含的“奧斯曼牆”還在。如何去突破這個隱形之牆?你的價值觀和伊斯蘭世界的價值觀不同,不要指望僅僅靠經濟利益的捆綁,就能把大家完全拴在一起。要知道,那些伊斯蘭國家也可能只想獲利,獲了利之後再把你踹開。那個時候怎麼辦?中國企業走出去,我們最大的教訓,就是跟那些國家進行經濟合作之後,人家得利後把我們甩開,或者人家主觀上可能並沒有甩開我們的意圖,但是客觀情況發生了變化。比如蘇丹,我們投資進去了,西方要給我們搗亂,然後當地也有人給我們搞亂,我們硬著頭皮頂住,開始沒給我們造成太大的影響,我們該掙的錢還是掙到了。這時美國人釜底抽薪,把蘇丹變成南北蘇丹,我們傻眼了,你的投資在北蘇丹,而油田在南蘇丹,這個時候,你肯定要受損失。但我們中國人有一項很強的能力,就是攻無不克的“搞關系”的能力,雖然蘇丹分裂了,但是我們“想辦法”把南蘇丹也拿下。按說,南北蘇丹都讓你拿下,應該能擺平了吧?可美國又挑起了南蘇丹的內戰,最後的目標就是讓你在這個地方的投資打水漂。這只是其中一例。實際上我們與所有國家的合作,凡是美國沒有參與的美國都要反對。最後的結局是我們在很多地方都鎩羽而歸,這是我們一開始就缺乏必要的安全意識所致。

“One Belt” is the main one, and “One Road” is the supplement.

Now, we have started a new round of “going out” strategic action. I have suffered so much in the past. Should I accept some lessons?

How to go “One Belt, One Road”? The author believes that we should take a multi-pronged approach, and we should let politics and diplomacy go ahead and the military back. Rather than letting the company go out on its own, it is almost impossible for the company to go out alone. 

From now on, the “Belt and Road” seems to be a two-line attack, both sides. In fact, the “band” is the main one, and the “road” is secondary. Because you want to take the “road” as the main direction, you will die. Because of the sea route, a scholar from the American War College recently wrote an article saying that they have found a way to deal with China, that is, as long as the sea passage is cut off, China will die. Although this statement is somewhat large, it cannot be said that there is absolutely no reason at all, because the United States now has this capability from the military. This also confirms from the opposite side that in the choice of the primary and secondary direction of the “Belt and Road”, we should determine who is the main road and who is the auxiliary road. If the “Belt and Road” is likened to a combat operation, then “all the way” is the auxiliary direction, and the “one belt” is the main direction.

Therefore, for us, what really matters in the future is how to manage the “one area” problem, rather than the “one way” problem. Then, the operation of the “Belt” will first face a relationship with the countries along the route, that is, how to first open up the relationship with the countries along the route. Judging from our current practice, it is obviously not enough to ensure the smooth and smooth operation of the “Belt and Road”. why? We used to always like to deal with the government, like to deal with the ruling party, like to deal with the rich people in this country, who is dealing with who is in position, who has money to deal with who. In this case, it will be difficult to succeed. In fact, what is the work we are going to do? It is necessary to deal with the government, with the ruling party, with the opposition party, and more importantly, with the tribal elders in the entire “Belt”. These tribal elders are often much more influential than the opposition parties and the ruling party. What we can do in the Taliban-occupied areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan is almost always achieved through tribal elders, and basically nothing can be done through the government. Therefore, our foreign ministry and our enterprises cannot ignore the important relationships in these regions.

Why not Latin America and Japan “take in”?

“One Belt, One Road” has another problem that no one has touched until today. It is the question in some people’s hearts. Does China want to use the “Belt and Road” to exclude the United States? There is no doubt that the United States plays a chaotic role in almost all international organizations and international operations in which it does not participate. As long as it doesn’t play a leading role, even if it’s not the initiator, it will give you trouble. Take a look at APEC. Why is there a TPP after APEC? It is because the United States finds itself unable to play a leading role in APEC, it must do another set and start a new stove. If the “Belt and Road” completely excludes the United States, it will make the United States spare no effort to suppress it, and since the United States is not in it, it will not be scrupulous if it is suppressed, because it has no interest in it, so it will be unscrupulous and unscrupulous when it is suppressed. Soft hands.

Therefore, the author believes that China’s “Belt and Road” should skillfully include the United States. It should allow US investment banks, US investment institutions, and American technology to play a role in the “Belt and Road” to complete the “Belt and Road” approach to the United States. Bundle. After completing this bundle, the United States will vote for it when it starts. Take a look at China and the United States to fight for economic shackles and trade, why do they end up every time? It is because the economic interests of China and the United States are very closely tied to each other. Every time the United States wants to impose sanctions or punishment on a certain industry or enterprise in China, there must be a related out-of-hospital system in which the United States and our enterprise are bound together. The group went to Congress to lobby and finally let it die. Therefore, we must let the United States enter this interest bundle. In terms of capital and technology, the “Belt and Road” should not only exclude the United States, but also pull it in and complete the bundling of it.

From this I think that we can’t even exclude Japan. Can’t think that who is not good with us, make trouble with us, I will set aside to open you up. In fact, this is not good for the other side, and it is not good for yourself. Once you open it, it will be unscrupulous when you hit it. Only when its interests are in it, it will only be scrupulous when it hits you, and it will be careful to protect its interests. And if the benefits are completely tied, it can’t be picked up, so I think this is something we must consider.

“One Belt, One Road” to lead the reform of the Chinese army

Up to now, there is no precise strategic positioning for our country, and the national strategy is somewhat vague. As a result, various so-called “strategies” emerge in an endless stream. What is most screaming in 2014 is not the “Belt and Road”. What is it? It is China’s desire to become a major ocean power and to launch China’s marine development strategy. What kind of marine development strategy do you want? Some people say that they have to break through the three island chains and go out to the Pacific. What are you going to the Pacific Ocean? Have we thought about it? Think through it? If you don’t think through it, you shouldn’t put forward a strategy that is extremely hard to burn and has no results. Now that we have proposed the “Belt and Road”, we suddenly discovered that what we need more is the Army’s expeditionary ability. So what is our Army today? The Chinese closed their doors and thought that the Chinese Army was the best in the world. The British military leader Montgomery said that whoever wants to play against the Chinese army on land is a fool. The Americans’ conclusion from the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea is that the Chinese must not tolerate the military boots of American soldiers on the land of China. This is no problem. The Chinese Army has no problem with its existing capabilities to protect the country. However, once faced with the “Belt and Road”, the task of the Chinese Army is not to defend the country, which requires you to have the ability to display the land expedition along the way. Because the light is on land, there are 22 countries that can count. This requires us to have to go to the sword. Instead of invading others, we must be able to protect our own national interests across borders.

The last point is how to focus on the development of military power. If we have made it clear that the “one belt” is the main direction, it is not just an effort to develop the navy. The Navy must of course develop according to the needs of the country, and the problem that is now emerging is precisely how to strengthen the Army’s expeditionary capabilities. There are no more problems in China’s more than one million army, and there is no problem in defending the country. Is there any problem in going abroad to fight? Are we now in the right direction for the Army? Is it reasonable? When the world is now abandoning heavy tanks, we are still proud of the heavy tanks we have just produced. In what areas will these things be used in the future? In the entire “one belt” road, heavy tanks have no room for development. The heavy tanks of the former Soviet Union allowed the guerrillas to knock casually in Afghanistan. Why? Where can you go in all the ravines? The tank can’t fly anymore. In the end, the people take the rocket launcher and aim at one. It is all one, and it will kill you all. Therefore, the Army’s combat capability must be re-enhanced, that is, to strengthen its long-range delivery capability and long-range strike capability. In this regard, the author thinks that we are far from realizing it, and it is even more impossible. If the Army does not have the ability to go abroad, in the future, in any “one area”, if there is civil strife or war in any country, China needs support, and we need to protect our facilities and interests along the way, the Army can go, Is it useful? This is a question we must think about today.

So what should the Army do? The author believes that the Chinese Army must fly and must achieve aviation aviation, which means a revolution in the entire Chinese Army. Today, when we talk about the reform of the military system, if you don’t know the country’s strategy at all, don’t know the country’s needs, and close the door to reform, what kind of army will you reform? What is the relationship between this army and national interests? If you don’t start from the national interests and needs, just draw your own scoops like the US military’s gourd, take it for granted that you should be an army, but the country does not need such an army, but needs a development demand with the country. Match the army, what do you do then? Therefore, if we don’t understand what the country’s needs are, and don’t know where the country’s interests are, we will close the door to carry out reforms. What kind of army will this change? The author believes that the “Belt and Road” is a huge drag on the reform of the Chinese military with national interests and needs. It is through the strategic design of the “Belt and Road” that the country has determined its strategic needs for the military. The conclusion is: China must have a stronger army, and a navy and air force that can work together and act in concert, an army, navy, and air force that can cross the country’s expedition, and still have thousands of miles away. With sufficient support and combat capability of the Expeditionary Force, we can make the “Belt and Road” truly secure in terms of security, thus ensuring the ultimate realization of this ambitious goal.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“一帶”為主,“一路”為輔

現在,我們又開始新一輪的“走出去”戰略行動了,前面吃了那麼多苦頭,總該接受點教訓吧?

“一帶一路”怎麼走? 筆者認為應該多管齊下,應該讓政治、外交先行,軍事做後盾。而不是讓企業自己單打獨斗走出去,凡是企業單獨走出去的幾乎就沒有能夠全身而退的。

從現在來看,“一帶一路”好像是兩線出擊,雙路並舉。其實,“帶”是主要的,“路”是次要的。因為你要是以“路”為主攻方向,你就死定了。因為海路這一條,美國戰爭學院的一個學者最近專門撰文,說他們已經找到了對付中國的辦法,就是只要掐斷海上通道,中國就死定了。這話雖然說的有些大,但也不能說完全沒有一點道理,因為美國眼下從軍事上講確有這個能力。這也從反面印證,在“一帶一路”主次方向的選擇上,我們應確定誰為主路,誰為輔路。如果把“一帶一路”比喻成一次作戰行動,那麼,“一路”是輔攻方向,“一帶” 則是主攻方向。

所以說,對于我們來講,將來真正重要的是如何經營“一帶”的問題,而不是經營“一路”的問題。那麼,經營“一帶”首先就面臨一個與沿途國家的關系問題,即如何先把與沿途國家的關系全部打通。從我們現在的做法來看,顯然不足以保證“一帶一路”的順利通暢和成功。為什麼呢?我們習慣上總是喜歡跟政府打交道,喜歡跟執政黨打交道,喜歡跟這個國家的有錢人打交道,誰在位跟誰打交道,誰有錢跟誰打交道。這樣的話,要想成功就很難。實際上我們要做的工作是什麼呢?既要跟政府、跟執政黨打交道,還要跟在野黨打交道,而更重要的是,跟整個“一帶”上的部落長老們打交道。這些部落長老往往比在野黨和執政黨的影響力大得多。我們在阿富汗、巴基斯坦的塔利班佔領地區能辦成什麼事,幾乎都是通過部落長老去實現,通過政府基本上干不成什麼事情。所以,我們的外交部、我們的企業,都不能忽略這些區域內的重要關系。

何不拉美日“入伙”?

“一帶一路”還有一個到今天都沒有人去觸及的問題,就是一些人心中的疑問︰中國是否想用“一帶一路”排斥美國?毫無疑問,美國幾乎在所有它沒能參與的國際組織和國際行動中,都會扮演搗亂的角色。只要它起不了主導作用,甚至只要它不是發起人,它就會給你搗亂。看一看APEC。APEC之後為什麼會出現TPP?就是因為美國發現自己在APEC中不能起主導作用,它就一定要另搞一套,另起爐灶。如果“一帶一路”完全排斥美國,那將使美國不遺余力地打壓它,而且由于美國不在其中,它打壓起來就沒有顧忌,因為它沒有利益在里邊,所以它打壓起來就會無所顧忌、毫不手軟。

所以筆者認為,中國的“一帶一路”應該巧妙地把美國納入進來,應該讓美國的投行、美國的投資機構,以及美國的技術,在“一帶一路”中發揮作用,完成“一帶一路”對美國的捆綁。完成了這個捆綁之後,美國在它下手的時候就會投鼠忌器。看一看中國和美國打經濟仗、打貿易仗,為什麼每一次都無疾而終?就是因為中國和美國的經濟利益互相捆綁得非常緊密,每一次美國要對中國的某一個行業或企業進行制裁或者是懲罰的時候,一定會有美國和我們這個企業綁定在一起的相關的院外集團跑到國會去游說,最後讓其胎死腹中。所以,一定要讓美國進入這個利益捆綁。“一帶一路”在資金上、技術上,不但不應排斥美國,還要把它拉進來,完成對它的捆綁。

由此筆者想到,我們甚至也不能排斥日本。不能認為誰不跟我們好,跟我們鬧,我就另外搞一套把你甩開,其實這于對方不利,對自己同樣不利。你一旦甩開了它,它打你也就無所顧忌,只有當它的利益也在其中的時候,它打你才會有所顧忌,它才會小心翼翼,保護它那一份利益。而如果利益完全捆綁的話,它想摘都摘不清,所以筆者覺得這一點也是我們必須考慮的。

“一帶一路”牽引中國軍隊改革

到現在為止,就是對我們國家沒有精確的戰略定位,國家戰略有些模糊。結果,各種所謂的“戰略”層出不窮。2014年喊得最響的不是“一帶一路”,是什麼呢?是中國要成為海洋大國,要推出中國的海洋發展戰略。你要什麼樣的海洋發展戰略?有人說要突破三條島鏈,走出去,走向太平洋。到太平洋去干什麼?我們想過嗎?想透了嗎?如果沒想透,就不宜提出那些遠水不解近渴的極度燒錢又不見成果的戰略。現在提出“一帶一路”,我們突然發現,我們更需要的是陸軍的遠征能力。那今天我們的陸軍究竟如何?中國人關起門來認為中國陸軍天下第一。英國人蒙哥馬利說,誰要在陸上跟中國的陸軍交手,誰就是傻瓜。而美國人由抗美援朝戰爭得出的結論是︰中國人絕對不能容忍美國大兵的軍靴踏到中國的陸地上。這都沒問題,中國陸軍以它現有的能力保家衛國一點問題都沒有。可是一旦面對“一帶一路”,中國陸軍擔負的任務就不是保家衛國,這就需要你具備在沿途展示陸上遠征的能力。因為光是陸上,能夠數出來的就有22個國家。這就需要我們必須劍到履到。不是去侵略別人,而是要有能力跨境保護我們自己的國家利益。

最後一點,就是如何有側重地發展軍事力量的問題。如果我們明確了以“一帶”為主攻方向,那就不僅僅是要努力發展海軍的問題。海軍當然要根據國家的需求去發展,而現在凸現的問題,恰恰是如何加強陸軍的遠征能力。中國100多萬陸軍,保家守土沒有問題,跨出國門去作戰有沒有問題?我們現在陸軍的發展方向正確嗎?合理嗎?當現在全世界都開始放棄重型坦克的時候,我們卻還在以剛剛生產出來的重型坦克為榮,這些東西將來準備用在什麼地區作戰?在整個“一帶”這條路上,重型坦克根本沒有施展余地。前蘇聯的重型坦克在阿富汗讓游擊隊隨便敲,為什麼?在所有的山溝溝里,你還能往哪走?坦克又不能飛,最後人家拿火箭筒瞄準一輛就是一輛,全部給你干掉。所以說,陸軍的作戰能力必須重新提升,就是加強它的遠程投送能力和遠程打擊能力。這方面,筆者覺得我們遠遠沒有認識到,更不可能做到。如果陸軍沒有能力走出國門,將來在這“一帶”上,任何一個國家發生了內亂或戰爭,需要中國的支援,而且更需要我們出手保護自己在沿途的設施和利益時,陸軍能走得出去、派得上用場嗎?這是我們今天必須思考的問題。

