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Strategic Thinking on Ensuring Ideological & Political Security of Chinese Army // 中國軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

Strategic Thinking on Ensuring Ideological & Political Security of Chinese Army //

中國軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

 

Network era, the information exchange to break the official and civil, military and local boundaries, our army should continue to play the advantages of mobilization, open our army ideological work a new situation. The people are the most extensive and powerful forces involved in the ideological struggle. Our army strives for the dominance of the online ideological struggle. It can not rely solely on the power of propagating and defending the departments. We must also make the people’s faction and stir up the people’s war of online ideological struggle. Our army should play a good mobilization advantage, attract the participation of the masses, and guide the direction of public opinion.

The United States “how to influence China’s national strategy and military strategy,” the report said, “the Internet is our main battle with the Chinese Communist Party.” Western military power has long been the online public opinion struggle into the military strategy, is committed to creating a new network of combat forces.

Military Army: Strategic Thinking on Ensuring the Ideological and Political Security of Our Army

The United States since 2003 in the war in Iraq for the first time to implement the strategic psychological warfare, have made a network war theory update and actual inspection of the record; recently, the US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced the Department of Defense new network action strategy report, For example, the United States and Russia have been able to use the information warfare forces to form a “civil army”, demonize the “invading country” regime, from the “invading country” internal disintegration of its national will, To achieve their own strategic objectives. At present, the United States with the Internet technology and cultural hegemony to develop Internet rules, selling political system and cultural ideas, leading the direction of ideological struggle; our military in the key information infrastructure construction, network impact in a weak, facing control, Shaped, interpreted, tagged dilemma, cyberspace security coping overall is still hovering at the tactical level non-strategic level. In the era of media, cyberspace has become the second “living space” of mankind. Our army should be in danger and know ourselves, and attach great importance to the study of cyber ideology struggle strategy and compete for the initiative of online ideological struggle.

1, take the initiative to force the Sword, to seize the high ground of ideological struggle

 

The Internet is the main battlefield of ideological struggle. The main battlefield failed to master the initiative, decided in the field of ideology in the passive situation. In recent years, including the United States, including Google, Apple, “the eight King Kong” all-round penetration into the network space in China through the opening of the “back door” for the US government to provide information, and pervasive way to push me Western values; , Support the “elite” voice, so that with the help of the Internet openly for the Western head; continuous technological innovation, by virtue of “shadow Internet” and other means to circumvent me

Network control system to support Hong Kong “accounted for” and other subversive separatist activities; leading issues set for China’s military development has been intensive throw “China’s military threat theory”, “China’s spy activities,” “Sino-US military conflict theory” and “South China Sea navigation freedom” and other issues, from the academic, public opinion on me completely suppressed.

In contrast to our military, there are still used in the theoretical study of fried rice, in the propaganda work instilled the preaching, stereotyped in the discourse system, often in the subject matter when the aphasia, weak and weak in the supervision of the phenomenon, not only cause my mainstream ideology Spread the dilemma, but also for the hostile forces to attack my ideological position left a gap. Network ideological struggle, such as against the current sailing,

In the face of the aggressive challenges of the United States and the West, the attack is more advantageous than the defense. Our army must recognize the seriousness of the threat of online ideology and face the above-mentioned deficiencies. Through the all-round change of the thinking idea and working mode, initiative.

The first stage to try to reverse our army passively cope with the situation, lay the online ideological struggle “fighter war”. China is currently the most important strategic opponents of cyber space in the United States, the United States will undoubtedly be its core technology, hegemony and other positions to prevent clinging, want to catch up with its core technology in the short term is not feasible. Our army should not only have the courage to fight the Sword, but also learn to “dance with the wolf”, on the one hand should focus on the matter, in the face of Western issues when the attack in a timely manner to respond, one said, change the traditional conservative ideology work concept, , To avoid the main network-like attitude, or another way to transfer is not conducive to our military wave of public opinion, beware of the Chinese story was misinterpreted, misreading; on the other hand can identify the opponent’s weaknesses, pain hard, propaganda interpretation of the Western scandal, Democratic system malpractice, judging the plight of capitalist development. Learn from the opponents of the struggle, give full play to the role of capitalist countries, in the foreign media, business operations, cooperation and cultural exchanges in the promotion.

The second stage is based on my main counterattack, lay the ideological struggle of the Internet “position war.” The use of the first stage of the development of technology development opportunities, and vigorously promote technological innovation, can bypass the United States and other Western countries accounted for overwhelming advantages of the technical barriers to achieve such as quantum communications technology monopoly, relying on the new platform to implement the ideological strategy to counter; To maintain national ideological security from the traditional security field to the field of cyberspace extension, and actively establish a network space cooperation with other countries, based on Chinese cultural traditions, value system and military practice, to build beyond the West, in line with China’s actual discourse system for the international community Innovative discourse, for our army modernization, national defense policy and the military system name.

2, to support the legislation, to the superiority of the people to achieve the mainstream ideology of soft conquest

 

Hard power is the fundamental support of soft power, Western ideology has been able to prevail in the world, the key lies in the capitalist countries generally developed economy, people’s living standards are higher, and the key to the upsurge in the Soviet Union is the national economy almost collapse, political Cleaning loss of people, social contradictions continue to intensify. Revolutionary war years, our army suffered inside and outside the attack, but resist the West “peaceful evolution”, the fundamental reason is that when our ideological work to do the “inner saints outside the king.” Reflection of the current, part of the unit and the individual army is not strict, improper words and deeds, misconduct, weakened the army combat effectiveness, discredited the image of the army, for those who have ulterior motives attacked my system, leaving the relationship between the party and the party left a mess, as hostile forces To achieve its political purpose to provide a convenient space.

In addition, the value orientation and behavior of the composition of the officers and men are undergoing profound changes. Once the loss of their trust is caused by the corruption of the military, it is easy to cause the ideal and the landslide, which opens the gap for the infiltration of the West. For a period of time, our army dealing with the behavior of anomorphosis often lost in the wide, lost in the soft, especially Guo Boxiong, Xu Caihou case hit the officers and men “three view”, while the United States to intensify the push of the bourgeoisie to build the military concept, To carry out the deterrence, attack our army unique advantages, which makes our ideological work into a double dilemma. Network era information cohabitation, the face of hostile forces deliberately slander more need “their own hard”.

Our army should play a good way to put forward the traditional advantages of truth, first put the facts, and then tell the truth, to an open and inclusive attitude to the Internet users to monitor the military and the Internet to achieve good interaction, and as a driving force to improve the style Adhere to the line of words and deeds; adhere to the network space management and the reality of space norms both hands, the military’s own problems, neither whitewash short and not allowed to make rumors, eliminate negative thoughts, the root causes of public opinion, to our military good image against Western attack penetration, Enhance the mainstream ideology of inspiration.

3, to network network, to enhance our ideological struggle of the network thinking

 

The development of the Internet has spawned all-round changes in social structure, way of thinking and behavior. In the face of online ideological struggle, our army must accurately grasp the changes in the mechanism of competition. The network originated in the West, grew up in the West, the West not only has a comparative advantage in technology, but also highly compatible with the Internet culture, cloud computing, large data, artificial intelligence and other technologies are the first breakthrough in the West, the network center war and other Internet operations concept by the US military The first proposed, the Internet “rules of conduct” is also dominated by the West, the United States is the world’s major sources of information. And our army in the online ideological struggle is still at a disadvantage, such as can not keep up with the Internet age changes, will fall into a completely passive situation.

At present, our army has a strong desire and motive to make a good “network gateway”, and the problem of planning breakthroughs in online ideological struggle is basically clear, but it still lacks the organic integration of “Internet + ideological struggle” and can not really grasp the struggle The right to speak. In the face of the grim situation of online ideological struggle, our army needs an Internet “brainstorming”, and comprehensively enhance the ability of online ideological security. To break the core technology monopoly as the main focus, breaking the United States to contain my “life door”, the construction of its own information transmission system and network security protection system, and strive to lead the innovation and technology around the world, lay the ideological “backhand” But also the Internet communication requires creative thinking, the first machine awareness, platform operation and action ability, but also to promote the development of the Internet, but also to promote the development of the Internet, The barracks should follow the trend, as soon as possible to develop a variety of network broadcast and other media, try to mainstream cultural communication embedded in creative industries.

4, close the rule of law cage, remove the online ideological position “noise”

 

The development of new media technology to open the “everyone has a microphone,” the law of the times of transmission changes, public opinion, more difficult to control, thinking more and more intense competition, but according to the law of the network network did not follow the footsteps.

The current urgent problem is: the phenomenon of my ideological security is widespread, part of the hostile forces openly clamoring, the Western hostile forces not only in my territory to cultivate “well known” “big V”, the purchase of network water army, organization of cults, Extreme forces and other extreme anti-communist elements into the network of public opinion, resulting in a variety of hazards to national and military security information is full of network information platform.

At present, the army information construction in full swing, our army for the new media management legislation process is lagging behind, the network regulation system is not perfect, the lack of norms of online ideological struggle, part of the behavior of the ideological security is illegal, how to deal with the language is not detailed.

On the one hand, the normal ideological control is often misinterpreted as restricting freedom of speech. Once used by hostile forces, it may cause the military officers and soldiers to fluctuate, leading to further deterioration of the situation. On the other hand, due to the lack of relevant norms, Or even often for a small number of wrong acts “pay”, resulting in ideological murmur is not cleared, over time, the ideological institutions of the credibility of a serious decline in the military and the state may also fall into the “Tacitus trap.”

Online ideological struggle from the value of the political system of confrontation, but may be expressed as “to ideology” of public opinion and popular culture. Information in the cyberspace “fission” propagation. The process does not rule out the ulterior motives of the individual groups add oil and vinegar, fueled. Therefore, to win the ideological struggle on the Internet, our army should maintain the ideological security issues in accordance with the law into a strategic position, consolidate the military environment, improve domestic legislation, and resolutely combat the behavior of moral hazard, and create a good online public opinion ecology.

First, the height of the overall national security to promote the legislative amendment, focusing on the norms of cultural transmission in the field of “rent-seeking” phenomenon, management loopholes, powers and responsibilities unclear, poor supervision and other issues to ensure that the work of law, There must be law.

Second, according to the law, the frequent dissemination of bad information on the implementation of accurate monitoring of the site, according to the law should be ordered to rectify the deadline for the threat of ideological security, the negative information according to the law to remove. Third, strict enforcement of law enforcement, illegal research, to endanger our ideological and ideological security of the implementation of full-time monitoring, the spread of negative public opinion of the organization, individuals and the performance of poor supervision departments, resolutely according to law, Outside the earth, the formation of the rule of law deterrence.

5, pay attention to the integration of military and civilian, launched the ideological struggle of the people of the war

 

Historically, our army in combat and the implementation of military missions before the fighting to mobilize, to boost morale to stimulate morale, while fighting for a wide range of mass support. Whether it is mobilization speech, news propaganda or brief loud fighting slogans, lively forms of literature and art, have played an indelible role, so that our army justice, civilization, the image of mighty people, for our army to integrate military resources, The people’s war laid a good foundation.

Network era, the information exchange to break the official and civil, military and local boundaries, our army should continue to play the advantages of mobilization, open our army ideological work a new situation. The people are the most extensive and powerful forces involved in the ideological struggle. Our army strives for the dominance of the online ideological struggle. It can not rely solely on the power of propagating and defending the departments. We must also make the people’s faction and stir up the people’s war of online ideological struggle. Our army should play a good mobilization advantage, attract the participation of the masses, and guide the direction of public opinion.

At the same time, we should use a good network platform, the use of good hidden in the people of the huge energy, the patriotic enthusiasm of the Internet users to the positive grooming, the formation of the mainstream ideology of the sea, so that our army fortress indestructible, so that hostile forces abroad quit. The integration of military and civilian people can effectively break the problem of insufficient strength of our army in the ideological struggle of the Internet. First of all, lack of platform construction led to the voice of our army can not pass, the situation can not open. In recent years, our army in the dissemination of platform construction is still inadequate. Our military is currently more influential several news sites updated slowly, the news content is still biased towards the traditional propaganda, preaching, the emerging military-related information is also due to the existence of the above problems, so that “lack of capacity” and our army in New media, the use of new platforms often “half a beat”.

We should strengthen cooperation and cooperation with local government media and private media. At the same time, from the media University, well-known enterprises, network celebrities invited experienced people, regular exchange training, absorption of media construction advanced experience, accelerate the improvement of network-related military guidance platform, to create a group of audiences wide visible High-quality brand media. Second, the network crisis on the lack of capacity led to our army often aphasia. At present, the construction of our military space space is limited, staffing is insufficient, leading to information monitoring, filtering capacity is limited, the negative information of the army once fermented for public opinion, relying on the existing technical means and human resources will be difficult to effectively deal with, will make me The military is caught in the unfavorable situation of online ideological struggle.

Therefore, our military should strengthen cooperation with local functional departments to strengthen military and field network engineers to develop information monitoring software and filtering system, so that malicious spread of the rhetoric difficult to spread. At the same time, a wide range of local talent for the use of our military, while absorbing veterans into the local ideological work team, jointly cultivate a group of political excellent, new thinking, technical fine, skilled public opinion analysis, public opinion, network supervision Authoritarian network administrator team, the formation of the people’s war indestructible trend.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡時代,信息交互打破了官方和民間、軍隊和地方的界限 ,我軍應繼續發揮動員優勢,打開我軍意識形態工作新局面。人民群眾是參與意識形態鬥爭最廣泛、最強勁的力量,我軍爭取網上意識形態鬥爭主導權,不能只依靠宣傳保衛部門的力量,還必須做好軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭。我軍要發揮好動員優勢,吸引群眾參與,引導輿論走​​向。
美國《如何影響中國的國家戰略和軍事戰略》報告稱,“互聯網是我們與中共交鋒的主戰場”。西方軍事強國早已將網上輿論鬥爭納入軍事戰略,致力於打造網絡新型作戰力量。

軍媒:確保我軍網上意識形態安全的戰略思考

美國自2003年在伊拉克戰爭中首度實施戰略心理戰始,相繼取得了網絡戰理論更新和實戰檢驗的豐碩戰績;近期,美國國防部長阿什頓·卡特公佈了國防部新版網絡行動戰略報告,首次將威懾作為網絡戰略的關鍵部分;在混合戰爭中,美俄軍隊已能熟練運用信息戰力量組建“公民大軍”,妖魔化“侵略國”政權,從“侵略國”內部瓦解其國家意志,實現自身戰略目的。當前,美西方借助網絡技術和文化霸權制定國際互聯網規則,兜售政治制度和文化理念,主導意識形態鬥爭的方向;我軍則在關鍵信息基礎設施建設,網絡影響方面處於弱勢,面臨被把控、被塑造、被闡釋、被標籤化的困境,網絡空間安全應對總體仍盤旋於戰術層面非戰略層面。全媒體時代,網絡空間已成為人類“第二生存空間”,我軍須居安思危、知己知彼,高度重視研究網上意識形態鬥爭應對策略,爭奪網上意識形態鬥爭主動權。

 

1、主動爭鋒亮劍,搶占網上意識形態鬥爭制高點

 

互聯網是意識形態鬥爭主戰場。主戰場上未能掌握主導權,決定了我國在意識形態領域處於被動接招的態勢。近年來,包含谷歌、蘋果在內的美“八大金剛”全方位滲透到我國網絡空間,通過開“後門”為美國政府提供情報,並無孔不入地向我推送西方價值理念;培養“第五縱隊” 、扶植“精英”發聲,使之借助互聯網影響力公然為西方張目;持續技術創新,憑藉“影子互聯網”等手段規避我

網絡防控體系,支持香港“佔中”等顛覆分裂政權活動;主導議題設置,針對中國軍力發展先後密集拋出“中國軍事威脅論”“中國諜報活動猖獗論”“中美軍事衝突論”以及“南海航行自由”等議題,從學術上,輿論上全面對我壓制。

反觀我軍,仍存在在理論研究上習慣炒冷飯、在宣傳工作中灌輸說教、在話語體系上刻板陳舊、在議題應對時屢屢失語、在監管打擊時疲軟乏力等現象,不僅造成我主流意識形態的傳播困境,也為敵對勢力攻擊我意識形態陣地留下缺口。網絡意識形態鬥爭如逆水行舟,不進則退。

面對美西方咄咄逼人的挑戰,進攻比防禦更具優勢,我軍必須認清網上意識形態威脅的嚴峻性,正視上述不足,通過思維理念和工作方式的全方位變革,贏得網絡先機,爭取戰略主動。

第一階段要竭力扭轉我軍被動應付局面,打好網上意識形態鬥爭“殲擊戰”。中國是目前美國在網絡空間最主要的戰略對手,美無疑會對其核心技術、霸權地位等嚴防死守,想要短期內赶超其核心技術並不可行。我軍不僅要勇於爭鋒亮劍,也要學會“與狼共舞”,一方面應著力於就事論事,面對西方議題攻擊時及時回應、有一說一,改變傳統保守的意識形態工作理念,扭轉以遮掩、迴避為主的涉網態度,或另闢蹊徑轉移不利於我軍的輿論潮,謹防中國故事被曲解、誤讀;另一方面可找准對手弱點、打痛打狠,宣傳解讀西方醜聞,揭​​露西方式民主制度弊端,評判資本主義發展困境。借鑒對手鬥爭手法,充分發揮資本主義國家的作用,在境外媒體、商業運作、合作交流中進行文化推廣。

第二階段是以我為主展開反擊,打好網上意識形態鬥爭“陣地戰”。利用第一階段製造的技術發展機遇期,大力推動技術創新,可繞過美國等西方國家佔壓倒性優勢的技術關卡,實現諸如量子通信領域的技術壟斷,依托新平台實施意識形態戰略反擊;把維護國家意識形態安全由傳統安全領域向網絡空間領域延伸,積極與他國建立網絡空間合作關係,立足中國文化傳統、價值體系和軍事實踐,構建超越西方、符合我國實際的話語體系,為國際社會提供創新性話語,為我軍現代化建設、國防政策和各項軍事制度正名。

 

2、力行支撐立言,以人民軍隊優越性實現主流意識形態軟征服

 

硬實力是軟實力的根本支撐,西方意識形態之所以能在全球佔據上風,關鍵在於資本主義國家經濟普遍發達、人民生活水平較高,而蘇東劇變的關鍵則在於國民經濟幾近崩潰、政治清洗喪失民心、社會矛盾不斷激化。革命戰爭年代,我軍遭遇內外夾擊,卻抵禦了西方“和平演變”,根本原因就在於當年我軍的意識形態工作做到了“內聖外王”。反思當前,部分單位和個人治軍不嚴、言行不當、行為不端,削弱了軍隊戰鬥力,抹黑了軍隊形象,為別有用心之人抨擊我制度、離間黨群關係留下了把柄口實,為敵對勢力實現其兵不血刃的政治目的提供了便利空間。

此外,官兵成分結構價值取向和行為方式正在發生深刻改變,一旦因軍內風氣敗壞導致他們信任的喪失,便容易造成理想信念滑坡,等於為西方滲透打開了缺口。相當一段時期內,我軍處置行為失範事件時往往失之於寬、失之於軟,尤其是郭伯雄、徐才厚案件重創官兵“三觀”,同時美西方加緊推送資產階級建軍理念、展示軍事實力進行震懾、攻擊我軍特有優勢,這使我軍意識形態工作陷入雙重困境。網絡時代信息魚龍混雜,面對敵對勢力的蓄意詆毀更需要“自身硬”。

我軍應發揮好擅長擺事實講道理的傳統優勢,先擺好事實,再講清道理,以開放、包容的態度正視網民對軍隊的監督實現與網民的良好性互動,並以此為動力改進作風、規範言行;堅持網絡空間治理與現實空間規範兩手抓,對軍隊自身問題,既不粉飾護短又不允許造謠抹黑,消除負面思潮、輿論產生的根源,以我軍良好的形象抵制西方攻擊滲透,增強主流意識形態感召力。

 

3、以網治網,提升我軍意識形態鬥爭的網絡思維

 

互聯網的發展催生了社會結構、思維方式、行為方式的全方位改變,面對網上意識形態鬥爭,我軍必須準確把握人心爭奪機理的變化。網絡發源於西方、成長於西方,西方不僅在技術上有比較優勢,而且與互聯網文化高度契合,雲計算、大數據、人工智能等技術都由西方率先突破,網絡中心戰等互聯網作戰概念由美軍率先提出,互聯網“行為規則”也由西方主導,美國是全球主要信息源。而我軍在網上意識形態鬥爭中仍處於劣勢,如不能跟上網絡時代變化,將會陷入徹底被動的局面。

當前,我軍對過好“網絡關”的願望和動機日趨強烈,籌劃網上意識形態鬥爭須重點突破的問題也基本清晰,但仍缺乏“互聯網+意識形態鬥爭”的有機融合,難以真正掌握鬥爭話語權、主動權。面對網上意識形態鬥爭的嚴峻態勢,我軍需要一場互聯網“頭腦風暴”,全面提升網上意識形態安全應對能力。要以打破核心技術壟斷為主要著力點,突破美國遏制我的“命門”,建設自有信息傳輸系統和網絡安全防護系統等,爭取以創新技術領跑全球,打好意識形態“反手仗”,以創新驅動取代亦步亦趨,以技高一籌破除西方霸權;要增強我軍網上意識形態工作創意思維,我軍一向強調穩紮穩打、步步為營,然而互聯網傳播要求創意思維、先機意識、平台運作和行動能力,軍營應緊跟潮流,盡快發展網絡直播等多種傳播媒介,嘗試將主流文化傳播嵌入創意產業。

 

4、關緊法治籠子,清除網上意識形態陣地“雜音”

 

新媒體技術的發展開啟了“人人都有麥克風”的時代傳播規律發生變化,輿情監管難度加大,思維爭鋒愈加激烈,但依法管網治網的腳步卻未跟緊。

當前一個緊迫的問題就是:危害我意識形態安全的現象普遍存在,部分敵對勢力公然叫囂,西方敵對勢力不僅在我境內大力栽培“公知”“大V”,收買網絡水軍,組織邪教、民運宗教極端勢力等極端反共分子進入網絡輿論場,致使各種危害國家和軍隊安全的信息大量充斥於網絡信息平台。

當前,軍隊信息化建設如火如荼,我軍針對新媒體管理的立法進程卻相對滯後,涉網法規制度不健全,網上意識形態鬥爭缺乏規範,對部分危害意識形態安全的行為是否違法、如何處理語焉不詳。

一方面,正常的意識形態管控往往被曲解為限制言論自由,一旦為敵對勢力所利用則可能引起我軍官兵思想波動,導致事態進一步惡化;另一方面,由於缺乏相關規範,對涉事個人群體的處理往往不了了之,甚至經常為少數錯誤行徑“買單”,致使意識形態雜音得不到清除,久而久之,意識形態工作機構公信力嚴重下降,軍隊和國家也可能陷入“塔西佗陷阱”。

網上意識形態鬥爭起於價值理念、政治制度的對抗,卻可能表現為“去意識形態化”的公共輿情和大眾文化。信息在網絡空間內“裂變式”傳播。過程中不排除別有用心的個人群體添油加醋、推波助瀾。因此,打贏網上意識形態鬥爭,我軍應把依法維護意識形態安全問題擺到戰略位置,整肅涉軍網絡環境,完善國內立法,堅決打擊危害意識形態安全的行為,創造良好網上輿論生態。

一是站在總體國家安全的高度推動立法修法,重點規範文化傳播領域目前存在的“尋租”現象、管理漏洞、權責分割不清、監管不力等問題,確保各項工作有法可依、有法必依。

二是依法監管,對經常散播不良信息的網站實施精準監測,依法責令限時整改,對於涉嫌威脅意識形態安全的負面信息依法屏蔽刪除。三是執法從嚴、違法必究,對危害我軍意識形態安全的信息實行全維全時監測,對惡意散佈負面輿論的組織、個人和履行監管職責不力的部門,堅決依法處理,不留法外之地,形成法治震懾。

 

5、注重軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭

 

歷史上,我軍在作戰和執行軍事任務前都要進行戰鬥動員,以鼓舞士氣激發鬥志,同時爭取廣泛的群眾支持。不論是動員講話、新聞宣傳還是簡短響亮的戰斗口號、生動活潑的文藝形式,都發揮了不可磨滅的作用,使我軍正義、文明、威武的形象深入人心,為我軍整合軍地資源、發動人民戰爭奠定了良好基礎。

網絡時代,信息交互打破了官方和民間、軍隊和地方的界限,我軍應繼續發揮動員優勢,打開我軍意識形態工作新局面。人民群眾是參與意識形態鬥爭最廣泛、最強勁的力量,我軍爭取網上意識形態鬥爭主導權,不能只依靠宣傳保衛部門的力量,還必須做好軍民融合,打響網上意識形態鬥爭的人民戰爭。我軍要發揮好動員優勢,吸引群眾參與,引導輿論走​​向。

同時,要運用好網絡平台,運用好潛藏於民的巨大能量,把網民愛國熱情向正面疏導,在民間形成主流意識形態汪洋大海,使我軍內部堡壘堅不可摧,使境外敵對勢力知難而退。軍民融合還能有效破解我軍在網上意識形態鬥爭中力量陣地不足的問題。首先,平台建設不足導致我軍聲音傳不出、局面打不開。近年來,我軍在傳播平台建設上仍存在不足。我軍目前較有影響力的幾家新聞網站更新緩慢,新聞內容依然偏向傳統的宣傳、說教,新興的涉軍微信公眾號也因存在上述問題,以致“吸粉”能力不足,並且我軍在新媒體、新平台的使用方面常常“慢半拍”。

應加強與地方官媒、民營媒體的交流合作,合作建設。同時,從傳媒大學、知名企業、網絡名人中邀請經驗豐富的人士,定期組織交流培訓,吸收媒介建設先進經驗,加速改進網絡涉軍輿論引導平台,爭取打造一批受眾廣泛可看性強、可信度高的品牌媒體。其次,網絡危機對能力不足導致我軍屢屢失語。目前,我軍網絡空間力量建設有限、人員配備不足,導致信息監測、過濾能力受限,涉軍負面信息一旦發酵為輿情,單靠現有的技術手段和人力資源將難以有效處理,將使我軍陷入網上意識形態鬥爭的不利境地。

因此,我軍應加強與地方職能部門合作,加強軍地網絡工程師合作研發信息監測軟件和過濾系統,使惡意散佈的不實言論難以擴散。同時,一面廣泛吸收地方人才為我軍所用,一面吸納退役軍人進入地方意識形態工作隊伍,聯合培養一批政治過硬、思維過新、技術過精,能熟練進行輿情分析、輿論引導、網絡監管的專製網絡管理員隊伍,形成人民戰爭堅不可摧之勢。

Author: 作者:王明哲 軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究中心

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) // 中華人民共和國2017年上半年互聯網安全報告

Chinese Internet Security Report 2017 (a) //

中華人民共和國2017年上半年互聯網安全報告

1 Internet security situation is grim, to develop network security is imperative

At the same time, the Internet security has become more and more important. In 2014, the central network security and information leading group was formally established, Xi Jinping personally as head of the country and the government’s attention to the degree of network security is evident. In the central network security and information leading group at the first meeting, Xi Jinping first proposed “network power” strategy, “no network security is no national security”, network security is a relationship between national security and sovereignty, social stability, national culture The important issue of inheritance and development. Its importance, with the pace of global information to accelerate and become more and more significant. “Home is the door”, security issues without delay.

In China, the network has entered the tens of thousands of households, the number of Internet users in the world, China has become a network power. The Internet has been deeply involved in all aspects of people’s lives. According to a survey on the information of the public, students and white-collar groups of Internet usage has been close to 100%, more than Jiucheng college students and white-collar groups the most important information access channel for the Internet. Internet users on the Internet to conduct the main news, learning, real-time communication, social networking and all kinds of leisure and entertainment. In the era of universal networking, Internet users how to ensure network security? How does an enterprise network effectively defend against cyber attacks? These have become important issues that countries, governments and the security industry are facing and need to address as soon as possible.

From the domestic “dark cloud Ⅲ” virus, to sweeping the global “WannaCry” extortion virus, and then to “Petya” malignant devastating virus, all that the current network security situation is grim, corporate security vulnerable, vigorously develop the network Security is imperative.

2 to strengthen the network security construction, lack of talent need to improve the current situation

Although China has become a big country network, but there is distance from the network power. Trojans and botnets, mobile Internet malicious programs, denial of service attacks, security vulnerabilities, phishing, web tampering and other network security incidents have occurred, the basic network equipment, domain name systems, industrial Internet and other basic infrastructure and critical infrastructure is still facing Greater security risks, strengthen the network security construction is imminent.

At the same time, the shortage of network security personnel in China is in urgent need of improvement. As a network power, China in addition to research and development of computer equipment to enhance the speed of network transmission, but also should step up the cultivation of computer information security personnel, so that China from the network power into a network power, which is to enhance China’s information security important basis.

Network security has risen to the national strategy, the state is also vigorously invested to promote the construction of network security. But do a good job of network security is not an organization, a department of things, but the need for the participation of the whole society. From the city of Wuhan issued “on the support of national network security personnel and innovation base development policy measures” invested 4.5 billion construction funds, to June 1, 2017 formally implemented the “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law”, are for network security Healthy, steady development and make efforts. We also call for the social responsibility as a safe enterprise, institutions, individuals actively into the network security building, for the country, the national network security protection contribute a force.

3 Tencent to promote the establishment of China’s first strongest Internet security matrix

Tencent security has 17 years of capacity accumulation and 800 million users of large data operating experience, is China’s leading Internet security products, security services provider. In the spirit of “open, joint, shared” concept, will accumulate years of ability and data sharing to partners, is committed to the Internet security and open platform construction, enhance the security of the Internet security industry chain, enhance user safety awareness, and jointly promote China’s Internet security Environmental construction.

At present, Tencent has promoted the establishment of China’s first Internet security matrix, covering the basic security of the laboratory matrix, security product matrix, security, large data platform matrix, and Internet security open platform matrix, committed to China’s Internet security new ecological construction, open core competencies And data for China’s Internet security and ecological construction unremitting efforts.

First, the overall status of network security scan

1.1 affect the world’s six major network security incidents, the cumulative impact of the world

1.1.1 WikiLeaks CIA top secret file leak event

March 7, 2017, WiKiLeaks announced thousands of documents and revealed the CIA on the hacker hacking technology, Mobile phones and smart TVs, but also can invade attacks on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, and even control smart cars to launch assassination activities. Outside the name of the leak event named Vault 7, Vault 7 published confidential documents recorded by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) conducted by the global hacker attacks.

Vault7 contains 8761 confidential documents and documents, which documents the CIA for Android and Apple smart phones developed by the intrusion crack technology details, some of which can also get the complete control of the target device. WikiLeaks founder A Sangqi said the document shows the “CIA network attack the overall ability”, and WikiLeaks in the release of these documents claimed that “CIA network armory has been out of control.”

1.1.2 Shadow Broker Public NSA (US National Security Agency) Hacker Arsenal

On April 14, 2017, Shadow Brokers published a large number of very destructive hacking tools used by the Equation Group in the NSA (National Security Agency) on steemit.com, including You can remotely break the global about 70% of the Windows machine vulnerability exploit tools. Anyone can use NSA’s hacker weapons to attack someone else’s computer. Among them, there are ten tools most likely to affect Windows personal users, including eternal blue, eternal king, eternal romance, eternal collaboration, emerald fiber, eccentric hamster, Eskimo volume, elegant scholar, eclipse wings and respect review. Hackers do not need any operation, as long as the network can invade the computer, like shock waves, Sasser and other famous worms can instantly blood wash the Internet.

1.1.3 “WannaCry” extortion virus broke out in the world on May 12th

May 12, 2017, “WannaCry” (want to cry) bitbell blackmail virus in the global outbreak, the event affected more than 150 countries and regions, more than 10 million organizations and institutions and more than 30 million Internet users, the total loss Up to more than 500 billion yuan. Including hospitals, educational institutions and government departments, without exception, suffered an attack. Blackmail virus worms in conjunction with the way the spread of the attack is a large-scale outbreak of the important reasons.

User’s most obvious symptoms after poisoning is the computer desktop background is modified, many files are encrypted lock, the virus pops up prompted the user to the relevant bit coin address transfer $ 300 in order to unlock the file. At present, security companies have found ways to restore encrypted files.

1.1.4 FireBall Fireball virus infected more than 250 million computers

June 1, 2017, foreign security agency Check Point reported that the outbreak of a “FireBall” virus abroad, and claimed that more than 250 million computers worldwide are infected, the most affected countries are India (10.1%) and Brazil (9.6%). The United States has 5.5 million computers in the move, accounting for 2.2%. In the infected business network, India and Brazil accounted for 43% and 38% respectively, compared with 10.7% in the US.

This malware will force the browser home page to its own website and search engine, and redirect the search results to Google or Yahoo. These forged search engines track user data and secretly collect user information. The author of this virus for the production of China’s Rafotech company, the company’s Web site has been unable to visit.

1.1.5 “dark cloud” series virus upgrade to “dark cloud III” again struck

June 9, 2017, Tencent computer housekeeper detected, as early as 2015 was first discovered and intercepted killing the “dark cloud” virus resurgence, upgrade to “dark cloud Ⅲ”, through the download station large-scale transmission, at the same time through Infected disk MBR boot boot, the number of infected users has reached millions.

After the upgrade of the “dark cloud Ⅲ” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates, and its function is currently downloaded to promote malicious Trojans, lock the browser home page, tampering to promote navigation page id. Once the user in the move, the computer will become a “broiler” to form a “botnet”, and the use of DDoS attacks built on a cloud service provider platform chess class site, resulting in the site access becomes abnormal card slow.

1.1.6 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

June 27, 2017, a new round of extortion virus “Petya” attacked a number of countries in Europe, including Ukraine, Russia, India, Spain, France, Britain, Denmark and other countries have been attacked, the governments of these countries, Banks, enterprises, power systems, communications systems and airports are affected by different procedures.

This virus is more destructive than “WannaCry”, the virus on the computer’s hard disk MFT encryption, and modify the MBR, so that the operating system can not enter. According to the relevant analysis, said the information on the boot interface even if the information provided to the hackers is no way to decrypt, therefore, had to doubt the “Petya” the real purpose of the virus. “Petya” is more like a purposeful attack, the target can not repair the devastating attack, rather than extortion for the purpose.

1.2 “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law” formally implemented

June 1, China’s first comprehensive standard of cyberspace security management of the basic law – “People’s Republic of China Network Security Law,” the formal implementation of a total of seven chapters seventy-nine, the content is very rich, with six outstanding highlights. One is clear the principle of cyberspace sovereignty; the second is clear the network products and service providers of security obligations; third is clear the network operator’s security obligations; four is to further improve the personal information protection rules; five is the establishment of the key Information infrastructure security protection system; six is ​​to establish a key information infrastructure important data cross-border transmission rules.

At the same time the new law also pointed out that should take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. The implementation of the new law marks the network security of China from the law, cyber space management, network information dissemination order norms, cybercrime punishment and so forth will open a new page, to protect China’s network security, safeguarding the overall security of the country has far-reaching and significant The meaning of.

1.3 The size of Internet users in China is equivalent to the total population of Europe, the safety gap of up to 95%

1.3.1 Chinese Internet users reached 731 million, equivalent to the total population of Europe

As of December 2016, the scale of Internet users in China reached 731 million, the penetration rate reached 53.2%, more than the global average of 3.1 percentage points, more than the Asian average of 7.6 percentage points. A total of 42.99 million new Internet users, the growth rate of 6.2%. The size of Chinese Internet users has been equivalent to the total population of Europe.

1.3.2 mobile users continue to grow, the proportion of mobile phone users accounted for 95.1%

As of December 2016, China’s mobile phone users reached 695 million scale, the growth rate of more than 10% for three consecutive years. Desktop computers, notebook computers are using the decline in the number of mobile phones continue to squeeze the use of other personal Internet devices.

1.3.3 security talent gap is huge, up to 95%

Although the number of Internet users in China has been ranked first in the world, but China’s information security industry in the very few people, security personnel and its lack. According to relevant information, in recent years, China’s education and training of information security professionals only 3 million people, and the total demand for network security personnel is more than 700,000 people, the gap up to 95%. 710 million Internet users in China network security issues, has become the industry and the country to solve the problem.

Beijing Institute of Electronic Science and Technology, vice president of the Ministry of Education of Higher Education Information Teaching Committee of the Secretary-General Fenghua pointed out that the current important information systems and information infrastructure in China need all kinds of network information security personnel will be 15,000 per year The rate of increase, by 2020 the relevant talent needs will grow to 1.4 million. But at present, only 126 colleges and universities in China have set up 143 network security related professionals, accounting for only 10% of the 1200 science and engineering institutions.

Analysis on the situation of network virus threat in the first half of 2017

2.1 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory PC-side virus interception over 1 billion, the chain by 30%

2.1.1 Trojan horse intercepts an average of nearly 170 million times per month

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory statistics show that PC-side total has blocked the virus 1 billion times, the overall number of viruses compared to the second half of 2016 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to intercept the number of viruses increased by 30% Interception Trojan virus nearly 170 million times. April, June to intercept the peak of the virus, interceptions are 180 million times.

2017 Q2 quarter compared to 2016 Q2 quarter, Tencent security anti-virus laboratory virus blocking an increase of 23.7%. From 2014 to 2017 Q2 season, the amount of virus blocking the number of malicious programs increased year by year.

2.1.2 PC users in Guangdong, the highest number of poisoning, poisoning peak for the morning 9-11 points

2.1.2.1 found a total of 230 million times in the first half of the user machine Trojan virus 

The first half of 2017 Tencent security anti-virus laboratory found a total of 230 million times the user machine Trojan virus, compared to the second half of 2016 down 0.5%, an average of 38.8 million poisoning machines per month for virus killing. 2017 Q2 quarter compared to Q1 quarter, a slight increase in the number of poisoning machines.

In the second quarter of 2017, the number of users in the second quarter of 2016 increased by 3% compared with the same period in the second quarter of 2016. From 2015 to 2017 Q2 season, the number of poisoning machine growth trend is obvious, was increasing year by year state.

2.1.2.2 PC end user poisoning peak for the morning 9:00 to 11:00

According to statistics, the peak time of daily poisoning for the morning 10 am – 11 am, in line with business and ordinary users 9 am – 11 am to open the computer processing work of the law. This time the user poisoning virus type is more use of e-mail, sharing, etc. spread Office document macro virus, indicating that the office security situation is still grim.

2.1.2.3 PC end poisoning user provinces up to Guangdong, which ranks first in Shenzhen

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to monitor the number of poisoning PC statistics, from the urban distribution point of view, the Internet is more developed city users poisoning situation is heavy, the country ranked the first city to intercept the virus in Shenzhen City, accounting for 3.76% , The second for the Chengdu City, accounting for 3.57% of all interceptions, the third for the Guangzhou City, accounting for 3.39% of all interceptions.

From the provincial geographical distribution, the largest number of PC poisoning in Guangdong Province, accounting for 13.29% of the total intercept, the second in Jiangsu Province, accounting for 7.75% of all interceptions, the third in Shandong Province, accounting for all Intercept the amount of 7.12%.

2.1.3 The largest virus category accounted for 53.8% of the Trojan virus, blackmail virus added 13.39%

2.1.3.1 PC-side of the first major virus is still Trojans, PE-infected virus type, but the spread of large

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory 2017 Q2 season to obtain the virus sample analysis, from the virus type, Trojans accounted for 53.80% of the total number, is still the first major virus. Adware class (adware, forced installation, user privacy, spam, etc.) for the second largest virus category, accounting for 39.02% of the total number. Backdoor category for the third largest virus category, accounting for 5.13% of the total number. Compared to the 2017 Q1 quarter, the virus type did not change much.

The number of virus samples from the top of the division, ranked first and second is still the Trojans and Adware class, but ranked third in the PE infection, accounting for 25.07% of the total number.

There are not many types of infectious samples, which is difficult to produce infectious virus, hackers and other programmers need to master the technology, high cost, long development time and other factors. At the same time, the transmission of infectious virus is very large, the survival time is relatively long, therefore, less species of PE infection type in the sample transmission level accounted for a certain proportion, which is due to infection with a wide range of viruses, Fast propagation characteristics.

2.1.3.2 extortion virus sample number Q2 added 13.39%, the first is not WannaCry

The extortion of the virus is the purpose of extortion money for the purpose of making the Trojan horse infected computer user system specified data files are malicious encryption, resulting in user data loss. At present, most of the domestic extortion of the virus by the need to pay the rupiah to be able to decrypt. As the bit currency completely anonymous circulation, the current technical means can not track behind the extortion behind the virus operator, which also makes the extortion virus from 2013 after the explosive growth.

The amount of extortion

According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory to detect the extortion virus, 2017 in the first half of the total has been found in the number of extortion virus samples in about 300 million, the average monthly detection of the number of extortion virus nearly 500,000, Q2 quarterly extortion virus samples The number increased by 13.39% over Q1 quarter. May, June to intercept the peak of the virus, respectively, 57 million, 530,000.

Extortion virus type

According to the relevant data analysis shows that the May 12 outbreak of the WannaCry extortion virus is the most active in this quarter, the greatest impact on the virus. The virus and other viruses in the way of transmission is significantly different, due to the use of the windows system vulnerabilities, making the virus can spread around the world, as the quarter of the hot safety events. On June 27, a new type of extortion virus called Petya began spreading around the world, and its extortion was similar to WannaCry, but more destructive, directly encrypting the MFT of the user’s hard drive and modifying the MBR, causing the user to fail to windows system.

Although the impact of the virus is large, but from the sample size point of view, the largest or with the spread of infection PolyRansom virus. This virus will be infected, encrypted users of the file to extortion, but because there is no use like WannaCry virus key encryption, but the use of a simple encryption algorithm, and the algorithm is reversible, anti-virus software can help users to restore files, So although the number of samples in the first, but the impact is not great. This type of extortion virus accounted for 78.84% of all extortion virus, we can see the spread of infectious virus strong.

From the sample size point of view, in addition to infectious extortion virus, the first is Blocker, accounting for 36.82% of all extortion virus, the second category is Zerber, accounting for 23.63% of all extortion virus, the third category Is the most affected this quarter, WannaCry extortion virus, accounting for all extortion virus 12.06%. WannaCry virus volume quickly rose to the third position, because the means of communication using the spread of vulnerability.

The current extortion virus mainly uses the following kinds of transmission:

Document infection spread

File infection is the use of infectious virus transmission characteristics, such as PolyRansom virus is the use of infectious virus characteristics, encrypted users all the documents and then pop-up information. Because the PE class file is infected with the ability to infect other files, so if the file is carried by the user (U disk, network upload, etc.) to run on other computers, it will make the computer’s files are all infected with encryption.

Site hanging horse spread

Web site is through the site or the site server to obtain some or all of the authority, in the web page file to insert a malicious code, these malicious code, including IE and other browser vulnerabilities use code. When a user accesses a linked page, a malicious code is executed if the system does not update the exploit patch used in the malicious code.

The virus can also use known software vulnerabilities to attack, such as the use of Flash, PDF software vulnerabilities, to the site with malicious code to add the file, the user with a loopholes in the software to open the file will be executed after the malicious code, download virus.

Using system vulnerabilities

May outbreak of WannaCry is the use of Windows system vulnerabilities to spread, the use of system vulnerabilities is characterized by passive poisoning, that is, users do not have to visit a malicious site, not open the unknown file will be poisoned. This virus will scan with the network vulnerabilities in other PC host, as long as the host is not marked with a patch, it will be attacked.

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind you, timely updates third-party software patches, timely update the operating system patches to prevent known vulnerabilities attack.

Mail attachment spread

The extortion virus that spreads through e-mail attachments usually disguises documents that users need to view, such as credit card spending lists, product orders, and so on. The attachment will hide the malicious code, when the user opens the malicious code will begin to perform, release the virus. This type of camouflage virus is usually sent to enterprises, universities, hospitals and other units, these units in the computer usually save the more important documents, once malicious encryption, the possibility of payment of ransom far more than ordinary individual users.

Network share file spread

Some small-scale spread of extortion virus will be spread through the way the file spread, the virus will upload the virus to the network sharing space, cloud disk, QQ group, BBS forums and other places to share the way to send a specific crowd to trick the download and install The

Tencent anti-virus laboratory to remind users to download the software go to the official formal channel download and install, do not download the unknown program, such as the need to use the unknown source of the program can be installed in advance Tencent computer housekeeper for security scanning.

2.2 mobile side killing a total of 693 million Android virus, mobile phone users over 100 million

2.2.1 mobile side of the virus package growth trend slowed down, but the total is still 899 million

In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper intercepted Android new virus package totaled 8990000, compared with 2016 in the first half of a small decline, but the total is still very large.

2.2.2 Guangdong mobile users poisoning the most, the number of mobile phone users decreased by 45.67%

2.2.2.1 Tencent mobile phone housekeeper in the first half were killing Android virus 693 million times

In the case of a large number of virus infection users in the case, the first half of 2017 Tencent mobile phone housekeeper killing the virus has reached 693 million times, an increase of 124.24%, the total number of more than double the first half of 2016 more than doubled. Malicious programs and Trojans to reduce the cost of production, virus transmission channel diversification is an important factor in this phenomenon.

In addition to June, the first half of 2017 killing more than 100 million times a month, of which the number of mosquitoes in January up to 136 million times, almost the first half of 2014, 140 million in the killing of the same level.

2.2.2.2 2017 in the first half of the number of mobile phone users over 100 million 

In the first half of 2017, the number of virus infected users was 109 million, down 45.67% year on year, compared with 2015, the first half of 2016 compared to all declined.

January 2017 single month infected users reached 21.66 million, the highest for the first half, then the number of infected users began to slow down.

2.2.2.3 the number of mobile users poisoning Guangdong ranks first

In the infected mobile phone users geographical distribution, Guangdong ranked first, accounting for up to 11.41%.

2.2.3 hooliganism and resources accounted for more than 80%, two-dimensional code is most easy to poison

2.2.3.1 mobile-side virus in the hooliganism and tariff consumption accounted for more than 80%

In the first half of 2017, the proportion of mobile phone viruses, rogue behavior and tariff consumption accounted for the highest, to 44.59% and 44.44% ratio of one or two. Ranked third of the same access to privacy accounted for 5.85%, lodging fraud, malicious deductions, remote control, system damage and malicious spread accounted for 1.94%, 1.55%, 0.80%, 0.74% and 0.08%.

Hooliganism refers to the malicious behavior of a virus that has a rogue attribute. Such as the recent WannaCry virus and once again concerned about the mobile phone lock screen Serbia virus with rogue behavior. This type of virus through the forum paste it and other means to spread, the drug will usually use plug-in, free, brush drill, red envelopes and other words on the Trojan virus packaging, induction users download and install. After the installation of the virus will be forced to lock the phone screen, forcing the victim had to contact the drug maker in order to make the equipment back to normal.

Whether the computer or mobile phone, with rogue behavior of the extortion virus to the user losses are difficult to estimate, if accidentally poisoning, not only will cause property damage, will also lead to loss of important information, so users should be careful to guard.

Tariff is also a common type of mobile phone virus, such a virus usually in the user without the knowledge or unauthorized circumstances, by sending text messages, frequent connections to the network, etc., resulting in user tariff losses. Part of the malicious promotion of the virus to help third-party advertisers to increase traffic for the purpose of the user to download and install the virus, access to mobile portal privileges, the implementation of the download malicious advertising software. These software will continue to push a variety of pop advertising, affecting the user’s mobile phone experience, and even those who will disclose user privacy information, stolen online banking accounts, resulting in serious personal and property safety.

Infected with the world’s ultra-36 million Andrews device malicious ad click software “Judy” is a tariff consumption of mobile phone viruses. The malware is hidden in a Korean tour. After completing the download and install, the infected device will send the information to the target page and automatically download the malicious code in the background and access the advertising link, theft of user traffic, to the user Consumption.

2.2.3.2 two-dimensional code, software bundles are the main source of mobile virus source

Mobile virus channel sources are mainly seven categories, namely, two-dimensional code, software bundles, electronic market, network disk communication, mobile phone resource station, ROM built-in and mobile forum. The diversification and diversification of the entrance of the virus channel also further increases the risk and risk of the user’s exposure.

In the first half of 2017, two-dimensional code became the source of mainstream virus channels, accounting for up to 20.80%. Two-dimensional code in the various areas of the popularity of more and more users to develop a habit of sweeping the random, the drug maker also increased for the two-dimensional code channel virus package delivery ratio. Part of the virus is embedded in the two-dimensional code, as long as swept away will automatically download the malicious virus, ranging from mobile phone poisoning, while the personal privacy information is caused by leakage, resulting in property losses.

Third, anti-harassment fraud effect is remarkable, but the user loss situation is grim

3.1 the first half of the number of spam messages over 566 million, illegal loans over 50%

3.1.1 In the first half of 2017, the total number of spam messages continued to grow close to 600 million

Low spread costs and the existence of a huge chain of interests, resulting in spam messages have been difficult to be effectively remediation, the number of users is also increasing the number of reports. In the first half of 2017, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper received a total of 586 million copies of spam messages reported by users, an increase of 40.69%, more than 2 times in the first half of 2014.

3.1.2 users to report spam messages up to the provinces of Guangdong, the largest city for Shenzhen

In the geographical distribution of spam messages, the top three provinces that reported spam messages were Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong, accounting for 12.91%, 6.98% and 5.70% respectively. In addition, Henan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Hebei, Beijing, Hunan and Shanghai also ranked the top ten. These provinces or municipalities are generally distributed in the eastern coastal and central regions, and densely populated and economically developed are their greatest common ground, which creates favorable conditions for fraudulent bulk spam messages and profiteering.

City, the first half of 2017 users in Shenzhen reported a total of 23.34 million spam messages (accounting for 3.98%), Chengdu, Guangzhou and Suzhou, two to four, the number of spam messages are 10 million level.

3.1.3 2017 first half of the common types of fraud SMS

Although the overall amount of fraud SMS reported a downward trend, but its means of diversification and secrecy makes the dangers of fraud has always been high. According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper to monitor the 28.57 million fraud messages show that illegal loans, online shopping, viral Web site, malicious Web site and pseudo-base station is the highest proportion of several fraudulent SMS type.

One of the illegal loan fraud messages a dominant, accounting for more than 50%. In the modern “room full of things” and rely on home buyers to seek a sense of security in the context of the community, the loan to buy a house has become a major social needs. Liar also keep up with this social pain points, a large number of illegal loans to send text messages, to profit.

3.2 harassing telephone users labeled up to 235 million times, down 27.12%

3.2.1 2017 users in the first half of the total number of harassment calls 235 million times down 27.12%

After the first half of 2015, after the explosive growth in the first half of 2015, the number of harassing telephone marks began to decline year by year in the first half of 2016, and the total number of harassing telephone marks in the first half of 2017 was 235 million, down from the first half of 2016 %.

3.2.2 In the first half of 2017, more than 50% of harassing calls were sounded

User-tagged harassing phone types are divided into five categories. Among them, the sound ranked first, accounting for more than 50%. This kind of harassing phone will not cause serious harm to the user, but will still affect the use of mobile phones, interference users. Phishing calls accounted for 15.14%, ranked second, in addition to advertising sales, real estate intermediary and insurance management also occupy a certain percentage.

3.2.3 harassing telephone calls for the highest proportion of verification code

According to Tencent mobile phone housekeeper users take the initiative to report the harassment of telephone malicious clues show that asking for verification code, fake leadership, transfer, online shopping and offense is the most common keywords. Which requires the highest proportion of verification code, nearly 24.74% of the harassing phone, the liar will be through various means to ask for verification code, and verification code as an important private information, once leaked, it is easy to cause property damage.

3.2.4 fraud telephone mark down 59.68% year on year, Beijing up

In the user has been marked 235 million harassing phone, scams like telephone ratio is far less than loud, but its substantial harm caused by the largest. Based on Tencent mobile phone housekeeper user fraud phone tag data show that in the first half of 2017 defraud telephone mark down 59.68%, a total of 35.59 million.

These frauds are targeted at the target area is more clear to the eastern coastal economically developed areas and inland central provinces. On the urban side, Beijing is the largest number of cities with the largest number of fraudulent calls, up to 1.826 million. Shenzhen and Guangzhou, respectively, to 141.8 million and 1.257 million mark the number followed. Shanghai, Xi’an, Changsha, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Chongqing and Wuhan are ranked fourth to ten.

3.3 malicious Web site to intercept up to 47.8 billion, pornographic fraud head of the site

3.3.1 The number of malicious web sites detected in the first half of 2017 exceeded 1.83 billion

In the first half of 2017, Tencent security in the PC and mobile side detected a total of more than 183 million malicious web site, the overall trend of rising volatility. Which in June detected 35.75 million malicious Web site, the highest for the first half, the lowest in April, the number of 25.53 million detection.

3.3.2 Pornography The website is still the main means of committing malicious web sites

In the effective detection of malicious Web site at the same time, the first half of 2017 Tencent security in the PC and mobile side to intercept malicious sites up to 47.8 billion times, equivalent to 265 million times a day intercept. This huge data also further illustrates the grim situation of Internet security.

In Tencent’s securely intercepted malicious Web site, pornographic websites, gambling sites, information scams, malicious files, fake ads and phishing scams are the most widely distributed six categories of malicious Web sites. Which accounted for half of the site of pornography, accounting for 51.98%, pornographic fraud sites will be embedded fraudulent advertising or trick users to pay online. Malicious Web site will also be embedded in the fraud message to spread, to increase the confusion, so users see the text in the URL, should consciously raise vigilance, remember not to click.

3.4 iOS harassment and fraud phone calls fell by about 35%, calendar ads into new harassment

3.4.1 iOS harassment calls and phishing calls appear more substantial decline

In September 2016, Tencent mobile phone housekeeper and Apple introduced a new version of iOS10, the first increase in interception harassment and fraud phone features, effectively alleviate the troubled iPhone users troubled phone problems. Data show that the first half of 2017 iOS users were marked a total of 14.492 million harassing telephone, fraud, telephone 2.196 million times.

From the overall trend point of view, the first half of the iOS harassment phone signs showed a downward trend in the number of signs in January the highest number of 3.195 million times, only 2.0 million in April, the first half of the lowest peak. In contrast, the overall trend of fraudulent phone is more stable. From the above data can be seen, the first half of 2017 harassing telephone and phishing calls have emerged a more substantial decline, which is inseparable from the relevant departments, mobile operators and mobile phone users to work together.

3-4 calendar ads into the third largest harassment of Apple phones

Spam, harassing the phone, calendar advertising has become the main source of iPhone users harassment. Among them, the calendar advertising harassment problem is increasingly serious. 61.1% of users have experienced calendar ads, including gambling ads, real estate advertising, taxi software advertising top three.

3.5 Tencent Kirin system to combat pseudo-base station protection 150 million people

3.5.1 Tencent Kirin system to intercept 230 million fraud messages to protect 150 million people

In the first half of 2017, Tencent Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system for the national users to intercept 230 million pseudo-base station fraud messages, the total impact of the number of 150 million people.

3.5.2 pseudo-base station regional characteristics: Sichuan, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hubei and Hubei provinces up

From the geographical point of view, Tencent Kirin for Sichuan, Shaanxi, Beijing, Hubei, Hunan users to intercept the largest number of fraudulent SMS, the five provincial administrative departments to intercept the number of fraud messages more than 50% of the total.

From the city point of view, the number of intercepting the number of fraud messages Top 10 cities such as Beijing, Chengdu, Xi’an, etc. are almost capital cities or economically developed cities, due to densely populated, urban residents income is higher, by pseudo-base station fraud gang included in the key attack Object.

3.5.3 pseudo-base station crime time characteristics: the most frequent working hours

From the time of committing the crime point of view, pseudo-base station fraud messages sent between 9 am to 19 pm, which in 10 am to 12 pm, 15 pm to 18 pm for the two peaks. It is easy to see that the peak of fraudulent SMS coincides with the daily working hours.

3.5.4 Content characteristics: Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Mobile most “lying gun”

Pseudo-base station SMS type, the points exchange, account abnormalities and bank credit card mention category accounted for close to 90%. These three categories often associated with operators, banks, often points to clear, credit card to mention the amount, account real name, abnormal and other reasons to fraud.

Tencent Kirin intercepted pseudo-base station counterfeit port, counterfeit industrial and commercial bank fraud SMS up to (up to 52%), Top 5 counterfeit port in addition to middle peasants construction of four major banks, as well as operators China Mobile. It is not difficult to see that these “lying gun” business because the user community is huge, business mode, short message is particularly important, so become a pseudo-base station fraud group to simulate the main object to send.

Fake base station SMS reach the user’s operator distribution, China Mobile accounted for 74%, followed by China Telecom (16%), China Unicom (10%).

Fourth, the first half of 2017 safety personnel development progress and results

4.1 “Network Security Law” to promote the comprehensive training of talent

June 1, 2017 from the implementation of the “Internet Security Law” for the first time in the form of legal provisions of the network space security field of personnel requirements, not only reflects the country’s attention to the network of talent, but also for the State Council and the local network The rules of safety personnel training provide the highest level of legal basis.

“Network Security Law” provides that: state support enterprises and institutions of higher learning, vocational schools and other education and training institutions to carry out network security-related education and training, to take a variety of ways to train network security personnel, and promote network security personnel exchanges. Network security personnel not only include technical talent, but also management talent. The current network security is not only the technical contest, it is the idea, the rules of the contest, familiar with international rules, power relations network security personnel in the future of cyberspace competition can play a greater role. Therefore, the training of network security personnel not only to cultivate traditional talents, but also based on the domestic, look at the world, cultivate a comprehensive understanding of network diplomacy talent.

At the same time, the provisions of the provisions of the “network of security personnel exchanges”, reflects the training mechanism for China’s open innovation and innovative ideas. Talent training is inseparable from the advanced countries of academic research and technical exchanges, the business organizations should attract foreign high-end technical personnel, while speeding up the training of our top talent.

4.2 security personnel training “Tencent mode”: to create talent closed-loop

As an advocate of Internet security open platform, Tencent has been “network security” as an important part of the enterprise design and strategic project. In the process of continuous attention and support of safe personnel selection and training, Tencent has gradually recruited a set of safety personnel selection system in the aspects of campus recruitment, social recruitment, promotion of internal talents, salary and welfare, etc .; at the same time, Security events and promote personnel training program, Tencent has gradually formed a mature, perfect, and for social reference to the safety of personnel training system.

Tencent in 2017, the parties launched the Tencent Information Security Competition (TCTF), through the internationalization of the system to explore talent, through high-quality counseling mechanism and professional mentor team training personnel and through the construction of enterprises and universities bridge transport personnel. At the same time, Tencent through the creation of “Hundred Talents Program” to build the Internet security personnel training closed-loop, through the TCTF contest layers of competition examinations, selected the most potential of 100 security personnel, and through continuous follow-up training to build the Internet security complex, Leading talent.

Tencent hopes to TCTF as a professional security personnel training platform between enterprises and universities to build a bridge between the formation of selection, training, transportation in one of the closed-loop talent for the Chinese new forces to provide a multi-dimensional growth environment, and further promote the development of China’s network security The

4.3 Tencent security joint laboratory set up the first anniversary: ​​escort six key areas of the Internet

July 2016, Tencent security integration of its laboratory resources, the establishment of the first domestic Internet laboratory matrix – Tencent security joint laboratory, which covers Cohen Laboratory, basaltic laboratory, Zhan Lu laboratory, cloud tripod laboratory, Anti-virus laboratory, anti-fraud laboratory, mobile security laboratory, including seven laboratories. Laboratory focus on security technology research and security attack and defense system structures, security and security coverage covers the connection, systems, applications, information, equipment and cloud, touch the six key areas of the Internet.

2016, Tencent security joint laboratory for Google, Microsoft, Apple, adobe and other international manufacturers to dig a total of 269 loopholes, ranking first in the country. In addition, by virtue of “the world’s first long-range non-physical contact with the invasion of Tesla car” research results, Tencent security joint laboratory Cohen laboratory selected “Tesla security researcher Hall of Fame”, and Tesla CEO Maske’s personal thanks The

In the field of anti-fraud in the country concerned, the anti-fraud laboratory in Tencent Security Joint Laboratory has formed a set of new standards for anti-fraud evaluation based on AI innovation + ability and openness in the field of anti-fraud research. Stop mode. In the AI ​​innovation and the ability to open the two-wheel drive, the laboratory has launched Hawkeye anti-telephone fraud system, Kirin pseudo-base station real-time positioning system, God anti-phishing system, God investigation funds flow control system, God sheep intelligence analysis platform Five systems, and through the Tencent cloud SaaS services open to the need for government units, enterprises, etc., to help users prevent Internet fraud.

Five, safe hot event inventory

5.1 outbreak of Serbian virus and virus outbreak

5.1.1 WannaCry extortion virus broke out globally on 12 May

Event Background:

On May 12th, WannaCry (wanna cry) bitbell blackmail virus broke out on a global scale. According to Tencent security anti-virus laboratory security researchers found that the extortion event compared with the past, the biggest difference is that the extortion virus combined with the way worms to spread. Due to the leak in the NSA file, WannaCry spread vulnerability code is called “EternalBlue”, so some reports that the attack is “eternal blue”.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

The outbreak of blackmail virus in the past two years is largely related to the increasing perfection of encryption algorithms. The continuous updating of cryptography and algorithms ensures the security of data transmission and preservation in our daily network. Unfortunately, the author of the extortion virus also used this feature, so that although we know the Trojan algorithm, but do not know the author to use the key, there is no way to restore the file is maliciously encrypted.

Encryption algorithms are usually divided into symmetric encryption algorithm and asymmetric encryption algorithm two categories. These two types of algorithms are used in the blackmail virus.

The encryption and decryption of the symmetric encryption algorithm uses exactly the same key, which is characterized by a faster operation, but when using such an algorithm alone, the key must be exchanged with the server using a method that is recorded in the process And the risk of leakage. The symmetric encryption algorithms commonly used for blackmail viruses include AES and RC4.

Asymmetric encryption algorithm is also known as public key encryption algorithm, which can use the public key to encrypt the information, and only the owner of the private key can be decrypted, so as long as the public key and save the private key, you can guarantee The encrypted data is not cracked. The asymmetric encryption algorithm is usually slower than symmetric encryption. The asymmetric encryption algorithms commonly used by blackmail viruses include RSA algorithms and ECC algorithms.

Usually, the blackmail virus will combine these two categories of encryption algorithms, both can quickly complete the entire computer a large number of documents encryption, but also to ensure that the author’s private key is not leaked.