那麼,陸軍要怎麼辦?筆者認為中國陸軍必須飛起來,必須實現陸軍航空化,這意味著整個中國陸軍的一場革命。今天,當我們談軍隊編制體制改革的時候,如果你根本不知道國家的戰略,也不知道國家的需求,關起門來搞改革,你會改革出一支什麼樣的軍隊來?這支軍隊和國家利益有什麼關系?如果你不從國家利益和需求出發,僅僅比照美軍的葫蘆畫自己的瓢,想當然地認為自己應該是怎樣一支軍隊,可是國家不需要這樣一支軍隊,而是需要一支與國家的發展需求相匹配的軍隊,那時你怎麼辦?所以說,不了解國家的需求是什麼,不知道國家的利益在哪里,就關起門來搞改革,這將會改出一支什麼樣的軍隊?筆者認為,“一帶一路”就是國家利益和需求對中國軍隊改革的一個巨大牽引。國家正是通過“一帶一路”的戰略設計,確定了對軍隊的戰略需求。結論是︰中國必須有一支更強大的陸軍,以及一支能與之聯合作戰、協同行動的海軍和空軍,一支能夠跨出國門遠征的陸軍、海軍和空軍,組成在千里萬里之外仍然有足夠的保障和戰斗能力的遠征軍,我們才可能使“一帶一路”真正在安全上獲得可靠的保障,從而確保這一宏偉目標的最終實現。

Referring url: http://www.81.cn/big5/

Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy // 中共優先發展網絡戰略力量

Communist China Giving Priority to Development of Military Network Strategy

中共優先發展網絡戰略力量

Cyberspace has become the national comprehensive security of the door. Network warfare reality, the network battlefield globalization, network confrontation normalization, network attack heart white hot, the network to build the army of the general trend, no one can block. Give priority to the development of network strategy, and actively seize the commanding heights of network strategy, for my army building is of great significance.

  The main features of network strategy

Network strategic strength refers to the ability to achieve the desired results through cyberspace. From the current development and possible future trends, mainly with the following characteristics.

Composed of multiple. In recent years, the major network events in the world have shown that the strategic power of the military network is the main force of cyberspace competition. The strategic power of the government departments and the private sector is an important part of the cyberspace competition. The “cyber warrior” An important addition.

Strong professionalism. Network strategy strength has a strong latent and difficult to predict, and the speed of light, instantaneous effect, monitoring and early warning is difficult; once the action is effective, damage effect superimposed amplification or non-linear step, with a typical “butterfly effect.” In 2010, the “shock net” virus attacked the centrifuges of the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant and the Natanz uranium enrichment plant, resulting in nearly a thousand centrifuge scrapped, forcing Iran’s nuclear capacity building to delay 2 to 3 years, opened the network attack soft means Destroy the country’s hard facilities.

Destructive. The strategic power of the network is no less than the weapons of mass destruction. Russia and Georgia in 2008, “the five-day war”, the Russian military to Georgia’s television media, government websites and transportation systems as the goal, to carry out a comprehensive “bee group” type network paralysis attacks, leading to grid government agencies operating chaos, Logistics and communication system collapse, much-needed war materials can not be delivered in a timely manner, the potential of the war has been seriously weakened, a direct impact on the grid of social order, operational command and troop scheduling. The Russian military doctrine has identified cybercrime as a weapon of mass destruction and has retained the right to use weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons to counterattack.

Advanced technology and phase. Network strategy strength development speed, replacement fast, technical materialization for the equipment cycle is short. At present, the speed of the microprocessor doubles every 18 months, the backbone bandwidth doubled every six months, a variety of new electronic information equipment after another, all kinds of application software dizzying. Cyber ​​space confrontation is the field of information in the field of offensive and defensive struggle, the use of network strategy forces in the confrontation of the phase with grams, constantly renovated. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology makes the software of the anti-wall software upgrade continuously. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology is the development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology. , Can be described as “a foot high, magic high ten feet.”

  The Developing Trend of Network Strategic

From the subordinate force to the development of key forces. In the past, the network strategic power is mainly for other forces to provide information security, in a subordinate position; with the development of network information technology, network system control of other rights, network strategic forces from the subordinate status to the dominant position to accelerate into the maintenance of national The key to safety. There is no network security there is no sovereign security, “no net” to become a new law of war, the world’s major countries around the network space development rights, dominance and control of a new round of competition, especially the United States and Russia adhere to the practice In the use and continue to develop.

From the maintenance of force to the development of specialized forces. In the past, the network strategy is mainly to maintain the network information system and all kinds of network transmission system, network attack and defense attributes are not clear. At present, all areas of the network space in depth, the world’s major countries are hard to build cyberspace offensive and defensive capabilities, the main military power of the network strategy has become a network of reconnaissance, network attacks, network defense and other clear division of labor, professional regular military forces. The United States has so far built the world’s most complete and powerful network of the army, and held a series of “network storm” series of exercises. The new “cyberspace strategy” in the United States, the first public to cyberspace combat as one of the tactical options for future military conflict, clearly proposed to improve the US military in the cyberspace of deterrence and offensive capability. In order to adapt to the new strategy, the US Department of Defense proposed 2018 to build a offensive and defensive, flexible form, with full combat capability of the network forces construction goals.

From the military to the integration of military and civilian development. The development of the strategic power of the military network started relatively late compared with the civil field, and because of the confidentiality of military confrontation and the specificity of the operational objectives, it is often developed independently. With the development of network technology, the military’s own network strategic strength is difficult to meet the needs of diversified tasks, we must learn from local folk technical means, integrate local network resources, realize the integration of military and civilian development. Network space capacity building on the talent, intelligence, experience and other software environment is extremely high, coupled with the local convergence of a wealth of network resources, military and civilian forces to promote the development of cyberspace capabilities become the strong tone of the times.

From a single model to the “network integration” development. At present, the network includes both the computer IP system network and the non-computer IP system network including a large number of complex early warning detection network, satellite communication network and tactical data link. The traditional single network confrontation model is difficult to meet the challenge of cyberspace. With the development of information technology, especially the Internet of Things technology, the relationship between the network and the power of the battlefield network more and more closely, which for the “network integration” in the technical means to provide the possibility. The use of electronic warfare and network warfare means, for different systems around the open bow, broken chain broken network, to achieve complementary advantages, system damage, as the latest guidance on the construction of network space. Data show that the US military typical network of integrated attack equipment “Shu special” system has been from the “Shu-1” to the current development of “Shu-5”. According to reports, “Shute” system through the enemy radar antenna, microwave relay station, network processing nodes to invade the enemy air defense network system, real-time monitoring of enemy radar detection results, even as a system administrator to take over the enemy network, Control of the sensor.

From non-state actors to state actors. At present, the network attack has developed from a single hacker behavior for the national, political, military confrontation, the attack object has been developed from the personal website to the country, the army’s important information system, attack “unit” has grown from stand-alone to tens of thousands Hundreds of thousands of terminals, and can instantly release the amazing attack energy. Although many of the intentions of malicious acts of non-State actors are non-state, the consequences are national, whether they are espionage, political opinions, or personal discontent, or terrorist activities , Have a direct impact on social stability, disrupt the economic order, endanger the stability of state power. Once the relevant reaction is made, the subject of the act must be the state and the army, and not the non-state actors themselves.

  The Construction of Network Strategic Strength

Strengthen strategic planning. Cyberspace competition is the first strategic battle of the contest. From the national level, the network strategy of the power of the main function is to reduce the risk of cyberspace, maintaining the normal operation of the country. We must understand the extreme importance and realistic urgency of cyberspace security from the perspective of national security, raise the focus of cyberspace capacity building to the strategic level, and try to solve the problem of how to make good use of cyberspace while trying to reduce the national cyberspace security Risk, so that cyberspace security has become an important support for national prosperity and security. From the military level, the network strategy is mainly to seize the system of network power. We must expand the military vision, the cyberspace as an important area of ​​action, to seize the system as the core, change the military ideas and ideas, adjust the structure and composition of armed forces, the development of weapons and equipment and take a new tactics.

Speed ​​up the construction of the power system. Maintain cyberspace security in the final analysis depends on the strength. We must base ourselves on the characteristics and laws of cyberspace capacity building, focus on the core elements of network capability system and the overall layout of network strategy strength, and systematically design the system structure which conforms to the law and characteristics of cyberspace confrontation in our country, and perfect the system of leadership and command Functional tasks, straighten out the relationship between command and management. We should take the network strategic power as an important new combat force, from the organization construction, personnel training, equipment development, elements of training and other aspects, to take extraordinary measures to give priority construction, focus on protection. To normalize the national network of offensive and defensive exercises, test theory, tactics, equipment and technology effectiveness, and comprehensively enhance the comprehensive prevention of cyberspace capabilities.

Promote technological innovation. The essence of cyberspace confrontation is the competition of core technology, and it is necessary to accelerate the independent innovation of network information technology. We should focus on improving the capability of independent innovation as a strategic basis, relying on the national innovation system as the basic support, concentrating on breaking the frontier technology of network development and the key core technology with international competitiveness, ahead of deployment and focusing on the development of information technology and information industry. To speed up the process of localization of key core technologies, strengthen the construction of safety testing and active early warning means, and gradually improve the equipment system of cyberspace in China, and comprehensively improve our network space capability. To follow the basic laws of cyberspace confrontation, in accordance with the “asymmetric checks and balances” strategy, increase the quantum technology, Internet of things and cloud computing and other new technology research and development efforts to create unique combat capability, master the initiative of cyberspace security development The

Promote the integration of military and civilian development. The integration of military and spatial ability of military and civilian development is not only the overall situation of national security and development strategy, but also the objective fact that cyberspace security can not be avoided by the overall planning of national defense and economic and social development. We must actively promote the deep integration of military and civilian development, to promote China’s network space capacity supporting the construction. It is necessary to formulate top-level planning in the form of policies and regulations, clarify the objectives and tasks, methods, organizational division and basic requirements of the deepening development of cyberspace in the form of policies and regulations, and make the integration of military and civilian development into law enforcement and organizational behavior; To establish a sound military coordination, demand docking, resource sharing mechanism, through a unified leadership management organization and coordination of military needs and major work, to achieve risk sharing, resource sharing, and common development of the new situation. We should pay attention to the distinction between the boundaries of military and civilian integration, clear the concept of development-oriented people and the main idea of ​​the army-based, and actively explore the military and the people, the advantages of complementary channels.

 

Original Communist Mandarin Chinese 🙂

網絡空間成為國家綜合安全的命門。網絡戰爭現實化、網絡戰場全球化、網絡對抗常態化、網絡攻心白熱化、網絡建軍正規化的大勢,無人可擋。優先發展網絡戰略力量,積極搶占網絡戰略制高點,對於我軍隊建設具有重要意義。

網絡戰略力量的主要特點

網絡戰略力量,是指通過網絡空間來實現預期結果的能力。從當前發展及未來可能的走勢看,主要有以下特點。

組成多元。近年來發生在全球範圍內的重大網絡事件表明,軍隊網絡戰略力量是網絡空間競爭的主力軍,政府部門、私營機構網絡戰略力量是網絡空間競爭的重要部分,民間“網絡戰士”是網絡空間競爭的重要補充。

專業性強。網絡戰略力量具有極強的潛伏性和難預測性,且以光速進行、瞬時產生效果,監測預警難度大;一旦行動奏效,損害效果疊加放大或非線性階躍,具有典型的“蝴蝶效應”。 2010年,“震網”病毒攻擊了伊朗布什爾核電站和納坦茲鈾濃縮廠的離心機,造成近千台離心機報廢,迫使伊朗核能力建設延遲2至3年,開啟了網絡攻擊軟手段摧毀國家硬設施的先河。

破壞性大。網絡戰略力量破壞力不亞於大規模殺傷性武器。 2008年俄國與格魯吉亞“五日戰爭”中,俄軍以格方的電視媒體、政府網站和交通系統等為目標,開展全面的“蜂群”式網絡阻癱攻擊,導致格政府機構運作混亂,物流和通信系統崩潰,急需的戰爭物資無法及時投送,戰爭潛力受到嚴重削弱,直接影響了格的社會秩序、作戰指揮和部隊調度。俄羅斯軍事學說已將網絡攻擊手段定性為大規模毀滅性武器,並保留了運用大規模毀滅性武器或核武器反擊的權利。

技術先進且相生相剋。網絡戰略力量發展速度快、更新換代快,技術物化為裝備的周期短。當前,微處理器的速度每18個月翻一番,主幹網帶寬每6個月增加一倍,各種新型電子信息設備層出不窮,各種應用軟件目不暇接。網絡空間對抗是信息領域的攻防鬥爭,網絡戰略力量使用的手段在對抗中相生相剋、不斷翻新。常規通信受干擾催生了跳、擴頻通信體制,跳、擴頻通信的出現又催生了頻率跟踪干擾、相關信號干擾等新型電子乾擾手段;防火牆、信息監控技術的發展,使翻牆軟件不斷升級,可謂“道高一尺,魔高一丈”。

網絡戰略力量的發展趨勢

由從屬性力量向關鍵性力量發展。以往網絡戰略力量主要是為其他力量提供信息保障,處於從屬地位;隨著網絡信息技術的發展,製網權統攬其他制權,網絡戰略力量由從屬地位向主導地位加速轉進,成為維護國家安全的關鍵。沒有網絡安全就沒有主權安全,“無網不勝”成為戰爭的新定律,世界各主要國家圍繞網絡空間的發展權、主導權和控制權展開了新一輪的角逐,特別是美俄堅持在實踐中運用並不斷發展。

由維護型力量向專業化力量發展。以往網絡戰略力量主要是維護網絡化信息系統和各類網絡傳輸系統,網絡攻擊和防禦屬性均不鮮明。當下各領域對網絡空間深度依賴,世界主要國家無不竭力打造網絡空間攻防能力,主要軍事強國的網絡戰略力量業已成為集網絡偵察、網絡攻擊、網絡防禦等分工明確、專業化的正規軍事力量。美國迄今已建成全球編制最齊全、力量最龐大的網軍,並多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列演習。美國新版《網絡空間戰略》,首次公開把網絡空間作戰作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,明確提出要提高美軍在網絡空間的威懾和進攻能力。為適應新戰略,美國防部提出2018年建成一支攻防兼備、形式靈活,具備全面作戰能力的網絡部隊的建設目標。

由軍地自主向軍民融合發展。軍隊網絡戰略力量的發展相對於民用領域起步較晚,且由於軍事對抗的保密性和作戰目標的特定性,往往自主發展。隨著網絡技術的發展,軍隊自身的網絡戰略力量難滿足多樣化任務的需要,必須學習借鑒地方民間技術手段,整合地方網絡資源,實現軍民融合發展。網絡空間能力建設對人才、智力、經驗等軟件環境要求極高,加上地方匯聚了豐富的網絡資源,軍民聯手推進網絡空間能力發展成為時代的強音。

由單一模式向“網電一體”發展。現階段,網絡既包括計算機IP體製網絡,更包含大量複雜的預警探測網、衛星通信網、戰術數據鍊等非計算機IP體製網絡,傳統的單一網絡對抗模式難以應對網絡空間的挑戰。隨著信息技術特別是物聯網技術的發展,戰場網中網與電的關係越來越緊密,這為“網電一體”在技術手段上提供了可能。綜合運用電子戰與網絡戰手段,針對不同體制的網絡左右開弓、斷鍊破網,實現優勢互補、體系破擊,成為網絡空間能力建設的最新指導。有資料顯示,美軍典型網電一體攻擊裝備“舒特”系統已從“舒特-1”發展到目前的“舒特-5”。據報導,“舒特”系統可通過敵方雷達天線、微波中繼站、網絡處理節點入侵敵方防空網絡系統,能夠實時監視敵方雷達的探測結果,甚至以系統管理員身份接管敵方網絡,實現對傳感器的控制。

由非國家行為體向國家行為體發展。目前,網絡攻擊已從單個的黑客行為發展為國家、政治、軍事上的對抗行為,攻擊對像已從個人網站發展到國家、軍隊的重要信息系統,攻擊“單元”已從單機發展到數万乃至數十萬台終端,且能在瞬時釋放驚人的攻擊能量。儘管非國家行為體的惡意網絡行為目的許多是非國家的,但由此所造成的後果卻是國家的,無論是進行間諜活動,還是發表政治主張,或是發洩個人不滿情緒,或是進行恐怖活動,都直接影響社會穩定、擾亂經濟秩序、危及國家政權穩固。一旦因之作出相關反應,其行為主體一定是國家和軍隊,而不再是非國家行為體本身。

網絡戰略力量的建設指向

加強戰略統籌謀劃。網絡空間競爭首先是戰略運籌的較量。從國家層面看,網絡戰略力量的職能主要是降低網絡空間的風險,維護國家正常運轉。必須從國家安全的視角認清網絡空間安全的極端重要性和現實緊迫性,將網絡空間能力建設的著眼點上升到戰略層面,在著力解決如何利用好網絡空間的同時,努力降低國家網絡空間安全風險,使網絡空間安全成為國家繁榮與安全的重要支撐。從軍隊層面看,網絡戰略力量主要是奪取製網權。必須拓展軍事視野,把網絡空間作為製權行動的一個重要領域,以奪取製網權為核心,變革軍事思想和觀念,調整武裝力量結構與構成,發展武器裝備並採取新的戰法。

加快力量體系構建。維護網絡空間安全說到底要靠實力。必須立足於網絡空間能力建設的特點、規律,圍繞我國網絡能力體系核心要素和網絡戰略力量建設總體佈局,以系統思維設計符合我國網絡空間對抗規律和特點的體系架構,健全領導指揮體制機制,明確職能任務,理順指揮管理關係。要把網絡戰略力量作為重要的新型作戰力量突出出來,從組織建設、人才培養、裝備發展、要素演訓等各方面,採取超常舉措,給予重點建設、重點保障。要常態化開展國家級網絡攻防演練,檢驗理論、戰法、裝備及技術的有效性,全面提升網絡空間綜合防範能力。

推進技術自主創新。網絡空間對抗的實質是核心技術的比拼,必須加快推進網絡信息技術自主創新。要把提高自主創新能力作為戰略基點,以國家創新體係為基本依托,集中力量突破網絡發展的前沿技術和具有國際競爭力的關鍵核心技術,超前部署和重點發展信息技術和信息產業。要加速關鍵核心技術的國產化進程,加強安全測試和主動預警手段的建設,逐步完善我國網絡空間的裝備體系,全面提高我國網絡空間能力。要遵循網絡空間對抗的基本規律,按照“非對稱制衡”方略,加大對量子科技、物聯網和雲計算等新技術的研發力度,以獨創技術塑造實戰能力,掌握網絡空間安全發展的主動權。

推動軍民融合發展。網絡空間能力的軍民融合式發展,既是站在國家安全與發展的戰略全局,對國防和經濟社會發展統籌謀劃,也是網絡空間安全不能迴避的客觀事實。必須積極推動軍民深度融合發展,全力推進我國網絡空間能力配套建設。要綜合軍民需求制定頂層規劃,以政策法規的形式明確網絡空間軍民融合深度發展的目標任務、方法路徑、組織分工和基本要求等關係全局的重大問題,變軍民融合發展為執法行為、組織行為;要建立健全軍地協調、需求對接、資源共享機制,通過統一的領導管理機構組織協調軍地的各類需求和重大工作,達成風險共擔、資源共享、共同發展的新局面。要注重軍民融合的界限區分,明確以民為主的發展理念和以軍為主的作戰理念,積極探索軍民一體、優勢互補的可行性渠道。

Referring URL:

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2016/1226/c40531-28977153.html

美國軍事網絡戰:黑客入侵防禦成為無菸的戰爭 // American military network warfare: hackers attack and defense creating a war without smoke

美國軍事網絡戰:黑客入侵防禦成為無菸的戰爭

American military network warfare: hackers attack and defense creating a war without smoke

Hackers may also be soldiers. Recently, the US Internet security company and the government issued a series of reports that “the Chinese military to participate in hacking.” With the “China hacker threat theory”, the US government immediately announced the latest anti-hacking strategy, although the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defense in a timely manner to make a refutation, but for a time, hacker news from the army or aroused everyone’s interest. In fact, the United States is the world’s largest Internet hacker location, has a huge network of troops.

As the daily consumption from the physical store to the transfer of electricity, and now the war has also moved from the line to the line. Not only the United States, Europe and the United States and Asia, many countries have begun to set up their own “network forces” – hackers is to become a frequent visitor to this service. And how these countries are leading the “formal” network of the army.

In 007 “skyfall” in the lovely Mr. Q is a network war master.

In May 2010, the US Department of Defense set up a network warfare headquarters officially launched, the US military strategic headquarters in September 1, 2010 before the development of a network warfare philosophy and plans, and plans in the next few years to expand the network security forces to 4900 people. This marks the United States intends to military hegemony from the land, sea, sky and space to the so-called “fifth field” of the network space extension.

It is reported that the United States is currently recruiting 2,000 to 4,000 soldiers, set up a “network special forces.” This unit not only to assume the task of network defense, but also to other countries of the computer network and electronic systems for secret attacks. According to Xinhua reported that a former US Air Force Major John Bradley at a meeting in 2002, said the United States spent on network attacks on the study than the network defense much more, because the senior staff of the former more Interested. And, the US military network attack time may be much earlier than we imagined.

In the Iraq war that began in 2003, the US military used the cyber warfare more widely. Before the war, thousands of Iraqi military and political officials in their e-mail mailbox received the US military sent the “persuade the letter”, resulting in a great psychological impact. Less than four hours after the war, Al Jazeera English website will be the US military “ban”, can not function properly.

In addition, the United States also in 2006 and 2008 has held two code-named “network storm” large-scale network war exercises.

Japan and South Korea: already set up a “network army”

At the end of 2009, the Ministry of Defense of Japan decided to establish a special “cyber space defense team” in 2011 to guard against hacker attacks and strengthen the ability to protect confidential information. According to the Japanese “Yomiuri Shimbun” reported on May 1, 2011, “cyberspace defense team” plan is set in the SDF command communications system under the initial number of about 60 people. This “network force” is responsible for collecting and analyzing the latest virus information, and anti-hacker attack training.

Japan’s network warfare is through the master “system of network” to paralyze the enemy combat system. Japan in the construction of network combat system, emphasizing the “offensive and defensive”, allocated large sums of money into the network hardware and “network warfare” construction, respectively, the establishment of the “defense information communication platform” and “computer system common platform”, to achieve the SDF Organs, forces network system of mutual exchange and resource sharing. And set up by the 5000 people of the “cyberspace defense team”, developed the network operations “offensive weapons” and network defense system, now has a strong network attack combat strength.

The DPRK this “enemy”, South Korea in 1999 put forward the overall vision of the future information construction, announced in 2009 will be the formation of “network command”, and officially launched in 2010. At present, South Korea already has about 20 million received professional training of the huge personnel, and 5% of annual defense funds are used to develop and improve the implementation of the core technology of network warfare.

Britain and Russia: enlisted hackers

Network forces hackers preferred, as early as 1998, because of the successful invasion of the US Pentagon computer system, Israel’s 18-year-old boy hacker Tenenbaum put on uniforms to become an Israeli soldier. Subsequently, the British government also in 2009, including former hackers, including network elite to defend the network security. They are young, diverse in background, some have been hackers, and even minor cybercrime.

On June 25, 2009, the UK government introduced its first national cybersecurity strategy and announced the establishment of two new departments of cybersecurity, the Network Security Office and the Network Security Operations Center, which are responsible for coordinating government security and coordination of government and government The security of the main computer system of civil society.

India in 2007 formed a land, sea and air armed forces joint emergency team, and enlisted hackers. At the same time, by absorbing the civil master enlisted and the cadet students “hacker” technical training, etc., and gradually complete the future network war talent pool.

Military power Russia in the 1990s on the establishment of the Information Security Committee, specifically responsible for network information security, launched in 2002, “Russian Federal Information Security Theory”, the network information warfare compared to the future “sixth generation of war.” Russia already has a large number of network elite, anti-virus technology is walking in the forefront of the world, in the event of a threat or need, these talents and technology will soon be transferred to military use.

“Black door”: ridiculous blame

Although there is no factual basis, but the US Internet security companies and the government is still often create “hacker door”, directed at China, not only involving colleges and universities, enterprises, as well as technical schools such as Shandong Lan Xiang, there are network individuals, now point to the Chinese military, Even to provide “hacker headquarters building” photos. However, the relationship between the IP address alone, “the source of the attack from China,” highlighting the ignorance of the relevant US people.

How do hackers use their own computer to attack? How can I leave a registered IP address? They usually through the springboard control of third-party computer to form a botnet and then attack. Take the initiative to expose the IP address left traces, is it a professional hacker!

China’s Ministry of Defense International Bureau of Communications Deputy Director Meng Yan wrote that the United States in the transformation of the way to render the Chinese hacker attack trick, even ignore itself is the network virtual space “rule makers.” 2012, 73,000 foreign IP addresses as Trojans and botnet control server to participate in the control of more than 1,400 million hosts in China, 32,000 IP through the implantation of the back door of China’s nearly 38,000 sites in the implementation of remote control, which originated in the United States The number of network attacks ranked first.

Hacker attack and defense: no smoke of the war

Only a few minutes, the domestic password experts, Tsinghua University Distinguished Professor Wang Xiaoyun and her research team with ordinary personal computers, will be able to crack MD5 password algorithm. Before her, even with the fastest giant computer, but also to calculate more than 1 million years to crack.

If this is a war, you can not hear the sound and can not see the smoke. Hackers often through the acquisition of passwords, place Trojan horse program, e-mail attacks, node attacks, network monitoring, find system vulnerabilities, steal privileges and so on, and the use of WWW spoofing technology, the use of account attacks, etc. to launch network attacks.

Reporters learned that the current “hanging horse” (that is, in the page to load Trojan virus), “phishing” (forged WEB site or e-mail, etc.) and other ways to become the mainstream of hacker attacks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

 

黑客也可能是戰士。近日,美國網絡安全公司和政府接連發布報告稱“中國軍方參與黑客攻擊”。借助“中國黑客威脅論”,美國政府隨即公佈最新反黑客戰略,儘管中國外交部和國防部及時對此做出駁斥,但一時間,黑客從軍的消息還是激起大家的興趣。其實,美國才是世界上最大的網絡黑客所在地,擁有龐大的網絡大軍。

如同日常消費從實體店向電商轉移,如今戰爭也已經從線下搬到線上。不僅是美國,歐美亞等洲許多國家都已經著手建立本國的“網絡部隊”——黑客更是成為此軍種的常客。而這些國家又是如何領導這批“正規”的網絡大軍。

在007《skyfall》中可愛的Q先生就是一名網絡戰的高手。

2010年5月,美國國防部組建網絡戰司令部正式啟動,美軍戰略司令部要求在2010年9月1日前製訂出網絡戰作戰理念和計劃,併計劃在隨後幾年把網絡安全部隊擴編到4900人。這標誌著美國打算將軍事霸權從陸地、海洋、天空和太空向號稱“第五領域”的網絡空間延伸。

據悉,美國目前正在招募2000至4000名士兵,組建一支“網絡特種部隊”。這支部隊不僅要承擔網絡防禦的任務,還將對他國的電腦網絡和電子系統進行秘密攻擊。據新華網報導,一位前美國空軍少校約翰·布萊德利在參加2002年一次會議時就表示,美國花在網絡攻擊上的研究比網絡防禦上要多得多,因為高層人員對前者更感興趣。並且,美軍實施網絡攻擊的時間可能比大家想像的要早得多。

而在2003年開始的伊拉克戰爭中,美軍更為廣泛地使用網絡戰手段。戰前,數千名伊拉克軍政要員在他們的電子郵件信箱中收到美軍發來的“勸降信”,造成很大的心理影響。開戰後不到4個小時,半島電視台英語網站便被美軍“封殺”,不能正常運作。

另外,美國還於2006年和2008年先後舉行了兩次代號為“網絡風暴”的大規模網絡戰演習。

日韓:早已組建“網絡軍隊”

2009年底日本防衛省即決定,在2011年度建立一支專門的“網絡空間防衛隊”,以防備黑客攻擊,加強保護機密信息的能力。據日本《讀賣新聞》2011年5月1日報導,“網絡空間防衛隊”計劃設置於自衛隊指揮通信系統部之下,初期人數約60人。這支“網絡部隊”負責收集和分析研究最新的病毒信息,並進行反黑客攻擊訓練。

日本網絡戰是通過掌握“製網權”達到癱瘓敵人作戰系統。日本在構建網絡作戰系統中強調“攻守兼備”,撥付大筆經費投入網絡硬件及“網戰部隊”建設,分別建立了“防衛信息通信平台”和“計算機系統通用平台”,實現了自衛隊各機關、部隊網絡系統的相互交流和資源共享。並成立由5000人組成的“網絡空間防衛隊”,研製開發的網絡作戰“進攻武器”和網絡防禦系統,目前已經具備了較強的網絡進攻作戰實力。

而對朝鮮這個“敵人”,韓國在1999年提出了未來信息建設的總體設想,2009年宣布將組建“網絡司令部”,並於2010年正式啟動。目前,韓國已經擁有了約20萬接受過專業訓練的龐大的人才隊伍,而且每年國防經費的5%被用來研發和改進實施網絡戰的核心技術。

英俄:徵召黑客入伍

網絡部隊黑客優先,早在1998年,因為成功入侵美國五角大樓電腦系統,以色列18歲的少年黑客Tenenbaum穿上軍裝成為一名以色列士兵。隨後,英國政府也於2009年徵召包括前黑客在內的網絡精英保衛網絡安全。他們年輕,背景多樣,有的曾經是黑客,甚至有輕度網絡犯罪行為。

在2009年6月25日,英國政府出台首個國家網絡安全戰略,並宣布成立兩個網絡安全新部門,即網絡安全辦公室和網絡安全行動中心,分別負責協調政府各部門網絡安全和協調政府與民間機構主要電腦系統安全保護工作。

印度則在2007年組建了陸、海、空三軍聯合計算機應急分隊,並徵召黑客入伍。同時,通過吸納民間高手入伍和對軍校學員進行“黑客”技術培訓等方式,逐步完成未來網絡戰的人才儲備。

軍事大國俄羅斯上世紀90年代就設立了信息安全委員會,專門負責網絡信息安全,2002年推出《俄聯邦信息安全學說》,將網絡信息戰比作未來的“第六代戰爭”。俄羅斯已經擁有了眾多的網絡精英,反病毒技術更是走在了世界的前列,在遇到威脅或有需要時,這些人才和技術將能很快地轉入軍事用途。

“黑客門”:可笑的指責

雖然沒有事實依據,但美國網絡安全公司和政府仍然屢屢製造“黑客門”,矛頭直指中國,不僅涉及高校、企業,還有技校如山東藍翔,也有網絡個體,如今則指向中國軍方,甚至提供“黑客總部大樓”照片。然而,僅憑IP地址的關係就得出“攻擊源頭來自中國”,凸顯美國相關人士的無知。

黑客怎麼用自己的電腦發動攻擊?又怎麼會留下註冊IP地址?他們通常是通過跳板控制第三方電腦形成殭屍網絡再展開攻擊。主動暴露IP地址留下痕跡,豈是專業黑客所為!