5.1.2 new round of extortion virus “Petya” struck, more destructive

Event Background: 

June 27 A new round of extortion virus Petya attacked several European countries. This virus is more damaging than WannaCry. The virus encrypts the computer’s hard disk MFT and modifies the MBR so that the operating system can not enter. Compared to the previous, Petya more like a purpose of the attack, rather than a simple extortion. Tencent Hubble analysis system has been able to identify the virus and determine the high risk, the use of Tencent computer housekeeper can kill the virus.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

Petya Serbia virus virus poisoning will scan the network after the machine, through the eternal blue loopholes since the spread, to achieve the purpose of rapid propagation. Foreign security researchers believe that Petya extortion virus variants will be spread through the mailbox attachment, using the vulnerability to carry the DOC document to attack. After poisoning, the virus will modify the system MBR boot sector, when the computer restart, the virus code in the Windows operating system before taking over the computer, the implementation of encryption and other malicious operations. After the computer restarts, it will display a disguised interface, this interface is actually a virus display, the interface is suspected of being a disk scan, in fact, the disk data encryption operation.

5.1.3 Laurent virus Tencent security response program

For the outbreak of extortion virus, Tencent security emergency response program, for the advance prevention, in the virus cleanup and after the file recovery three cases, to the majority of users to deal with recommendations:

Pre-prevention

1. Use the computer housekeeper’s extortion virus immune tools, automated installation system patches and port shielding, or manually download and install.

2. Back up the data, install the security software, turn on the protection.

a) the relevant important documents using offline backup (that is, the use of U disk, etc.), such as backup;

b) the use of some computers with the system restore function, without attack before setting the system restore point, after the attack can restore the system, defense file encryption;

c) install Tencent computer housekeeper, open real-time protection, to avoid attack;

d) the use of computer housekeeper’s document guardian of the file backup, protection.

3. To establish an inactivated domain name for immunization.

According to the existing sample analysis, there is a trigger mechanism for extortion software, if you can successfully access the specified link, the computer will be in the extortion of the virus directly after the exit, it will not file encryption.

a) Ordinary users can be connected to the site, to ensure access to the site, you can avoid the attack to avoid being encrypted (only known to extortion virus);

b) enterprise users can build Web Server through the intranet, and then through the way DNS DNS domain name resolution to Web Server IP way to achieve immunity; through the domain name of the visit can also monitor the situation of intranet virus infection.

Things in the virus clean up

1. Unplug the cable and other ways to isolate the computer has been attacked to avoid infection with other machines.

2. Use the computer steward’s antivirus function to directly check out the blackmail software, scan clean up directly (isolated machines can be downloaded through the U disk, etc. to install the offline package).

3. Back up the relevant data directly after the system reload.

After the file is restored

1. Blackmail software with the ability to restore part of the encrypted file, you can directly through the extrapolated software to restore part of the file; or directly click on the blackmail interface, “Decrypt” pop-up recovery window to restore the list of files.

2. You can use third-party data recovery tool to try data recovery, cloud users can contact Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory to help deal with.

5.2 DDOS attacks continue, dark clouds variants frequently struck

Event Background:

June 9, a 2017 years since the largest DDoS network attack activities swept the country, Tencent security cloud tripod laboratory released traceability analysis report, through the attack source machine analysis, engineers found in the machine dark cloud Ⅲ variants. Through the flow, memory DUMP data and other content analysis, Tencent cloud tripod laboratory to determine the large-scale DDoS attacks by the “dark cloud” hacker gang initiated. After the upgrade, “Dark Cloud III” will be the main code stored in the cloud, real-time dynamic updates.

Virus Detailed Explanation:

“Dark cloud” series Trojan from the beginning of 2015 by Tencent anti-virus laboratory for the first time to capture and killing, has been more than two years. In the past two years, the Trojan constantly updated iteration, continue to fight against the upgrade.

From the beginning of April this year, the Trojans comeback again, the outbreak of the outbreak of the dark horse than the previous version of the more obvious promotion features, so we named it dark clouds Ⅲ. Dark clouds Ⅲ compared with the previous version has the following characteristics and differences:

First, more subtle, dark cloud Ⅲ is still no file without a registry, compared with the dark cloud II, cancel the number of kernel hooks, cancel the object hijacking, become more hidden, even professionals, it is difficult to find traces The

Second, the compatibility, because the Trojan mainly through the hook disk drive StartIO to achieve the protection and protection of the virus MBR, such a hook is located in the bottom of the kernel, different types of brand hard drive need hook point is not the same, this version of the Trojan increased More judgment code, able to infect the vast majority of the market and hard disk.

Third, targeted against security software, security vendors, “first aid kit” type of tool to do a special confrontation, through the device name of the way to try to prevent the pit of some tools to load the run.

5.3 in the first half of the focus of fraud cases inventory

5.3.1 Xu Yuyu telegraphic case

August 2016, just by the Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Xu Yuyu, received a fraudulent phone, the other scholarship in the name of cheating Xu Yuyu University of the cost of 9900 yuan. After the report of Xu Yuyu emotional abnormalities, leading to sudden cardiac death, unfortunately died, triggering social concern about the unprecedented fraud. The case was publicly declared on July 19, 2017, the principal Chen Wenhui was sentenced to life imprisonment, confiscation of all personal property. The other six defendants were sentenced to 15 to 3 years imprisonment and fined. This verdict, to the community to pass the court in accordance with the law severely punished the telecommunications network fraud crime clear attitude.

Proposed: Xu Yuyu tragedy enough to cause public vigilance. Internet era, each person’s information flow are online through different channels of circulation, to the lawless elements can take advantage of the machine. Faced with such an environment, we should be on the strange phone and SMS alert. Even if the other can speak personal accurate information, can not be trusted, any event needs to be verified by reliable channels to protect their own security.

5.3.2 Henan large telecommunications fraud: lied to sell college entrance examination answers cheat nearly 100 million students

June 2017, Henan HebiCity police cracked the big telecommunications fraud, arrested two suspects, seized more than 70 copies of bank cards. These suspects under the guise of selling college entrance examination questions answer the way, through the network of college entrance examination candidates to implement fraud. According to the police preliminary investigation, fraud victims accumulated more than 3,500 people, involving more than 3 million yuan.

Prevention recommendations: the annual admission of college entrance examination, college entrance examination fraud is a high period of time. Candidates and parents need to beware of all the so-called “internal indicators”, false check the site, false search results such as college entrance examination in the name of all kinds of fraud means, do not have luck, deceived.

5.3.3 Wuhan female teachers suffered a series of telecommunications fraud 7 months to cheat 2.53 million

Wuhan, a secondary school teacher Chen, master’s degree, 2017 May to the police alarm fraud. It is understood that in November 2016, Chen received a strange call, said its social security card was stolen brush, and directly to the phone to the “Hunan Provincial Public Security Department.” Answer the phone “police” said Ms. Chen involved a fraudulent money laundering case, as “washing charges”, Ms. Chen half a year to the other side of the transfer of 2.53 million, the debt owed more than 300 million. The case is still in the investigation.

Precautionary advice: people need to be alert to unfamiliar calls and text messages. When receiving a suspected fraud or SMS, pay attention to verify the identity of the other party, especially the other party to the designated account remittance, do not easily remittance, should be the first time to inform the family to discuss or consult the public security organs; The public security department can not provide a security account, but will not guide you transfer, set a password.

Six, security experts advice

In the computer use, set the security factor high password. Using a password that is not easily guessed by violent attacks is an effective way to improve your security. Violent attack is an attacker using an automated system to guess the password. Avoid using words that can be found in the dictionary, do not use pure digital passwords; use special characters and spaces, and use uppercase and lowercase letters. This password is harder to crack than use your mother’s name or birthday as a password. In addition, the password length for each additional one, the combination of the composition of the password characters will increase in multiple, so the long password will be more secure.

Regularly upgrade the software, update the security patch. In many cases, it is important to patch the system before installing and deploying the production application software. The final security patch must be installed on the PC’s system. If not for a long time without a security upgrade, may lead to the computer is very easy to become an unethical hacker attack target. Therefore, do not install the software on a computer that does not have a security patch update for a long time.

Protect your data by backing up important documents. Back up your data, which is one of the important ways you can protect yourself from minimizing the loss in the face of a disaster. If the amount of data is huge, the data can be saved to the hard disk. But more convenient way, you can use Tencent computer steward class of security software, at any time to automatically restore the data to the local, you can also store to the cloud, maximize the data to ensure security.

Do not easily trust the external network, open network risk is huge. In an open wireless network, such as in a wireless network with a coffee shop, the network risk will multiply, this concept is very important. This does not mean that in some untrusted external network can not use the wireless network, but to always keep the security and caution of security. The key is that the user must be through their own systems to ensure safety, do not believe that the external network and its own private network as safe.

Improve the unfamiliar telephone, SMS alertness, do not believe in which the content. Fraudulent forms of SMS diversification, a variety of new SMS Trojans flooding through the temptation of the SMS comes with the virus link to pay the class, privacy stealth virus rapid growth. For the “college entrance examination”, “school notice”, “test report card”, “household registration management”, “mobile phone real name system”, “video video” and “traffic violation” and other text messages embedded in the URL link should be vigilant, Do not click anywhere. For unfamiliar calls, SMS should be vigilant and wary, do not believe what the other side of the content, if necessary, to verify their identity information.

Protect personal privacy information, do not easily disclose personal information to others. Personal account, password, ID card information and other key personal privacy information, it is absolutely free to any unfamiliar SMS, the phone revealed. Receive a strange message, the phone asked personal privacy, be sure to be vigilant. When publishing a message on a social platform, beware of important privacy information in the form of photos, screenshots, etc. Do not arbitrarily discard tickets, tickets or courier documents containing personal information to prevent personal information from being stolen.

Mobile phone users should develop good habits to use security software to protect the safety of mobile phones. Mobile phone users can download and install such as Tencent mobile phone housekeeper a class of mobile phone security software, regular mobile phone physical examination and virus killing, and timely update the virus database. For the latest popular and difficult to remove the virus or vulnerability, you can download the killing tool in time to kill or repair. At the same time open Tencent mobile phone housekeeper harassment intercept function, which can effectively intercept fraud phone, SMS, enhance mobile phone security.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

1 互联网安全形势严峻,大力发展网络安全防护势在必行

在互联网高速发展,已经成为社会发展动力的同时,互联网安全也变得越来越重要。2014年,中央网络安全与信息化领导小组正式成立,习近平亲自担任组长,国家和政府对网络安全的重视程度可见一斑。在中央网络安全和信息化领导小组第一次会议上,习近平首次提出“网络强国”战略,“没有网络安全就没有国家安全”,网络安全是一个关系国家安全和主权、社会的稳定、民族文化的继承和发扬的重要问题。其重要性,正随着全球信息化步伐的加快而变到越来越显著。“家门就是国门”,安全问题刻不容缓。

在中国,网络已走入千家万户,网民数量世界第一,我国已成为网络大国。互联网已经深度介入民众生活的方方面面。根据一份关于民众信息的调查报告显示,大学生和白领群体的互联网使用率已经接近100%,九成以上大学生和白领群体最主要的信息获取渠道为互联网。网民在互联网上进行的行为主要有获取新闻资讯、学习工作、即时沟通、网络社交及各类休闲娱乐。在全民联网的时代,网民的网络安全如何保证?企业网络在面对网络攻击时如何进行有效的防御?这些都已经成为国家、政府和安全行业正在面临和需要尽快解决的重要问题。

从国内的“暗云Ⅲ”病毒,到席卷全球的“WannaCry”敲诈勒索病毒,再到“Petya”恶性破坏性病毒,无一不说明目前的网络安全形势严峻,企业安全防护脆弱,大力发展网络安全防护势在必行。

2大力加强网络安全建设,人才匮乏现状急需改善

我国虽然已成网络大国,但离网络强国还有距离。木马和僵尸网络、移动互联网恶意程序、拒绝服务攻击、安全漏洞、网页钓鱼、网页篡改等网络安全事件多有发生,基础网络设备、域名系统、工业互联网等我国基础网络和关键基础设施依然面临着较大的安全风险,加强网络安全建设迫在眉睫。

同时,我国网络安全人才匮乏的现状急需改善。作为一个网络大国,中国除研究开发计算机设备,提升网络传输速度以外,还应加紧计算机信息安全人才的培育工作,让中国从网络大国变为网络强国,这是提升我国信息安全保障的重要基础。

网络安全已经上升至国家战略,国家也在大力投入、推动网络安全建设。但做好网络安全工作不是某个机构、某个部门的事,而是需要全社会的参与。从武汉市地方出台《关于支持国家网络安全人才与创新基地发展的政策措施》投入45亿建设资金,到2017年6月1日正式施行的《中华人民共和国网络安全法》,都是为了网络安全健康、稳健的发展而做出的努力。我们也呼吁作为有社会责任的安全企业、机构、个人积极投入到网络安全建设中来,为国家、国民的网络安全防护贡献一份力量。

3腾讯推动建立中国首个最强互联网安全矩阵

腾讯安全拥有17年能力积累及8亿用户海量大数据运营经验,是中国最为领先的互联网安全产品、安全服务提供者。本着“开放、联合、共享”的理念,将多年积累的能力和数据共享给合作伙伴,致力于互联网安全开放平台建设,提升互联网安全产业链安全能力,提升用户安全意识,共同推进中国互联网安全环境的建设。

目前,腾讯已推动建立中国首个互联网安全矩阵,涵盖基础安全的实验室矩阵、安全产品矩阵、安全大数据平台矩阵,以及互联网安全开放平台矩阵,致力于中国互联网安全新生态建设,开放核心能力和数据,为中国互联网安全生态建设不懈努力。

一、网络安全整体现状扫描

1.1 影响全球的六大网络安全事件,累计影响遍及全球

1.1.1维基解密CIA绝密文件泄露事件

2017年3月7日,维基解密(WiKiLeaks)公布了数千份文档并揭秘了美国中央情报局关于黑客入侵技术的最高机密,根据泄密文档中记录的内容,该组织不仅能够入侵iPhone手机、Android手机和智能电视,而且还可以入侵攻击Windows、Mac和Linux操作系统,甚至可以控制智能汽车发起暗杀活动。外界将此次泄漏事件取名为Vault 7,Vault 7公布的机密文件记录的是美国中央情报局(CIA)所进行的全球性黑客攻击活动。

Vault7包含8761份机密文档及文件,这些文件记录了CIA针对Android以及苹果智能手机所研发的入侵破解技术细节,其中有些技术还可以拿到目标设备的完整控制权。维基解密创始人阿桑奇表示,文件显示出“CIA网络攻击的整体能力”,而维基解密在发布这些文件时声称“CIA的网络军械库已失控”。

1.1.2影子经纪人公开NSA(美国国家安全局)黑客武器库

2017年4月14日,影子经纪人(Shadow Brokers)在steemit.com上公开了一大批NSA(美国国家安全局)“方程式组织” (Equation Group)使用的极具破坏力的黑客工具,其中包括可以远程攻破全球约70%Windows机器的漏洞利用工具。任何人都可以使用NSA的黑客武器攻击别人电脑。其中,有十款工具最容易影响Windows个人用户,包括永恒之蓝、永恒王者、永恒浪漫、永恒协作、翡翠纤维、古怪地鼠、爱斯基摩卷、文雅学者、日食之翼和尊重审查。黑客无需任何操作,只要联网就可以入侵电脑,就像冲击波、震荡波等著名蠕虫一样可以瞬间血洗互联网。

1.1.3 “WannaCry”敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发

2017年5月12日,“WannaCry”(想哭)比特币勒索病毒在全球范围内爆发,本次事件波及150多个国家和地区、10多万的组织和机构以及30多万网民,损失总计高达500多亿人民币。包括医院、教育机构以及政府部门,都无一例外的遭受到了攻击。勒索病毒结合蠕虫的方式进行传播,是此次攻击事件大规模爆发的重要原因。

用户中毒后最明显的症状就是电脑桌面背景被修改,许多文件被加密锁死,病毒弹出提示,要求用户向相关比特币地址转账300美元以便解锁文件。目前安全公司已经找到恢复加密文件的相关办法。

1.1.4 FireBall火球病毒感染超过2.5亿电脑

2017年6月1日,国外安全机构Check Point发报告称在国外爆发了“FireBall”病毒,并声称全球有超过2.5亿台电脑受到感染,其中受影响最大的国家分别是印度(10.1%)和巴西(9.6%)。美国有550万台电脑中招,占2.2%。受感染的企业网络中,印度和巴西分别占到43%和38%,美国则为10.7%。

此恶意软件强行将浏览器主页改为自家网站和搜索引擎,并将搜索结果重定向到谷歌或雅虎。这些伪造的搜索引擎跟踪用户数据,暗中搜集用户信息。而制作此病毒的作者为中国的Rafotech公司,目前该公司网站已无法访问。

1.1.5“暗云”系列病毒升级为“暗云III”再度来袭

2017年6月9日,腾讯电脑管家检测到,早在2015年就被首次发现并拦截查杀的“暗云”病毒死灰复燃,升级为“暗云Ⅲ”,通过下载站大规模传播,同时通过感染磁盘MBR实现开机启动,感染用户数量已达数百万。

升级过后的“暗云Ⅲ”将主要代码存储在云端,可实时动态更新,其功能目前主要有下载推广恶意木马、锁定浏览器主页、篡改推广导航页id等。用户一旦中招,电脑便会沦为“肉鸡”形成“僵尸网络”,并利用DDoS攻击影响搭建在某云服务商平台上的棋牌类网站,导致该网站访问变得异常卡慢。

1.1.6新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”来袭,更具破坏性

2017年6月27日,新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”袭击了欧洲多个国家,包括乌克兰、俄罗斯、印度、西班牙、法国、英国、丹麦等国在内都遭受了攻击,这些国家的政府、银行、企业、电力系统、通讯系统及机场等都受到了不同程序的影响。

此病毒相比“WannaCry”更具破坏性,病毒对电脑的硬盘MFT进行了加密,并修改了MBR,让操作系统无法进入。而根据相关的分析表示,开机界面上留下来的信息即使提供给黑客也是没有办法进行解密的,因此,不得不怀疑此次“Petya”病毒的真正目的。“Petya”更像是在做有目的性的攻击,对目标进行无法修复的破坏性攻击,而并非以敲诈勒索为目的。

1.2《中华人民共和国网络安全法》正式施行

6月1日,我国第一部全面规范网络空间安全管理的基础性法律——《中华人民共和国网络安全法》正式施行,共有七章七十九条,内容十分丰富,具有六大突出亮点。一是明确了网络空间主权的原则;二是明确了网络产品和服务提供者的安全义务;三是明确了网络运营者的安全义务;四是进一步完善了个人信息保护规则;五是建立了关键信息基础设施安全保护制度;六是确立了关键信息基础设施重要数据跨境传输的规则。

同时新法还指出应采取多种方式培养网络安全人才,促进网络安全人才交流。新法的施行标志着我国网络安全从此有法可依,网络空间治理、网络信息传播秩序规范、网络犯罪惩治等即将翻开崭新的一页,对保障我国网络安全、维护国家总体安全具有深远而重大的意义。

1.3中国网民规模相当于欧洲人口总量,安全人才缺口高达95%

1.3.1中国网民规模达7.31亿,相当于欧洲人口总量

截至2016年12月,我国网民规模达7.31亿,普及率达到53.2%,超过全球平均水平3.1个百分点,超过亚洲平均水平7.6个百分点。全年共计新增网民4299万人,增长率为6.2%。中国网民规模已经相当于欧洲人口总量。

1.3.2移动端网民规模持续增长,手机网民占比达95.1%

截至2016年12月,我国手机网民规模达6.95亿,增长率连续三年超过10%。台式电脑、笔记本电脑的使用率均出现下降,手机不断挤占其他个人上网设备的使用。

1.3.3安全人才缺口巨大,高达95%

虽然我国网民数量已居全球首位,但我国从事信息安全行业的人非常少,安全人才及其匮乏。据相关资料显示,近年我国高校教育培养的信息安全专业人才仅3万余人,而网络安全人才总需求量则超过70万人,缺口高达95%。7.1亿中国网民的网络安全问题,已成为行业乃至国家亟待解决的问题。

北京电子科技学院副院长、教育部高等学校信息安全专业教学指导委员会秘书长封化民指出,当前中国重要行业信息系统和信息基础设施需要各类网络信息安全人才还将以每年1.5万人的速度递增,到2020年相关人才需求将增长到140万。但是目前,我国只有126所高校设立了143个网络安全相关专业,仅占1200所理工院校的10%。

二、2017上半年网络病毒威胁形势分析

2.1腾讯安全反病毒实验室PC端病毒拦截超10亿,环比增30%

2.1.1 木马病毒拦截量平均每月近1.7亿次

2017年上半年腾讯安全反病毒实验室统计数据显示,PC端总计已拦截病毒10亿次,病毒总体数量相比2016年下半年腾讯安全反病毒实验室拦截的病毒数增长30%;平均每月拦截木马病毒近1.7亿次。4月、6月为拦截病毒的高峰,拦截量均为1.8亿次。

2017年Q2季度相较于2016年Q2季度,腾讯安全反病毒实验室病毒拦截量同比增长了23.7%。从2014年到2017年Q2季度病毒拦截量来看,恶意程序数量逐年攀升。

2.1.2 PC端广东用户中毒最多,中毒高峰期为上午9-11点

2.1.2.1 上半年共发现2.3亿次用户机器中木马病毒 

2017年上半年腾讯安全反病毒实验室共发现2.3亿次用户机器中木马病毒,相比2016年下半年下降0.5%,平均每月为3,880万中毒机器进行病毒查杀。2017年Q2季度相比Q1季度中毒机器数略有增长。

2017年Q2季度相较于2016年Q2季度报毒用户量同比增长3%。从2015年到2017年Q2季度中毒机器数增长趋势明显,呈逐年递增状态。

2.1.2.2 PC端用户中毒高峰期为上午9点到11点

根据统计,每天中毒高峰时间为上午10点-上午11点,符合企业及普通用户上午9点-上午11点开启电脑处理工作的规律。这段时间用户中毒的病毒类型较多为利用邮件、共享等方式传播的Office文档类宏病毒,说明企业办公安全防护形势依旧严峻。

2.1.2.3 PC端中毒用户省份最多为广东,其中深圳市居首

根据腾讯安全反病毒实验室监测到的中毒PC数量统计,从城市分布来看,互联网较为发达的城市用户中毒情况较重,全国拦截病毒排名第一城市为深圳市,占全部拦截量的3.76%,第二名为成都市,占全部拦截量的3.57%,第三名为广州市,占全部拦截量的3.39%。

从省级地域分布来看,全国PC中毒数量最多的是广东省,占全部拦截量的13.29%,第二名为江苏省,占全部拦截量的7.75%,第三名为山东省,占全部拦截量的7.12%。

2.1.3第一大病毒种类为占比53.8%的木马病毒,勒索病毒新增13.39%

2.1.3.1 PC端第一大种类病毒依然是木马,PE感染型病毒种类少但传播性大

根据腾讯安全反病毒实验室2017年Q2季度获取到的病毒样本分析,从病毒种类上,木马类占总体数量的53.80%,依然是第一大种类病毒。Adware类(广告软件、强制安装、收集用户隐私、弹垃圾信息等)为第二大病毒类,占总体数量的39.02%。后门类为第三大病毒类,占总体数量的5.13%。相比2017年Q1季度,病毒种类并没有太大变化。

从病毒样本的数量上来划分,排在第一位和第二位的仍然是木马类和Adware类,但排在第三位的变成了PE感染型,占总体数量的25.07%。

感染型样本的种类并不多,这与感染型病毒制作难度大、黑客等编程人员需要掌握的技术多、成本高、开发时间久等因素有关。同时,感染型病毒的传播性很大,存活时间相对也比较久,因此,种类少的PE感染型种类在样本传播量级上占了一定的比例,这也是由于感染型病毒具有大范围感染、快速传播的特性。

2.1.3.2敲诈勒索病毒样本数量Q2新增13.39%,第一并不是WannaCry

敲诈勒索病毒是以敲诈勒索钱财为目的,使得感染该木马的计算机用户系统中的指定数据文件被恶意加密,造成用户数据丢失。目前,由国外传进国内的敲诈勒索病毒大多需要支付比特币赎金才能进行解密。由于比特币完全匿名流通,目前技术手段无法追踪敲诈勒索病毒背后的幕后操纵者,这也使得敲诈勒索病毒从2013年后呈现爆发式增长。

敲诈勒索病毒查杀量

根据腾讯安全反病毒实验室检测到的敲诈勒索病毒显示,2017上半年总计已发现敲诈勒索病毒样本数量在300万左右,平均每月检测到敲诈勒索病毒数量近50万个,Q2季度勒索病毒样本数量较Q1季度新增13.39%。5月、6月为拦截病毒的高峰,分别为57万个、53万个。

敲诈勒索病毒种类

根据相关数据分析显示,5月12日爆发的WannaCry敲诈勒索病毒是本季度最活跃、影响最大的病毒。该病毒与其他病毒在传播方式上有显著差异,由于使用了windows系统漏洞,使得该病毒能够在全球范围内传播,成为本季度的热点安全事件。在6月27号一种名为Petya的新型勒索病毒开始在世界各地传播,其敲诈手段与WannaCry相似,但更具有破坏性,直接加密了用户硬盘的MFT并修改了MBR,导致用户无法进入到windows系统。

以上病毒影响虽大,但从样本量上来看,最大的还是带有感染传播方式的PolyRansom病毒。此病毒会感染、加密用户的文件进行敲诈,但由于并没有使用像WannaCry病毒之类的密钥加密方式,而是使用了简单的加密算法,并且算法可逆,杀毒软件可以帮助用户正常恢复文件,因此虽然在样本量上排名第一,但影响并不是很大。此类敲诈病毒占了所有敲诈类病毒的78.84%,由此可见感染型病毒的传播能力之强。

从样本量上来看,除感染型敲诈病毒外,排在第一的是Blocker,占全部敲诈类病毒的36.82%,第二大类是Zerber,占全部敲诈类病毒的23.63%,第三大类才是本季度影响最大的WannaCry敲诈病毒,占全部敲诈类病毒的12.06%。WannaCry病毒量之所以快速上升到了第三的位置,是因为传播手段使用了漏洞传播。

目前的敲诈勒索病毒主要采用以下几种传播方式:

文件感染传播

文件感染传播是利用感染型病毒的特点进行传播,如PolyRansom病毒就是利用感染型病毒的特点,加密用户所有文档后再弹出勒索信息。由于PE类文件被感染后具有了感染其他文件的能力,因此如果此文件被用户携带(U盘、网络上传等)到其他电脑上后运行,就会使得该电脑的文件也被全部感染加密。

网站挂马传播

网站挂马通过是在获取网站或者网站服务器的部分或全部权限后,在网页文件中插入一段恶意代码,这些恶意代码主要包括IE等浏览器漏洞利用代码。用户访问被挂马的页面时,如果系统没有更新恶意代码中利用的漏洞补丁,则会执行恶意代码。

该类病毒也可以利用已知的软件漏洞进行攻击,例如利用Flash、PDF软件漏洞,向网站中加入带有恶意代码的文件,用户使用带有漏洞的软件打开文件后便会执行恶意代码,下载病毒。

利用系统漏洞传播

5月爆发的WannaCry就是利用Windows系统漏洞进行传播,利用系统漏洞传播的特点是被动式中毒,即用户没有去访问恶意站点,没有打开未知文件也会中毒。此种病毒会扫描同网络中存在漏洞的其他PC主机,只要主机没有打上补丁,就会被攻击。

腾讯反病毒实验室提醒大家,及时更新第三方软件补丁,及时更新操作系统补丁,以防被已知漏洞攻击。

邮件附件传播

通过邮件附件进行传播的敲诈勒索病毒通常会伪装成用户需要查看的文档,如信用卡消费清单、产品订单等。附件中会隐藏恶意代码,当用户打开后恶意代码便会开始执行,释放病毒。这类伪装病毒通常会批量发送给企业、高校、医院机构等单位,这些单位中的电脑中通常保存较重要的文件,一旦被恶意加密,支付赎金的可能性远远超过普通个人用户。

网络共享文件传播

一些小范围传播的敲诈勒索病毒会通过共享文件的方式进行传播,病毒作者会将病毒上传到网络共享空间、云盘、QQ群、BBS论坛等地方,以分享的方式发送给特定人群诱骗下载安装。

腾讯反病毒实验室提醒用户,下载软件请到官方正规渠道下载安装,切勿下载未知程序,如需要使用未知来源的程序,可提前安装腾讯电脑管家进行安全扫描。

2.2 移动端共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次,手机染毒用户数超1亿

2.2.1移动端病毒包增长趋势减缓,但总数仍有899万

2017年上半年腾讯手机管家截获Android新增病毒包总数达899万,相较2016年上半年有小幅度下降,但总数仍十分巨大。

2.2.2 移动端广东用户中毒最多,染毒手机用户数同比减少45.67%

2.2.2.1上半年腾讯手机管家共查杀Android病毒6.93亿次

在病毒感染用户数大幅下降的情况下,2017年上半年腾讯手机管家查杀病毒次数却达到6.93亿次,同比增长124.24%,总数是2016年上半年的一倍有余。恶意程序和木马病毒的制作成本降低、病毒传播渠道多样化是造成这一现象的重要因素。

除6月以外,2017年上半年每月查杀病毒次数均超过1亿次,其中1月份查杀次数更高达1.36亿次,几乎与2014年上半年1.4亿的查杀次数持平。

2.2.2.2 2017年上半年染毒手机用户数超1亿 

2017年上半年病毒感染用户数为1.09亿,同比减少45.67%,与2015年、2016年上半年相比皆有所下降。

2017年1月单月感染用户数达到2166万,为上半年最高纪录,此后感染用户数开始缓慢下降。

2.2.2.3 移动端中毒用户数量广东居首

在感染手机病毒的用户地域分布方面,广东排名第一,占比高达11.41%。

2.2.3流氓行为和资源占比超80%,二维码最易中毒

2.2.3.1移动端病毒中流氓行为和资费消耗占比超80%

2017年上半年手机病毒类型比例中,流氓行为和资费消耗占比最高,以44.59%和44.44%的比例分列一、二位。排名第三的隐私获取同样占据了5.85%,诱骗欺诈、恶意扣费、远程控制、系统破坏和恶意传播占比分别为1.94%、1.55%、0.80%、0.74%和0.08%。

流氓行为是指病毒私自执行具有流氓属性的恶意行为。如近期因WannaCry病毒而再次引起关注的手机锁屏勒索病毒就带有流氓行为。这类病毒主要通过论坛贴吧等途径进行扩散,制毒者通常会利用外挂、免费、刷钻、红包等字眼对木马病毒进行包装,诱导用户下载安装。病毒完成安装后就会强制锁定手机屏幕,迫使受害者不得不联系制毒者付款,才能使设备恢复正常。

不管是电脑还是手机,带有流氓行为的勒索病毒给用户带来的损失都是难以估量的,如果不慎中毒,不仅会造成财产损失,还将导致重要资料丢失,因此用户应谨慎防范。

资费消耗也是常见的手机病毒类型,此类病毒通常在用户不知情或未授权的情况下,通过发送短信、频繁连接网络等方式,导致用户资费损失。部分恶意推广病毒以帮助第三方广告商提高点击量为目的,通过诱导用户下载安装病毒,获取手机Root权限,执行下载恶意广告软件。这些软件会不断推送各种弹窗广告,影响用户手机体验,更甚者还会泄露用户隐私信息、盗走网银账户等,造成严重的人身及财产安全。

感染了全球超3600万安卓设备的恶意广告点击软件“Judy”就属于资费消耗类手机病毒。该恶意软件暗藏于一款韩国手游中,在完成下载安装后,会将感染设备的信息发送到目标页面,并在后台自动下载恶意代码并访问广告链接,盗刷用户流量,给用户造成资费消耗。