中國國防部國際傳播局副局長孟彥日前撰文稱,美國各界在變換手法渲染中國黑客攻擊把戲時,竟然無視自身才是網絡虛擬空間的“規則制定者”。 2012年,7.3萬個境外IP地址作為木馬和殭屍網絡控制服務器參與控制中國境內1400餘萬台主機,3.2萬個IP通過植入後門對中國境內近3.8萬個網站實施遠程控制,其中源自美國的網絡攻擊數量名列第一。

黑客攻防:無硝煙的戰爭

只需要幾分鐘,國內密碼專家、清華大學特聘教授王小雲和她的研究小組用普通的個人電腦,就能破解MD5密碼算法。在她之前,即使採用最快的巨型計算機,也要運算100萬年以上才能破解。

如果這是戰爭,則聽不到聲音看不到硝煙。黑客往往通過獲取口令、放置特洛伊木馬程序、電子郵件攻擊、節點攻擊、網絡監聽、尋找系統漏洞、偷取特權等以及利用WWW欺騙技術、利用賬號攻擊等方式發起網絡攻擊。

記者了解到,目前“網頁掛馬”(即在網頁中加載木馬病毒)、“網絡釣魚”(偽造WEB站點或電子郵件等)等方式成為黑客攻擊的主流行為。

國外軍事家看中國特色的信息戰 // Chinese Characteristics of Information Warfare: Foreign Military Observations

國外軍事家看中國特色的信息戰 //

Chinese Characteristics of Information Warfare: Foreign Military Observations

In recent years, information warfare has become a hot spot all over the world.China’s military strategists have not neglected their importance as a tool of war, and are accelerating the development of information warfare theory. They are not only exploring theoretical issues, but also training troops.

Information warfare with Chinese characteristics

Chinese military theorists believe that information warfare can give Mao Zedong’s people’s war ideas into the omission. This view by the Chinese information warfare expert Wang Pufeng (transliteration) generals in 1995 for the first time. Some people think that electronics, computer and information engineering experts, like the past soldiers on the battlefield, can become the main force in the new people’s war. Obviously they want to use the people’s war ideas to fight the information war – a war with a home computer, when necessary to mobilize thousands of people, attack foreign computer systems. China has a number of outstanding software experts, in the field of information war has great potential. The question is how to seek greater information space and equipment for the huge population.

“The whole society will replace the traditional battlefield,” said Shen Weiguang, an information warfare expert. “Different classes and social groups will participate in political activities in their own country or other countries.” He advocates the establishment of a scientist, police, Other experts to form the information protection forces to defend the security of the national information field, to counter the invasion of information launched by other countries.

The idea of ​​combining the people’s war with the information war is being carried out in China’s 1.5 million strong reserve army. The People’s Liberation Army is turning the reserve forces of certain military sub-divisions into small-scale information warfare. In Hubei, a military division, the People’s Armed Forces Department has 20 towns of the armed forces to form a reserve / militia information warfare. The Department has a network of war camps, electronic war camps, intelligence and psychological camps, and 35 technical units (classes to camp). The department has also established the first training base for information services that can accommodate 500 people.

The above-mentioned military division is not the only military division of the organization’s reserve and militia for information warfare. “Liberation Army Daily” has reported that in December 1999 a city along the southeast coast held a meeting of the reserve and militia forces, during the electronic interference, network attack and defense and radar reconnaissance and other red. There are also reports of information warfare activities organized by the People’s Armed Forces and the Armed Forces in other regions.

In the information war era, China is also affected by another important tactics, that is, China’s “thirty-six dollars.” About 300 years ago, an unnamed scholar collected 36 Chinese tactics, and compiled a book, named “thirty-six dollars.” The book focuses on deception as a military art that achieves military goals. In the information age, due to the unknown uncertainty of the attacker’s origin (the program’s listening to the source of the virus and the presence of the back door increases the vulnerability of the system), some tactics may be reusable, thirty-six may find new Meaning and new use.

Some critics argue that in today’s high-tech era, these ancient strategies are hard to do. However, just look at a few of them, then it is another situation: the first plan “deceive”, meaning by resorting to deceit and camouflage means to hide their true intentions, in order to achieve the purpose of loosening the enemy vigilance. Applying to information wartime is the use of regular e-mail and commercial lines on the Internet to cover the purpose of sending dangerous code and viruses. The fourth meter “to wait and see”. Meaning that when fighting their own recharge your batteries, until the enemy fatigue chaos, take the opportunity to win. Application to the information wartime is the use of people’s war theory, extensive mobilization of the masses to attack, until all the Western computer to meet the difficulty of self-propelled when the implementation of large-scale attack.

At present, China is considering the establishment of future high-tech operations of the “network army.” It will protect the network sovereignty, network warfare and technology and knowledge-intensive operations. Network technology will include: can decipher the password, steal data and restore data browsing technology; can attack on the network and attack counterattack technology; can fake fake identity from the network to steal the license of camouflage technology; to avoid attacks, Prevent internal leaks, and defensive techniques that prevent random action like electronic police.

Definition of information warfare

China’s famous author of the issue of information warfare at home and abroad is Dr. Shen Weiguang, Major General Wang Pufeng, Wang Baoji University and Yuan Bangji General (both sound Ze). In 1996, Dr. Shen first proposed the definition of information warfare: information war is a two sides through the control of information and intelligence to try to master the battlefield initiative of the war. As the United States defined, Dr. Shen stressed that “save yourself, fight against the enemy” into “to protect themselves, control the enemy.” Wang generals also believe that the key to information warfare is to control the information.
In 1997, Wang Baoji University from the perspective of China’s military science and Marxism-Leninism to elaborate on the word information warfare. This article covers the form, nature, hierarchy, characteristics, characteristics and principles of information warfare. He believes that the form of information warfare is divided into normal, crisis and wartime three; nature is attack and defense of the contest; level is divided into national, strategic, theater and tactical four; features include command and control warfare, intelligence war Such as electronic warfare, psychological warfare, space control warfare, hacking warfare, virtual warfare, economic warfare, strategic and precise contest, etc .; features complex, transparent, limited target, short duration, small damage, large combat space, Comprehensive, strong command capability, etc .; in principle, to take cut, blinded, transparent, fast melon and improve the viability and other measures. His office and analysis of information warfare help people gain a deeper understanding of China’s information warfare.

Another author of China’s definition of information war is the General Staff of the PLA General Staff, he wrote in the 1999 book that: “Information war is a capture and maintain the control of information and struggle between the hostile parties Compete for access to control and use of information initiative, they use and protect their own information and resources and information systems at the same time, will use and destroy the enemy’s information resources, information systems and information-based weapons systems.

In 2000, General Wang Pufeng made a more thorough and thorough explanation of the “information warfare” than he used to be “information war”. Wang believes that the information war refers to a war and a war mode; information warfare refers to a kind of combat and a combat mode. The new mode of action refers to the action that is carried out in the computer network. Information warfare includes information detection systems, information transmission systems, information and weapons attack systems, and information processing and application systems. Information warfare contains information warfare, which combines information and ability to use information networks based on the battlefield as their place of activity.

Information warfare training

In February 1999, an interesting article on information warfare training defined information warfare as a knowledge war, a special contest for the power of high intelligence. The definition stems from the fact that high-tech warfare requires commanders and operators to have a high level of knowledge, strong mental, command and operational skills.
Chinese military leaders, after recognizing the gap between the above and the more developed countries, decided to carry out training activities at all levels. The staff will be divided into three categories by age:

The first category for the support of talent, the main goal is more than 40 years of age at all levels of leading cadres. The aim is to eliminate their blind spots by training (from mechanization concepts to simulated computer fights) to change their minds and apply them to future wars. Training content includes: information technology foundation, information warfare theory, information warfare weapons universal knowledge. Training methods of color training courses and other auxiliary methods.

The second category is a transitional talent, training goal is 30-40 year old cadres. As the future leaders of the Chinese army, they must focus on improving the commanding ability in the information warfare environment.

The third category for the regeneration of talent, training for the 30-year-old cadres. These people have long been adapted to the information society, with a good foundation of modern information technology theory, focusing on improving their commanding ability and skills.

The training of various age groups includes: basic theory (computer foundation and application, communication network technology, information highway, digital force); electronic warfare; radar technology; information war rules and rules; information strategy and tactics; theater and strategic information warfare Information systems (including the collection of letters, processing, information and use of information warfare); monitoring, decision-making and control systems; information weapons (soft and hard destruction of the concept and principles, how to use information weapons, analog information warfare); information system protection; Computer virus attack and defense, as well as communication network interference and anti-interference.

The article shows that China is preparing a first-class information warfare course. However, subsequent reports indicate that this is not the case. In July 1999, a “Liberation Army Daily” pointed out: “training content, system and structure of the rationality of the information warfare training can not really become the mainstream of our military training.Currently, information warfare training in a state of arbitrary. System, operation is not standardized, the lack of assessment standards and management regulations.

Information warfare

Over the past three years, China has held several major information warfare military exercises, every time it is important, because it is a test of information war theory. The first “special war” (information warfare) exercise was conducted in October 1997; a military army in a military area was subjected to a computer attack aimed at paralyzing its system, and the group’s military antivirus software was defended. The exercise is called “invasion and anti-intrusion exercise”. The exercise used ground logistics, medical and air forces.

In October 1998, China held a high-tech comprehensive exercise with several national military zones. The first use of the “military information superhighway” was used for joint defense operations. The information network subsystem in the command automation system is composed of digital, dialing, command network and secret channel. The other parts of the command automation system are subsystems such as command warfare, audio and graphics processing, control and data encryption. Military information highway in addition to the trend map, but also send graphics, characters and audio data.

In October 1999, the People’s Liberation Army for the first time between the two groups of war-level computer online confrontation exercise. Conducted reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, interference and anti-interference, blockade and anti-blockade, air strikes and anti-air raid and other subjects. In the software environment, resource sharing, combat command, situation display, auxiliary evaluation, signal transmission and intelligence warfare and other six types of operations. The computer evaluation system conducts mathematical and qualitative analysis of the performance of the participant.
In July 2000, a military area in southwest China also conducted an online confrontation exercise. The three training tasks related to the exercise are: organizing and planning the campaign, seizing air power and making information, implementing breakthroughs and breaking down. There are more than 100 terminal networking involved in the exercise. Three weeks later, another military area also opened a high-tech exercise curtain, and issued to the subordinate units began to control the communication line command.

China ‘s Information Warfare Ability

Chinese military theorists have found a voluntary, very economical and obedient partner in information warfare. This partner will enable China to catch up with the West in strategic, military and international status. Which will enable China to play an important strategic role in the future Asia-Pacific region. China may gradually pay close attention to economic competitors.

China attaches great importance to the role played by the new information warfare forces, including the network forces (independent arms), the network warriors commando, the information protection forces, the information corps, the electronic police and the joint people’s war network. The latter is particularly concerned by foreign analysts because of its unique nature and potential. Chinese military theorists believe that the victory of information warfare will belong to the one who can mobilize the most computer experts to participate in the “information family war”, they will use such as cyber war strategy, trying to cut off important information nodes and contacts.

At present, China’s information warfare combines Western, Russian and Chinese ideas. However, information wars with Chinese characteristics, which are different from Russia and the West, are gradually forming. China’s information warfare should look for answers to the questions from today’s military history, such as the nature and characteristics of information warfare.

However, there are still many shortcomings in China’s information warfare methods, not just quantitative aspects. The core of the information warfare theory also involves maintaining the integrity and stability of the infrastructure. In the information age, infrastructure stability is as important as troop survivability. China’s biggest weakness is just in terms of infrastructure. At present, China is accelerating the development of electronic information industry, its purpose is nothing more than for the military and civilian information base for the use of infrastructure.