2.2.3.2 二维码、软件捆绑是移动病毒主要渠道来源

手机病毒渠道来源主要有七大类,分别是二维码、软件捆绑、电子市场、网盘传播、手机资源站、ROM内置和手机论坛。病毒渠道入口的分散化与多元化,也进一步增加了用户染毒的几率与风险。

2017年上半年,二维码成为了主流病毒渠道来源,占比高达20.80%。二维码在各大领域的普及让越来越多的用户养成了随手扫码的习惯,制毒者也因此加大针对二维码渠道的病毒包投放比例。部分被嵌入病毒的二维码,只要一扫就会自动下载恶意病毒,轻则造成手机中毒,重则导致个人隐私信息泄露,造成财产损失等。

三、反骚扰诈骗效果显著,但用户损失形势严峻

3.1上半年垃圾短信数超5.86亿条,非法贷款类超50%

3.1.1 2017年上半年垃圾短信持续增长 总数接近6亿

较低的传播成本及其背后存在的巨大利益链,导致垃圾短信一直难以得到有效整治,用户举报数也是有增无减。2017年上半年,腾讯手机管家共收到用户举报垃圾短信数5.86亿条,同比增长40.69%,是2014年上半年的2倍有余。

3.1.2用户举报垃圾短信最多的省份为广东,最多的城市为深圳

在垃圾短信的地域省份分布方面,用户举报垃圾短信最多的前三省份分别为广东、江苏和山东,占比分别为12.91%、6.98%和5.70%。此外河南、浙江、四川、河北、北京、湖南和上海同样位列前十。这些省份或直辖市普遍分布在东部沿海和中部地区,人口密集和经济发达是它们最大的共同点,这也为诈骗分子批量发送垃圾短信并牟取利益创造了有利条件。

城市方面,2017年上半年深圳用户共举报垃圾短信2334万条(占比3.98%),成都、广州和苏州分列二至四位,垃圾短信举报数均为千万级别。

3.1.3 2017年上半年常见的诈骗短信类型

虽然诈骗短信举报量整体呈现下降趋势,但其手段的多样化和隐秘性却让诈骗短信的危害性始终高居不下。据腾讯手机管家监测到的2857万条诈骗短信显示,非法贷款、网购、病毒网址、恶意网址和伪基站是占比最高的几大诈骗短信类型。

其中非法贷款类诈骗短信一家独大,占比超过50%。在现代人“有房万事足”和依靠买房寻求安全感的社会大背景下,贷款买房成为了一大社会需求。骗子也紧跟这一社会痛点,大量发送非法贷款短信,借此牟利。

3.2骚扰电话用户标记量达2.35亿次,同比下降27.12%

3.2.1 2017年上半年用户共标记骚扰电话2.35亿次 同比下降27.12%

在经历了2015年上半年的爆发式增长后,2016年上半年开始,骚扰电话标记数呈现逐年下降趋势,2017年上半年骚扰电话标记总数为2.35亿次,相较2016年上半年同比下降27.12%。

3.2.2 2017年上半年骚扰电话超过50%为响一声

用户标记的骚扰电话类型主要分为5大类。其中,响一声排名第一,占比超过50%。这类骚扰电话虽然不会对用户造成实质性危害,但仍会影响手机使用,干扰用户。诈骗电话占比15.14%,排名第二,此外广告推销、房产中介和保险理财等也占据了一定比例。

3.2.3 骚扰电话中索要验证码占比最高

据腾讯手机管家用户主动上报的骚扰电话恶意线索情况显示,索要验证码、假冒领导、转账、网购和犯法是最常见的关键词。其中索要验证码占比最高,将近24.74%的骚扰电话中,骗子会通过各种手段索要验证码,而验证码作为重要的隐私信息,一旦泄露,很容易会造成财产损失。

3.2.4 诈骗电话标记数同比下降59.68%,北京最多

在用户已标记的2.35亿次骚扰电话中,诈骗类电话占比虽远不及响一声多,但其造成的实质性危害却最大。基于腾讯手机管家用户诈骗电话标记相关数据显示,2017年上半年诈骗电话标记数同比下降59.68%,总数为3559万。

这些诈骗电话针对的目标地域较为明确,以东部沿海经济发达地区与内陆中心省份为主。城市方面,北京是诈骗电话标记数最多的城市,总数达182.6万。深圳和广州分别以141.8万和125.7万的标记数紧随其后。上海、西安、长沙、成都、杭州、重庆和武汉则分列第四至十位。

3.3 恶意网址拦截次数高达478亿,色情欺诈网站居首

3.3.1 2017年上半年检出恶意网址数量超1.83亿

2017年上半年,腾讯安全在PC和移动端共计检测出恶意网址数量超过1.83亿,整体呈现波动上升趋势。其中6月份检测出3575万个恶意网址,为上半年最高纪录,4月份则最低,检测数量为2553万。

3.3.2色情欺诈网站仍是恶意网址主要作案手段

在有效检测恶意网址的同时,2017年上半年腾讯安全在PC和移动端共拦截恶意网址高达478亿次,相当于每天拦截2.65亿次。这一庞大数据也进一步说明了互联网安全的严峻形势。

在腾讯安全拦截的恶意网址中,色情欺诈网站、博彩网站、信息诈骗、恶意文件、虚假广告和钓鱼欺诈网站是传播最广泛的六大类恶意网址。其中色情欺诈网站占据半壁江山,占比为51.98%,色情欺诈网站会内嵌欺诈广告或诱骗用户进行在线支付。恶意网址也会内嵌在诈骗短信中进行传播,以增加迷惑性,因此用户在看到短信中的网址时,应自觉提高警惕性,切记不要随便点击。

3.4 iOS骚扰及诈骗电话降幅约35%,日历广告成新的骚扰

3.4.1 iOS骚扰电话和诈骗电话出现较大幅度下降

2016年9月,腾讯手机管家携手苹果公司推出iOS10全新版本,首次增加拦截骚扰和诈骗电话功能,有效缓解了iOS用户倍受困扰的骚扰电话难题。数据显示,2017年上半年iOS用户共标记骚扰电话1449.2万次,诈骗电话219.6万次。

从整体趋势上看,上半年iOS骚扰电话标记数呈现波动下降趋势,1月标记数最高,为319.5万次,4月则只有202万次,为上半年最低峰。相较而言,诈骗电话整体趋势则更加稳定。从以上各项数据可以看出,2017年上半年骚扰电话和诈骗电话都出现了较大幅度的下降,这离不开相关部门、手机运营商和手机用户的共同努力。

3.4.2日历广告成苹果手机的第三大骚扰

垃圾信息、骚扰电话、日历广告逐渐成为iPhone用户的主要骚扰源头。其中,日历广告骚扰问题日益严重。61.1%的用户遭遇过日历广告,其中博彩广告、房地产广告、打车软件广告居前三。

3.5 腾讯麒麟系统打击伪基站保护1.5亿人次

3.5.1腾讯麒麟系统共拦截2.3亿条诈骗短信,保护1.5亿人次

2017年上半年度,腾讯麒麟伪基站实时定位系统为全国用户拦截2.3亿条伪基站诈骗短信,总计影响人数达1.5亿人次。

3.5.2伪基站地域特征:川陕京鄂湘五省最多

从地域上看,腾讯麒麟为四川、陕西、北京、湖北、湖南用户拦截的诈骗短信数量最多,这5个省级行政区拦截的诈骗短信数量超过全国总量50%以上。

从城市来看,拦截诈骗短信数量Top 10的城市如北京、成都、西安等几乎均为省会城市或经济较发达城市,由于人口密集、城市居民收入较高,被伪基站诈骗团伙列入重点攻击对象。

3.5.3 伪基站作案时间特征:工作时间最频繁

从作案时间来看,伪基站诈骗短信发送之间集中在上午9时至下午19时,其中又以上午10时至12时、下午15时至18时为两个高峰。不难看出,诈骗短信高峰期与每日工作时段相合。

3.5.4内容特征:工商银行、中国移动最“躺枪”

伪基站短信类型中,积分兑换、账户异常和银行信用卡提额类则占比接近90%。这三类常与运营商、银行有关,常以积分到期清零、信用卡提额、账户实名、异常等理由进行诈骗。

腾讯麒麟拦截的伪基站仿冒端口中,仿冒工商银行的诈骗短信最多(高达52%),Top 5仿冒端口除中农工建四大银行,还有运营商中国移动。不难看出,这些“躺枪”的企业是因为用户群体巨大,业务模式中短信息又尤为重要,所以成为伪基站诈骗团伙主要模拟的发送对象。

伪基站短信触达用户的运营商分布中,中国移动占比74%,位居其后是中国电信(16%)、中国联通(10%)。

四、2017年上半年安全人才建设进展及成果

4.1《网络安全法》促进对人才的综合性培养

2017年6月1日起施行的《网络安全法》首次以法律条款的形式对网络空间安全领域的人才问题进行规定,不仅体现出国家对网络人才的重视,更是为国务院以及各地方出台网络安全人才培养的细则提供了最高位阶的法律依据。

《网络安全法》规定:国家支持企业和高等学校、职业学校等教育培训机构开展网络安全相关教育与培训,采取多种方式培养网络安全人才,促进网络安全人才交流。网络安全人才不仅包括技术人才,也包括管理人才。当前网络安全不仅是技术的较量,更是理念、规则的较量,熟悉国际规则、大国关系的网络安全人才在未来的网络空间竞争中能够发挥更大的作用。因此,网络安全人才的培养不仅要培养传统型人才,更要立足国内,放眼全球,培养懂得网络外交的综合性人才。

同时,条款中规定的“网络安全人才的交流”,体现了我国对于人才培养机制的开放创新理念。人才的培养离不开与先进国家的学术研讨和技术交流,各企业机构应当吸引国外的高端技术人才,同时加快我国顶尖人才的培养。

4.2 安全人才培养“腾讯模式”:打造人才闭环

作为互联网安全开放平台的倡导者,腾讯一直将“网络安全”当作企业顶层设计的重要组成部分和战略性工程。在持续关注和支持安全人才选拔和培养的过程中,腾讯目前已经逐渐在校园招聘、社会招聘、内部人才的培训晋升、薪酬福利等方面摸索出一套安全人才选拔制度;同时,通过持续打造顶级安全赛事和推动人才培养计划,腾讯已经逐渐形成一套成熟、完善,并可供社会借鉴的安全人才培养体系。

腾讯在2017年联合各方发起了腾讯信息安全争霸赛(TCTF),通过国际化的赛制发掘人才、通过优质辅导机制和专业的导师队伍培养人才以及通过搭建企业与高校的桥梁输送人才。同时,腾讯通过打造“百人计划”,构建互联网安全人才培养的闭环,通过TCTF大赛的层层比赛考试,选拔出最具潜力的百名安全人才,并通过后续持续培养,打造互联网安全领域复合型、领军型人才。

腾讯希望以TCTF作为专业安全人才培养平台在企业与高校间搭建起桥梁,形成集选拔、培养、输送于一体的人才闭环,为中国安全新生力量提供多维的成长环境,进一步推动我国网络安全事业发展。

4.3腾讯安全联合实验室成立一周年:护航六大互联网关键领域

2016年7月,腾讯安全整合旗下实验室资源,成立国内首个互联网实验室矩阵——腾讯安全联合实验室,旗下涵盖包括科恩实验室、玄武实验室、湛泸实验室、云鼎实验室、反病毒实验室、反诈骗实验室、移动安全实验室在内的七大实验室。实验室专注安全技术研究及安全攻防体系搭建,安全防范和保障范围覆盖了连接、系统、应用、信息、设备及云,触达六大互联网关键领域。

2016年,腾讯安全联合实验室为谷歌、微软、苹果、adobe等国际厂商共计挖掘269个漏洞,位居国内第一。另外,凭借“全球首次远程无物理接触方式入侵特斯拉汽车”研究成果,腾讯安全联合实验室科恩实验室入选“特斯拉安全研究员名人堂”,并获特斯拉CEO马斯克的亲笔致谢。

在举国关注的反诈骗领域,腾讯安全联合实验室中的反诈骗实验室基于多年来在反诈骗领域的深耕研究,已经形成一整套基于AI创新+能力开放的反欺诈评价新标准,形成有效的止损模式。在AI创新和能力开放的双轮驱动下,实验室目前已推出鹰眼反电话诈骗系统、麒麟伪基站实时定位系统、神荼反钓鱼系统、神侦资金流查控系统、神羊情报分析平台五大系统,并通过腾讯云的SaaS服务开放给有需要的政府单位、企业等,帮助用户防范互联网诈骗。

五、安全热点事件盘点

5.1 勒索病毒集中爆发及病毒详解

5.1.1 WannaCry敲诈勒索病毒5月12日在全球爆发

事件背景:

5月12日,WannaCry(想哭)比特币勒索病毒让在全球范围内爆发。据腾讯安全反病毒实验室安全研究人员分析发现,此次勒索事件与以往相比最大的区别在于,勒索病毒结合了蠕虫的方式进行传播。由于在NSA泄漏的文件中,WannaCry传播方式的漏洞利用代码被称为“EternalBlue”,所以也有的报道称此次攻击为“永恒之蓝”。

病毒详解:

勒索病毒近两年的爆发,很大程度上与加密算法的日益完善有关。密码学及算法的不断更新保证了我们日常网络中数据传输和保存的安全性。遗憾的是,勒索病毒的作者也利用了这个特性,使得我们虽然知道了木马的算法,但由于不知道作者使用的密钥,也就没有办法恢复被恶意加密的文件。

加密算法通常分为对称加密算法和非对称加密算法两大类。这两类算法在勒索病毒中都被使用过。

对称加密算法的加密和解密使用的是完全相同的密钥,特点是运算速度较快,但是单独使用此类算法时,密钥必须使用某种方法与服务器进行交换,在这个过程中存在被记录和泄漏的风险。勒索病毒常用的对称加密算法包括AES算法和RC4算法。

非对称加密算法也被称为公钥加密算法,它可以使用公开的密钥对信息进行加密,而只有私钥的所有者才可以解密,因此只要分发公钥并保存好私钥,就可以保证加密后的数据不被破解。与对称加密相比,非对称加密算法的运算速度通常较慢。勒索病毒常用的非对称加密算法包括RSA算法和ECC算法。

通常,勒索病毒会将这两大类加密算法结合起来使用,既可以迅速完成对整个电脑大量文件的加密,又能保证作者手中的私钥不被泄漏。

5.1.2 新一轮勒索病毒“Petya”来袭,更具破坏性

事件背景: 

6月27日新一轮勒索病毒Petya袭击了欧洲多个国家。此病毒相比WannaCry更具破坏性。病毒对电脑的硬盘MFT进行了加密,并修改了MBR,让操作系统无法进入。相比此前,Petya更像是有目的性的攻击,而并非简单的敲诈勒索。腾讯哈勃分析系统已经能够识别此病毒并判定为高度风险,利用腾讯电脑管家可查杀该病毒。

病毒详解:

Petya勒索病毒变种中毒后会扫描内网的机器,通过永恒之蓝漏洞自传播,达到快速传播的目的。有国外安全研究人员认为,Petya勒索病毒变种会通过邮箱附件传播,利用携带漏洞的DOC文档进行攻击。中毒后,病毒会修改系统的MBR引导扇区,当电脑重启时,病毒代码会在Windows操作系统之前接管电脑,执行加密等恶意操作。电脑重启后,会显示一个伪装的界面,此界面实际上是病毒显示的,界面上假称正在进行磁盘扫描,实际上正在对磁盘数据进行加密操作。

5.1.3勒索病毒腾讯安全应对方案

针对勒索病毒集中爆发,腾讯安全紧急发布应对方案,针对事前防范、事中病毒清理和事后文件恢复三种情形,向广大用户提出处理建议:

事前预防

1.利用电脑管家的勒索病毒免疫工具,自动化安装系统补丁和端口屏蔽,或手动下载、安装。

2.备份数据,安装安全软件,开启防护。

a)对相关重要文件采用离线备份(即使用U盘等方式)等方式进行备份;

b)利用部分电脑带有的系统还原功能,在未遭受攻击之前设置系统还原点,遭受攻击之后可以还原系统,防御文件加密;

c)安装腾讯电脑管家,开启实时防护,避免遭受攻击;

d)采用电脑管家的文档守护者进行文件的备份、防护。

3.建立灭活域名实现免疫。

根据对已有样本分析,勒索软件存在触发机制,如果可以成功访问指定链接,电脑便会在中了勒索病毒后直接退出,便不会进行文件加密。

a)普通用户在可以联网状态下,保证对该网址的可访问,则可以避免在遭受攻击后避免被加密(仅限于已知勒索病毒);

b)企业用户可以通过在内网搭建Web Server,然后通过内网DNS的方式将域名解析到Web Server IP的方式来实现免疫;通过该域名的访问情况也可以监控内网病毒感染的情况。

事中病毒清理

1.拔掉网线等方式隔离已遭受攻击电脑,避免感染其他机器。

2.利用电脑管家的杀毒功能直接查杀勒索软件,直接进行扫描清理(已隔离的机器可以通过U盘等方式下载离线包安装)。

3.备份相关数据后直接进行系统重装。

事后文件恢复

1.勒索软件带有恢复部分加密文件的功能,可以直接通过勒索软件恢复部分文件;或直接点击勒索软件界面上的”Decrypt”可弹出恢复窗口,恢复列表中文件。

2.可以使用第三方数据恢复工具尝试数据恢复,云上用户可直接联系腾讯安全云鼎实验室协助处理。

5.2 DDOS攻击不断,暗云变种频繁来袭

事件背景:

6月9日,一场2017年以来最大规模的DDoS网络攻击活动席卷全国,腾讯安全云鼎实验室发布溯源分析报告,通过对攻击源机器进行分析,工程师在机器中发现暗云Ⅲ的变种。通过对流量、内存DUMP数据等内容进行分析,腾讯云鼎实验室确定本次超大规模DDoS攻击由“暗云”黑客团伙发起。升级过后的“暗云III”将主要代码存储在云端,可实时动态更新。

病毒详解:

“暗云”系列木马自2015年初被腾讯反病毒实验室首次捕获并查杀,至今已有两年多。在这两年多时间里,该木马不断更新迭代,持续对抗升级。

从今年4月开始,该木马卷土重来,再次爆发,本次爆发的暗云木马相比之前的版本有比较明显的晋级特征,因此我们将其命名为暗云Ⅲ。暗云Ⅲ与之前版本相比有以下特点和区别:

第一、更加隐蔽,暗云Ⅲ依旧是无文件无注册表,与暗云Ⅱ相比,取消了多个内核钩子,取消了对象劫持,变得更加隐蔽,即使专业人员,也难以发现其踪迹。

第二、兼容性,由于该木马主要通过挂钩磁盘驱动器的StartIO来实现隐藏和保护病毒MBR,此类钩子位于内核很底层,不同类型、品牌的硬盘所需要的 hook点不一样,此版本木马增加了更多判断代码,能够感染市面上的绝大多数系统和硬盘。

第三、针对性对抗安全软件,对安全厂商的“急救箱”类工具做专门对抗,通过设备名占坑的方式试图阻止某些工具的加载运行。

5.3上半年重点诈骗类案件盘点

5.3.1 8.19徐玉玉电信诈骗案宣判

2016年8月,刚刚被南京邮电大学的徐玉玉,接到了一通诈骗电话,对方以奖学金的名义,骗走徐玉玉上大学的费用9900元。报案后的徐玉玉情绪异常,导致心源性猝死,不幸离世,引发社会对电信诈骗的空前关注。此案于2017年7月19日公开宣判,主犯陈文辉被判处无期徒刑,没收个人全部财产。其他六名被告人被判15年到3年不等的有期徒刑并处罚金。这一判决,向社会传递了法院依法从严惩处电信网络诈骗犯罪的鲜明态度。

防范建议:徐玉玉的惨剧足够引起公众的警惕。互联网时代,每个人的信息流转都在线上通过不同的渠道流转,给了不法分子可乘之机。面对如此环境,我们更应该对陌生电话和短信保持警觉。哪怕对方能说出个人精确的信息,都不能亲信,任何事件都需要经由可靠渠道多方验证,以保护自身安全。

5.3.2河南特大电信诈骗案:谎称卖高考答案骗近百考生300万元

2017年6月,河南鹤壁市警方破获了这起特大电信诈骗案,抓获犯罪嫌疑人两人,缴获作案用银行卡70余张。这些犯罪嫌疑人假借售卖高考试题答案的方式,通过网络对高考考生实施诈骗。据警方初步调查,诈骗受害人累计超过3500余人,涉案金额超过300万元。

防范建议:每年高考录取期间,都是高考诈骗案件高发的时间段。考生和家长需要谨防一切所谓“内部指标”、虚假查分网址、虚假查询录取结果等以高考招生为名的各种诈骗手段,切勿抱有侥幸心理,上当受骗。

5.3.3武汉女教师遭遇连环电信诈骗 7个月被骗253万

武汉某中学教师陈女士,名校硕士学历,2017年5月向警方报警遭遇诈骗。据了解,2016年11月,陈老师接到一陌生来电,称其社保卡被盗刷,并直接将电话转至“湖南省公安厅”。接电话的“民警“称陈女士牵涉到一桩诈骗洗钱案,为“洗刷罪名”,陈女士半年时间累计向对方转账253万,为此欠下债务达300多万。目前案件仍在侦办中。

防范建议:民众需要警惕陌生电话和短信。当接到疑似诈骗电话或短信时,要注意核实对方身份,尤其是对方要求向指定账户汇款时,不要轻易汇款,应第一时间告知家属商量解决或咨询公安机关;。公安部门不可能提供安全账户,更不会指导您转账、设密码。

六、安全防范专家建议

在电脑使用中,设置安全系数高的密码。使用不会被暴力攻击轻易猜到的密码,是提高安全性的有效办法。暴力攻击是攻击者使用自动化系统来猜测密码。避免使用从字典中能找到的单词,不要使用纯数字密码;使用包含特殊字符和空格,同时使用大小写字母,这种密码破解起来比使用母亲的名字或生日作为密码要困难的多。另外,密码长度每增加一位,密码字符构成的组合就会成倍数增加,因此长密码会更加安全。

定期升级软件,更新安全补丁。很多情况下,在安装部署生产性应用软件之前,对系统进行补丁测试工作是至关重要的,最终安全补丁必须安装到个人电脑的系统中。如果很长时间没有进行安全升级,可能会导致计算机非常容易成为不道德黑客的攻击目标。因此,不要把软件安装在长期没有进行安全补丁更新的计算机上。

通过备份重要文档,保护你的数据安全。备份你的数据,这是你可以保护自己在面对灾难的时候把损失降到最低的重要方法之一。如果数据量巨大,日常可以将数据保存至硬盘上。但更便捷的方式,可以利用腾讯电脑管家一类的安全防护软件,随时将数据自动化备份至本地,也可以存储至云端,最大化保证了数据安全。

不要轻易信任外部网络,开放性网络风险巨大。在一个开放的无线网络中,例如在具有无线网络的咖啡店中,网络风险会成倍增长,这个理念是非常重要的。这并非意味着在一些非信任的外部网络中不能使用无线网络,而是要时刻保持对用网安全的谨慎和警惕。关键是,用户必须通过自己的系统来确保安全,不要相信外部网络和自己的私有网络一样安全。

提高对陌生电话、短信的警惕性,勿轻信其中内容。诈骗短信形式多样化,各种新型短信木马泛滥使得通过诱惑性的短信自带病毒链接的支付类、隐私窃取类病毒迅速增长。对于“高考查分”、“开学通知”、“考试成绩单”、“户籍管理”、“手机实名制”、“录像视频”和“交通违章”等短信中内嵌的网址链接,应时刻提高警惕,切勿随意点击。对于陌生电话、短信应该提高警惕性和戒心,不要轻信对方所说的任何内容,必要时要对其身份信息进行核实。

保护个人隐私信息,不轻易向他人透露个人信息。个人账号、密码、身份证信息等属于关键个人隐私信息,因此绝对不能随意在任何陌生短信、电话进行透露。收到陌生短信、电话询问个人隐私时,请务必提高警惕。在社交平台发布消息时,谨防通过照片、截图等形式泄露重要隐私信息。不随意丢弃含有个人信息的机票、车票或快递单据,以防个人信息被窃取。

手机用户应养成使用安全软件来保护手机安全的良好习惯。手机用户可下载安装如腾讯手机管家一类的手机安全软件,定期给手机进行体检和病毒查杀,并及时更新病毒库。针对最新流行且难以清除的病毒或者漏洞,可下载专杀工具及时查杀或修复。同时开启腾讯手机管家骚扰拦截功能,可有效拦截诈骗电话、短信,提升手机安全。

Referring URL:

https://guanjia.qq.com/news/n1/2039.html

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures : China. DPRK, Russia, US // 中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures :China. DPRK, Russia, US //

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

China ‘s Armed Forces Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Overview of China ‘s Armed Forces

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

 

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

 

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Description: blue font for the deputy military units. Xinjiang Military Region is the only deputy deputy military district, under the Lanzhou Military Region.

American military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

US military command system description
  

The president of the United States is the commander in chief of the armed forces and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The president, through the Ministry of Defense leadership and command of the army, emergency can be leapfrog command. The strategic nuclear forces are controlled by the president at all times.
  

The National Security Council is the supreme defense decision-making advisory body. Its legal members include the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Defense Minister. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military adviser to the National Security Council. The Director of the CIA is the National Security Council’s statutory intelligence adviser. The daily work of the National Security Council is the responsibility of the President’s National Security Adviser (Consultant).
  

The Ministry of Defense is the supreme military organ that leads and directs the US Armed Forces, is responsible for the defense policy, the formulation and implementation of the plan, and the management of the defense affairs, and through the joint meeting of the Chief of Staff to carry out operational command. It consists of the Ministry of Defense headquarters system, the military system and operational command system composed of three parts.
  

Department of Defense Department of the system is mainly responsible for the policy, finance, military and other military affairs, as well as the coordination between the military. Under the policy, procurement and technical, personnel and combat readiness, auditing and finance, directing communication control and intelligence, legislation, logistics affairs, intelligence supervision, administration, public affairs, supervision, combat test and evaluation departments, respectively, by the Deputy Defense Minister , Assistant defense minister, director, director or department head and other supervisors.
  

The military system consists of the Ministry of War, the Air Force Department and the Department of the Navy three military (military department). The military departments are responsible for the administration of the service, education and training, weapons and equipment development and procurement and logistical support and other duties, and the responsibility to warfare to the joint operations headquarters to provide combat troops and the corresponding service and logistical support, but no combat Command. The military minister is a civilian officer, under which he is the chief of staff (Navy for the combat minister). The chief of staff (naval combat minister) is the highest military officer of the service.
  

The operational command system refers to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Command and Special Command affiliated to it. The Joint Chiefs of Staff is both the President, the Minister of Defense, the Military Advisory Body of the National Security Council, and the Military Commander of the President and the Minister of Defense to issue operational orders to the Joint Command and Special Command. In a sense, the Department of Defense is the military and government departments of the President, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the President’s military order.

The former Soviet Union military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Russian military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

North Korea ‘s Military Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中国武装力量指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

中国武装力量总览

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

说明:兰色字体为副大军区单位。新疆军区是唯一一个副大军区编制,隶属兰州军区。

美国军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

美国军事指挥系统说明
  

美国总统是武装部队总司令,全军最高统帅。总统通过国防部领导和指挥全军,紧急情况下可越级指挥。战略核力量不论何时都由总统指挥控制。
  

国家安全委员会是最高防务决策咨询机构。其法定成员包括总统、副总统、国务卿、国防部长。参谋长联席会议主席是国家安全委员会法定军事顾问,中央情报局局长是国家安全委员会法定情报顾问。国家安全委员会日常工作由总统国家安全事务助理(顾问)负责。
  

国防部是总统领导与指挥美国武装力量的最高军事机关,负责防务政策、计划的制定和实施,以及国防事务管理,并通过参谋长联席会议对全军实施作战指挥。它由国防部本部系统、军事部系统和作战指挥系统三部分组成。
  

国防部本部系统主要负责政策、财政、军务等全军性事务,以及各军事部间的协调。下设政策、采购与技术、人事与战备、审计与财务、指挥通信控制与情报、立法、后勤事务、情报监督、行政管理、公共事务、监察、作战试验与评估等部门,分别由副国防部长、助理国防部长、主任、局长或部门长等主管。
  

军事部系统包括陆军部、空军部和海军部3个军事部(军种部)。各军事部负责本军种的行政管理、教育训练、武器装备研制和采购及后勤保障等事务,并有责任在战时向各联合作战司令部提供作战部队及相应的勤务和后勤支援,但无作战指挥权。军事部长为文官,在其下设军种参谋长(海军为作战部长)。军种参谋长(海军作战部长)是本军种最高军事长官。
  

作战指挥系统指参谋长联席会议及隶属于它的各联合司令部、特种司令部。参谋长联席会议既是总统、国防部长、国家安全委员会的军事咨询机构,也是总统和国防部长向联合司令部和特种司令部发布作战命令的军事指挥机关。从某种意义上讲,国防部是总统的军政部门,而参谋长联席会议是总统的军令部门。

前苏联军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

俄罗斯军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

朝鲜军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

中國政府要求公開評論保護中國關鍵基礎設施 // Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure

中國政府要求公開評論保護中國關鍵基礎設施

Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure

Notice of the National Internet Information Office on the Public Opinion on the Protection of Key Information Infrastructure Security Regulations (Draft for Soliciting Opinions)

    In order to ensure the security of key information infrastructure, according to the “Internet Security Law of the People’s Republic of China”, we will draft the “Key Information Infrastructure Safety Protection Regulations (draft)” with the relevant departments. The relevant units and people of all walks of life may submit their views by August 10, 2017 by:

First, by mail to the views sent to: Xicheng District, Beijing Chegongzhuang Street on the 11th National Internet Information Office Network Security Coordination Bureau, Zip code 100044, and in the envelope marked “comments”.

Second, by e-mail to: security@cac.gov.cn.

 

Annex: Key information infrastructure security regulations (draft)

 

National Internet Information Office

 July 10, 2017

Key information infrastructure security regulations

(Draft)

Chapter 1 General Provisions

    Article 1 These Regulations are enacted in accordance with the Network Security Law of the People’s Republic of China in order to ensure the safety of key information infrastructures.

Article 2 These Regulations shall apply to the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and use of key information infrastructures within the territory of the People’s Republic of China and the protection of key information infrastructures.

Article 3 The key information infrastructure security protection adhere to the top design, overall protection, coordination, division of labor is responsible for the principle, give full play to the role of the main operation, the active participation of all parties to jointly protect the key information infrastructure security.

Article 4 The competent department of national industry or the supervisory department shall be responsible for guiding and supervising the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in the field in accordance with the division of responsibilities stipulated by the State Council.

State network letter department is responsible for coordinating the key information infrastructure security protection and related supervision and management work. The State Council public security, national security, state secrecy administration, national password management and other departments within their respective responsibilities are responsible for the relevant network security protection and supervision and management work.

The relevant departments of the local people’s governments at or above the county level shall carry out the key information infrastructure safety protection work in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State.

Article 5 The operator of the key information infrastructure (hereinafter referred to as the operator) shall bear the responsibility for the security of the key information infrastructure of the unit, perform the obligation of network security protection, accept the government and social supervision, and bear social responsibility.

The country encourages network operators outside key information infrastructures to participate voluntarily in critical information infrastructure protection systems.

Article 6 Key information infrastructure In the network security level protection system, based on the implementation of key protection.

Article 7 Any person or organization who discovers the safety of the infrastructure of the critical information infrastructure shall have the right to report to the department of the letter, telecommunications, public security and industry supervisors or supervisors.

The department that receives the report shall handle it in a timely manner and if it does not belong to the duties of the department, it shall promptly transfer the department to be handled.

The relevant departments shall keep the relevant information of the whistleblower and protect the legitimate rights and interests of the whistleblower.

 

Chapter II Support and Safeguard

    Article 8 The State shall take measures to monitor, defend and dispose of network security risks and threats arising from the territory of the People ‘s Republic of China, protect the critical information infrastructure from attack, intrusion, interference and destruction, and punish the criminal activities of the Internet according to law.

Article 9 The State shall formulate policies such as industry, finance, taxation, finance and personnel, support the innovation of key information infrastructure related technologies, products and services, promote safe and reliable network products and services, train and select network security personnel, and improve key information The level of safety of the infrastructure.

Article 10 The State shall establish and improve the network security standard system and use standard guidance to standardize the work of key information infrastructure security protection.

Article 11 The people ‘s governments at or above the municipal level shall incorporate the key information infrastructure security protection into the overall planning of the economic and social development of the district, increase the investment and carry out the evaluation and evaluation of the work performance.

Article 12 The State encourages government departments, operators, scientific research institutions, network security services, industry organizations, network products and service providers to carry out key information infrastructure security cooperation.

Article 13 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall set up or clarify the institutions and personnel who are responsible for the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in this field, and compile and organize the implementation of the industry, the network security planning in the field, and establish a sound work Funding protection mechanism and supervise the implementation.

Article 14 Energy, telecommunications, transportation and other industries shall provide key support and support for power supply, network communication, transportation and other aspects of emergency management and network function restoration of key information infrastructure network security incidents.

Article 15 Public security organs and other departments shall, according to law, investigate and punish illegal and criminal activities against and use key information infrastructures.

Article 16 Any individual or organization shall not engage in any of the following activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure:

(I) attacks, intrusion, interference, and destruction of critical information infrastructures;

(B) illegally obtaining, selling or unauthorized access to information such as technical information that may be used exclusively for the safety of critical information infrastructures;

(Iii) unauthorized penetration of critical information infrastructures, aggressive scanning detection;

(D) knowing that others are engaged in activities that endanger the security of key information infrastructure and still provide assistance such as Internet access, server hosting, network storage, communication transmission, advertising promotion, payment settlement and so on;

(E) other activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure.

Article 17 The State shall safeguard the network security based on the open environment and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation in the field of key information infrastructure security.

 

Chapter 3 Key Information Infrastructure Scope

    Article 18 The network facilities and information systems operated and managed by the following units shall be included in the scope of protection of key information infrastructures in the event of damage, loss of function or data leakage, which may seriously endanger the national security, the people’s livelihood and the public interest.

(A) government agencies and energy, finance, transportation, water conservancy, health care, education, social security, environmental protection, public utilities and other sectors of the unit;

(B) telecommunications networks, radio and television networks, the Internet and other information networks, and provide cloud computing, large data and other large public information network services units;

(3) scientific research and production units in the fields of national defense science and technology, large-scale equipment, chemical industry, food and medicine industry;

(4) news units such as radio stations, television stations and news malls;

(5) other key units.

Article 19 The State Network Letter Department shall, in conjunction with the competent departments of telecommunications under the State Council and the public security departments, formulate guidelines for the identification of key information infrastructure.

National industry supervisors or regulators organize identification of the industry and key information infrastructures in the field in accordance with the key information infrastructure identification guidelines and submit the identification results according to the procedures.

Key information infrastructure identification process, should give full play to the role of experts, improve the identification of key information infrastructure identification accuracy, rationality and scientific.

Article 20 If a major change in the key information infrastructure or key information infrastructure has occurred, the operator shall promptly report the relevant situation to the national competent or supervisory department.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall promptly carry out the identification and adjustment according to the situation reported by the operator and submit the adjustment according to the procedure.

 

Chapter IV Operator Safety Protection

    Article 21 The construction of a key information infrastructure shall ensure that it has the performance of supporting the stable and continuous operation of the business and ensures that the safety and technical measures are synchronized, synchronized and synchronized.

Article 22 The principal responsible person of the operator is the first person responsible for the safety protection work of the key information infrastructure of the unit. It is responsible for establishing and perfecting the network security responsibility system and organizing the implementation, and is fully responsible for the security protection of the key information infrastructure of the unit.

Article 23 The operator shall, in accordance with the requirements of the network security level protection system, perform the following security protection obligations to protect the critical information infrastructure from interference, damage or unauthorized access to prevent the leakage or theft of the network data:

(1) to formulate internal safety management systems and operating procedures, strict identity authentication and rights management;

(B) to take technical measures to prevent computer viruses and network attacks, network intrusion and other hazards to network security behavior;

(3) to take technical measures to monitor and record the operation status of the network and the network security incident, and keep the relevant network log in accordance with the regulations for not less than six months;

(D) to take data classification, important data backup and encryption authentication and other measures.

Article 24 In addition to Article 23 of these Regulations, the operator shall perform the following safety and protection obligations in accordance with the requirements of national laws and regulations and the mandatory requirements of the relevant national standards:

(A) set up a dedicated network security management and network security management, and the person in charge and key positions for security background review;

(2) regularly carry out network security education, technical training and skills assessment for employees;

(C) of the important systems and databases for disaster recovery, in time for system vulnerabilities and other security risks to take remedial measures;

(D) the development of network security incident contingency plans and regular exercise;

(5) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations.

Article 25 The person in charge of network security management of the operator shall perform the following duties:

(1) to formulate network security rules and regulations, operational procedures and supervise the implementation;

(2) organizing the skills assessment of key positions;

(3) to formulate and implement the network safety education and training program of the unit;

(4) to organize network security checks and emergency drills to deal with the handling of network security incidents;

(5) to report to the relevant departments of the country on network security important matters, events.

Article twenty-sixth operators of network security key positions of professional and technical personnel to implement the system of certificates.

The specific provisions of the promulgation of posts by the State Council human resources and social security departments in conjunction with the State Network letter and other departments to develop.

Article 27 Operators shall organize the training of network safety education for employees. Each year, the training time shall not be less than one working day, and the number of professional and technical personnel in key positions shall not be less than 3 working days per year.

Article 28 The operator shall establish and improve the safety assessment and evaluation system for the key information infrastructure, and carry out the safety inspection and evaluation when the key information infrastructure is on or after the major changes.

The operator shall, at its own expense, entrust the network security service organization to carry out at least one annual inspection and evaluation of the safety and possible risk of the key information infrastructure, rectify the problems found in time and report the relevant situation to the national industry supervisor or the supervisory department The

Article 29 Personal information and important data collected and produced by the operator in the operation of the People’s Republic of China shall be stored in the territory. For business needs, it is necessary to provide overseas, should be in accordance with personal information and important data outbound security assessment methods to assess; laws, administrative regulations otherwise provided, in accordance with its provisions.

 

Chapter 5 Product and Service Security

    Article 30 The key equipment and network security special products purchased and used by the operators shall comply with the requirements of laws and administrative regulations and the mandatory requirements of relevant national standards.

Article 31 Where an operator purchases a network product and service that may affect the security of the State, it shall, through the network security review, sign a security confidentiality agreement with the provider in accordance with the requirements of the safety inspection method of the network product and service.

Article 32 Operators shall carry out safety testing on the system, software, and donated network products that have been developed for outsourcing.

Article 33 Where an operator finds that there is a risk of security defects or loopholes in the use of the network products and services, it shall promptly take measures to eliminate the risks and involve significant risks in reporting to the relevant departments.

Article 34 The operation and maintenance of key information infrastructures shall be implemented in the territory. Due to business needs, do need to remote maintenance, should be reported to the national industry executives or regulatory authorities and the State Council public security departments.

Article 35 Institutions that carry out safety assessment and evaluation, publish security threats such as system vulnerabilities, computer viruses, and network attacks for key information infrastructures, provide services such as cloud computing and information technology outsourcing, shall meet the relevant requirements.

The specific requirements by the State Network letter department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council to develop.

 

Chapter 6 Monitoring, Early Warning, Emergency Handling and Testing

    Article 36 The national network communication department shall co-ordinate the establishment of the key information infrastructure network security monitoring and early warning system and the information communication system, organize and guide the relevant agencies to carry out the network security information summary, analyze and judge the report, and publish the network security monitoring and early warning information according to the regulations The

Article 37 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall establish and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and information reporting system of the key information infrastructure in this industry, and keep abreast of the industry, the operation status of the key information infrastructure in the field and the security risks, Inform the operator about safety risks and related work information.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall organize the judgment of the safety monitoring information, and if it is necessary to take immediate preventive measures, it shall promptly issue the early warning information and emergency preventive measures to the relevant operators and, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, Relevant departments report.

Article 38 The national network communication department shall coordinate the relevant departments, operators and relevant research institutions and network security service agencies to establish a network information sharing mechanism for key information infrastructure and promote the sharing of network security information.

Article 39 In accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan , the State Network shall, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, coordinate the relevant departments to establish and perfect the key information infrastructure network security emergency coordination mechanism, strengthen the network security emergency power construction, and coordinate the relevant departments to organize cross- Regional network security emergency drills.

National industry supervisors or regulators should organize the development of the industry, the field of network security incident contingency plans, and regularly organize exercises to enhance the network security incident response and disaster recovery capabilities. After major network security incidents or early warning information received by the network letter department, should immediately start the contingency plan to respond, and timely report on the situation.

Article 40 The competent department of national industry or the regulatory department shall regularly organize the inspection and inspection of the safety risks of the industry and the key information infrastructure in the field and the performance of the operators’ performance of safety protection, and propose measures to improve the supervision and supervision of the operators in time The problems found in the assessment.

State network letter department co-ordinate the relevant departments to carry out the spot checks to prevent cross-testing and evaluation.

Article 41 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment and evaluation of the key information infrastructure safety, and shall adhere to the principle of objectivity, impartiality, efficiency and transparency, adopt a scientific evaluation and evaluation method, standardize the inspection and evaluation process and control the risk of testing and evaluation.

Operators should be carried out by the relevant departments to implement the assessment and assessment to the assessment of the problems found in time for rectification.

Article 42 The relevant departments may organize the following measures to carry out the safety inspection and evaluation of key information infrastructure:

(1) requiring the relevant personnel of the operator to make a statement on the examination and evaluation;

(B) access to, retrieval, reproduction and safety protection related documents, records;

(C) to view the network security management system development, implementation and network security technical measures planning, construction, operation;

(4) to use the testing tools or commissioned by the network security services for technical testing;

(5) other necessary means agreed by the operator.

Article 43 The information obtained by the relevant departments and the network security service organizations in the assessment of key information infrastructure safety inspection and evaluation can only be used for the maintenance of network security and shall not be used for other purposes.

Article 44 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment of the security of the key information infrastructure, and shall not charge the units to be tested and tested, and shall not require the persons to be tested and appraised to purchase the designated brand or the products and services of the designated production and sales units.

 

Chapter VII Legal Liability

    Article 45 An operator shall fail to perform the provisions of Article 20, Paragraph 1, Article 21, Article 23, Article 24, Article 26, Article 27, and Article 2 Article 18, Article 30, Article 32, Article 33, Article 34 of the network security protection obligations, by the relevant authorities in accordance with their duties ordered to correct, give a warning; refused to correct or Resulting in damage to the network security and other consequences, at a fine of more than 100,000 yuan a million yuan, the person in charge directly responsible for more than 10,000 yuan more than 100,000 yuan fine.

Article 46 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 29 of these Regulations, he or she shall, in accordance with his / her duties, make corrections, give a warning, confiscate the illegal income, And shall be ordered to suspend the relevant business, suspend business for rectification, close the website, revoke the relevant business license; the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan The

Article 47 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 31 of these Regulations and uses the network products or services that have not passed the security examination or security examination, the relevant competent department of the State shall order it to cease to use and double the purchase amount More than ten times the fine; the person in charge directly responsible and other directly responsible persons at a fine of not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 48 Where an individual violates the provisions of Article 16 of these Regulations and does not constitute a crime, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and shall be detained for less than five days and shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; Shall be imposed a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan; if the case constitutes a crime, the criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

If the unit has any of the acts mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and impose a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan and impose penalties on the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Violation of the provisions of Article XVI of the Ordinance, the criminal punishment of personnel, life shall not be engaged in key information infrastructure security management and network operations key positions in the work.

Article 49 Where the operator of a key information infrastructure of a state organ fails to perform the obligations of the network security protection provided for in these Regulations, the superior organ or the relevant organ shall order it to make corrections; and the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law.

Article 50 Where any of the following departments and their staff members commits any of the following acts, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law; if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(A) in the work of the use of authority to obtain, accept bribes;

(B) neglect of duty, abuse of authority;

(Iii) unauthorized disclosure of relevant information, information and data files of key information infrastructures;

(4) other acts that violate statutory duties.

 Article 51 Where a major cyber security incident occurs in a critical information infrastructure, the responsibility for the investigation shall be identified, and the responsibility for the relevant network security service and relevant departments shall be identified in addition to the investigation of the responsibility of the operating unit and the investigation , For dereliction of duty, dereliction of duty and other violations, shall be held accountable.

Article 52 If the organs, organizations and individuals engaged in attack, intrusion, interference, or damage to the key information infrastructure of the People’s Republic of China cause serious consequences, they shall be investigated for legal responsibility according to law; the public security department of the State Council and the State security organ And the relevant departments and may decide to impose a frozen property or other necessary sanctions on the institution, organization or individual.

 

Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions

    Article 53 The security protection of key information infrastructures involved in the storage and handling of information concerning state secrets shall also be subject to the provisions of confidentiality laws and administrative regulations.

Critical information infrastructure in the use and management of passwords, should also comply with the password laws and administrative regulations.

 Article 54 The security protection of military key information infrastructures shall be separately stipulated by the Central Military Commission.

Article 55 These Regulations shall enter into force on the date of ****.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護條例
(徵求意見稿)

第一章 總則
第一條 為了保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,根據《中華人民共和國網絡安全法》,制定本條例。
第二條 在中華人民共和國境內規劃、建設、運營、維護、使用關鍵信息基礎設施,以及開展關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,適用本條例。
第三條 關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護堅持頂層設計、整體防護,統籌協調、分工負責的原則,充分發揮運營主體作用,社會各方積極參與,共同保護關鍵信息基礎設施安全。
第四條 國家行業主管或監管部門按照國務院規定的職責分工,負責指導和監督本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
國家網信部門負責統籌協調關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作和相關監督管理工作。國務院公安、國家安全、國家保密行政管理、國家密碼管理等部門在各自職責範圍內負責相關網絡安全保護和監督管理工作。
縣級以上地方人民政府有關部門按照國家有關規定開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第五條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者(以下稱運營者)對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全負主體責任,履行網絡安全保護義務,接受政府和社會監督,承擔社會責任。
國家鼓勵關鍵信息基礎設施以外的網絡運營者自願參與關鍵信息基礎設施保護體系。
第六條 關鍵信息基礎設施在網絡安全等級保護製度基礎上,實行重點保護。
第七條 任何個人和組織發現危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的行為,有權向網信、電信、公安等部門以及行業主管或監管部門舉報。
收到舉報的部門應當及時依法作出處理;不屬於本部門職責的,應當及時移送有權處理的部門。
有關部門應當對舉報人的相關信息予以保密,保護舉報人的合法權益。

第二章 支持與保障
第八條 國家採取措施,監測、防禦、處置來源於中華人民共和國境內外的網絡安全風險和威脅,保護關鍵信息基礎設施免受攻擊、侵入、干擾和破壞,依法懲治網絡違法犯罪活動。
第九條國家製定產業、財稅、金融、人才等政策,支持關鍵信息基礎設施安全相關的技術、產品、服務創新,推廣安全可信的網絡產品和服務,培養和選拔網絡安全人才,提高關鍵信息基礎設施的安全水平。
第十條 國家建立和完善網絡安全標準體系,利用標準指導、規範關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第十一條 地市級以上人民政府應當將關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作納入地區經濟社會發展總體規劃,加大投入,開展工作績效考核評價。
第十二條 國家鼓勵政府部門、運營者、科研機構、網絡安全服務機構、行業組織、網絡產品和服務提供者開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全合作。
第十三條國家行業主管或監管部門應當設立或明確專門負責本行業、本領域關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作的機構和人員,編制並組織實施本行業、本領域的網絡安全規劃,建立健全工作經費保障機制並督促落實。
第十四條 能源、電信、交通等行業應當為關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全事件應急處置與網絡功能恢復提供電力供應、網絡通信、交通運輸等方面的重點保障和支持。
第十五條 公安機關等部門依法偵查打擊針對和利用關鍵信息基礎設施實施的違法犯罪活動。
第十六條 任何個人和組織不得從事下列危害關鍵信息基礎設施的活動和行為:
(一)攻擊、侵入、干擾、破壞關鍵信息基礎設施;
(二)非法獲取、出售或者未經授權向他人提供可能被專門用於危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的技術資料等信息;
(三)未經授權對關鍵信息基礎設施開展滲透性、攻擊性掃描探測;
(四)明知他人從事危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的活動,仍然為其提供互聯網接入、服務器託管、網絡存儲、通訊傳輸、廣告推廣、支付結算等幫助;
(五)其他危害關鍵信息基礎設施的活動和行為。
第十七條 國家立足開放環境維護網絡安全,積極開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全領域的國際交流與合作。

第三章 關鍵信息基礎設施範圍
第十八條 下列單位運行、管理的網絡設施和信息系統,一旦遭到破壞、喪失功能或者數據洩露,可能嚴重危害國家安全、國計民生、公共利益的,應當納入關鍵信息基礎設施保護範圍:
(一)政府機關和能源、金融、交通、水利、衛生醫療、教育、社保、環境保護、公用事業等行業領域的單位;
(二)電信網、廣播電視網、互聯網等信息網絡,以及提供雲計算、大數據和其他大型公共信息網絡服務的單位;
(三)國防科工、大型裝備、化工、食品藥品等行業領域科研生產單位;
(四)廣播電台、電視台、通訊社等新聞單位;
(五)其他重點單位。
第十九條 國家網信部門會同國務院電信主管部門、公安部門等部門製定關鍵信息基礎設施識別指南。
國家行業主管或監管部門按照關鍵信息基礎設施識別指南,組織識別本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施,並按程序報送識別結果。
關鍵信息基礎設施識別認定過程中,應當充分發揮有關專家作用,提高關鍵信息基礎設施識別認定的準確性、合理性和科學性。
第二十條 新建、停運關鍵信息基礎設施,或關鍵信息基礎設施發生重大變化的,運營者應當及時將相關情況報告國家行業主管或監管部門。
國家行業主管或監管部門應當根據運營者報告的情況及時進行識別調整,並按程序報送調整情況。

第四章 運營者安全保護
第二十一條 建設關鍵信息基礎設施應當確保其具有支持業務穩定、持續運行的性能,並保證安全技術措施同步規劃、同步建設、同步使用。
第二十二條 運營者主要負責人是本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作第一責任人,負責建立健全網絡安全責任制並組織落實,對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作全面負責。
第二十三條 運營者應當按照網絡安全等級保護製度的要求,履行下列安全保護義務,保障關鍵信息基礎設施免受干擾、破壞或者未經授權的訪問,防止網絡數據洩漏或者被竊取、篡改:
(一)制定內部安全管理制度和操作規程,嚴格身份認證和權限管理;
(二)採取技術措施,防範計算機病毒和網絡攻擊、網絡侵入等危害網絡安全行為;
(三)採取技術措施,監測、記錄網絡運行狀態、網絡安全事件,並按照規定留存相關的網絡日誌不少於六個月;
(四)採取數據分類、重要數據備份和加密認證等措施。
第二十四條 除本條例第二十三條外,運營者還應當按照國家法律法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求,履行下列安全保護義務:
(一)設置專門網絡安全管理機構和網絡安全管理負責人,並對該負責人和關鍵崗位人員進行安全背景審查;
(二)定期對從業人員進行網絡安全教育、技術培訓和技能考核;
(三)對重要係統和數據庫進行容災備份,及時對系統漏洞等安全風險採取補救措施;
(四)制定網絡安全事件應急預案並定期進行演練;
(五)法律、行政法規規定的其他義務。
第二十五條 運營者網絡安全管理負責人履行下列職責:
(一) 組織製定網絡安全規章制度、操作規程並監督執行;
(二)組織對關鍵崗位人員的技能考核;
(三)組織製定並實施本單位網絡安全教育和培訓計劃;
(四)組織開展網絡安全檢查和應急演練,應對處置網絡安全事件;
(五)按規定向國家有關部門報告網絡安全重要事項、事件。
第二十六條 運營者網絡安全關鍵崗位專業技術人員實行執證上崗制度。
執證上崗具體規定由國務院人力資源社會保障部門會同國家網信部門等部門製定。
第二十七條 運營者應當組織從業人員網絡安全教育培訓,每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於1個工作日,關鍵崗位專業技術人員每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於3個工作日。
第二十八條 運營者應當建立健全關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估制度,關鍵信息基礎設施上線運行前或者發生重大變化時應當進行安全檢測評估。
運營者應當自行或委託網絡安全服務機構對關鍵信息基礎設施的安全性和可能存在的風險隱患每年至少進行一次檢測評估,對發現的問題及時進行整改,並將有關情況報國家行業主管或監管部門。
第二十九條 運營者在中華人民共和國境內運營中收集和產生的個人信息和重要數據應當在境內存儲。因業務需要,確需向境外提供的,應當按照個人信息和重要數據出境安全評估辦法進行評估;法律、行政法規另有規定的,依照其規定。

第五章 產品和服務安全
第三十條 運營者採購、使用的網絡關鍵設備、網絡安全專用產品,應當符合法律、行政法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求。
第三十一條 運營者採購網絡產品和服務,可能影響國家安全的,應當按照網絡產品和服務安全審查辦法的要求,通過網絡安全審查,並與提供者簽訂安全保密協議。
第三十二條 運營者應當對外包開發的系統、軟件,接受捐贈的網絡產品,在其上線應用前進行安全檢測。
第三十三條 運營者發現使用的網絡產品、服務存在安全缺陷、漏洞等風險的,應當及時採取措施消除風險隱患,涉及重大風險的應當按規定向有關部門報告。
第三十四條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運行維護應當在境內實施。因業務需要,確需進行境外遠程維護的,應事先報國家行業主管或監管部門和國務院公安部門。
第三十五條 面向關鍵信息基礎設施開展安全檢測評估,發布系統漏洞、計算機病毒、網絡攻擊等安全威脅信息,提供雲計算、信息技術外包等服務的機構,應當符合有關要求。
具體要求由國家網信部門會同國務院有關部門製定。

第六章 監測預警、應急處置和檢測評估
第三十六條國家網信部門統籌建立關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全監測預警體系和信息通報製度,組織指導有關機構開展網絡安全信息匯總、分析研判和通報工作,按照規定統一發佈網絡安全監測預警信息。
第三十七條國家行業主管或監管部門應當建立健全本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全監測預警和信息通報製度,及時掌握本行業、本領域關鍵信息基礎設施運行狀況和安全風險,向有關運營者通報安全風險和相關工作信息。
國家行業主管或監管部門應當組織對安全監測信息進行研判,認為需要立即採取防範應對措施的,應當及時向有關運營者發布預警信息和應急防範措施建議,並按照國家網絡安全事件應急預案的要求向有關部門報告。
第三十八條 國家網信部門統籌協調有關部門、運營者以及有關研究機構、網絡安全服務機構建立關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全信息共享機制,促進網絡安全信息共享。
第三十九條國家網信部門按照國家網絡安全事件應急預案的要求,統籌有關部門建立健全關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全應急協作機制,加強網絡安全應急力量建設,指導協調有關部門組織跨行業、跨地域網絡安全應急演練。
國家行業主管或監管部門應當組織製定本行業、本領域的網絡安全事件應急預案,並定期組織演練,提升網絡安全事件應對和災難恢復能力。發生重大網絡安全事件或接到網信部門的預警信息後,應立即啟動應急預案組織應對,並及時報告有關情況。
第四十條國家行業主管或監管部門應當定期組織對本行業、本領域關鍵信息基礎設施的安全風險以及運營者履行安全保護義務的情況進行抽查檢測,提出改進措施,指導、督促運營者及時整改檢測評估中發現的問題。
國家網信部門統籌協調有關部門開展的抽查檢測工作,避免交叉重複檢測評估。
第四十一條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,應堅持客觀公正、高效透明的原則,採取科學的檢測評估方法,規範檢測評估流程,控制檢測評估風險。
運營者應當對有關部門依法實施的檢測評估予以配合,對檢測評估發現的問題及時進行整改。
第四十二條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,可採取下列措施:
(一)要求運營者相關人員就檢測評估事項作出說明;
(二)查閱、調取、複製與安全保護有關的文檔、記錄;
(三)查看網絡安全管理制度製訂、落實情況以及網絡安全技術措施規劃、建設、運行情況;
(四)利用檢測工具或委託網絡安全服務機構進行技術檢測;
(五)經運營者同意的其他必要方式。
第四十三條 有關部門以及網絡安全服務機構在關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估中獲取的信息,只能用於維護網絡安全的需要,不得用於其他用途。
第四十四條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,不得向被檢測評估單位收取費用,不得要求被檢測評估單位購買指定品牌或者指定生產、銷售單位的產品和服務。

第七章 法律責任
第四十五條運營者不履行本條例第二十條第一款、第二十一條、第二十三條、第二十四條、第二十六條、第二十七條、第二十八條、第三十條、第三十二條、第三十三條、第三十四條規定的網絡安全保護義務的,由有關主管部門依據職責責令改正,給予警告;拒不改正或者導致危害網絡安全等後果的,處十萬元以上一百萬元以下罰款,對直接負責的主管人員處一萬元以上十萬元以下罰款。
第四十六條運營者違反本條例第二十九條規定,在境外存儲網絡數據,或者向境外提供網絡數據的,由國家有關主管部門依據職責責令改正,給予警告,沒收違法所得,處五萬元以上五十萬元以下罰款,並可以責令暫停相關業務、停業整頓、關閉網站、吊銷相關業務許可證;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員處一萬元以上十萬元以下罰款。
第四十七條運營者違反本條例第三十一條規定,使用未經安全審查或安全審查未通過的網絡產品或者服務的,由國家有關主管部門依據職責責令停止使用,處採購金額一倍以上十倍以下罰款;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員處一萬元以上十萬元以下罰款。
第四十八條個人違反本條例第十六條規定,尚不構成犯罪的,由公安機關沒收違法所得,處五日以下拘留,可以並處五萬元以上五十萬元以下罰款;情節較重的,處五日以上十五日以下拘留,可以並處十萬元以上一百萬元以下罰款;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任。
單位有前款行為的,由公安機關沒收違法所得,處十萬元以上一百萬元以下罰款,並對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依照前款規定處罰。
違反本條例第十六條規定,受到刑事處罰的人員,終身不得從事關鍵信息基礎設施安全管理和網絡運營關鍵崗位的工作。
第四十九條 國家機關關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者不履行本條例規定的網絡安全保護義務的,由其上級機關或者有關機關責令改正;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接負責人員依法給予處分。
第五十條 有關部門及其工作人員有下列行為之一的,對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依法給予處分;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任:
(一)在工作中利用職權索取、收受賄賂;
(二)玩忽職守、濫用職權;
(三)擅自洩露關鍵信息基礎設施有關信息、資料及數據文件;
(四)其他違反法定職責的行為。
第五十一條關鍵信息基礎設施發生重大網絡安全事件,經調查確定為責任事故的,除應當查明運營單位責任並依法予以追究外,還應查明相關網絡安全服務機構及有關部門的責任,對有失職、瀆職及其他違法行為的,依法追究責任。
第五十二條境外的機構、組織、個人從事攻擊、侵入、干擾、破壞等危害中華人民共和國的關鍵信息基礎設施的活動,造成嚴重後果的,依法追究法律責任;國務院公安部門、國家安全機關和有關部門並可以決定對該機構、組織、個人採取凍結財產或者其他必要的製裁措施。

第八章 附則
第五十三條 存儲、處理涉及國家秘密信息的關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,還應當遵守保密法律、行政法規的規定。
關鍵信息基礎設施中的密碼使用和管理,還應當遵守密碼法律、行政法規的規定。
第五十四條 軍事關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,由中央軍事委員會另行規定。
第五十五條 本條例自****年**月**日起施行。

Referring URL:

http://www.cac.gov.cn/2017-07/11/c_1121294220.htm

中國網絡安全防禦將是量子計算…未來將面臨這些網絡攻擊威脅 // China network security defense will be quantum computing… The future will face these cyber-attack threats

中國網絡安全防禦將是量子計算…未來將面臨這些網絡攻擊威脅

China network security defense will be quantum computing… The future will face these cyber-attack threats

 

Quantum computers can give attackers the ability to crack the current encryption standard overnight and steal personal data. Imagine, if you wake up and lose all the important information, what kind of helpless?

Experts predict that by 2026, commercial quantum computers can crack the code we now rely on. “IEEE Spectrum” magazine reported last year that quantum computers were fast enough to crack the level of RSA encryption.

The nine years from 2026 are not long and the consequences of failing to update the security technology through quantum security solutions are not yet clear. In order to ensure that the arrival of quantum computers to protect data security, need to upgrade from now on to quantum security needs.

What is a quantum computer?

Quantum computer (quantum computer) is a class of quantum mechanics to follow the law of high-speed mathematical and logical operations, storage and processing of quantum information, physical devices. When a device processes and computes quantum information, it is a quantum computer when it runs a quantum algorithm.

It can be achieved for each superposition of the transformation of the equivalent of a classic calculation, all of these classic calculations at the same time, and according to a certain probability amplitude superimposed, given the output of quantum computers. This calculation is called quantum parallel computing, but also the most important advantages of quantum computers. (Source Baidu)

Quantum computer can invade daily network activities

If an attacker uses a quantum computer to successfully crack the encryption technology that we currently trust and rely on, then sensitive data may be vented, giving serious consequences to users and organizations. As a technical user, people may perform the following common activities on any day:

Send an e-mail: The user logs on to the laptop and sends several e-mails, whose information may be read by the attacker and published publicly for everyone to read.

Check the online banking account: the user login bank account and transfer, the financial data will be attacked by the attacker, and the account balance looted.

Update the social media account information: user login microblogging and other social media publishing dynamic, share family photos, etc., if the user only choose to share these dynamic friends, the attacker can all photos and personal information “everyone visible”, and in addition to The user himself, others can arbitrarily tamper with.

Updating software on the smartphone: If the user receives a software update notification and accepts the update, it is not aware that the verification process from a trusted source (such as Google or Apple’s official download) will also be compromised. Malware may enter the smartphone, disguised as a trusted update, so that the attacker gets the application’s login credentials and data.

Driving the network car: the network will automatically accept the software update. These updates may come from an attacker, the user without the knowledge of the circumstances, may allow third parties to control the car’s embedded system, undermine navigation, cut off the car power and so on.

In addition, many other day-to-day transactions may be vulnerable to attack.E.g:

Use the original security of the Internet equipment: thermostat, home security system or baby monitor;

Transfer funds to public transport as prepaid expenses;

Use VPN to log on to the corporate network.

Public transport, security systems, and physical access systems can also have many public safety risks.