China is good at drawing lessons from others, may soon be able to set up a compelling information warfare force. Information war has forced China to cross a number of technological development stages, the use of Western technology, not only save time but also save money. However, China may not fully follow the example of others, but will take a creative or indirect information war strategy. But no matter what, China is worthy of attention is different from other countries, the power of information.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

近些年來,信息戰已經成為全世界的熱點。中國的軍事家們也沒有忽視其作為戰爭工具的重要意義,正在加速發展信息戰理論。他們不僅正在探索理論方面的課題,而且也在據此訓練部隊。

中國特色的信息戰

中國軍事理論家認為,信息戰可以給毛澤東的人民戰爭思想注入省略。此觀點由中國信息戰專家王普峰(音譯)將軍於1995年首次提出。有人認為,電子、計算機和信息工程專家如同過去戰場上的將士一樣,可以成為新人民戰爭中的主力軍。顯然他們是希望用人民戰爭思想打信息戰--一種用家用微機即可進行的戰爭,需要時動員成千上萬人,攻擊外國計算機系統。中國擁有一批傑出的軟件專家,在信息戰領域有巨大潛力。問題是如何為龐大的人口尋求更大的信息空間和設備。

信息戰專家沈偉光在文章中寫道:“整個社會將取代傳統戰場。不同階層和社會團體將參與本國或其他國家的政治活動。”他主張建立一支由精通信息戰的科學家、警察、士兵和其他專家組成的信息保護部隊,以捍衛國家信息領域的安全,反擊其他國家發動的信息入侵。

將人民戰爭和信息戰相結合的思想正在貫徹到中國150萬強大後備軍中。人民解放軍正將某些軍分區的後備役部隊變成小型信息戰團。在湖北某軍分區,人民武裝部已將20個城鎮的武裝部組成一個後備役/民兵信息戰團。該部擁有網絡戰營、電子戰營、情報和心理戰營,以及35支技術分隊(班到營)。該部還建立了第一個可容納500人的後備役信息戰訓練基地。

上述軍分區並非是組織後備役和民兵進行信息戰訓練的唯一軍分區。 《解放軍報》曾報導說,1999年12月東南沿海某城市舉行了一次運用後備役和民兵部隊的會議,期間進行了電子乾擾,網絡攻防和雷達偵察等演紅。同樣還有其他地區人武部和軍分區組織信息戰活動的報導。

在信息戰時代,中國還受到另一個重要戰法的影響,即中國的“三十六計”。大約300年前,一位無名學者蒐集到中國的36個計謀,並彙編成書,取名為《三十六計》。該書著重將欺騙作為達成軍事目標的軍事藝術。在信息時代,因攻擊者來歷不明的情況不確定性(程序聽病毒源和存在的後門增大了系統的易損性),有些計謀可能會重新有用武之地,三十六計可能會找到新含義和新用途。

一些評論家認為,在當今的高技術時代,這些古代計策難有作為。然而,只需看看其中的幾計,則又是另一番情況:第一計“瞞天過海”,意思是通過採取欺騙和偽裝的手段隱藏自己的真實意圖,以達到鬆懈敵人警惕性的目的。應用到信息戰時就是使用互聯網上的正規電子郵件和商業線路來掩蓋發送危險代碼和病毒的目的。第四計“以逸待勞”。意思是作戰時自己養精蓄銳,待敵疲勞混亂時,乘機出擊取勝。應用到信息戰時就是利用人民戰爭理論,廣泛發動群眾進行攻擊,待所有西方計算機應爭反應小級難以自拔時再實施大規模進攻。

目前中國正考慮建立未來高科技作戰的“網絡軍”。它將保護網絡主權,進行網絡戰以及技術和知識密集型作戰。網絡技術將包括:能破譯密碼、偷取數據和恢復數據的瀏覽技術;能在網絡上發起攻擊和乾擾的反擊技術;能通過偽造假身份從網絡竊取許可權的偽裝技術;能避開攻擊、防止內部洩密以及像電子警察那樣阻止隨意行動的防禦技術。

信息戰的定義

中國探討國內外信息戰問題的著名作者是沈偉光博士、王普鋒少將、王保存大校和袁邦概將軍(均為音澤)。 1996年,沈博士首次提出信息戰定義:信息戰是一場雙方通過控制信息和情報輿來設法掌握戰場主動權的戰爭。正如美國界定的那樣,沈博士強調把“保存自己,打擊敵人”變為“保護自己,控制敵人”。王將軍也認為信息戰取勝的關鍵是控制信息。
1997年,王保存大校從中國軍事科學和馬列主義的角度精闢地闡述字信息戰問題。該文涵蓋信息戰的形式、性質、層次、特徵、特點和原則。他認為:形式上信息戰分為平時、危機時和戰時三種;性質上是攻與防的較量;層次分為國家、戰略、戰區和戰術四級;特徵包括指揮與控制戰、情報戰、電子戰、心理戰、空間控制戰、黑客戰、虛擬戰、經濟戰、戰略和精確的較量等;特點有復雜、透明、目標有限、持續時間短、毀傷小、戰鬥空間大、部隊疏散、綜合性強、指揮能力要求強等;原則上採取切斷、蒙蔽、透明、快速瓜和提高生存力等措施。他對信息戰的辦公室和分析有助於人們更深入了解中國的信息戰。

中國另一位界定信息戰的作者是解放軍總參謀部的袁將軍,他在1999年撰寫的書中認為:“信息戰是一場奪取和保持信息控制權而進行的鬥爭,是敵對雙方之間爭奪獲取控制和使用信息主動權的鬥爭,他們在使用和保護己方各種信息戰資源和信息系統的同時,會利用和破壞敵方的信息資源、信息系統和基於信息的武器系統。

2000年,王普鋒將軍對“信息戰爭”作了比以往更深入透徹的解釋,以別於“信息戰”。王將軍認為,信息戰爭指的是一種戰爭和一種戰爭模式;信息戰指的是一種作戰和一種作戰模式。之種新作戰模式指的是在計算機網絡窨進行的行動。信息戰包括信息探測系統、信息傳輸系統、信息和武器攻擊系統以及信息處理和應用系統。信息戰爭包含信息戰,兩者將信息和能力融為一體,使用以信息網絡為基礎的戰場作為他們的活動場所。

信息戰訓練

1999年2月,一篇關於信息戰訓練的有趣文章將信息戰界定為知識型戰爭,是高智能人才之間力量的特殊較量。該定義源於這樣一個事實:高技術戰爭需要指揮員和操作員有很高的知識、很強的心理素質、指揮能力和作戰技術。
中國軍方領導人在認識到上述幾方面與較發達國家存在的差距後,決定在各級開展訓練活動。將人員按年齡分為3類:

第一類為支撐型人才,主要目標是40多歲以上的各級領導幹部。目的是通過訓練(從機械化概念到模擬計算機戰鬥)消除他們的信息盲區,轉變他們的觀念,使其將新思維應用到未來戰爭中去。訓練內容包括:信息技術基礎、信息戰理論、信息戰武器普及知識。訓練方法彩短訓班和其他輔助方法。

第二類為過渡型人才,培養目標是30-40歲的干部。作為中國軍隊的未來領導者,他們必須著重提高信息戰環境下的指揮能力。

第三類為再生型人才,培養對象為30歲以下的干部。這些人早已適應信息社會,擁有現代信息技術理論的良好根基,重點是提高他們的指揮能力和技藝。

各個年齡組的訓練包括:基礎理論(計算機基礎和應用、通信網絡技術、信息高速公路、數字化部隊);電子對抗;雷達技術;信息戰規律與規則;信息戰略與戰術;戰區與戰略信息戰的信息系統(包括收信紙、處理、輿和使用信息戰指令);監測、決策和控制系統;信息武器(軟、硬破壞的概念和原則、如何應用信息武器、模擬信息戰);信息系統保護;計算機病毒攻與防,以及通信網絡的干擾與反干擾。

該文章表明中國正在編制第一流的信息戰課程。然而,後來的報導表明情況並非如此。 1999年7月的一份《解放軍報》指出:“訓練內容、體制和結構的無理性使信息戰訓練不能真正成為我軍訓練的主流。目前,信息戰訓練處於一種隨心所欲的狀態。內容不系統,運作不規範,缺乏評估標準和管理規章”。

信息戰演練

過去3年,中國舉行過數次重大信息戰軍事演習,每次都很重要,因為那是對信息戰理論的一次檢驗。首次“特種戰”(信息戰)演練於1997年10月進行;某軍區的一個集團軍遭到旨在癱瘓其係統的計算機攻擊,該集團軍用殺毒軟件進行了防衛。該演練被稱為“入侵與反入侵演練”。演習時運用了地面後勤、醫療和空軍部隊。

1998年10月,中國舉行了一場有全國數個軍區聯合進行的高科技綜合演練。聯合防禦作戰演練時首次使用了“軍事信息高速公路”。指揮自動化系統中的信息網絡子系統由數字、撥號、指揮網和保密信道組成。指揮自動化系統的其他部分是指揮作戰、音頻和圖形處理、控制和數據加密等子系統。軍事信息高速公路除傳勢圖外,還發發送圖形、字符和音頻數據。

1999年10月,解放軍首次進行了兩個集團軍之間的戰役級計算機網上對抗演練。演練了偵察與反偵察、干擾與反干擾、封鎖與反封鎖、空襲與反空襲等科目。在軟件環境下進行了資源共享、作戰指揮、態勢顯示、輔助評估、信號傳輸和情報戰等6類作業。計算機評估系統對參演者的表現進行數理與質量分析。
2000年7月,西南某軍區也進行了網上對抗演練。與此次演練有關的3項訓練任務是:組織和計劃戰役、奪取制空權和製信息權、實施突破和反突破。有100多台終端聯網參與了演練。三週後,另一個軍區也拉開了高技術演練的帷幕,並向下屬部隊下達開始控制通信線路的命令。

中國的信息戰能力

中國軍事理論家已在信息戰方面找到一個自願、非常經濟和順從的伙伴。這個夥伴將使中國在戰略、軍事和國際地位上趕上西方。這將使中國在未來亞太地區發揮重要的戰略作用。中國可能會逐步引起經濟競爭者的密切關注。

中國異常重視新信息戰部隊所表現出的作用,這方面的各種組織包括:網絡部隊(獨立兵種)、網絡勇士突擊隊、信息保護部隊、信息兵團、電子警察和聯合的人民戰爭網絡機構。後者因其獨特的性質和潛力引起外國分析家格外關注。中國軍事理論家認為,信息戰的勝利將屬於能夠動員最多的計算機專家參加“信息家庭戰”的那一方,他們將採用諸如網點戰那樣的戰略,設法切斷重要的信息節點和接點。

目前,中國的信息戰融合了西方、俄羅斯和中國的思想,然而,有別於俄羅斯和西方的具有中國特色的信息戰詞彙正在逐步形成。中國信息戰應從中國軍事歷史中尋找解決當今問題的答案,如36計、信息戰的性質和特點看來非常適合這些計策。

但是,中國的信息戰方法還存在許多不足,還不僅僅是數量方面的問題。信息戰作戰理論的核心還涉及到保持基礎設施的完整性和穩定性。在信息時代,基礎設施穩定性與部隊生存能力同等重要。中國的最大弱點恰恰就在基礎設施方面。目前中國正在加速發展電子信息產業,其目的不外乎是為軍民聯用的信息基礎設施打基礎。

中國善於吸取別人的前車之鑑,可能很快就可以組建一支令人刮目相看的信息戰力量。信息戰已迫使中國跨越了若干技術發展階段,利用西方的技術,不僅節省了時間而且還節省了金錢。然而,中國可能不會完全仿效別人,而將採取創造性的或間接的信息戰策略。但不管怎麼樣,中國都是值得關注的一支不同於其他國家的信息戰力量.

Original Date: 新華網 ( 2003-06-12 16:0x:xx )

Original Source:

http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2003-06/12/content_916888.htm

中國優先發展網絡戰略信息化戰 // China to give priority to the development of network strategy & information warfare

中國優先發展網絡戰略信息化戰 //

China to give priority to the development of network strategy & information warfare

Cyberspace has become the national comprehensive security of the door. Network warfare reality, the network battlefield globalization, network confrontation normalization, the network attack heart white hot, the network to build the army of the general trend, no one can block. Give priority to the development of network strategy, and actively seize the commanding heights of network strategy, for my army building is of great significance.

  The main features of network strategy

Network strategic strength refers to the ability to achieve the desired results through cyberspace. From the current development and possible future trends, mainly with the following characteristics.

Composed of multiple. In recent years, the major network events in the world have shown that the strategic power of the military network is the main force of cyberspace competition. The strategic power of the government departments and the private sector is an important part of the cyberspace competition. The “cyber warrior” An important addition.

Strong professionalism. Network strategy strength has a strong latent and difficult to predict, and the speed of light, instantaneous effect, monitoring and early warning is difficult; once the action is effective, damage effect superimposed magnification or non-linear step, with a typical “butterfly effect.” In 2010, the “shock net” virus attacked the centrifuges of the Iranian Bushehr nuclear power plant and the Natanz uranium enrichment plant, resulting in nearly a thousand centrifuge scrapped, forcing Iran’s nuclear capacity building to delay 2 to 3 years, opened the network attack soft means Destroy the national hard facilities.

Destructive. The strategic power of the network is no less than the weapons of mass destruction. Russia and Georgia in 2008, “the five-day war”, the Russian military to Georgia’s television media, government websites and transportation systems as the goal, to carry out a comprehensive “bee group” type of network paralysis attacks, leading to grid government agencies operating chaos, Logistics and communication system collapse, much-needed war materials can not be delivered in a timely manner, the potential of the war has been seriously weakened, a direct impact on the grid of social order, operational command and troop scheduling. The Russian military doctrine has identified cybercrime as a weapon of mass destruction and has retained the right to use weapons of mass destruction or nuclear weapons to counterattack.

Advanced technology and phase. Network strategy strength development speed, replacement fast, technical materialization for the equipment cycle is short. At present, the speed of the microprocessor doubles every 18 months, the backbone bandwidth doubled every six months, a variety of new electronic information equipment after another, all kinds of application software dizzying. Cyber ​​space confrontation is the field of information in the field of offensive and defensive struggle, the use of network strategy forces in the confrontation of the phase with grams, constantly renovated. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology makes the software of the anti-wall software upgrade continuously. The development of the firewall and the information monitoring technology has led to the development of the firewall. , Can be described as “a foot high, magic high ten feet.”

  The Developing Trend of Network Strategic

From the subordinate force to the development of key forces. In the past, the network strategic power is mainly for other forces to provide information security, in a subordinate position; with the development of network information technology, network system control of other rights, network strategic forces from subordinate status to the dominant position to accelerate into, to maintain the country The key to safety. There is no network security there is no sovereign security, “no net” to become a new law of war, the world’s major countries around the network space development rights, dominance and control of a new round of competition, especially the United States and Russia adhere to the practice In the use and continue to develop.

From the maintenance of force to the development of specialized forces. In the past, the network strategy is mainly to maintain the network information system and all kinds of network transmission system, network attack and defense attributes are not clear. At present, all areas of the network space in depth, the world’s major countries are hard to build cyberspace offensive and defensive capabilities, the main military power of the network strategy has become a network of reconnaissance, network attacks, network defense and other clear division of labor, professional regular military forces. The United States has so far built the world’s most complete and powerful network of the army, and held a series of “network storm” series of exercises. The new “cyberspace strategy” in the United States, the first public to cyberspace combat as one of the tactical options for future military conflict, clearly proposed to improve the US military in the cyberspace of deterrence and offensive capability. In order to adapt to the new strategy, the US Department of Defense proposed 2018 to build a offensive and defensive, flexible form, with full combat capability of the network forces construction goals.

From the military to the integration of military and civilian development. The development of the strategic power of the military network started relatively late compared with the civil field, and because of the confidentiality of military confrontation and the specificity of the operational objectives, it is often developed independently. With the development of network technology, the military’s own network strategic strength is difficult to meet the needs of diversified tasks, we must learn from local folk technical means, integrate local network resources, realize the integration of military and civilian development. Network space capacity building on the talent, intelligence, experience and other software environment is extremely high, coupled with the local convergence of a wealth of network resources, military and civilian forces to promote the development of cyberspace capabilities become the strong tone of the times.

From a single model to the “network integration” development. At present, the network includes both the computer IP system network and the non-computer IP system network including a large number of complex early warning detection network, satellite communication network and tactical data link. The traditional single network confrontation model is difficult to meet the challenge of cyberspace. With the development of information technology, especially the Internet of Things technology, the relationship between the network and the power of the battlefield network more and more closely, which for the “network integration” in the technical means to provide the possibility. The use of electronic warfare and network warfare means, for different systems around the open bow, broken chain broken network, to achieve complementary advantages, system damage, as the latest guidance on the construction of network space. Data show that the US military typical network of integrated attack equipment “Shu special” system has been from the “Shu-1” to the current development of “Shu-5”. According to reports, “Shute” system through the enemy radar antenna, microwave relay station, network processing nodes to invade the enemy air defense network system, real-time monitoring of enemy radar detection results, even as a system administrator to take over the enemy network, Control of the sensor.

From non-state actors to state actors. At present, the network attack has developed from a single hacker behavior for the national, political, military confrontation, the attack object has been developed from the personal website to the country, the army’s important information system, attack “unit” has grown from stand-alone to tens of thousands Hundreds of thousands of terminals, and can instantly release the amazing attack energy. Although many of the intentions of malicious acts of non-State actors are non-state, the consequences are national, whether they are espionage, political opinions, or personal discontent, or terrorist activities , Have a direct impact on social stability, disrupt the economic order, endanger the stability of state power. Once the relevant reaction is made, the subject of the act must be the state and the army, and not the non-state actors themselves.