As the networking equipment provides more attack surface, data leakage events are frequent. As companies and governments continue to prevent cyber security attacks through technological advances, quantum computing may make cybercriminals more arbitrary and unscrupulous.

The key to quantum secure encryption solutions will be to update the vulnerable quantum solution in a timely manner, which means that it is now necessary to understand which systems will be affected by quantum risk and plan to migrate to quantum security solutions (including appropriate testing and test).

This transition can be done from a hybrid solution, enabling flexible encryption, and the classic encryption technology used today.

Quantum computers or will change the pattern of artificial intelligence research

Source: Artificial Intelligenceologist

Summary: Chinese scientists have built quantum computers that are “natural photonics” by reviewers called “ENIAC in Quantum Computers”.

Chinese scientists have built quantum computers that are “natural photonics” by reviewers called “ENIAC in Quantum Computers.” Quantum computer of this achievement and the subsequent development, it is possible to change the current pattern of artificial intelligence research.

First, it may mean strong, weak artificial intelligence, and “quantum” approach of the three technical paradigm of confluence. Second, it is possible to open up the traditional Chinese culture “programming” approach, as well as more to explore the Chinese and Eastern traditions and pre-traditional culture of resources. Third, in the human cognitive structure can not keep up with the pace of technological development, the quantum computer may help the human hand, set up from the original understanding of the future of the world bridge.

Although all this can not change the fate of mankind will eventually be replaced by “singularity”, but may change in the singularity of the continuation of the “human” connotation.

Competition and confluence of three paradigms

Artificial intelligence The current research mainly exists strong artificial intelligence, weak artificial intelligence two kinds of technical paradigm.

The strong artificial intelligence paradigm follows the development of technology along the form of movement from low to high order, by the first industrial revolution in the basic physical movement (mechanical, thermal and electromagnetic motion), by the second industrial revolution of chemical movement (organic synthesis ), The end of the 20th century high-tech life movement (genetic engineering, gene editing), and then into the human brain and consciousness of the field; technology step by step, all the way to follow the natural to the human footprint. The human brain is the highest achievement of the evolution of nature, the nature of consciousness is far from being revealed.Artificial intelligence will continue to follow this trajectory, there is no reason to leave this path of success.

In this journey, “physical and mental” relationship is an insurmountable peak. Polanyi’s knowledge of congregation is well known, and IQ and EQ are inseparable. “Artificial intelligence is no more intelligent and only emotionally.”

Weak artificial intelligence paradigm is taking the “smart is intelligent” path. Science and technology may not follow the people as a whole, emotional intelligence and IQ, heart and brain synchronization of the path of evolution, but can take the path of heart and brain separation. Artificial intelligence is only “wisdom”, is the “cylinder in the brain” (“three body” as the envoy of the earth Cheng Tianming), rather than “love” non-human; because of this, artificial intelligence beyond the situation ( Including all kinds of ideological struggle) the trapped people’s intelligence, regardless of “emotional” when things do better, more absolutely. Through the repeated game and the evolution of the game, the development of in-depth learning, step by step, migration learning, learn by analogy, and even into the rules and boundaries across the “Texas poker” to achieve a major breakthrough in artificial intelligence.

The achievement of these results follows the pace of the West since Descartes. “Epistemological turn”, “brain” debut, “head to the ground.”Intelligence is intelligent, do not care about the heart; one to do, do not do all-around champion; step by step to do, do not think people are people. Why should artificial intelligence be based on human beings as a reference system?Get rid of anthropocentrism.

The development of artificial intelligence will eventually go beyond the basic weakness of human nature: people are self-interested, people are limited.The development of artificial intelligence has nothing to do with dignity, but to follow the law. Not to overcome, but to bypass the weakness of human nature.No self-consciousness, means that does not matter “self-interest”, for all the emotions “do not feel”; and in time and space endless large data and extraordinary computing power is beyond the “limited.”

Strong artificial intelligence and weak artificial intelligence combination model, perhaps “God’s return to God, Caesar’s return to Caesar”. Please take care of the soul of God, and I take care of the flesh of men. People, take care of their own souls, make decisions; machine, artificial intelligence in the calculation, to provide decision-making basis and options. “Mind machine brain”.

“Quantum paradigm” can be said to be strong, weak artificial intelligence outside the two paradigms of the third paradigm, related to the relationship between consciousness or free will and quantum entanglement, and quantum computer. “From this point of view, not to quantum up before, that is less than the era of quantum artificial intelligence, I was not worried about artificial intelligence will replace humans.” Pan Jianwei said. Ma Zhaoyuan holds the same view, before understanding by the nano-scale consciousness, “artificial intelligence at least three hundred years there is no chance to go beyond the human brain.”

From the perspective of quantum cut, there may be more than other ways to approach the nature of consciousness, which is “strong artificial intelligence” paradigm of the pursuit of the goal. At this point these two paradigms came together. However, even if this paradigm is a breakthrough, from the current trend, “quantum paradigm” hardware is not “complete life form”, may lead to “strong artificial intelligence” paradigm of dissatisfaction.

This breakthrough in the quantum computer highlights the strength of the artificial intelligence technology paradigm outside the third paradigm. On the one hand it is possible in a sense to set up a bridge between the two paradigms.If you can manipulate more than 1000 quantum, you may be able to study the generation of consciousness. Pan Jianwei predicted that quantum computers will eventually expand into the field of quantum artificial intelligence.

On the other hand, the purpose of studying quantum computers is not to replace existing computers. Quantum computing is suitable for discrete optimization, and high performance computing systems (HPC) perform better in large-scale numerical simulations. Need to determine what problems are suitable for quantum computing, the two complement each other. There are many examples of quantum computer assisting high performance computing systems. In a certain sense, the classic computer with universal, quantum computer may be “earmarked.”From the standard computing power, the D-Wave quantum computer is still much slower than the traditional computer, but in solving some specific engineering problems, the quantum computer is several thousand times faster than the existing supercomputer.

China ‘s Resources and Opportunities

With the development of the Internet, a virtual world has been generated and is continuing to develop and improve. Everything in the real world is constantly moving to the virtual world. From the center, intervene, embedding, blurring, conferencing, going to the center, non-embedding, precision and coding; real world in virtual world reconstruction. As the real world moves to the virtual world, the weight of the virtual world is growing, and non-participants will be marginalized.

From the real to the virtual link is the core of programming. Virtual world is not a real world simple mapping, projection, but selective reconstruction.Not everything in the real world can move to the virtual world. Any programming language written by the instructions on the current computer must be accurate without any ambiguity to ensure that under the same conditions, this code is executed in accordance with established procedures. This is what the so-called software defines everything. All kinds of software, defined the data, the model, the function, the machine, the definition of the process, the rules, the network, the definition can define everything [1].

“People are the sum of social relations.” When the social relations continue to move from the real world to the virtual world, and even the latter as the most important, the status of people in the real world will be affected. Stay in the real world is only a personal secret of the faith, can not be part of the software definition [2]. Can not be moved to the virtual world, can not be mapped, but can not operate the real world, there may be dismissed in the virtual world “ball”, and even come back to the real world can not interact with others. The rapid development of the block chain further highlights the importance of being virtual and real. Human beings continue to enter the orderly degree of machine and society [3]. In society, the order of the carrier is also more and more by the machine to complete. When the basic contract of mankind, such as education, economy and law, its normal operation is carried by the machine, the mission of human beings as an orderly transfer has been completed.The society of machines will replace the real society that can not be moved.

The so-called “programming”, in other words is the code, through programming, the real world projection to the virtual world.

In a sense it can be said that Western culture is “coding culture”. Science and technology, industrial revolution, market economy, universal value, contractual relationship, and so on, all without coding. It is important to note that the first day of computer birth, the development of computer language is infiltrated in the Western coding culture. Computer language is the most basic statement is if-else, as the switchcase statement can be replaced with if else statement, in the if-else behind that is either: 0, or 1, orthogonal. Thus, relatively speaking, the already “encoded” Western society easier to “programming” into the virtual world, and in turn accept the virtual world of the real world norms and constraints.

In contrast, Chinese culture is clearly “conception culture”. Road to Road, very Avenue. “Road”, how to encode? TOEFL IELTS, 20,000 words; Chinese, 5000 words is enough, the word polysemy. So the United Nations documents can not prevail in Chinese, even if the feelings of the Chinese people hurt. Words made up of words are more ambiguous. Winter, how much can wear to wear how much; summer, how much can wear to wear how much. Contextual correlation. In the face of such Chinese examinations, foreign candidates can only be “kneeling”. China’s various levels of documents must be “in principle” three words, the back is endless and not for example and case handling. The highest state is simply: “do not say”. Such a society and its operation process, not if-else, also far from the switchcase can be included, can be exhausted. Can not be programmed, does it mean that China’s traditional culture and social operation can not be mapped to the virtual world?

Quantum computer may be the traditional Chinese culture, the way for the operation of Chinese society programming.

The key to quantum computers is the essential nature of quantum mechanics, such as the superposition and coherence of quantum states. Superposition, coherence, entanglement, so that some concepts and the meaning of knowledge have the same place. The input and output states of the quantum computer are generally superimposed states of multiple states between 0 and 1, which are usually not orthogonal to each other. The quantum computer transforms each superimposed component, where each “component” can be considered to correspond to one of the “cases” in Chinese society.

But in real life these cases are difficult to compare with the same standard, and in the quantum computer, all of these transformations at the same time, and according to a certain probability of superposition, give the results.Quantum computers are probabilistic rather than deterministic, and return to the user may be multiple sets of values, not only to provide the system to find the best solution, but also provide other alternative alternatives. The user can specify the number of systems that the system sends to itself.

The classic way of solving a problem by a classic computer is similar to trying to escape a maze – try all possible aisle, on the way will encounter a dead end until the final find the exit. The magic of the superposition state is that it allows the quantum computer to try all the paths at the same time, that is, it will quickly find a shortcut. In a sense, it can be said that the quantum computer not only contains the highly complex and “conception” characteristics of Chinese traditional culture and real society, but also gives the possibility of coding and programming. The former retains the particularity of China to a certain extent , Which makes this particularity compatible with the universality of human society.

In turn, China has special resources, such as hieroglyphics, language, and traditional culture, which may be another way for the development of quantum computers.

Quantum computers operate in much the same way as classic computers, and now quantum computing is very early, and even specialized programming languages ​​are not [4]. Since non-orthogonal, or if-else? When the need to compare the more things, or a lot of other control process, with if else statement control will be very cumbersome, and poor readability, and the switch statement is more simple and intuitive, more readable and more. But if it is further fragmented, embedded in the infinite number of specific contexts? Quantum computer is completely different from today’s CPU mechanism, nor is the if-else mechanism, can not use the current computer language for its programming. Otherwise it may be as Sokal triggered the science war in the “post-modern text generator”, with a series of contradictory words superimposed together, so that the reader in the fog, no solution.

“The scientific revolution in the 21st century will show two main themes, one is” the convergence of physics and life sciences “; the second is” the confluence of modern science and Chinese philosophy ” The Quantum computer development, it is possible to let the latter “confluence” down the philosophy of the altar, to a certain extent, into the operational level. The advent of quantum computers suggests that it is possible to look at Chinese words and grammar from a new perspective. Perhaps, the ancient “Book of Changes”, River map book, there may be in the dialogue with the quantum computer complement each other.

3 Human reversion and continuation

In the Qiwen “decarburization into the silicon”, the author of the Czech Republic, there are four sets of human cognitive system: the original reptile cognitive system, 50,000 years ago when the language developed, 5000 years ago, after the development of the text, And 500 years ago after the rise of science and development. Each set is more than the previous set of “natural”, more energy consumption, slower. So people tend to use low-level cognitive systems.Every time the cognitive system is advanced, some people are thrown off. Here you can also add the fifth set of cognitive systems, 50 years ago the rise of programming + computing + learning +.

Everyone is a combination of multiple cognitive methods, the difference is the proportion of a variety of cognitive methods. The overall population, in 90% of the human brain “machine”, is that the original cognition at work. The majority of the population as a whole tends to “do not mind” in most of the time. Analysis, symbols and rationality are enemies of the brain, and must be used to fight them all the time.

In this sense, Bao Jie to “stupid” under a definition. Stupid is a human inertia of inertia, the individual is more inclined to use 50,000 years ago mature set of thinking system, rather than 5000 years ago, and five years ago after the development of science and development of these two sets of thinking system, more Not 50 years ago programming. This is the advertising and other means of marketing and election canvassing and so the effectiveness of the human nature of the foundation. Artificial intelligence goes beyond human intelligence and does not need to be smarter than people, just to avoid people’s stupid enough. The machine is just stupid and people are stupid. Stupid can rule, stupid from the human physiological basis, no medicine to save.

The advent of quantum computers, it is possible for humans to open the “sixth set of cognitive systems.” The new cognitive system may emerge within five years if the fifth set of 50-year rhythms are added in the “decarburization of silicon” in the range of 50,000 to 5,000 to 500, and by the experts, Five years, the computing power of quantum computers may catch up with the current supercomputer). The classical computer is linear, and all input states are orthogonal to each other. And thinking is often parallel, pluralistic, and even jumping. With quantum computers, it is possible to understand the human behavior based on the first and second sets of cognitive systems, changes in mind, and even emotional changes.

What is the “cognitive system” of the so-called “first and second sets of cognitive systems”? Levi’s “original thinking” and Levi-Strauss’s “wild thinking” made a profound study of this.

Levi – Boulei stressed that the original thinking of the “mutual infiltration”, both specific to trivial, natives can recognize the footprints of each acquaintance, after the rain, the pit of water retained the longest; and by mutual penetration and care of the whole The For example, call a name or name, also implicated it or he embedded everything. Embedded in every detail, all have the object of all the information. The original logical thinking is essentially a comprehensive thinking, different from the logical thinking of the synthesis, does not require pre-analysis. “The logical thinking of the original logic is broader than our thinking, if we do not say it’s better than our rich.” The idea of ​​D-Wave America’s president, BoEwald, is that “the traditional computer will always get the same answer, and the answer to the quantum computer Is a probability, just like the principles of the universe, “says David Mermin, a physicist at Cornell University, in a related argument:” Close your mouth and calculate your mind! ”

Levi-Strauss argues that [5] that the concrete thinking of uncivilized people and the enlightening thinking of the enlightened people are not different from those of “primitive” and “modern” or “primary” and “advanced” Thinking mode, but the history of mankind has always been the existence of two parallel development, the Secretary of different cultural functions, complement each other to infiltrate the way of thinking. As the plants have “wild” and “garden” two categories, the way of thinking can be divided into “wild” (or “wild”) and “civilized” two categories.

It seems that the human “stupid” may not be really stupid, but there is no corresponding means and means to understand the original and wild cognitive system, when not yet. The advent of quantum computers may indicate that time has arrived.

The knowledge of the traditional society is the starting point of human knowledge, both the object of non-embedded coding knowledge denial, and the goal of dialectical reversion of the 21st century. In the original state of knowledge, is the source of human knowledge inexhaustible, which contains the endless treasure to be excavated.

Primitive thinking or wild thinking, human first and second sets of cognitive systems, although the rise of words and technology, especially the “fifth set” of cognitive system after the rise of such as the clogs, but also may be 21 The Object of Dialectical Return of Human Cognitive System in the Century. Fundamentally, Bao Jie’s view of four sets of cognitive systems implied a certain linear implication. Similarly, Kevin Kelly thinks [6] that the most common misconception about artificial intelligence is that natural intelligence is a single dimension that does not have a smart ladder to say. The different parts of the mind, or the interdependence of the “five sets” of cognitive methods, are thus proposed.

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

量子計算機能賦予攻擊者能力,一夜之間破解當前加密標準,並竊取個人數據。想像一下,如果一覺醒來丟失了所有重要信息,這將是一種怎樣的無助?

專家預計,到2026年,商用量子計算機能破解我們如今依賴的密碼。 《IEEE Spectrum》雜誌去年報告稱,量子計算機快達到可以破解RSA加密的水平。
距離2026年的9年時間並不算長,無法通過量子安全解決方案更新安全技術所帶來的後果目前尚不明確。為了確保量子計算機到來時能保護數據安全,需要從現在開始升級到量子安全需。
什麼是量子計算機?
量子計算機(quantum computer)是一類遵循量子力學規律進行高速數學和邏輯運算、存儲及處理量子信息的物理裝置。當某個裝置處理和計算的是量子信息,運行的是量子算法時,它就是量子計算機。
它能對每一個疊加分量實現的變換相當於一種經典計算,所有這些經典計算同時完成,並按一定的概率振幅疊加起來,給出量子計算機的輸出結果。這種計算稱為量子並行計算,也是量子計算機最重要的優越性。 (來源百度)

量子計算機能入侵日常網絡活動
如果攻擊者利用量子計算機成功破解當前我們所信任和依賴的加密技術,那麼敏感數據可能會被洩,從而給用戶和機構帶來嚴重後果。作為技術用戶,人們可能會在任何一天執行以下常見活動:
發送電子郵件:用戶登錄筆記本電腦,發送幾封電子郵件,其信息可能會被攻擊者讀取,並公開發布供所有人閱讀。
查看網銀賬號:用戶登錄銀行賬號並轉賬,財務數據會被攻擊者獲取,並將賬戶餘額洗劫一空。
更新社交媒體賬戶信息:用戶登錄微博等社交媒體發布動態,分享家人的照片等,如果用戶僅選擇將這些動態分享給好友,攻擊者可以將所有照片和個人信息“所有人可見”,且除了用戶自己,其它人可以任意篡改。
更新智能手機上的軟件:如果用戶收到軟件更新通知,並接受更新,而並未意識到是否來自可信源(例如Google或Apple官方下載)的驗證過程也會被入侵。惡意軟件可能會進入智能手機,偽裝成可信任的更新,從而使攻擊者獲取應用程序的登錄憑證以及數據。
駕駛聯網汽車:聯網汽車會自動接受軟件更新。這些更新可能來自攻擊者,用戶在不知情的情況下,可能會允許第三方控制車內的嵌入式系統、破壞導航、切斷汽車動力等。
此外,許多其它日常交易可能易於遭受攻擊。例如:
使用原本安全的物聯網設備:恆溫器、家庭安全系統或嬰兒監視器;
將資金轉入公共交通系統作為預付費用;
使用VPN登錄公司網絡等。
公共交通工具、安全系統和物理訪問系統遭遇攻擊也會帶來許多公共安全風險。
由於聯網設備提供了更多的攻擊面,因此,數據洩露事件頻發。隨著公司和政府不斷通過技術進步防範網絡安全攻擊,量子計算可能會讓網絡犯罪分子更加隨心所欲,肆無忌憚。
量子安全加密解決方案的關鍵將是及時更新易受攻擊的量子解決方案,這就意味著,現在要理解哪些系統將會受到量子風險影響,併計劃遷移到量子安全解決方案(包括適當的測試和試驗)。
這種過渡可以從混合解決方案開始,實現靈活加密,強化如今使用的經典加密技術。
量子計算機或將改變人工智能的研究格局
來源: 人工智能學家

概要:中國科學家建造出了被《自然·光子學》的審稿人稱之為“量子計算機中的ENIAC”的量子計算機。
中國科學家建造出了被《自然·光子學》的審稿人稱之為“量子計算機中的ENIAC”的量子計算機。量子計算機的這一成果及而後的發展,有可能改變當下人工智能的研究格局。
其一,可能意味著強、弱人工智能,以及“量子”途徑三種技術範式的合流。其二,有可能開拓將中國傳統文化“編程”的途徑,以及更多發掘中國與東方的傳統和前傳統文化中的資源。其三,在人類認知結構跟不上科技發展的腳步之時,量子計算機有可能助人類一臂之力,架起由原始認知到未來世界的橋樑。
這一切雖然不能改變人類終將被“奇點人”所取代的命運,但可能改變在奇點人中所延續下來的“人類”的內涵。
1三種範式的競爭與合流
人工智能目前的研究主要存在強人工智能、弱人工智能兩種技術範式。
強人工智能範式沿襲技術的發展沿運動形式由低到高的次序,由第一次工業革命中的基本物理運動(機械、熱和電磁運動),經第二次工業革命的化學運動(有機合成),20世紀末高技術中的生命運動(基因工程、基因編輯),接著進入人腦和意識的領域;技術亦步亦趨,一路跟隨由自然到人的足跡。人腦是自然界演化的最高成果,意識的本質遠未揭示。人工智能將繼續追隨這一軌跡,沒有理由脫離這一成功的路徑。
在這一征途上,“身心”關係是難以逾越的高峰。波蘭尼關於意會知識的研究廣為人知,智商與情商不可分割。 “人工智能再聰明也沒有情感,只是機器而已。”
弱人工智能範式走的是“智能就是智能”路徑。科學技術未必沿著人作為整體,情商與智商,心腦同步進化的路徑,而是可以走心腦分離的路徑。人工智能之所求原本只是“智”,是“缸中大腦”(《三體》中作為地球人使節的程天明),而非“情”非人;正因為此,人工智能超越為情(包括形形色色的意識形態之爭)所困的人的智能,在不顧及“情感”之時把事情做得更好,更絕。通過重複博弈而演進博弈,開發深度學習,步步為營,遷移學習,舉一反三,乃至進入跨越規則與邊界的“德州撲克”,實現人工智能的重大突破。
這些成果的取得沿襲了西方自笛卡爾以來的步點。 “認識論轉向”,“腦”登場,“以頭立地”。智能就是智能,不在乎心;一項一項去做,不做全能冠軍;一步一步去做,不去想人之為人。人工智能為什麼一定要以人類為參照系,為追趕的目標?擺脫人類中心主義的思路。
人工智能的發展將最終超越人性的基本弱點:人是自利的,人是有限的。人工智能的發展無關尊嚴,而是遵循規律。不是克服,而是繞過人性的弱點。沒有自我意識,意味著無所謂“自利”,對於所有的情感“沒感覺”;而在時空上無窮無盡的大數據和超凡脫俗的計算能力則超越人之“有限”。
強人工智能與弱人工智能結合的模式,或許是“上帝的歸上帝,凱撒的歸凱撒”。請上帝照看人的靈魂,我來照看人的肉體。人,照看自己的靈魂,做出決策;機,人工智能從事計算,提供決策的依據和選項。 “人心機腦”。
“量子範式”可以說是強、弱人工智能這兩種範式之外的第三種範式,關係到意識或自由意志與量子糾纏的關係,以及量子計算機。 “從這個角度上來講,沒有到量子用上去之前,即不到量子人工智能的時代,我是一點兒不擔心人工智能會取代人類。”潘建偉說道。馬兆遠持同樣的觀點,在由納米尺度理解意識之前,“人工智能至少在三百年內還沒什麼機會超越人腦”。
由量子的角度切入,有可能較之其他途徑更加逼近意識的本質,這也是“強人工智能”範式所追求的目標。在這一點這兩種範式走到了一起。然而,即使這一範式獲得某種突破,從目前趨勢來看,“量子範式”的硬件並非“完整的生命形態”,可能招致“強人工智能”範式的不滿。
這次量子計算機的突破凸現了強弱人工智能技術範式之外的第三種範式。一方面有可能在某種意義上架起強弱兩種範式的橋樑。如果能操縱1000個量子以上,或許可以研究意識的產生。潘建偉預測,量子計算機最終將拓展到量子人工智能領域。
另一方面,研究量子計算機的目的不是要取代現有的計算機。量子計算適合離散優化,高性能計算系統(HPC) 則在大規模數值模擬中表現更好。需要判斷哪些問題適合量子計算,二者相互補充。有很多量子計算機協助高性能計算系統的例子。在一定意義上,經典計算機具有普適性,量子計算機可能是“專款專用”。從標準的計算能力來看,D-Wave量子計算機還是會比傳統計算機慢得多,但在解決某些特定的工程問題方面,量子計算機要比現有超級計算機快幾千倍。
2中國的資源與機遇
隨著互聯網的發展,一個虛擬世界已經生成並正在繼續發展和完善。現實世界的一切正在不斷遷移到虛擬世界。從中心、干預、嵌入、模糊、意會,到去中心化、非嵌入、精確和編碼;現實世界在虛擬世界重構。隨著越來越大的現實世界移到虛擬世界,虛擬世界的權重越來越大,不參加者將自我邊緣化。
由實到虛的轉換環節的核心是編程。虛擬世界不是現實世界簡單的映射、投射,而是選擇性重構。不是現實世界的一切都可以移到虛擬世界。任何編程語言寫好的指令,對目前的計算機必須準確無誤沒有歧義,以保證在同樣的條件下,這段代碼按既定步驟執行。這就是所謂軟件定義一切。形形色色、大大小小、不同用途的軟件,定義了數據、模型、功能、機器,定義了過程、規則、網絡,定義了可以定義的一切[1]。
“人是社會關係的總和”。當社會關係不斷由現實世界遷移到虛擬世界,乃至以後者為重,人在現實世界的地位就受到影響。留在現實世界的只是個人隱秘的信仰,是不能被軟件定義的部分[2]。沒法移到虛擬世界,不能映射,更不能操作的現實世界,有可能被開除在虛擬世界的“球籍”,以至回過頭來沒法在現實世界與他人交往。區塊鏈的快速發展進一步凸現了由實到虛,以虛馭實的重要性。人類源源不斷地把有序度輸入機器和社會[3]。在社會中,有序度的載體也越來越多的由機器來完成。當人類的基礎契約,如教育、經濟和法律,其正常運作都是由機器來承載時,人類作為有序度轉移者的使命已經完成了。機器構成的社會將取代移不過去的現實社會。
所謂“編程”,換言之就是編碼,經由編程,把現實世界投射到虛擬世界。
在某種意義上可以說,西方文化就是“編碼文化”。科學技術、工業革命、市場經濟、普適價值、契約關係等等,無一不編碼。有必要指出,從計算機誕生的第一天起,計算機語言的發展就浸潤在西方的編碼文化之中。計算機語言最基本的語句是if-else,至於switchcase語句完全可以用if else語句來替換掉,在if-else的背後即非此即彼:0,或1,正交。由此可見,相對而言,本已“編碼”的西方社會較容易“編程”而進入虛擬世界,以及反過來接受虛擬世界對現實世界的規範與製約。
相比之下,中國文化顯然是“意會文化”。道可道非常道。 “道”,如何編碼?考托福雅思,2萬單詞;漢語,5000單詞足矣,一詞多義。所以聯合國文件不能以中文為準,即使傷害了中國人民的感情。由單詞組成的語句更多歧義。冬天,能穿多少就穿多少;夏天,能穿多少就穿多少。語境相關。面對這樣的中文考題,外國考生也只能是“跪了”。中國的各級文件中必有“原則上”三個字,其背後是無窮無盡的下不為例和個案處理。最高境界乾脆是:“盡在不言中”。這樣的社會及其運作過程,絕非if-else,亦遠非switchcase可以囊括,可以窮盡。不能編程,是否意味著中國的傳統文化與社會運行不能映射到虛擬世界?
量子計算機有可能為中國傳統文化,為中國社會的運行方式編程。
量子計算機的關鍵是用到量子力學的本質特性,如量子態的疊加性和相干性。疊加、相干、糾纏,這樣一些概念與意會知識有相通之處。量子計算機的輸入態和輸出態為一般為0到1之間的多個狀態的疊加態,相互之間通常不正交。量子計算機對每一個疊加分量進行變換,這裡的每一個“分量”或可認為對應於中國社會中的一個個“個案”。
但在現實生活中這些個案難以以同一標準相互比較,而在量子計算機,所有這些變換同時完成,並按一定的概率幅疊加起來,給出結果。量子計算機是概率性的而非確定性的,返回給用戶的可能是多組數值,不僅能提供系統尋找到的最佳解決方案,同時也提供其他可供選擇的優秀替代方案。用戶可以指定係統向自己發送解決方案的數量。
經典計算機解決一個問題的方式就類似於試圖逃離一個迷宮——嘗試所有可能的走道,途中會遇到死路,直到最終找到出口。而疊加態的魔力則在於,允許量子計算機在同一時間嘗試所有的路徑,也就是說,它會迅速的找到一條捷徑。在某種意義上可以說,量子計算機既包容中國傳統文化與現實社會的高度複雜性和“意會”特徵,又賦予其編碼和編程的可能性;前者在一定程度上保留了中國的特殊性,後者使這種特殊性與人類社會的普遍性兼容。
反過來,中國所具有的特殊資源,如像形文字、語言以及傳統文化有可能為量子計算機的發展另闢蹊徑。
量子計算機的運行方式與經典計算機大為不同,現在的量子計算還非常早期,甚至連專門的編程語言都沒有[4]。既然非正交,還是if-else嗎?當需要比較的事項較多,或者很多其他控制流程的時候,用if else語句控制起來就會很麻煩,且可讀性太差,而用switcase可以囊括,可以窮盡。不能編程,是否意味著中國的傳統文化與社會運行不能映射到虛擬世界?
量子計算機有可能為中國傳統文化,為中國社會的運行方式編程。
量子計算機的關鍵是用到量子力學的本質特性,如量子態的疊加性和相干性。疊加、相干、糾纏,這樣一些概念與意會知識有相通之處。量子計算機的輸入態和輸出態為一般為0到1之間的多個狀態的疊加態,相互之間通常不正交。量子計算機對每一個疊加分量進行變換,這裡的每一個“分量”或可認為對應於中國社會中的一個個“個案”。
但在現實生活中這些個案難以以同一標準相互比較,而在量子計算機,所有這些變換同時完成,並按一定的概率幅疊加起來,給出結果。量子計算機是概率性的而非確定性的,返回給用戶的可能是多組數值,不僅能提供系統尋找到的最佳解決方案,同時也提供其他可供選擇的優秀替代方案。用戶可以指定係統向自己發送解決方案的數量。
經典計算機解決一個問題的方式就類似於試圖逃離一個迷宮——嘗試所有可能的走道,途中會遇到死路,直到最終找到出口。而疊加態的魔力則在於,允許量子計算機在同一時間嘗試所有的路徑,也就是說,它會迅速的找到一條捷徑。在某種意義上可以說,量子計算機既包容中國傳統文化與現實社會的高度複雜性和“意會”特徵,又賦予其編碼和編程的可能性;前者在一定程度上保留了中國的特殊性,後者使這種特殊性與人類社會的普遍性兼容。
反過來,中國所具有的特殊資源,如像形文字、語言以及傳統文化有可能為量子計算機的發展另闢蹊徑。
量子計算機的運行方式與經典計算機大為不同,現在的量子計算還非常早期,甚至連專門的編程語言都沒有[4]。既然非正交,還是if-else嗎?當需要比較的事項較多,或者很多其他控制流程的時候,用if else語句控制起來就會很麻煩,且可讀性太差,而用switch語句就更加簡潔直觀,可讀性也更強。但要是進一步碎片化,嵌入於不可勝數的特定語境之中呢?量子計算機完全不同於今天的CPU機理,也不是if-else機理,沒法用現在的計算機語言為其編程。否則很可能如索卡爾引發的科學大戰中的“後現代文本發生器”,用一連串互相矛盾的詞彙疊加在一起,讓讀者云裡霧裡,不得其解。
中國科學院大學已故數學教授牛實為先生認為,21世紀的科學革命將呈現出兩個主旋律,其一是“物理學與生命科​​學的合流”;其二是“現代科學與中國哲學的合流” 。量子計算機的發展,有可能讓後一個“合流”走下哲學的聖壇,在一定程度上步入操作的層面。量子計算機的問世提示,或許可以從一個新的視角審視中文的單詞和語法。或許,古老的《易經》,河圖洛書,有可能在與量子計算機的對話中相得益彰。
3人類的複歸與延續
在奇文“脫碳入矽”中,作者鮑捷提出人類有四套認知系統:原始的爬行動物認知系統,5萬年前語言成熟時發展的,5000年前文字發明後發展的,和500年前科學興起後發展的。每一套都比前一套更不“自然”,更耗費能量,速度更慢。所以人總是傾向於用低層次的認知系統。認知系統的每一次進階,都甩下一部分人。在這裡還可以再加上第五套認知系統,50年前興起的編程+計算+學習+。
每個人都是多種認知方式的綜合,區別是多種認知方式的比例不同。而人群的總體,在90%的人腦“機時”裡,是那些原始的認知在起作用。總體人群的大多數在大多數時間傾向於“不動腦子”。分析、符號和理性都是大腦的敵人,必須無時無刻不和本能做鬥爭才能運用它們。
在此意義上,鮑捷給“愚蠢”下了一個定義。愚蠢是人類的一種認知的惰性,個體比較偏向於使用5萬年前成熟的那套思維繫統,而不是5000年前文字發明和500年前科學發展後發展的這兩套思維繫統,更不是50年前的編程。這是廣告之類營銷手段和選舉拉票等之所以奏效的人性基礎。人工智能超越人的智能,並不需要比人聰明,只需要避免人的愚蠢就夠了。機器只是笨,人是愚蠢。笨可以治,蠢源於人的生理基礎,無藥可救。
量子計算機的問世,有可能為人類開啟“第六套認知系統”。如果按“脫碳入矽”中5萬-5千-5百,以及筆者加上的第五套50年的節奏,新的認知系統可能在5年內出現(順便說,有專家指出,在五年之內,量子計算機的計算能力就可能赶超當前的超級計算機)。經典計算機是線性的,所有的輸入態均相互正交。而思維往往是並行、多元、甚至跳躍。借助量子計算機,以人類思考方式進行超高速計算,有可能理解人類基於第一、二套認知系統的群體性行為、思想變化,甚至情緒變化。
所謂“第一、二套認知系統”究竟是什麼樣的“認知系統”?列維-布留爾的《原始思維》和列維-斯特勞斯的《野性的思維》對此作了深刻的研究。
列維-布留爾強調了原始思維的“互滲”,既具體到瑣碎,土人能認出每個熟人的足跡,雨後,那個坑里的水留存最久;又經由互滲而關照整體。譬如呼喚一個名稱或名字,也就牽連它或他所嵌入的一切。嵌入的每一個細節,都擁有對象的全部信息。原邏輯思維本質上是綜合的思維,不同於邏輯思維的綜合,不要求預先的分析。原邏輯思維“比我們的思維廣闊,如果不說比我們的豐富。”D-Wave美國區總裁BoEwald的觀點是:“傳統計算機求解相同問題總會得到相同的答案,而量子計算機得到的答案卻是一種概率,就像宇宙的運行原理。”康奈爾大學物理學家David Mermin在一次相關的爭論中說:“閉上你的嘴,用心作計算吧!”
列維-斯特勞斯認為[5],未開化人的具體性思維與開化人的抽象性思維不是分屬“原始”與“現代”或“初級”與“高級”這兩種等級不同的思維方式,而是人類歷史上始終存在的兩種互相平行發展、各司不同文化職能、互相補充互相滲透的思維方式。正如植物有“野生”和“園植”兩大類一樣,思維方式也可分為“野性的”(或“野生的”)和“文明的”兩大類。
由此看來,人類的“蠢”,未必就是真的蠢,而是沒有相應的手段和途徑來理解原始及野性的認知系統,時候未到。量子計算機的問世,可能預示,時候已到。
前傳統社會的知識是人類知識的起點,既是而後非嵌入編碼知識否定的對象,也是21世紀的知識辯證復歸的目標。處於原始狀態的知識,是人類知識取之不盡的源泉,其中蘊藏了有待挖掘的無窮無盡的寶藏。
原始思維或野性的思維,人類的第一和第二套認知系統,雖然在文字與科技興起,特別是“第五套”認知系統興起後被棄之如敝屐,卻同樣可能是21世紀人類認知系統辯證復歸的對象。從根本上說,鮑捷關於四套認知系統的觀點隱含了某種線性的意味。類似的,凱文凱利認為[6],關於人工智能最常見的誤解是,自然智能是一個單一的維度,沒有智能階梯之說。思維的不同組成部分,或者說人猿相揖別以來的“五套”認知方式之間相互依賴,是共同創造的。