  The Construction of Network Strategic Strength

Strengthen strategic planning. Cyberspace competition is the first strategic battle of the contest. From the national level, the network strategy of the power of the main function is to reduce the risk of cyberspace, maintaining the normal operation of the country. We must understand the extreme importance and realistic urgency of cyberspace security from the perspective of national security, raise the focus of cyberspace capacity building to the strategic level, and try to reduce the national cyberspace security while trying to solve the problem of how to make good use of cyberspace Risk, so that cyberspace security has become an important support for national prosperity and security. From the military level, the network strategy is mainly to seize the system of network power. We must expand the military vision, the cyberspace as an important area of ​​action, to seize the system as the core, change the military ideas and ideas, adjust the structure and composition of armed forces, the development of weapons and equipment and take a new tactics.

Speed ​​up the construction of the power system. Maintain cyberspace security in the final analysis depends on the strength. We must base ourselves on the characteristics and laws of cyberspace capacity building, focus on the core elements of network capability system and the overall layout of network strategy, and systematically design the system structure which conforms to the law and characteristics of cyberspace confrontation in our country, and perfect the system of leadership and command Functional tasks, straighten out the relationship between command and management. We should take the network strategic power as an important new combat force, from the organization construction, personnel training, equipment development, elements of training and other aspects, to take extraordinary measures to give priority construction, focus on protection. To normalize the national network of offensive and defensive exercises, test theory, tactics, equipment and technology effectiveness, and comprehensively enhance the comprehensive prevention of cyberspace capabilities.

Promote technological innovation. The essence of cyberspace confrontation is the competition of core technology, and it is necessary to accelerate the independent innovation of network information technology. To improve the ability of independent innovation as a strategic basis to the national innovation system as the basic support, focus on breaking the forefront of network development technology and international competitiveness of the key core technology, advanced deployment and focus on the development of information technology and information industry. To speed up the process of localization of key core technologies, strengthen the construction of safety testing and active early warning means, and gradually improve the equipment system of cyberspace in China, and comprehensively improve our network space capability. To follow the basic laws of cyberspace confrontation, in accordance with the “asymmetric checks and balances” strategy, increase the quantum technology, Internet of things and cloud computing and other new technology research and development efforts to create unique combat capability, master the initiative of cyberspace security development The

Promote the integration of military and civilian development. The integration of the military space ability of military and civilian development is not only the overall situation of national security and development strategy, the overall planning of national defense and economic and social development, but also the objective fact that cyberspace security can not be avoided. We must actively promote the deep integration of military and civilian development, to promote China’s network space capacity supporting the construction. It is necessary to formulate top-level planning in the form of policies and regulations, clarify the objectives, methods, organizational division and basic requirements of the deepening development of cyberspace in the form of policies and regulations, and make the integration of military and civilian development into law enforcement and organizational behavior; To establish a sound military coordination, demand docking, resource sharing mechanism, through a unified leadership management organization and coordination of military needs and major work, to achieve risk sharing, sharing of resources and common development of the new situation. We should pay attention to the distinction between the boundaries of military and civilian integration, clear the concept of development-oriented people and the main battle concept of the army, and actively explore the military and the people, the advantages of complementary channels.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

网络空间成为国家综合安全的命门。网络战争现实化、网络战场全球化、网络对抗常态化、网络攻心白热化、网络建军正规化的大势,无人可挡。优先发展网络战略力量,积极抢占网络战略制高点,对于我军队建设具有重要意义。

  网络战略力量的主要特点

网络战略力量,是指通过网络空间来实现预期结果的能力。从当前发展及未来可能的走势看,主要有以下特点。

组成多元。近年来发生在全球范围内的重大网络事件表明,军队网络战略力量是网络空间竞争的主力军,政府部门、私营机构网络战略力量是网络空间竞争的重要部分,民间“网络战士”是网络空间竞争的重要补充。

专业性强。网络战略力量具有极强的潜伏性和难预测性,且以光速进行、瞬时产生效果,监测预警难度大;一旦行动奏效,损害效果叠加放大或非线性阶跃,具有典型的“蝴蝶效应”。2010年,“震网”病毒攻击了伊朗布什尔核电站和纳坦兹铀浓缩厂的离心机,造成近千台离心机报废,迫使伊朗核能力建设延迟2至3年,开启了网络攻击软手段摧毁国家硬设施的先河。

破坏性大。网络战略力量破坏力不亚于大规模杀伤性武器。2008年俄国与格鲁吉亚“五日战争”中,俄军以格方的电视媒体、政府网站和交通系统等为目标,开展全面的“蜂群”式网络阻瘫攻击,导致格政府机构运作混乱,物流和通信系统崩溃,急需的战争物资无法及时投送,战争潜力受到严重削弱,直接影响了格的社会秩序、作战指挥和部队调度。俄罗斯军事学说已将网络攻击手段定性为大规模毁灭性武器,并保留了运用大规模毁灭性武器或核武器反击的权利。

技术先进且相生相克。网络战略力量发展速度快、更新换代快,技术物化为装备的周期短。当前,微处理器的速度每18个月翻一番,主干网带宽每6个月增加一倍,各种新型电子信息设备层出不穷,各种应用软件目不暇接。网络空间对抗是信息领域的攻防斗争,网络战略力量使用的手段在对抗中相生相克、不断翻新。常规通信受干扰催生了跳、扩频通信体制,跳、扩频通信的出现又催生了频率跟踪干扰、相关信号干扰等新型电子干扰手段;防火墙、信息监控技术的发展,使翻墙软件不断升级,可谓“道高一尺,魔高一丈”。

  网络战略力量的发展趋势

由从属性力量向关键性力量发展。以往网络战略力量主要是为其他力量提供信息保障,处于从属地位;随着网络信息技术的发展,制网权统揽其他制权,网络战略力量由从属地位向主导地位加速转进,成为维护国家安全的关键。没有网络安全就没有主权安全,“无网不胜”成为战争的新定律,世界各主要国家围绕网络空间的发展权、主导权和控制权展开了新一轮的角逐,特别是美俄坚持在实践中运用并不断发展。

由维护型力量向专业化力量发展。以往网络战略力量主要是维护网络化信息系统和各类网络传输系统,网络攻击和防御属性均不鲜明。当下各领域对网络空间深度依赖,世界主要国家无不竭力打造网络空间攻防能力,主要军事强国的网络战略力量业已成为集网络侦察、网络攻击、网络防御等分工明确、专业化的正规军事力量。美国迄今已建成全球编制最齐全、力量最庞大的网军,并多次举行“网络风暴”系列演习。美国新版《网络空间战略》,首次公开把网络空间作战作为今后军事冲突的战术选项之一,明确提出要提高美军在网络空间的威慑和进攻能力。为适应新战略,美国防部提出2018年建成一支攻防兼备、形式灵活,具备全面作战能力的网络部队的建设目标。

由军地自主向军民融合发展。军队网络战略力量的发展相对于民用领域起步较晚,且由于军事对抗的保密性和作战目标的特定性,往往自主发展。随着网络技术的发展,军队自身的网络战略力量难满足多样化任务的需要,必须学习借鉴地方民间技术手段,整合地方网络资源,实现军民融合发展。网络空间能力建设对人才、智力、经验等软件环境要求极高,加上地方汇聚了丰富的网络资源,军民联手推进网络空间能力发展成为时代的强音。

由单一模式向“网电一体”发展。现阶段,网络既包括计算机IP体制网络,更包含大量复杂的预警探测网、卫星通信网、战术数据链等非计算机IP体制网络,传统的单一网络对抗模式难以应对网络空间的挑战。随着信息技术特别是物联网技术的发展,战场网中网与电的关系越来越紧密,这为“网电一体”在技术手段上提供了可能。综合运用电子战与网络战手段,针对不同体制的网络左右开弓、断链破网,实现优势互补、体系破击,成为网络空间能力建设的最新指导。有资料显示,美军典型网电一体攻击装备“舒特”系统已从“舒特-1”发展到目前的“舒特-5”。据报道,“舒特”系统可通过敌方雷达天线、微波中继站、网络处理节点入侵敌方防空网络系统,能够实时监视敌方雷达的探测结果,甚至以系统管理员身份接管敌方网络,实现对传感器的控制。

由非国家行为体向国家行为体发展。目前,网络攻击已从单个的黑客行为发展为国家、政治、军事上的对抗行为,攻击对象已从个人网站发展到国家、军队的重要信息系统,攻击“单元”已从单机发展到数万乃至数十万台终端,且能在瞬时释放惊人的攻击能量。尽管非国家行为体的恶意网络行为目的许多是非国家的,但由此所造成的后果却是国家的,无论是进行间谍活动,还是发表政治主张,或是发泄个人不满情绪,或是进行恐怖活动,都直接影响社会稳定、扰乱经济秩序、危及国家政权稳固。一旦因之作出相关反应,其行为主体一定是国家和军队,而不再是非国家行为体本身。

  网络战略力量的建设指向

加强战略统筹谋划。网络空间竞争首先是战略运筹的较量。从国家层面看,网络战略力量的职能主要是降低网络空间的风险,维护国家正常运转。必须从国家安全的视角认清网络空间安全的极端重要性和现实紧迫性,将网络空间能力建设的着眼点上升到战略层面,在着力解决如何利用好网络空间的同时,努力降低国家网络空间安全风险,使网络空间安全成为国家繁荣与安全的重要支撑。从军队层面看,网络战略力量主要是夺取制网权。必须拓展军事视野,把网络空间作为制权行动的一个重要领域,以夺取制网权为核心,变革军事思想和观念,调整武装力量结构与构成,发展武器装备并采取新的战法。

加快力量体系构建。维护网络空间安全说到底要靠实力。必须立足于网络空间能力建设的特点、规律,围绕我国网络能力体系核心要素和网络战略力量建设总体布局,以系统思维设计符合我国网络空间对抗规律和特点的体系架构,健全领导指挥体制机制,明确职能任务,理顺指挥管理关系。要把网络战略力量作为重要的新型作战力量突出出来,从组织建设、人才培养、装备发展、要素演训等各方面,采取超常举措,给予重点建设、重点保障。要常态化开展国家级网络攻防演练,检验理论、战法、装备及技术的有效性,全面提升网络空间综合防范能力。

推进技术自主创新。网络空间对抗的实质是核心技术的比拼,必须加快推进网络信息技术自主创新。要把提高自主创新能力作为战略基点,以国家创新体系为基本依托,集中力量突破网络发展的前沿技术和具有国际竞争力的关键核心技术,超前部署和重点发展信息技术和信息产业。要加速关键核心技术的国产化进程,加强安全测试和主动预警手段的建设,逐步完善我国网络空间的装备体系,全面提高我国网络空间能力。要遵循网络空间对抗的基本规律,按照“非对称制衡”方略,加大对量子科技、物联网和云计算等新技术的研发力度,以独创技术塑造实战能力,掌握网络空间安全发展的主动权。

推动军民融合发展。网络空间能力的军民融合式发展,既是站在国家安全与发展的战略全局,对国防和经济社会发展统筹谋划,也是网络空间安全不能回避的客观事实。必须积极推动军民深度融合发展,全力推进我国网络空间能力配套建设。要综合军民需求制定顶层规划,以政策法规的形式明确网络空间军民融合深度发展的目标任务、方法路径、组织分工和基本要求等关系全局的重大问题,变军民融合发展为执法行为、组织行为;要建立健全军地协调、需求对接、资源共享机制,通过统一的领导管理机构组织协调军地的各类需求和重大工作,达成风险共担、资源共享、共同发展的新局面。要注重军民融合的界限区分,明确以民为主的发展理念和以军为主的作战理念,积极探索军民一体、优势互补的可行性渠道。

Source URL:

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2016/1226/c40531-28977153.html

Full Text of China Military Reform Commission //中華人民共和國軍委發布軍事改革意見全文

Full Text of China Military Reform Commission

中華人民共和國軍委發布軍事改革意見全文

http://news.sina.com   2016年01月01日

戰略火箭軍

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, January 1 – Approved by the CMC Chairman Xi Jinping, the Central Military Commission recently issued “on deepening the reform of national defense and military advice.”

“Opinions” stressed eighteen since the party’s Central Military Commission and President Xi on the realization of strong military objectives, overall army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized, co-ordinate military construction and operation, co-ordination of economic development and national defense construction develop military strategic policy under the new situation, and proposed a series of major policies and principles, make a series of major decisions and plans. Implement the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission and President Xi major strategic planning and strategic design, we must deepen defense and military reform, full implementation of the reform and strengthening the military strategy, unswervingly take the road of Chinese characteristics, a strong army.

“Opinions” that deepen defense and military reform guiding ideology, thoroughly implement the party’s 18 and eighteenth session of the Third, Fourth, Fifth Plenum, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, “Three represents “important thought, the scientific concept of development as guidance, thoroughly implement the important speech of President Xi series is especially important to discuss defense and army building, according to the” four comprehensive “strategic layout requirements in order to target the party strong army under the new situation is lead and implement the military strategic principle in the new situation, the full implementation of the reform strategy of strengthening the military, efforts to address the constraints of national defense and military development of the institutional barriers and structural problems, policy issues, and promote the modernization of the military organizational form, further emancipate and develop combat effectiveness, further liberation army and enhance the vitality of the construction with China’s international status commensurate with the interests of national security and development to adapt to the consolidation of national defense and powerful armed forces, to achieve “two hundred years” goal to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream to provide a strong assurance.

“Opinions” stressed, deepen reform of national defense and the armed forces should adhere to the following basic principles: adhere to the correct political orientation, focusing adhere to fight, persist in innovation-driven, adhere to the system design, adhere to the rule of law thinking, actively and steadily adhere to.

“Opinions” that deepen defense and military reform overall objective is to firmly grasp the principle of “total JMC tube, main battle theater, built in the main military services” to the leadership of the management system, joint operational command system reform, focusing on promoting the coordination of the scale structure , policy and institutional reform and the development of military and civilian integration depth. 2020, a breakthrough in the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, optimizing the size of the structure, improve the policy system to promote achieved important results on the integration of military and civilian aspects of the depth development of reform, efforts to build able to win the information war effectively fulfill its mission mandate Chinese characteristics of modern military system, and further improve the military system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

“Opinions” to define the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, the size of the military structure, forces, and military personnel training, policies and systems, military and civilian integration, Wuzhuangjingcha Forces Command management system and force structure, military legal system and other aspects of major task.

“Opinions” stressed deepen defense and military reform is a holistic, revolutionary change, must always be under the unified leadership of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the study, thoroughly implement the spirit of the Central Military Commission Reform Work Conference, adhere to strengthen education, unity Thought throughout, to strengthen the responsibility to implement the fine drop throughout to promote the law, moving steadily through to the end, the bottom line thinking, risk management and control throughout, with strong organizational leadership to ensure that the reform task is satisfactorily completed.

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CMC views on deepening the reform of national defense and army (full text)

To implement the Party Central Committee and President Xi’s strategic decisions and directions, push forward to deepen defense and military reform, made the following comments.

First, the significance of the reform of the guiding ideology and basic principles

(A) significant. Deepen defense and military reform, China is to realize a dream, the dream of a strong army requirements of the times, is the only way the army Hing strong army, the army also decided to move a key to the future. Eighteen years, the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the party’s study on the realization of a strong army targets, co-ordinate the army more revolutionary, modernized and standardized, co-ordinate military construction and operation, co-ordination of economic development and national defense construction, the development of the new situation military strategy proposes a series of major policies and principles, make a series of major decisions and plans. Implement the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission and President Xi major strategic planning and strategic design, we must deepen defense and military reform, full implementation of the reform and strengthening the military strategy, unswervingly take the road of Chinese characteristics, a strong army. This is to deal with in today’s world of unprecedented large change in the situation will inevitably require the effective maintenance of national security; adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, promote the coordination necessary requirement “four comprehensive” strategic layout; the goal is to implement a strong army and military strategic policy , fulfill military missions and tasks necessary requirement. The army to fully understand the importance of deepening the reform of national defense and military necessity urgency, a high degree of historical awareness and a strong mission to play unswervingly deepen defense and military reform, efforts to hand over the party and the people a satisfactory answer.

(B) the guiding ideology. Thoroughly implement the party’s 18 and eighteenth session of the Third, Fourth, Fifth Plenum, Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of “Three Represents”, the scientific concept of development as guidance, thoroughly implement the learning Chairman of the series especially important speech of defense and army building important expositions, in accordance with the “four comprehensive” strategic layout requirements in order to target the party strong army under the new situation for the lead, must implement the military strategic principle in the new situation, the full implementation of a strong army reform strategy, efforts to address the constraints of national defense and military development of institutional barriers and structural problems, policy issues, and promote the modernization of the military organizational form, further emancipate and develop combat effectiveness, further emancipate and enhance the vitality of the armed forces, building commensurate with China’s international status, with national security and development interests compatible consolidate national defense and powerful armed forces, to achieve “two hundred years” goal to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream to provide a strong guarantee power.

(C) the fundamental principles

– Adhere to the correct political orientation. Consolidate and improve the party’s absolute leadership over the army’s fundamental principle and system, keeping the nature and purpose of the people’s army, and carry forward the glorious tradition and fine style of our military, the full implementation of the CMC chairman has overall responsibility to ensure that the military command of the supreme leadership of the Party Central Committee to focus on, CMC.

– To insist on focusing war. To adapt the form of war and the world development trend of the evolution of the military, fighting the only firmly established the fundamental standards, and effectively solve the preparations for military struggle to overcome difficult problems and combat heavy construction weaknesses, build integrated joint operations system, to enhance the army can fight, the ability to win the war.

– Adhere to innovation-driven. Implement through science and technology strategy, give full play to innovation in military theory, military technological innovation, military organizational innovation, management innovation traction and military role in promoting efforts to achieve military modernization construction by leaps and bounds, to seek greater military competitive advantage.

– Adhere to the system design. Grasping the reform initiatives of relevance, coupling, correctly handle the top-level design and stratification docking, long-term layout and transitional arrangements, supporting policy reform and relations, so that the reform and promote each other, complement each other to form the overall effect, best effect.

– Uphold the rule of law thinking. Give full play the leading role of the rule of law and norms of the reform, so that major reforms in the legal basis, reform and harmonize legislation, focusing on the use of curing the results of reform laws and regulations, to promote the rule of law reform on track.

– Actively and steadily adhere. Both our minds, trying to make this reform a breakthrough in the reform, and based on reality, steady hoof walked quickly grasp the rhythm of reform, the reform of control risk, take progressive, open the path of reform, to ensure high degree of stability and centralized.

Second, the overall objectives of the reform and main tasks

(1) the overall goal. Firmly grasp the principle of “total JMC tube, main battle theater, built in the main military services” to the leadership of the management system, joint operational command system reform, focusing on promoting the coordination of the scale structure, policies and systems and the development of military and civilian integration depth reform. 2020, a breakthrough in the leadership and management system, joint operational command system, optimizing the size of the structure, improve the policy system to promote achieved important results on the integration of military and civilian aspects of the depth development of reform, efforts to build able to win the information war effectively fulfill its mission mandate Chinese characteristics of modern military system, and further improve the military system of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Accordance with the overall objectives and requirements, in 2015, focused on the implementation of organizational leadership and management system, joint operational command system reform; in 2016, organizing the implementation of the military structure and the size of a combat force structure, institutions, armed forces reform, basically completed the task of reforming stage; 2017 2020, for further adjustments related areas of reform, optimize and improve, continue to promote the reform in various fields. Policy regimes and civilian integration depth development and reform, promoting a mature one.

(2) leadership and administration system. Focus on strengthening the Central Military Commission centralized and unified leadership, strengthen strategic planning JMC authorities, strategic command, strategic management functions, optimizing the CMC Organs configuration and institutional settings, improve military services and new combat forces leadership and management system, the formation of decision-making, enforcement and oversight powers both check each other and coordinate the operation of the system.

Starting from the positioning functions, according to prominent core functions, integrate similar functions and strengthen oversight functions, fulfilling the coordination function of thinking, adjustment and reform of the Central Military Commission of Organization, headquarters for the system to adjust the multi-sectoral system. JMC delegated authority to act in the military services building functions, stripped specific management functions, merge similar adjustment similar functions, reducing the level of leadership, streamlining staffing and units directly under the command make, construction, management and supervision of four link more clear, decision-making, planning, implementation , the evaluation function configuration is more reasonable.

Sound armed services leadership and management system, optimize the configuration and functions of the organs of the military services institutional settings play an important role in the construction and management of the armed services and Security. Logistical support adjustment and reform leading management system, based on the existing joint logistics system, adjust and optimize the configuration and security forces leadership and command relationships and build joint operational command system to adapt, sub-system integration, through logistical support system designed two lines. Reform equipment development leadership and management system, build centralized system managed by the Central Military equipment department, armed services concrete construction and management, theater joint use of the institutional framework, the development of equipment construction to the Central Military equipment sector – the military services and equipment sector institutions, equipment management to ensure the implementation of the Central Military equipment sector – the military services and equipment sector – force security sector institutions. Strengthen the unified leadership of the national defense mobilization system.

(3) the joint operational command system. Adaptation Integrated Joint Operational Command requirements, establish and improve the Central Military Commission, the theater two joint operational command system, build peacetime one, normal operation, specially the main, capable and efficient, strategic and operational command system. Readjust the designation of the theater.

According to joint operations, joint command of the requirements, adjust the specification refers to linking the Central Military Commission, the military services, operational command functions of the Union refers to the theater and theater military services. And joint operational command system to adapt, and improve joint training system.

(4) the size of the military structure. Adhere to the road of fewer but better troops with Chinese characteristics and speeding up the army from quantity to quality and efficiency changes. Active duty military posts cut 300,000 troops gradually reduced the size of the 2.3 million 2 million. Optimize the proportion of military services, reduce non-combat institutions and personnel. Yajian officer positions.Optimization of weaponry scale structure, reduce equipment types of models, elimination of old equipment, the development of new equipment.

(5) Force compiled. Depending on the strategic direction of the security requirements and operational tasks, adjusting the structure, enhanced functions, optimize the layout, promote the composition of forces to the full, synthesis, and more energy, flexible direction. Optimize the structure of reserve forces, militia Yajian quantity, adjust the layout and strength marshalling mode.

(6) New Military Talents. Training of military personnel to follow the law, to build military educational institutions, military training practice, military personnel training system trinity of professional military education. Sound Central Military Commission, the leadership of the armed services two institutions management system, improve the early, middle and high three training system, adjust and optimize the structure of the scale institutions. Sound professional military education system, building full gamut of full-time professional military education platform. Creative Talents institutional mechanisms to strengthen the institutions and armed forces personnel were sterile.

(7) policy regimes. Military mission requirements and adapt the functions of national policy institutional innovation, further improve the military human resource policies and systems and logistics policies and systems, building reflects the characteristics of military occupation, and enhance the military sense of honor pride policy institutional system. Adjustment of military personnel classification, and gradually establish the rank-dominated hierarchy, to promote the professional military officers, military service system reform, non-commissioned officers system, civilian system. Veterans resettlement policies and improve the management mechanism.Deepening the management of funds, material procurement reform, construction and military wages, housing, health care, insurance and other systems. Full cessation of the armed forces to carry out foreign paid services.

(8) development of military and civilian integration. Full focus on the formation of elements, multi-field, high-effective civil-military integration depth development pattern, building a unified leadership, military coordination, smooth and efficient organization and management system, state-led, demand traction, market unity of the work of running the system, the system is complete, Joining a complete, effective incentive policies institutional system. Categories related fields to promote the reform and improve the regulatory system and the development of military and civilian integration of innovation and development mechanisms.

(9) Wuzhuangjingcha Forces Command management system and force structure. Strengthening the Central Military Commission of the centralized and unified leadership of the armed forces, the armed forces command to adjust the management system, optimize the structure and troop strength compiled.

(10) the system of military rule. Fully implement the Law forces strictly policy, improved army, to achieve fundamental to the administration by law fundamental shift from the way of simply relying on experience working habits and working practices from relying solely on executive order to rely on rules and regulations of the transition from assault-style, campaign-style grab a fundamental change to the way work according to rules and regulations act. Improve the legal system for the military and military Falvguwen system, reform the military justice system and mechanism innovation discipline inspection and supervision system and inspection system, improve the audit system mechanisms to improve the military legal talent management system, establish the rule of law and procedural rules improve the organization, improve national defense and army the level of the rule of law.

Third, the reform of organizational leadership

Deepen defense and military reform is a holistic, revolutionary change, big efforts to promote the wide, deep touch interests, of unprecedented scope, must always be under the unified leadership of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the study, thoroughly implement the Central Military Commission the spirit of reform work conference, adhere to strengthen education and unity of thought throughout to strengthen the responsibility falls fine implementation throughout to promote the law, moving steadily through to the end, the bottom line thinking, risk control throughout, with strong organizational leadership to ensure that all reforms task is satisfactorily completed.

(A) strengthen the responsibility at all levels of play. Party committees at all levels should focus on reform initiatives landing capability as an important political responsibility, improve the leadership of reform, give full play to the core leadership role, mainly to be a good leader first responsibility. Investigation should run through the whole process of reform, deepen the major theoretical and practical issues research, to discover and solve new problems. To establish and improve the supervision and assessment mechanism reform, strengthen supervision and inspection of the implementation of the reform. Each institutional reform departments at all levels must closely cooperate to create synergy, the Central Military Commission to guide the working group set up to further adjust the unit to strengthen tracking guidance, specific guidance, full guidance, the Central Military Commission inspection teams launched simultaneously inspections. Reform of the Central Military Commission and the Office to improve the preparation of the relevant mechanisms play a good co-ordination, supervision, role. Four general headquarters is necessary to do their own adjustment and reform, reform of the army but also a good guide. The new Central Military Commission after the establishment of organs and departments should pay close attention to improve the operational mechanism, into the role as soon as possible, to perform their duties. Newly formed units to adjust and improve the timely establishment of Party organizations, to strengthen the organization and leadership of the reform implementation. Each institution should take responsibility for the aftermath, and properly handle all kinds of problems left.

(B) to strengthen ideological and political work. Organization officers and soldiers in-depth study President Xi series of important expositions on deepening defense and military reform, special education organizations do a good job, deepening ideological mobilization, the army unity of thought and action to the Central Military Commission and President Xi decision-making arrangements . Senior leading organs and Gaojiganbu first common understanding, lead politics, the overall situation, discipline, promoting reform, diligence, under the above rate, the army looks good.The ideological and political work throughout the entire process of reform, the ideological trend of concern at all levels, targeted to do the work, and guide all levels to strengthen political awareness, overall awareness, sense of command and guide the officers and men turn their concepts, new ideas, and consciously from the overall high level of awareness reform unified in emancipating the mind and thought, the correct treatment adjustment of interests, and actively support, support and participate in the reform. Attaches great importance to public opinion to guide online public opinion in particular, to work, take the initiative battle, spread positive energy, to promote the reform to create a good atmosphere for public opinion.

(C) improve solid adjustment of cadres placement. The reform process as a process of strengthening the construction of the contingent of cadres, cadres carry out military standards, establish the correct employment-oriented, adhere to all over the world, merit, ability and political integrity adhere to Germany first, do a good job with leadership adjustment, selecting the right with a good cadres to firmly implement strong military goals, and actively reform plan, strongly supported the reform, the courage to join in the reform of the cadres to use. The proper placement of the backbone with retention, improve the structure together, the scientific development of cadres and resettlement plan for the adjustment, reasonably determine the fate of the advance and retreat of cadres, cadres of concern and resolve practical difficulties. Cadres should promote the reform as a showcase for the best stage talent, tempered and tested in the reform, to become promoters of reform and doers. Veteran is a valuable asset of the party and the army, security services need to carefully prepare cadres continue to work.

(D) the transfer of well-organized transfer scribe. Do a good job of personnel, materials, and funds transfer work to ensure that the old system is not out of control during the transition staff, assets are not lost, all work seamlessly. Strict military land, barracks management and ensure the transfer of the camp barracks facilities to adjust and do remedial work in construction. Comprehensive verification, financial and material base. Follow organizational security of supply in a timely manner to resolve various contradictions and problems encountered in the supply, to ensure continuous supply, not for the leak. A solid job in the transfer of weapons and equipment inventory, well-organized deployment of security equipment, equipment management and strictly implement the provisions.

(E) the strict implementation of disciplinary regulations. The more critical time of reform, the more discipline and rules put in front of the very strict political discipline, organizational discipline, and personnel discipline, financial discipline, discipline, and discipline of secrecy. Strictly political discipline and political rules, resolutely oppose Ziyouzhuyi action on organizational politics. Serious organizational and personnel discipline, adhere to the principle of press policy outlaw follow procedures. Properly handle the reality of military conflicts and problems left by history. Discipline, inspection and auditing departments should strengthen supervision and discipline, and severely punish all kinds of violation of discipline problems during the adjustment and reform.