Original URL: http://wemedia.ifeng.com/17222299/wemedia.shtml

China Military Interpretation of information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber – centric warfare 中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战

中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战

China Military Interpretation of information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber – centric warfare

With the rapid development of information technology and its extensive application in the military field, some new operational concepts and operational styles came into being. Such as information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber-centric warfare, in recent days local war has demonstrated a powerful power, has become the topic of the current officers and men to explore. Then this new “war” in the end what is the difference and contact? How do you understand it? I have the following views.

The so-called information warfare, refers to the hostile parties in the field of information struggle and confrontation activities. Specifically, it is based on the digital forces as the basic strength to compete, control and use of information as the main content of a variety of information weapons and equipment as the main means of confrontation and struggle, with a transparent battlefield, real-time action, The overall coordination and the higher degree of intelligence. From the point of view of combat, information warfare is to control the “energy flow” and “material flow” with “information flow”, gain the advantage of decision-making and the advantage of action, and then end confrontation or reduce confrontation and realize ” Soldiers “. From the content and form of combat, information warfare is different from information warfare and information warfare. Information operations are specific actions of information warfare, can be divided into electronic warfare, intelligence warfare and network warfare. The information war is relative to the mechanized war, refers to a form of war. Information warfare is the main battlefield and core of information war.

The so-called network warfare refers to the information and network environment which the enemy and the enemy can use for the war, and surrounds the “system of information right” to compete, through the computer network to ensure that their own information and network system security at the same time, disrupt, destroy and threaten each other’s information and Network Systems. In essence, cyber warfare is a special form of information warfare, a kind of combat action carried out in cyberspace. Compared with the traditional war, the network war has a sudden, hidden, asymmetric and low cost, strong participation and so on. Network-centric warfare, whose English name is “NetworkCentricWarfare”, is a new concept of warfare relative to the traditional platform-centric warfare. The so-called platform center warfare, refers to the platform mainly rely on their own detectors and weapons to combat, its main feature is the platform between the information sharing is very limited. The network center war is through the network of the combat unit, the information advantage into the combat action advantage, so that the scattered configuration of the common sense of the battlefield situation, so as to coordinate their own actions to play the largest overall combat effectiveness of the combat style, it So that the focus of combat from the past platform to the network. It goes without saying that cyber-centric warfare can help combat forces create and exploit information superiority and dramatically improve combat effectiveness. It has the battlefield situation full-dimensional perception ability, the combat power integration, the combat action real-time, the army coordination synchronism and so on the characteristic.

In short, information warfare is the core of information war. Network warfare is a special form of information warfare, belonging to the category of information warfare. Network-centric warfare is the product of the transition from mechanized war form to informational warfare because the development of the network is the regeneration of the operational form of the mechanized forces of the industrial age. Therefore, whether it is information warfare or network warfare and network-centric warfare, are inseparable from the rapid development of information technology, but also inseparable from the application and popularization of network technology.

中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战

隨著信息技術的迅速發展及其在軍事領域的廣泛應用,一些新的作戰理念和作戰樣式應運而生。如信息戰、網絡戰、網絡中心戰,在近幾場局部戰爭已彰顯出強大威力,也成為當前官兵廣為探討的話題。那麼這新的“戰”到底有何區別和聯繫?怎樣理解把握才對呢?筆者有如下看法。
所謂信息戰,是指敵對雙方在信息領域的鬥爭和對抗活動。具體說來,是以數字化部隊為基本力量,以爭奪、控制和使用信息為主要內容,以各種信息武器和裝備為主要手段而進行的對抗和鬥爭,具有戰場透明、行動實時、打擊精確、整體協調和智能化程度高等特徵。從作戰目的上看,信息戰是以“信息流”控制“能量流”和“物質流”,以信息優勢獲得決策優勢和行動優勢,進而結束對抗或減少對抗,實現“不戰而屈人之兵”。從作戰內容與形式來看,信息戰不同於信息作戰和信息化戰爭。信息作戰是信息戰的具體行動,可分為電子戰、情報戰和網絡戰等。而信息化戰爭是相對於機械化戰爭而言,指一種戰爭形態。信息戰是信息化戰爭的主戰場和核心。
所謂網絡戰,是指敵對雙方針對戰爭可利用的信息和網絡環境,圍繞“制信息權”的爭奪,通過計算機網絡在保證己方信息和網絡系統安全的同時,擾亂、破壞與威脅對方的信息和網絡系統。從本質上講,網絡戰是信息戰的一種特殊形式,是在網絡空間上進行的一種作戰行動。與傳統戰爭相比,網絡戰具有突然性、隱蔽性、不對稱性和代價低、參與性強等特點。網絡中心戰,其英文名稱為“ NetworkCentricWarfare”,是相對於傳統的平台中心戰而提出的一種新作戰概念。所謂平台中心戰,是指各平台主要依靠自身探測器和武器進行作戰,其主要特點是平台之間的信息共享非常有限。而網絡中心戰是通過各作戰單元的網絡化,把信息優勢變為作戰行動優勢,使各分散配置的部隊共同感知戰場態勢,從而自主地協調行動,發揮出最大整體作戰效能的作戰樣式,它使作戰重心由過去的平台轉向網絡。不言而喻,網絡中心戰能夠幫助作戰部隊創造和利用信息優勢並大幅度提高戰鬥力。它具有戰場態勢全維感知能力,作戰力量一體化,作戰行動實時性,部隊協調同步性等特點。
總之,信息戰是信息化戰爭的核心。網絡戰是信息戰的特殊形式,屬於信息戰範疇。網絡中心戰是機械化戰爭形態向信息化戰爭形態過渡的產物,是因為網絡的發展為工業時代機械化部隊注入活力而帶來作戰形態的更新。因此,無論是信息戰還是網絡戰和網絡中心戰,都離不開信息技術的迅速發展,也離不開網絡技術的應用與普及。
《中國國防報》

Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage ~ 信息戰爭中使用心理戰爭中國的軍事優勢

信息戰爭中使用心理戰爭中國的軍事優勢

Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage

Since the eighties of the 20th century, with the development of science and technology and the evolution of war forms, so that the psychological war plug in the high-tech wings. In the information war, the psychological warfare fully demonstrated a series of distinctive features, its status, domain objects and methods of means have undergone major changes, the impact of the war far more than any period in history.

Status is strategic

Psychological warfare has been incorporated into the national strategic areas, to achieve the national strategic objectives of the important form of struggle. At the end of the twentieth century, the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union showed the success of the “peaceful evolution” strategy pursued by the Western capitalist countries headed by the United States. “Peaceful evolution” can be said to be synonymous with “psychological warfare.” Its success has made it more strongly aware that psychological warfare is no longer an adjunct to military struggle, but an important battlefield of strategic importance in international struggle The In view of this, the world in the strategic thinking, all the psychological warfare into the overall strategic structure. In the information war, the psychological war has become the country’s strategic behavior and basic tactics, not only troops and horses did not move, heart war first, and psychological attack and psychological defense throughout the whole, as all-round, all time and space, Level of strategic action, so that the psychological battle to become an important factor leading the war situation.

Psychological warfare of the macro-level has risen to the highest strategic decision-making level of the state and the army, and the psychological attack of the primary target directly to each other’s top strategic decision-makers. After the September 11 incident, under the instigation of the National Security Council, Bush decided to make a public opinion in the international community, the Iraqi as “evil axis”, for its military strike for political pave the way. In this overall decision-making traction, the United States Department of Psychology and Strategy and the control of the “Voice of America”, newspapers, publications, film, television, the International Exchange Department, are their responsibilities, from the strategic psychological war straight Refers to the Saddam regime, with a view to leading international public opinion, for the military action to create a suitable environment.

Psychological warfare has become an important factor in leading the war situation, the outcome of the war has a pivotal role. The most representative of the recent information war mainly four: 1991 Gulf War, the 1999 war in Kosovo, the 2001-2002 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 war in Iraq. The four wars are exactly the same in the strategic use of the psychological warfare. The United States is an important part of the military’s high-intensity psychological warfare as an indispensable part of the military strategy. The intensity, scope and time of the military strike are as limited as possible within the limits of politics, and even every military action Not only to consider the military value, but also to consider the political and psychological values, every stage of the war, to assess the psychological effects of the enemy, and then decide the next stage of military strike to achieve the military goals and political and psychological goals coincide. These four wars, not only to show people the psychological war is “war before the war, after the war of war”, but also to fully demonstrate the great power of psychological warfare and to play a major role in the war.

The field is broad

The psychological warfare in the information war has transcended the boundaries of military struggle and has become a well-planned and comprehensive strategic action in various fields such as politics, economy, military affairs, diplomacy, culture and religion.

Looking at the information war in recent years, we can clearly see that the United States is not political, economic, diplomatic, military, cultural and religious and other areas of the psychological war as a whole, so that the psychological battle became a veritable “psychological encirclement and suppression ”

The object of the war of information warfare has also completely broken through the scope of the traditional warfare against the military. “The whole purpose of mental warfare is to encourage emotions in foreign groups and people to influence their attitudes or behavior in order to support the goals of the United States.” That is to say, the psychological warfare of information war Object range, has been extended to both the enemy combat forces, but also against the enemy of the people, and even the psychological warfare to the war with the object of friendly countries and regions, pointing to neutral countries and neighboring countries and neighboring countries and the entire international community. Information war in the psychological war also bear the education of their own military and civilian, to maintain the heart to the same and psychological stability of the task.

Methods show diversity

From the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the war in Afghanistan to the war in Iraq, the United States not only attached great importance to “heart war” and “war” closely, but also in the psychological warfare will be used in a variety of ways to complement each other, complement each other , Thus greatly enhancing the effectiveness of psychological warfare. 9.11 after the incident, the United States to fight the psychological war, for the war on terror to lay the foundation of public opinion. The United States on the day of making a decision to send troops in Afghanistan, the State Council set up a “propaganda group”, the use of domestic major media, repeated rendering of the United States in the “9.11” loss, widely for the people to form a terrorist The On the eve of the military strike, the US Department of State has set up a “public relations team”, responsible for the full implementation of national propaganda strategy. After the war began, for the support of international public opinion, the United States in Washington, London and Islamabad established three “wartime press room”, the timely release of the so-called “real and reliable” battlefield information, and the Taliban propaganda to compete. The US Department of Defense has also set up a “strategic information office”, specifically concocted false information, through a variety of ways to pass abroad. In the implementation of military strikes, strengthen the deterrence of the enemy. First to deploy troops to push to change. In a short period of 20 days, within 500 km of Afghanistan, the assembly of five aircraft carrier formation, 18 million combat troops, 550 combat aircraft, from the air, the ground basically blocked the whole territory of Afghanistan, its intention is to Strong military pressure to force the Taliban unconditionally to meet the demands of the United States. Then, continuous blow to fried change. The US military every day out of hundreds of fighters on the Taliban strategy and tactical goals for continuous bombing. In the air raid, the US military intends to use a variety of powerful psychological deterrent effect of new weapons, such as AC-130 laser attack aircraft, this aircraft carrying a new laser weapons, it can be said that the light flash, that is, ashes, The Afghan army is called “the light of death”. US Department of Defense officials have made no secret that the main intention is not to completely eliminate the Taliban military forces, but to strive to defeat its morale, weaken its psychological affordability, triggering “internal chaos and fission.”

Means to show high technology

High-tech makes the psychological warfare endless. In the recent wars, the United States has made use of satellite positioning and direction finding, television broadcasting technology, computer information processing technology, network technology, signal simulation and distortion technology, audio and video technology and other high-tech means to improve the psychological warfare comprehensive combat effect The According to incomplete statistics, in the Iraq war, the United States used military and civilian satellites up to 160, compared with the Gulf War increased by 23. The US news media is through these communications satellites to the domestic and the world launched a large number of favorable to the enemy is not conducive to the enemy’s war information and images. Now, people can use computer graphics synthesis technology, easy to create such as “a country army in the enemy capital square lined up”, “a country leader and the enemy leaders secret talks, shake hands” and other fictional photos or television pictures, to Suddenly these “information bomb” fired at each other’s military and civilian, to destroy the other side of the military and civilian defense line. People can use the audio and video technology to simulate the voice of the head of the enemy and battlefield commander, issued a wrong command of the war, so that the enemy decision-making mistakes, command into chaos, and can use these high-tech means to adjust their military and civilian psychology, inspire morale. In 1993, the United States in the Somali Marine Corps in the implementation of peacekeeping missions, suffered some setbacks. Once, the wind, the dust storm suddenly, the troops suddenly chaos up. At this critical moment, the American Army forces suddenly appeared on a head of up to 150 meters of Jesus image, the US soldiers saw after kneeling, and some frightened, and some burst into tears, that God is really with them, they Somali warfare is “the will of God” and is “fighting for God”. Later, this image exists for a full five minutes to disperse. It is said that this is the United States psychological warfare forces with laser holographic imaging system projection to the air image, to improve the morale of the troops. The United States also attaches great importance to the use of network technology, network infiltration, information and psychological attacks. Network transmission speed, in a very short period of time, heart war information up to front-line officers and men, up to the warrior family, can affect the highest decision-making body, under the ordinary people, its influence is self-evident. In the Iraq war, the United States even organized “hackers” experts to crack the Iraqi military high-level characters e-mail password, send a large number of e-mail, but also directly call the Iraqi high-level mobile phone, the implementation of psychological deterrence and inducement. There is a recent report that the US military engaged in a “666” computer virus, the virus into the computer, you can make the screen repeated an image, people repeatedly see this image, will produce some inexplicable potential awareness, leading to nerve Disorder, hallucinations and even death.

Power show professional

In contemporary times, the developed countries in the world not only attach great importance to the use of psychological warfare, but also pay special attention to strengthening the psychological warfare from all levels.

First, the establishment of a scientific and effective organization and leadership institutions. Now, many countries in order to effectively carry out psychological defense and external implementation of psychological operations, have established a corresponding psychological warfare organizational system. The United States is the most complete system of psychological warfare, the commander of the body by the President of the psychological warfare counsel, chief of staff of the joint meeting of the psychological warfare, the Ministry of Defense of the General Office of the Department of psychological operations; middle institutions by the Joint Command and the theater headquarters of the psychological war department; The lower body consists of psychological war camps and psychological warfare groups. The state and the armed forces have unified their organization and coordinated mental warfare work from top to bottom, serving not only for military struggle but also for international and domestic political struggle.

Second, the establishment of psychological warfare research and think tank institutions. The United States and some Western countries and military personnel attach great importance to the study of psychological warfare, and the establishment of research institutions, specializing in psychological warfare theory and technology research. But also pay attention to play the role of civil “think tank”, the use of universities, research institutions and a variety of senior specialized personnel for the psychological warfare service.

Third, the establishment of professional psychological warfare forces and training of psychological warfare professionals. The US military has a large number of psychological warfare troops, allocated in the land and sea and air forces, including the army has four psychological battle groups, 12 psychological war camps, 22 psychological warfare, the Navy has a psychological warfare brigade, the Air Force has a special operations The wing is used to support the psychological warfare. At the same time, also set up a special psychological warfare institutions or professional, training professional psychological warfare talent. In the war in Afghanistan, the US military to the two most combat capability of the psychological warfare force – Air Force 193 Special Combat Wing and the Army 4th psychological war brigade, deployed in Uzbekistan and Pakistan, the use of various means to start the Taliban The battlefield psychological attack, such as flight radio, cast leaflets, block the Taliban news channel. Iraq war, the US military used almost all of the current psychological warfare forces, but also mobilized and organized a folk psychological strength. The Air Force Psychological Warfare Force is equipped with EC-130E psychological warfare aircraft, from time, space, audio-visual, electromagnetic and other dimensions of the release of psychological warfare information; the Army psychological warfare forces are mostly proficient in Arabic, by telephone, e-mail, And so on to lobby the Iranian specific figures, but also with the Iraqi people and soldiers in general face to face dialogue and exchange.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

20世紀八十年代以來,隨著科學技術的發展和戰爭形態的演變,使心理戰插上了高技術的翅膀。在信息化戰爭中心理戰充分展示出一系列鮮明的特點,其地位作用、領域對象和方法手段等都發生了重大變化,對戰爭的影響遠超過歷史上任何一個時期。
地位顯現戰略性
心理戰已被納入國家戰略範疇,成為實現國家戰略目標的重要鬥爭形式。 20世紀末期,東歐劇變和蘇聯解體,顯現了以美國為首的西方資本主義國家推行的“和平演變”戰略取得成功。 “和平演變”可以說是“心理戰”的代名詞,它的成功,使人們更加強烈地認識到,心理戰已不再是軍事鬥爭的輔助性手段,而是國際鬥爭上具有戰略意義的重要戰場。有鑑於此,世界各國在戰略思維中,無不把心理戰納入整體戰略結構之中。在信息化戰爭中,心理戰已成為國家的戰略行為和基本戰法,不僅兵馬未動,心戰先行,而且把心理進攻和心理防禦貫穿全程,作為全方位、全時空、多領域、多層次的戰略行動,使心理戰成為主導戰局走向的重要因素。
心理戰的宏觀策動層次已上升為國家和軍隊的最高戰略決策層,並將心理戰的首要攻擊目標直接指向對方的最高戰略決策者。 9·11事件之後,布什在國家安全委員會的策動下,決定在國際進行輿論布勢,將伊拉克列為“邪惡軸心”,為其進行軍事打擊作政治鋪墊。在這一總的決策牽引下,美國務院心理戰略局和控制“美國之音”、報紙、出版物、電影、電視的國際交流署,都各司其責,從戰略上將心理戰的鋒芒直指薩達姆政權,以期主導國際輿論,為軍事行動營造適宜的環境。
心理戰已成為主導戰局走向的重要因素,對戰爭結局具有舉足輕重的作用。近期最具代表性的信息化戰爭主要有四場:1991年的海灣戰爭、1999年的科索沃戰爭、2001—2002年的阿富汗戰爭和2003年的伊拉克戰爭。這四場戰爭在心理戰的戰略運用上如出一轍。美國都是把對敵的高強度心理戰作為軍事戰略中不可或缺的重要組成部分,將軍事打擊的力度、範圍、時間等盡可能限制在政治允許的範圍之內,甚至每個軍事行動都不僅要考慮軍事價值,而且要考慮政治心理價值,戰爭每進行一階段,都要評估對敵所取得的心理效果,爾後再決定下一階段軍事打擊力度,以實現軍事目標與政治心理目標的高度重合。這四場戰爭,不僅向人們充分展示了心理戰是“戰爭之前的戰爭,戰爭之後的戰爭”,而且更是向人們充分展示了心理戰的巨大威力和為贏得戰爭所發揮的重大作用。
領域顯現廣闊性
信息化戰爭中的心理戰,已逾越了軍事鬥爭的界限,成為一種精心策劃的,在政治、經濟、軍事、外交、文化、宗教等各個領域進行的全方位戰略行動。
縱覽近些年的幾場信息化戰爭,可以清楚地看到,美國無不融政治、經濟、外交、軍事、文化和宗教等各個領域的心理戰為一體,使心理戰成了名副其實的“心理圍剿”。
信息化戰爭中心理戰的對像也已完全突破了主要是針對軍人的傳統戰爭範圍。美國《心理作戰條令》提出:“心理作戰的全部目的在於,在國外團體和民眾中鼓動情緒,影響其態度或行為,以此支援美國的目標。”這就是說,信息化戰爭中心理戰的對象範圍,已擴大到既針對敵國作戰部隊,也針對敵國的民眾,甚至將心理戰指向與作戰對象友好的國家和地區,指向中立國和與敵國相鄰的周邊國家及整個國際社會。信息化戰爭中的心理戰還擔負著教育本國軍民,使其保持心向一致和心理穩定的任務。
方法顯現多樣性


從海灣戰爭、科索沃戰爭、阿富汗戰爭到伊拉克戰爭,美國不僅高度重視“心戰”與“兵戰”的緊密結合,而且在心理戰中還將各種方法綜合運用,使之互為補充,相得益彰,從而大大地增強了心理戰的功效。 9·11事件以後,美國大打宣傳心理戰,為反恐戰爭奠定輿論基礎。美國在做出對阿富汗出兵決策的當天,國務院即成立“宣傳小組”,利用國內各主要媒體,反复渲染美國在“9·11”中的損失,廣泛爭取民心,以形成對恐怖主義的輿論圍剿。軍事打擊前夕,美國務院又成立了“公關小組”,負責全面執行國家宣傳戰略。戰爭開始後,為爭取國際輿論的支持,美國在華盛頓、倫敦和伊斯蘭堡建立了三個“戰時新聞發布室”,及時發布所謂“真實可靠的”戰場信息,與塔利班的宣傳相抗衡。美國防部還成立了“戰略新聞辦公室”,專門砲制虛假信息,通過各種途徑向國外傳遞。在實施軍事打擊中,強化對敵心理威懾。先是調兵遣將,以壓促變。在短短的20天內,在阿富汗周邊500公里的範圍內,集結了5個航母編隊、18萬軍作戰部隊、550架作戰飛機,從空中、地面基本封鎖了阿富汗全境,其意圖是,以強大的軍事壓力威逼塔利班無條件滿足美國的要求。接著,連續打擊,以炸促變。美軍每天均出動上百架戰機對塔利班戰略與戰術目標進行連續轟炸。在空襲中,美國軍有意使用多種具有強大心理震懾作用的新式武器,如AC—130激光攻擊機,這種飛機載有新型激光武器,可以說是光閃之處,即化為灰燼,被阿富汗軍隊稱為“死亡之光”。美國防部官員曾毫不掩飾地說,主要意圖不在於完全消滅塔利班軍事力量,而是力求打垮其士氣,削弱其心理承受能力,引發“內部混亂與裂變”。
手段顯現高技術性
高新技術使心理戰手段層出不窮。在近期的幾場戰爭中,美國均利用了衛星定位測向、電視轉播技術、計算機信息處理技術、網絡技術、信號模擬和失真技術、聲像技術等高新技術手段,努力提高心理戰綜合作戰效果。據不完全統計,在伊拉克戰爭中,美國使用的軍用和民用衛星達160顆,比海灣戰爭時增加了23顆。美國的新聞媒體就是通過這些通信衛星向國內和世界發播了大量有利於己、不利於敵的戰爭信息和圖像。現在,人們可以利用計算機圖像合成技術,輕鬆地製造出諸如“某國軍隊在敵國首都廣場上列隊前進”、“某國領導人與敵國首腦秘密會談,握手言和”等虛構的照片或電視畫面,到時突然將這些“信息炸彈”射向對方軍民,以摧毀對方軍民的心理防線。人們可以利用聲像技術模擬敵方國家元首和戰場指揮員的聲音,下達錯誤的作戰命令,使敵方決策失誤、指揮陷入混亂,並可以利用這些高技術手段調節本國軍民心理,鼓舞己方士氣。 1993年,美國駐索馬里海軍陸戰隊在執行維和任務中,受到一些挫折。一次,狂風大作,沙塵暴驟起,部隊一下子混亂起來。在這個關鍵時刻,美軍部隊頭頂上突然出現了一個高達150米的耶穌圖像,美軍士兵見到後紛紛跪下,有的大驚失色,有的痛哭流涕,認為上帝確實與他們同在,他們來索馬里作戰更是“上帝的旨意”,是“為上帝而戰”。後來這個圖像存在了足足五分鐘才散去。有資料說,這是美國心理戰部隊用激光全息成像系統投影到空中的圖像,用以提高部隊的士氣。美國還十分重視利用網絡技術,進行網絡滲透、信息恐怖和心理攻擊。網絡傳播速度快,在極短的時間內,心戰信息前可達前線官兵,後可達參戰者家庭,上可影響最高決策機構,下可及普通民眾,其影響力不言而喻。伊拉克戰爭中,美國甚至組織“黑客”專家,破解伊軍方高層人物的電子郵箱密碼,發送大量電子郵件,還直接撥打伊拉克高層人物的手機,實施心理威懾和誘降。近期有一則報導,稱美軍搞了一個“666”計算機病毒,這種病毒進入電腦後,可以使屏幕反復出現一種圖像,人們反复看到這一圖像,會產生一些莫名其妙的潛在意識,導致神經錯亂、幻覺甚至死亡。
力量顯現專業性
在當代,世界各發達國家不但高度重視心理戰的運用,而且特別重視從各個層面加強心理戰的力量建設。
一是建立科學有效的組織領導機構。現在,許多國家為了有效地進行心理防禦和對外實施心理作戰,都建立了相應的心理戰組織系統。美國的心理戰體系最為完備,其統帥機構由總統心理戰顧問、參謀長聯席會議心理戰處、國防部辦公廳心理作戰部組成;中層機構由聯合司令部和戰區司令部的心理戰部門組成;下層機構由心理戰營連和心理戰小組組成。國家和軍隊自上而下統一組織和協調心理戰工作,不僅為軍事鬥爭服務,而且為國際國內政治鬥爭服務。
二是建立心理戰的科研和智囊機構。美國和一些西方國家及軍人都非常重視心理戰的研究工作,並建立研究機構,專門從事心理戰的理論和技術研究。同時還重視發揮民間“思想庫”的作用,利用各大學、科研機構和各種高級專門人才為心理戰服務。
三是建立專業化的心理戰部隊和培養心理戰專門人才。美軍有一支人數眾多的心理戰部隊,編配在陸海空部隊,其中陸軍有4個心理戰群、12個心理戰營、22個心理戰連,海軍有一個心理戰欺騙大隊,空軍有一個特種作戰聯隊用於支援心理戰活動。同時,還設立了專門的心理戰院校或專業,培養專業化的心理戰人才。在阿富汗戰爭中,美軍把兩支作戰能力最強的心理戰部隊——空軍第193特種作戰聯隊和陸軍第4心理戰大隊,部署在烏茲別克斯坦和巴基斯坦兩國,運用多種手段對塔利班展開了戰場心理進攻,如飛行廣播、投撒傳單、封鎖塔利班新聞傳播渠道等。伊拉克戰爭,美軍動用了幾乎全部現役心理戰力量,還動員和組織了民間的心理戰力量。其空軍心理戰部隊裝備有EC—130E心理戰專用飛機,能夠從時間、空間、視聽、電磁等各個維度發布心理戰信息;其陸軍心理戰部隊大多精通阿拉伯語,能夠通過電話、電子郵件、信函等遊說伊方特定人物,也能與伊拉克普遍民眾和軍人進行面對面的對話和交流。

China’s “Network-centric warfare”: let the future battlefield dominate ~ 中國“網絡中心戰”:讓未來戰場占主導地位

中國“網絡中心戰”:讓未來戰場占主導地位

China’s “Network-centric warfare”: let the future battlefield dominate

“Network-centric warfare” is an important symbol in the process of the evolution of the mechanized war form to the information war form. It is the advanced form of the joint operation of the information age. It is a new mode of warfare on the information warfare platform which is relatively “platform center war” At present, from the “network-centric warfare,” the real arrival, although there is a long distance, but with its gradual maturity and rise, will inevitably lead to revolutionary changes in the future battlefield.