(F) do a good job overall troop readiness training management. Pay close attention to national security and social stability during the reform period, the development of a major emergency situations response plans to improve and strictly implement the provisions of Gongzuozhidu combat readiness, combat readiness duty to maintain efficient operation of the system at all levels, to ensure that if something happens to timely and effective response. Careful planning organization’s annual military training mission. Strengthen military management, the implementation of security responsibility, to discover and solve trends and tendencies problem, prevent the occurrence of major accidents and cases, maintaining stability and security forces centralized.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

戰略火箭軍

新華社北京1月1日電 經中央軍委主席習近平批准,中央軍委近日印發了《關於深化國防和軍隊改革的意見》。

《意見》強調,黨的十八大以來,黨中央、中央軍委和習主席圍繞實現強軍目標,統籌軍隊革命化、現代化、正規化建設,統籌軍事力量建設和運用,統籌經濟建設和國防建設,制定新形勢下軍事戰略方針,提出一系列重大方針原則,作出一系列重大決策部署。貫​​徹落實黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的重大戰略謀劃和戰略設計, 必須深化國防和軍隊改革,全面實施改革強軍戰略,堅定不移走中國特色強軍之路。

《意見》指出,深化國防和軍隊改革的指導思想是,深入貫徹黨的十八大和十八屆三中、四中、五中全會精神,以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、“三個代表”重要思想、科學發展觀為指導,深入貫徹習主席系列重要講話精神特別是國防和軍隊建設重要論述,按照“四個全面”戰略佈局要求,以黨在新形勢下的強軍目標為引領,貫徹新形勢下軍事戰略方針,全面實施改革強軍戰略,著力解決制約國防和軍隊發展的體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,推進軍隊組織形態現代化,進一步解放和發展戰鬥力,進一步解放和增強軍隊活力,建設同我國國際地位相稱、同國家安全和發展利益相適應的鞏固國防和強大軍隊,為實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供堅強力量保證。

《意見》強調,深化國防和軍隊改革要堅持以下基本原則:堅持正確政治方向,堅持向打仗聚焦,堅持創新驅動,堅持體系設計,堅持法治思維,堅持積極穩妥。

《意見》指出,深化國防和軍隊改革總體目標是,牢牢把握“軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建”的原則,以領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革為重點,協調推進規模結構、政策制度和軍民融合深度發展改革。 2020年前,在領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展,在優化規模結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合深度發展等方面改革上取得重要成果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現代軍事力量體系,進一步完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度。

《意見》明確了領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制、軍隊規模結構、部隊編成、新型軍事人才培養、政策制度、軍民融合發展、武裝警察部隊指揮管理體制和力量結構、軍事法治體係等方面的主要任務。

《意見》強調,深化國防和軍隊改革是一場整體性、革命性變革,必須始終在黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的統一領導下,深入貫徹中央軍委改革工作會議精神,堅持把加強教育、統一思想貫穿始終,把強化責任、落細落實貫穿始終,把依法推進、穩扎穩打貫穿始終,把底線思維、管控風險貫穿始終,以堅強有力的組織領導保證各項改革任務圓滿完成。

中央軍委關於深化國防和軍隊改革的意見(全文)

為貫徹落實黨中央、習主席的戰略部署和決策指示,紮實推進深化國防和軍隊改革,提出如下意見。

一、改革的重大意義、指導思想和基本原則

(一)重大意義。深化國防和軍隊改革,是實現中國夢、強軍夢的時代要求,是強軍興軍的必由之路,也是決定軍隊未來的關鍵一招。黨的十八大以來,黨中央、中央軍委和習主席圍繞實現強軍目標,統籌軍隊革命化、現代化、正規化建設,統籌軍事力量建設和運用,統籌經濟建設和國防建設,制定新形勢下軍事戰略方針,提出一系列重大方針原則,作出一系列重大決策部署。貫​​徹落實黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的重大戰略謀劃和戰略設計,必須深化國防和軍隊改革,全面實施改革強軍 戰略,堅定不移走中國特色強軍之路。這是應對當今世界前所未有之大變局,有效維護國家安全的必然要求;是堅持和發展中國特色社會主義,協調推進“四個全面”戰略佈局的必然要求;是貫徹落實強軍目標和軍事戰略方針,履行好軍隊使命任務的必然要求。全軍要充分認清深化國防和軍隊改革的重要性必要性緊迫性,以 高度的歷史自覺和強烈的使命擔當堅定不移深化國防和軍隊改革,努力交出黨和人民滿意的答卷。

(二)指導思想。深入貫徹黨的十八大和十八屆三中、四中、五中全會精神,以馬克思列寧主義、毛澤東思想、鄧小平理論、“三個代表”重要思想、科學發展觀為指導,深入貫徹習主席系列重要講話精神特別是國防和軍隊建設重要論述,按照“四個全面”戰略佈局要求,以黨在新形勢下的強軍目標為引領,貫徹新形勢下軍事戰略方針,全面實施改革強軍戰略,著力解決制約國防和軍隊發展的體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,推進軍隊組織形態現代化,進一步解放和發展戰鬥力, 進一步解放和增強軍隊活力,建設同我國國際地位相稱、同國家安全和發展利益相適應的鞏固國防和強大軍隊,為實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢提供堅強力量保證。

(三)基本原則

——堅持正確政治方向。鞏固完善黨對軍隊絶對領導的根本原則和製度,保持人民軍隊的性質和宗旨,發揚我軍的光榮傳統和優良作風,全面落實軍委主席負責制,確保軍隊最高領導權指揮權​​集中於黨中央、中央軍委。

——堅持向打仗聚焦。適應戰爭形態演變和世界軍事發展趨勢,牢固確立戰鬥力這個唯一的根本的標準,切實解決和克服軍事鬥爭準備重難點問題和戰鬥力建設薄弱環節,構建一體化聯合作戰體系,全面提升我軍能打仗、打勝仗能力。

——堅持創新驅動。貫​​徹科技強軍戰略,充分發揮軍事理論創新、軍事技術創新、軍事組織創新、軍事管理創新的牽引和推動作用,努力實現我軍現代化建設跨越式發展,謀取更大軍事競爭優勢。

——堅持體系設計。科學把握改革舉措的關聯性、耦合性,正確處理頂層設計與分層對接、長期佈局與過渡安排、體制改革與政策配套的關係,使各項改革相互促進、相得益彰,形成總體效應、取得最佳效果。

——堅持法治思維。充分發揮法治對改革的引領和規範作用,做到重大改革於法有據、改革與立法相協調,注重運用法規制度固化改革成果,在法治軌道上推進改革。

——堅持積極穩妥。既解放思想、與時俱進,努力使這次改革成為突破性的改革,又立足現實、蹄疾步穩,把握改革節奏,控制改革風險,走漸進式、開放式的改革路子,確保部隊高度穩定和集中統一。

二、改革的總體目標和主要任務

(一)總體目標。牢牢把握“軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建”的原則,以領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革為重點,協調推進規模結構、政策制度和軍民融合 深度發展改革。 2020年前,在領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革上取得突破性進展,在優化規模結構、完善政策制度、推動軍民融合深度發展等方面改革上取得重要成果,努力構建能夠打贏信息化戰爭、有效履行使命任務的中國特色現代軍事力量體系,進一步完善中國特色社會主義軍事制度。

按照總體目標要求,2015年,重點組織實施領導管理體制、聯合作戰指揮體制改革;2016年,組織實施軍隊規模結構和作戰力量體系、院校、武警部隊改革,基本完成階段性改革任務;2017年至2020年,對相關領域改革作進一步調整、優化和完善,持續推進各領域改革。政策制度和軍民融合深度發展改革, 成熟一項推進一項。

(二)領導管理體制。著眼加強軍委集中統一領導,強化軍委機關的戰略謀劃、戰略指揮、戰略管理職能,優化軍委機關職能配置和機構設置,完善軍種和新型作戰力量領導管理體制,形成決策權、執行權、監督權既相互制約又相互協調的運行體系。

從職能定位入手,按照突出核心職能、整合相近職能、加強監督職能、充實協調職能的思路,調整改革軍委機關設置,由總部製調整為多部門制。軍委機關下放代行的軍種建設職能,剝離具體管理職能,調整歸併同類相近職能,減少領導層級,精簡編製員額和直屬單位,使指揮、建設、管理、監督四條鏈路更加清晰,決策、規劃、執行、評估職能配置更加合理。

健全軍種領導管理體制,優化軍種機關職能配置和機構設置,發揮軍種在建設管理和保障中的重要作用。調整改革後勤保障領導管理體制,以現行聯勤保障體製為基 礎,調整優化保障力量配置和領導指揮關係,構建與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,統分結合、通專兩綫的後勤保障體制。改革裝備發展領導管理體制,構建由軍委裝備部門集中統管、軍種具體建管、戰區聯合運用的體制架構,裝備發展建設實行軍委裝備部門—軍種裝備部門體制,裝備管理保障實行軍委裝備部門—軍種裝備部門— 部隊保障部門體制。加強國防動員系統的統一領導。

(三)聯合作戰指揮體制。適應一體化聯合作戰指揮要求,建立健全軍委、戰區兩級聯合作戰指揮體制,構建平戰一體、常態運行、專司主營、精幹高效的戰略戰役指揮體系。重新調整劃設戰區。

按照聯合作戰、聯合指揮的要求,調整規範軍委聯指、各軍種、戰區聯指和戰區軍種的作戰指揮職能。與聯合作戰指揮體制相適應,完善聯合訓練體制。

(四)軍隊規模結構。堅持走中國特色精兵之路,加快推進軍隊由數量規模型向質量效能型轉變。裁減軍隊現役員額30萬,軍隊規模由230萬逐步減至200 萬。優化軍種比例,減少非戰鬥機構和人員。壓減軍官崗位。優化武器裝備規模結構,減少裝備型號種類,淘汰老舊裝備,發展新型裝備。

(五)部隊編成。依據不同戰略方向安全需求和作戰任務,調整結構、強化功能、優化佈局,推動部隊編成向充實、合成、多能、靈活方向發展。優化預備役部隊結構,壓減民兵數量,調整力量佈局和編組模式。

(六)新型軍事人才培養。遵循軍事人才培養規律,構建軍隊院校教育、部隊訓練實踐、軍事職業教育三位一體的新型軍事人才培養體系。健全軍委、軍種兩級院校 領導管理體制,完善初、中、高三級培訓體系,調整優化院校規模結構。健全軍事職業教育體系,構建全員全時全域軍事職業教育平台。創新人才培養制度機制,加 強院校與部隊共育人才。

(七)政策制度。適應軍隊職能任務需求和國家政策制度創新,進一步完善軍事人力資源政策制度和後勤政策制度,構建體現軍事職業特點、增強軍人榮譽感自豪感 的政策制度體系。調整軍隊人員分類,逐步建立軍銜主導的等級制度,推進軍官職業化,改革兵役制度、士官制度、文職人員制度。完善退役軍人安置政策和管理機 構。深化經費管理、物資採購、工程建設和軍人工資、住房、醫療、保險等製度改革。全面停止軍隊開展對外有償服務。

(八)軍民融合發展。著眼形成全要素、多領域、高效益的軍民融合深度發展格局,構建統一領導、軍地協調、順暢高效的組織管理體系,國家主導、需求牽引、市場運作相統一的工作運行體系,系統完備、銜接配套、有效激勵的政策制度體系。分類推進相關領域改革,健全軍民融合發展法規制度和創新發展機制。

(九)武裝警察部隊指揮管理體制和力量結構。加強中央軍委對武裝力量的集中統一領導,調整武警部隊指揮管理體制,優化力量結構和部隊編成。

(十)軍事法治體系。全面貫徹依法治軍、從嚴治軍方針,改進治軍方式,實現從單純依靠行政命令的做法向依法行政的根本性轉變,從單純靠習慣和經驗開展工作的方式向依靠法規和製度開展工作的根本性轉變,從突擊式、運動式抓工作的方式向按條令條例辦事的根本性轉變。健全軍事法規制度體系和軍事法律顧問制度,改革軍事司法體制機制,創新紀檢監察體制和巡視制度,完善審計體制機制,改進軍事法律人才管理制度,建立健全組織法制和程序規則,全面提高國防和軍隊建設法治化水平。

三、改革的組織領導

深化國防和軍隊改革是一場整體性、革命性變革,推進力度之大、觸及利益之深、影響範圍之廣前所未有,必須始終在黨中央、中央軍委和習主席的統一領導下,深入貫徹中央軍委改革工作會議精神,堅持把加強教育、統一思想貫穿始終,把強化責任、落細落實貫穿始終,把依法推進、穩扎穩打貫穿始終,把底線思維、管控風險貫穿始終,以堅強有力的組織領導保證各項改革任務圓滿完成。

(一)強化各級責任擔當。各級黨委要把抓改革舉措落地作為重要政治責任,提高領導改革的能力,充分發揮核心領導作用,主要領導要當好第一責任人。要把調查 研究貫穿改革實施全過程,深化對重大理論和實踐問題研究,及時發現和解決新情況新問題。要建立健全改革評估和督查機制,加強對改革落實情況的督導檢查。各 級各部門各改革機構要密切配合、形成合力,軍委指導工作組要深入調整組建單位,加強跟蹤指導、具體指導、全程指導,軍委巡視組同步展開巡視工作。軍委改革 和編製辦公室要完善相關機制,發揮好統籌、協調、督促、推動作用。四總部既要做好自身調整改革,又要指導好全軍改革。新的軍委機關部門成立後,要抓緊完善 運行機制,盡快進入角色、履行職責。新調整組建的單位要及時建立健全黨組織,加強對改革實施工作的組織領導。各善後工作機構要負起責任,妥善處理各類遺留 問題。

(二)加強思想政治工作。組織全軍官兵深入學習習主席關於深化國防和軍隊改革一系列重要論述,組織抓好專題教育,深入進行思想發動,把全軍的思想和行動統一到黨中央、中央軍委和習主席決策部署上來。高層領率機關和高級幹部首先要統一認識,帶頭講政治、顧大局、守紀律、促改革、盡職責,以上率下,為全軍做好 樣子。把思想政治工作貫穿改革全過程,關注各級思想動態,有針對性地做工作,引導各級強化政治意識、大局意識、號令意識,引導官兵轉變理念、更新觀念,自覺站在全局高度認識改革,在解放思想中統一思想,正確對待利益調整,積極擁護、支持、參與改革。高度重視輿論引導特別是網上輿論工作,打好主動仗,傳播正 能量,為推進改革營造良好輿論氛圍。

(三)紮實搞好幹部調整安置。把推進改革的過程作為加強幹部隊伍建設的過程,貫徹軍隊好幹部標準,樹立正確用人導向,堅持五湖四海、任人唯賢,堅持德才兼備、以德為先,搞好領導班子調整配備,選準用好幹部,把堅定貫徹強軍目標、積極謀劃改革、堅決支持改革、勇於投身改​​革的好幹部用起來。把妥善安置同保留骨 幹、改善結構結合起來,科學制定幹部調整安置計劃方案,合理確定幹部進退去留,關心和解決幹部實際困難。廣大幹部要把推進改革作為展示才能的最好舞台,在 改革中經受鍛煉和考驗,爭做改革的促進派和實幹家。老乾部是黨和軍隊的寶貴財富,要精心做好老乾部服務保障接續工作。

(四)嚴密組織轉隸交接。認真搞好人員、物資、經費等交接工作,確保新舊體制轉換期間人員不失控,資産不流失,各項工作無縫銜接。嚴格軍用土地、營房管 理,抓好營區營房設施調整交接,做好在建工程善後工作。全面核實經費物資底數。跟進組織供應保障,及時解決供應中遇到的各種矛盾和問題,確保不斷供、不漏 供。紮實做好武器裝備清點移交,周密組織裝備調配保障,嚴格落實裝備管理各項規定。

(五)嚴格執行各項紀律規定。越是改革的關鍵時刻,越要把紀律和規矩挺在前面,嚴格政治紀律、組織紀律、人事紀律、財經紀律、群眾紀律、保密紀律。嚴守政 治紀律和政治規矩,堅決反對政治上組織上行動上的自由主義。嚴肅組織人事紀律,堅持按原則按政策按規矩按程序辦事。妥善處理軍地現實矛盾和歷史遺留問題。紀檢、巡視、審計部門要加強執紀監督,嚴肅查處調整改革期間各類違規違紀問題。

(六)統籌抓好部隊戰備訓練管理。密切關注改革期間國家安全和社會穩定,制定完善應對重大突發情況預案,嚴格落實戰備工作制度規定,保持各級戰備值班體系 高效運行,確保一旦有事能夠及時有效應對。周密籌劃組織年度軍事訓練任務。加強部隊管理,落實安全責任,及時發現和解決苗頭性、傾向性問題,防止發生重大 事故和案件,保持部隊安全穩定和集中統一。

Original Source: XinHua Military News