Combat operations from “asynchronous” to “synchronization”

The operations of the mechanized era are the same as the production lines of the industrial age, and there is usually a clear sequence of stages, such as firepower preparation, assembly and entry, and the first echelon attack. In the sequence of operations, due to the lack of real-time information can not grasp the battlefield, let alone the information sharing between the various forces, so the process of combat, mutual action can only be pre-planned asynchronous collaboration. In the “network center war”, the entire battlefield is a “information grid”, “sensor network” and “war network” composed of interconnection, seamless connection, dynamic open integrated network, commanders at all levels through The network can continue to perceive the entire battlefield situation, the full access to the battlefield information, and the use of the network to obtain information on the rapid processing, the development of operational plans and the issuance of operational orders, combat operations at all levels of the network at the same time almost at the same time get the same information, The command and order of the superior commander, according to the “network” to act, thus a high degree of autonomy to implement operations, to achieve operational synergy with self-synchronization.

Power concentration from the “quantity” to “system”

Since ancient times, the principle of concentrated forces has been regarded as the combat power of the military forces of the golden rule. The history of large-scale naval warfare, air combat and land brigade combat, concentrated tens of thousands of troops to fight the battlefield battle case too numerous. However, in the information age, the use of combat forces will be a series of major changes. In the “network-centric warfare”, the army became a complex and large-scale integrated system consisting of a number of command and control systems, battlefield awareness systems and weapons systems, in order to manage such a system and make it most efficient And give full play to the power and potential of the system, it must be information network technology as a link to the battlefield operation of the various functional systems highly integrated, into an organic whole, the formation of a high-performance war power system. This is by the traditional number of concentration can not be achieved, we must rely on the highly integrated system. Highly integrated combat system can make the theater, battlefield, warriors at all levels through the digital network, linked into a string of closely related chain, so that a general through the screen to see the fighting scene, a soldier can also see from his monitor , And thus achieve different combat forces, different levels of command of the real joint.

Combat group from “hard link” to “soft connection”

The general joint operations, to achieve only the combat entities of the “hard” connection, and “network-centric” approach, through the computer network as the core of the wide-area distribution, seamless connection, dynamic open integrated network system, not only To achieve combat entities “hard” connection, but also to achieve “combat procedures”, “operating mechanism” of the soft connection. Therefore, the “network-centric warfare” is a high-level form of joint operations in the information age, in this battlefield, land, sea, air and other military (soldiers) kind of block-like division of the group has no practical significance, the battlefield all combat units Are integrated network system in an equivalent cell, while the perception of the various states of the battlefield. Therefore, in the “network-centric warfare” approach, the combat group structure will be more grouped by ability, according to the need for joint “useful” combination. The so-called grouping by ability, that is, to break the boundaries of military and civilian forces will have the same combat capability of the unified grouping, thus greatly reducing the arms and arms between the overlap and waste; the so-called joint need, is based on the actual needs of combat, to have different Combat capability of the troops together, the joint operations.

Logistics support from “build” to “focus”

“Network-centric warfare” under the battlefield, will show a typical multi-dimensional, non-linear and non-contact characteristics. Logistics forces to build a large number of traditional means of protection, in this battlefield environment, will appear extremely cumbersome and discomfort. And the information, materials and transportation technology into one, through the automated supply network system to track and master the flow of a variety of materials and the demand situation of the troops, the required logistical supplies in a timely manner to the strategy, campaign and tactical units of the ” Focus “logistics, will become” network-centric warfare “in the logistics of the inevitable choice.

“Network center war” mode, the entire battlefield is a computer network technology as the core of the intelligent integrated system, through a highly integrated and highly intelligent information network, can achieve information, materials and transportation technology integration; through the combat Troops on the various sites to access the computer system, the security sector can grasp the needs of combat forces in real time, the combat forces can also real-time understanding of combat materials consumption and supplement the situation, so that real-time as needed to the required direction Materials, and to keep track of the material throughout. To ensure that logistical support is more accurate, flexible and accurate in terms of time, location and quantity.

Combat mission from “stability” to “change”

On the traditional battlefield, due to the weak sense of the battlefield, from the discovery of the target to attack the target reaction is slow, combat mission allocation is mostly planned, the middle rarely change. In the “network-centric warfare” approach, due to the battlefield perception, command and control and fire strike has become a whole, from the discovery of the target to the implementation of the attack time difference is getting smaller, near real time, the commander can change the battlefield situation, at any time To carry out dynamic adjustment and redistribution of the tasks of the troops, so as to maximize the operational potential of combat troops. In the Iraq war, the US military used its advanced and powerful information and network technology to reduce the time from the discovery of the target to the completion of the attack from the Gulf War 3 days, 2 hours of the Kosovo war to tens of minutes. And the real realization of the “network-centric warfare”, the reaction time will be further reduced or even reached in seconds to calculate, which makes the commander of the battlefield can make a quick change, more sensitive response, timely and efficient command, Control and coordination, greatly improving the ability to temporarily change the operational response to the rapid response. (Liu Yushan)

“China Defense News” July 1, 2004

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“網絡中心戰”是機械化戰爭形態向信息化戰爭形態演變過程中的一個重要標誌;是信息時代聯合作戰的高級形態;是相對“平台中心戰”的信息化戰場上的一種新型作戰模式,目前,離“網絡中心戰”的真正到來雖然還有較長距離,但隨著它的逐漸成熟和崛起,必將引起未來戰場的革命性變革。
作戰行動由“異步”轉向“同步”
機械化時代的作戰行動與工業時代的流水線生產一樣,通常是有明顯階段性的順序,如依次進行火力準備、集結與開進、第一梯隊發起攻擊等。在順序作戰中,由於無法掌握戰場實時信息,更談不上各部隊之間信息共享,因而作戰過程中,相互之間的行動只能按預先計劃進行異步協同。而在“網絡中心戰”中,整個戰場是一個由“信息柵網”、“傳感器網”和“交戰網”組成的互連互通,無縫連接,動態開放的綜合網絡,各級指揮員通過網絡能夠持續不斷地感知整個戰場態勢,全面獲取戰場信息,並利用網絡對獲取的信息進行快速處理,制定作戰計劃和發布作戰命令,各級作戰部隊通過網絡幾乎可在同時獲得同樣的信息,了解上級指揮員的意圖和指令,依“網”行事,從而高度自主地實施作戰,實現作戰協同自我同步。
力量集中由“數量”轉向“系統”
自古以來,集中兵力原則一直被兵家奉為作戰力量運用的金科玉律。歷史上大規模海戰、空戰和陸上大兵團作戰,集中成千上萬部隊進行戰場廝殺的戰例不勝枚舉。然而,在信息時代,作戰力量的運用將發生一系列重大變化。在“網絡中心戰”中,軍隊成為了一個由眾多指揮控制系統、戰場感知系統和打擊武器系統等構成的複雜而又龐大的綜合體系,要想駛馭這樣一個體系,使之最有效地運轉並充分發揮各系統的威力和潛能,就必須以信息化網絡技術為紐帶,把戰場運行中的各個功能係統高度集成,聯結成一個有機的整體,形成一種高效能的戰爭力量體系。這一點靠傳統的數量集中是無法實現的,必須依靠系統的高度集成。高度集成化的作戰系統可使戰區、戰場、戰士各個層面通過數字化網絡,聯結成一串息息相關的鏈條,使一個將軍通過視屏所看到的戰鬥景象,一個士兵也同樣能從他的顯示器中看到,進而實現不同作戰力量、不同指揮層次的真正聯合。
作戰編組由“硬聯接”轉向“軟聯接”
一般的聯合作戰,實現的只是各作戰實體的“硬”連接,而“網絡中心戰” 方式下,通過以計算機網絡為核心的廣域分佈,無縫連接,動態開放的綜合網絡系統,不僅可實現作戰實體的“硬”連接,而且可實現“作戰程序”、“運行機制”的軟連接。因此,“網絡中心戰”是信息時代聯合作戰的高級形態,在這種戰場上,陸、海、空等各軍(兵)種條塊式的區分編組已無實際意義,戰場上所有作戰單元都是綜合網絡系統裡的一個等同的細胞,同時感知著戰場的各種狀態。因此,在“網絡中心戰”方式下,作戰編組結構更多的將是按能力編組、按需要聯合的“有用”組合。所謂按能力編組,就是打破軍兵種界限將具備同樣作戰能力的部隊統一進行編組,從而大大減少各軍兵種力量之間的重疊和浪費;所謂按需要聯合,就是根據作戰的實際需要,把具備不同作戰能力的部隊組合起來,進行聯合作戰。
後勤保障由“集結”轉向“聚焦”

“網絡中心戰”下的戰場,將呈現出典型的多維性、非線性和非接觸性特點。後勤部隊大量集結進行保障的傳統方式,在這種戰場環境下,將顯得極為笨重和不適。而將信息、物資和運輸技術融為一體,通過自動化補給網絡系統,跟踪和掌握多種物資的流動和部隊的需求狀況,將所需的後勤物資及時發放到各戰略、戰役及戰術單位的“聚焦”式後勤,將成為“網絡中心戰”中後勤保障的必然選擇。
“網絡中心戰”方式下,整個戰場是一個以計算機網絡技術為核心的智能化的綜合系統,通過高度集成和高度智能化的信息網絡,可實現信息、物資和運輸技術一體化;通過在作戰部隊機動的各個站點上接入計算機系統,可使保障部門實時掌握作戰部隊的需要,作戰部隊也能實時了解作戰中物資的消耗和補充情況,從而做到實時按需要向多個所需方向運送物資,並保持對物資的全程跟踪。確保後勤保障在時間上、地點上和數量上的精確,使後勤保障更加及時、靈活和準確。
作戰任務由“穩定”轉向“多變”
傳統戰場上,由於戰場感知能力弱、從發現目標到攻擊目標反應慢,作戰任務分配多是預先計劃,中間很少有變。而在“網絡中心戰”方式下,由於戰場感知、指揮控制和火力打擊已成為一個整體,從發現目標到實施攻擊的時差越來越小,近乎實時,指揮員可以根據戰場態勢的變化,隨時對部隊的任務進行動態的調整和重新分配,從而最大限度地發揮作戰部隊的作戰潛能。伊拉克戰爭中,美軍運用其先進和強大的信息及網絡技術,使戰場上從發現目標到完成攻擊的時間從海灣戰爭時的3天,科索沃戰爭時的2小時縮短至幾十分鐘。而真正實現“網絡中心戰”後,這一反應時間還會進一步縮短甚至達到以秒來計算,這使得指揮員可對戰場的瞬息變化作出更快、更靈敏的反應,及時高效地進行指揮、控制與協調,大大提高臨時改變作戰計劃的快速反應能力。 (劉玉山)
《中國國防報》 2004年07月01日

互聯網”的混沌與網絡空間的迷茫 ~ China’s Internet – creating chaos and confusion in cyberspace

互聯網”的混沌與網絡空間的迷茫

China’s Internet – creating chaos and confusion in cyberspace

One, chaotic “internet”

1 , from the Apache network to the “Internet”

“Internet” What is the network? China has no “Internet”? The world whether there is no “Internet”? This is not a problem, due to language and cultural expression and understanding of different interests due to the scope and purpose of the different Academic research conditions and the different atmosphere, and so on, these years more and more chaotic. “Internet”, “Internet”, “Internet”, “Mobile Internet”, “Internet Finance”, “Internet +” … … and so on, what are linked to a “Internet”, “Internet” has become a fashion term.

Today’s world has become the “Internet” encompasses the world of the world, in addition to what are “the Internet” that an “Internet”, many people do not know there is no other network, but also can not have other networks, why There are other networks. “Internet” in the end is a network or should be more than one network? Recognize the chaos, chaos awareness, are derived from this.

In 1969, Dr. Xu became the first member of the internetwork at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and later became the only senior vice president of Chinese lab in the history of Bell Labs, Institute of Engineers (IEEE) academician, has been known as the US network communications industry, “the first Chinese.” In 2004, Mr. Xu told me that people today are keen on the “Internet”, the predecessor of the ARPANET (ARPANET), the US government based on the defense considerations to the university to study the large computer mutual communication of an experimental network, 20 years of innovation and improvement from a network.

In 1970, the American Information Processing Association defined the computer network as “a collection of computer systems with separate functions that could be shared in a way that shared resources (hardware, software, data, etc.).” The definition of this computer network in the United States, perhaps regarded as the earliest from the United States “Internet” definition?

2 , two network architecture

In the 1950s, the United States established a semi-automatic ground air defense system (SAGE, Chinese translation “赛 Qi”), the computer technology and communication technology combined application attempt. In the early 1960s, the American Air Ticket Booking System (SABRE-1) consisted of a central computer and more than 2,000 terminals distributed across the United States to form a computer communication network, enabling the terminals to connect to the central computer via telephone lines on a larger scale Of the typical application. This is a single computer-centric, through the multi-line controller and remote terminal connected to the online system, known as the terminal-based remote online system, that is, early computer network.

At the end of the 20th century, the International Organization for Standardization ISO standardization of computer and information processing technology committee to study and develop network communication standards to achieve the international standardization of network architecture. In 1984, ISO formally promulgated the International Standard ISO 7498, referred to as the “Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model”, referred to as the OSI RM (Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model), the famous OSI seven-layer model. OSI RM and standard protocol development and improvement to promote a unified, open network architecture, greatly accelerating the development of computer networks.

However, the United States does not put ISO in the eyes, insist on arbitrary. In 1983, the United States in the Apache network officially launched TCP / IP protocol to replace the original NCP network control protocol, and then the formation of the Internet (Internet). For more than 30 years, the United States has used its technology, economy and military advantages to implement the Internet’s Internet-wide network strategy. The Internet Task Force (ICANN) is naked to put forward the slogan of “the same world, the same Internet”. The Obama administration is also praised “the Internet is unique in the international environment.” As a result, the Internet by the United States and its dormant countries in the iron powder are relish for the “Internet”.

In fact, the Internet is the United States to develop rules, control the exchange, monitoring information of a computer network architecture, does not fully comply with the International Organization for Standardization ISO officially issued OSI RM requirements. In other words, there are two dominant network architectures in the world: one is the OSI RM (open system interconnection reference model) proposed by the ISO, and the other is the use and pushing of the Internet. TCP / IP RM (TCP / IP reference model). The fundamental difference between the two models is that OSI RM to promote the global computer network open system interconnection, TCP / IP forced all the world’s computer terminals are connected to the Internet one network; ISO is committed to all countries, various types of computer network system The interconnection between the United States stressed that the computer between the end of the exchange of information between the end.

3 , “Internet” definition

So far, the scientific and technological circles, academia, education, industry and commerce, there is no uniform, clear, accurate and standardized Internet definition. Here the Chinese Internet, referring to the Internet as early as July 18, 1997 by the State Council authorized by the National Science and Technology Nomenclature Committee clear English internetwork, rather than the Internet.

Some people following the US Internet strategy insist that “the Internet is the Internet,” “China is the Internet translated into the Internet.” This is not a scientific, academic definition, nor is it from the academicians and “authority” of the mouth, more like an unidentified “Ah Q” said.

Or Obama frankly. “Through the Internet connection, the US company’s business can be extended to any place in the world to create countless jobs and opportunities for the American people,” he said in the preface to the International Strategy for cyberspace, published in the White House, “The Internet itself can not open a new era of international cooperation.”

Internet, Internet from English. As a proper noun, it refers to the use of TCP / IP communication protocol of a computer system, and the system provides information, services and users. The Internet requires that the user (the terminal) use the specified domain name and address for information exchange within the defined Internet framework in accordance with its specific rules, which is excluded and closed to the network using other communication protocols, or simply replace it.

Some people say that the definition of the Internet, English should be “a computer network forming of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP / IP network protocols to facilit data transmission and exchange.” Translated into Chinese, is “by a use of TCP / IP Network protocol to promote data transmission and exchange of computer networks composed of a global network. “Please note that this” definition “is very clear:

First, you must use the TCP / IP protocol;

Second, must be the same use of TCP / IP protocol composed of computer networks;

Third, must be in the TCP / IP protocol on the basis of a global network.

Around a long circle around the same circle, or “use TCP / IP protocol computer network”! Can only accept and use TCP / IP with a protocol, the same type of rules, in the same network space for transmission and exchange Of the network, which is not the Internet? How to become the “Internet” in the end is a dull chaos, or chaos led to a dull?

It is said that in the foreign literature, the Internet is described as “no leadership, no law, no political, no army … … incredible social organizational structure.” Dare to ask the US government to the global implementation of such a network structure is what is it? Is to ensure that to induce or force countries, regions, organizations and each use of computers around the world users have succumbed to the Internet, subject to, The United States?

It was argued that, from a general point of view, the definition of the Internet should include three aspects, namely:

– is a TCP / IP protocol based on the network;

– is a computer users of the network group, the user in the use of network resources at the same time, but also for the development and expansion of the network contribute;

– is a collection of all the information resources that can be accessed and used.

The question is whether or not the other computer networks that do not use or do not apply the TCP / IP protocol exist. Is it allowed to exist? Should it exist? Use different protocols The interconnection, convergence, exchange between networks is not the Internet, is it interconnected? Even if the same from the TCP / IP protocol network, IPV6 and IPV4 network is the relationship between the interconnection, or the upgrading of the relationship between China’s national intellectual property rights of IPV9 and the United States have intellectual property IPV6, IPV4 network, is the sovereign equality of network interconnection, or technology-compatible coverage of the alternative relationship? If the realization of IPV9, V6, V4 technology system network of mutual integration and sharing co-governance, which is the Internet? It is only the Internet To the future of the network of technological progress?

According to the above Internet, the definition and statement of the Internet, China only has a network within the Internet framework, there is no consistent with the national sovereignty, consistent with the public network, there is no interconnection with non-sovereign public Internet (internetwork).

The concept of “the Internet is the Internet” that the Americans themselves can not say clearly define, in recent years, have appeared in China’s strategic, planned, decision-making documents and media coverage. Some “authorities” who take the opportunity to hustle and dust, constantly extending, expanding, distorting, fabricating its connotation and extension, it is chilling. If only by the United States 忽悠, but also not detained our independent innovation thinking, and will not be able to reverse and adjust the decision-making mistakes and mistakes strategy. If we themselves fool yourself, self-deception, does not mean that we know the chaos has been deep mud, it is difficult to extricate themselves?

Second, the confusion and confusion of cyberspace

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1 , the Internet constitutes the network space

With the approval of the Central Network Security and Information Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office published the “National Network Space Security Strategy”, which was first published by “Internet, Communication Network, Computer System, Automated Control System, Digital Equipment and Its Bearer Which is “a new area of ​​human activity that is important to land, sea, sky and space. National sovereignty extension extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty becomes An important part of national sovereignty.

What is the “Internet” mentioned above? Refers to the network of Internet coverage of a global network of space or the world’s multiple sovereign network interconnection of the network space formed? This problem is not clear, people’s cyberspace awareness, Recognize and identify the ability to distinguish still deep chaos, confusion and confusion.

The Internet is the Internet, in order to achieve the exchange of information between the terminal and the terminal in a network within the framework of the formation of a joint network of space; the Internet is the Internet, is a number of different types of networks in order to share the purpose of mutual benefit Interconnected network space. The Internet and the Internet constitute the integration of the network space, inclusive of common, but also the existence of their own specific and specific rules, categories, ecological and other characteristics. Different cyberspace can not be generalized, confused. Our knowledge should not be disturbed more and more chaos.

Different network space is the most fundamental, the most typical characteristic difference is that countries in the Internet (internetwork) under the framework of sovereignty can not be changed, can not cover up, irreversible, can only be between the sovereignty of the handshake, shake hands, In contrast, bullying. The sovereignty of the Internet is only one, that is, the United States a unique sovereignty, or hegemony. Within the framework of the Internet, any country’s sovereignty has been unilaterally formulated and closely governed by the United States, the scope and the shackles and shackles of ecology, and have to let the United States and its allies (such as Japan) violate, penetrate, , To play, to play in the applause.

In particular, the need for deep and clear, highly important is the dissemination of information, economic development, prosperity, culture, governance, cooperation and exchanges, not the Internet patent, the national sovereign network can also be implemented and implemented, based on national sovereign cyberspace Internet interconnection may do better. The use of the Internet in the United States a network of technical systems and means to bypass the national network of sovereignty, governance and legal rights, is leading to the sovereign cyberspace security is the biggest source of security, is the sovereign state of the greatest threat to security, The most destabilizing factors that endanger the peace, stability and national unity of the sovereign states. In the Internet, there is no country with the country’s diplomacy, there is no equal and mutual respect for international cooperation, only the United States a dominance, a strong, one dominate, one of the words have the final say. In the framework of such a network, with the United States to talk about the rules, stresses the principle of governance, on the Pratt & Whitney, not with the tiger skin, dance with the wolf? How can the United States take their own national interests to share with other countries, to sell their own network sovereignty To allow other countries to rival the country’s cyberspace “sovereignty in me, not subject to people”, if subject to the people, will be subject to chaos, will suffer! The truth, Iran understand, Germany understand that Russia understands that many countries understand. Over the years, from Asia, the Americas, the Middle East to the EU lessons one by one, we have no reason not to understand, do not accept the lesson?

2 , cyber space sovereignty belongs to the United States

Some people say that cyberspace is cyberspace, that the English Cyberspace is internetwork. If the two English words is entirely a meaning, pointing to the same category of words, why have to be divided into how to see, how to read, how to write can not stand on the two words, speak English foreigners tired tired!

It is said that Cyberspace translated into Chinese cyberspace is more meaningful. Some people say that the US Presidential Decree on Cyberspace’s definition shows that “the Internet is an important infrastructure for cyberspace,” “Internet computers are the most basic elements of Cyberspace,” “Internet + is the Internet’s most important move to cyberspace ”

Here the “Internet”, obviously refers to the Internet that Internet, “Internet +” is the Internet +. There is also a dizzy chaos: the Internet or “Internet” does not constitute cyberspace, the Internet or “Internet” is only Cyberspace this cyberspace infrastructure? “Internet +” is only the Internet to Cyberspace this Network space expansion of an important action, but also does not belong to the network space?

English Cyberspace Chinese literal translation, is cyberspace. 2008 President of the United States President Bush issued the Presidential Decree No. 8 (NSPD) / 23 Homeland Security Presidential Decree, the Chinese translation of cyberspace definition is: “a global domain in the information environment, by independent and interdependent information Technology infrastructure network, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems and embedded processors and controllers, etc. “This seemingly rigorous definition defines cyberspace as a global information environment, encompassing all of the world’s” information technology Infrastructure network “. US Air Force Chief of Staff said the cyber space encompasses everything from “direct current to visible light”. To say that, or the Internet a network of the world that the concept of a replica, for a noun, changed the argument only, not the right.

This definition can be seen almost as an American imperial edict to declare war on all sovereignty over the world. The definition does not recognize the resources, conditions and foundations of countries to build and develop sovereign cyberspace, and first incorporate all kinds of network infrastructures into the category of cyber cyberspace. The definition is preemptively bundled with political, economic, military and cultural Hands and feet of the “certain rules”, thrown out of the national scientists, strategists in the future development of the field of network innovation voyage cable; the definition of only state officials set fire to the people not allowed to light, domineering, ambition, aggressive.

3 , Internet sovereignty and power confused

Although the OSI RM (Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model) proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is one of the two dominant network architectures in the world, these years have not resulted in large-scale market applications. Some people think that the model exists level and content is not the best, the session layer and presentation layer is almost empty, the corresponding service definition and protocol complexity and other technical shortcomings.

And the obvious and unsafe problems caused by the inherent lack of Internet technology have been widely concerned by countries and international organizations. Fundamentally change the Internet’s single control center framework, TCP / IP protocol, identity and security authentication mechanism, has become a major global key core technology innovation research topics.

Perhaps because of this, the current countries have not yet formed in the sovereign cyberspace based on the construction of the global Internet (internetwork) conditions, resources and support, not the ability and the Internet “zhongjiang governance”, “equally”, “shared peace” Can only “send people”, in access to the Internet, rent Internet services, to prevent excessive penetration of the Internet and so on, put huge costs and bargaining with the United States to try to minimize harm and loss. Countries are equally involved in Internet governance, equitable distribution of Internet infrastructure resources, common management of Internet root servers and other key information infrastructure, to strengthen the representation and voice of developing countries, like slogans, and like a mirage, shouting fills, and can not reach.

In the framework of the United States Internet within a network, in the United States cyberspace sovereignty and security under the serious deterrence, the peaceful development of the theme of cyberspace international cooperation strategy is likely to only wishful thinking, the premise and the foundation is wrong, direction and route Biased The United States and the rest of the world continue to lag behind the United States in the network space, subject to the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, Succumbed to the United States, and will actually lose cyberspace sovereignty, loss of development opportunities and strategic opportunities, more harm than good, regret not the beginning.

4 , cyberspace international cooperation trade-offs

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Corresponding to the Chinese cyberspace English is Net Space, the scientific definition is: information infrastructure to connect, cover and carry information processing space-time domain.

This definition specifies the most common commonality of the Internet, the Internet, cyberspace, and any other cyberspace, not to the will of a particular country or interest, not limited to a particular network, Country to build the network space.

With this definition as a prerequisite to support countries to strengthen the construction and development of sovereign cyberspace, to promote the international community in a spirit of mutual respect for dialogue and cooperation, have the resources to protect the public in the cyberspace of the right to know, participation, expression, supervision Rights and conditions to build a multilateral, democratic and transparent global network space management system, it is possible to achieve scientific and rational, fair and orderly, equal and reciprocal, security checks and balances of international cooperation in cyberspace.

China in the supercomputer development, aerospace computer system applications, etc. has been rushed in the forefront of the world, can be compatible with IPV6 and IPV4 IPV9 technical system test run test is satisfactory. Russia in the domestic network information control and prevention of foreign network invasion and so has accumulated a good experience, the establishment of a good system. The EU has embarked on a potential threat to the Internet and is committed to building an autonomous cyberspace system. More and more countries put forward cyber space sovereignty demands, in favor of Xi Jinping President “jointly build cyberspace fate community” claims.

In the current limited conditions, the basis and the expected prospects, China’s international cooperation in cyberspace initiatives should be able to assess the situation, do what, careful operation, not rushed into the routines of other countries. Should be single-handedly with the United States and other countries to negotiate international Internet space governance diplomacy, a rainy day, one hand to build the power of the United States enough to balance the US Internet and cyberspace of China’s sovereign public network system. At the same time, take decisive and resolute measures to resolutely deal with domestic and foreign network security risks and threats, and resolutely punish the network of criminal activities, and resolutely crack down on China’s cyberspace sovereignty, betrayal of national and national interests, resolutely correct long passive Cyberspace following strategy and strategy.

Third, the world cyberspace security situation

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The US Internet-dominated world cyberspace security situation is increasingly grim. Wearing the “Internet” caps of the Internet security problems riddled with more and more countries to become difficult to save the network of ills and long-lasting “heart disease.”

According to the “China cyberspace security report (2016)” Blue Book, since 2015, based on the Internet and cyber space network conflict and attack, become the main form of confrontation between countries. Russia Kaspersky accused the United States “Formula Group” through the implantation of spyware, infected Iran, Russia, China, more than 30 countries such as military, financial, energy and other key sectors of the tens of thousands of computers. Iran says it has thwarted the United States’ cyber attacks on its oil sector. Italy “Hacking Team” more than 400G of the company’s data was open and found that the United States, Morocco, Ethiopia and other institutions in more than 20 countries to buy a network of spy and vulnerability tools. The company blames Russia’s “APT28” organization for exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities to attack NATO and US defense agencies.

Blue Book Disclosure, the United States set up “Network Threat Intelligence Integration Center”, and expand the State Council “Anti-Terrorism Strategy Information Center” scale, the CIA set up “Digital Innovation Department” to strengthen the network intelligence gathering capacity. The US Department of Defense launched a network security incubator program, the British government to expand its network security research capabilities, the US Navy prepared offensive network action, NATO announced the preparation of mixed network warfare, countries focus on network attack and defense and hard and soft strength, and strive to security and attack Ability to enhance the two-way. Media disclosure, the world has more than 50 countries set up a network warfare forces, the global cyberspace “military race” escalating.

According to the disclosure, relying on the United States Internet technology, agreements and infrastructure development developed “China Internet”, government, banking, energy and other vital departments of the network information system generally can not achieve safe and controllable, the domestic industrial control system is ” Security loopholes. ” 2015 appears Alipay, Ctrip data loss, Netease e-mail leakage and other troubles, in recent years through SMS, WeChat implementation of financial fraud every day in a large number of occur. Minister of Industry and Trade Miao Wei told reporters that now an average of one month to search for 173 million telecommunications fraud information.

According to the “National Internet Information Center”, “Network Security Information and Dynamic Weekly”, February 13, 20-19, the number of domestic infected network virus host 400,000 units, up 6.6% over last week; territory was implanted back door Of the government website rose 47.1%; for the domestic website of the number of counterfeit pages increased by 165.2%; new information security high-risk loopholes rose 26.2%. Monitoring found that the source of network virus transmission to the site of the horse, involving 68 domain names in 30.9% for overseas registration, and the top domain for the .com about 83.8%, most of the horse site through the domain name to visit the implementation of the virus spread.

National Defense University professor Dai Xu pointed out that today’s world has been in a “network”. Changes in the military field have taken place. From the sensor as the core, to electromagnetic space as the boundary of the electronic information warfare (which can be called “telecommunications war”), to the network as the core, to the psychological space for the characteristics of the network, psychological warfare (can be called “network Heart war “),” network “into the basic characteristics of the seventh generation of war, is becoming the main battle of the big country game. China’s traditional strategic advantage is becoming the focus of opponents crack, China once again in a natural barrier can rely on the dangerous situation, the face of being blackmail the state of the network. The traditional cognitive system of war and anti-war requires urgent upgrading. In the new era of mixed warfare of the network, China must also have the ability to hold the “bull nose” of the times.

Fourth, the history of sovereign cyberspace

1 , “cyber space” alert the world

The United States carefully thrown out the “cyberspace” theory, self-righteous, and then without hesitation in its delineation of the “cyber space that cyberspace” large-scale global information monitoring, network war deployment and network information intelligence collection And plunder, etc., alert the world’s scientists, economists, military scientists, socialists and businessmen, politicians, people and so on. People suddenly realized that “the Internet is the Internet” and “cyber space is cyberspace” exactly the same. In the final analysis, the superpower capitalist hegemony of the United States regarded himself as the head of the “global village” and regarded “economic globalization” as “selfish”. “I am my, you or my, this earth on the land and sea sky all everything is my” – this is the real United States, which is all the interests of the United States. The United States, is so arrogant unreasonable.

However, reality and science have repeatedly verified that cyberspace is only a type of network that exists in a variety of independent runs, and is part of a space for different types of networks that are different in technology, different in purpose, and for different purposes. Cyberspace is not equal to cyberspace, cyberspace covers cyberspace, cyberspace is a subset of cyberspace.

Since the performance of the United States sovereignty and interests of cyber space, indicating that all constitute a subset of cyberspace, all countries and areas of the network space, have their sovereignty and interests of the demands. Iran, Russia, Germany, China and so on the EU and so on, should have, there must be, otherwise there is no construction of “cyberspace fate community,” the basic conditions and the necessary basis for peace, sharing, co-governance, win-win International cyberspace is out of the question.

In this way, to strengthen the national sovereignty network construction and development, build and maintain their own security and stability, national unity, and promote the prosperity of the domestic community of sovereign cyberspace, become a sovereign state important event. This is the common responsibility of the United Nations, the United States and the world’s sovereign States. “Cyber ​​space” deter the world, is the United States contempt for the world’s cyberspace strategy of the major errors; any follow the US Internet, cyber space strategy decisions and initiatives, will be lost in the direction of major mistakes.

2 , Internet space strategy has been put on the agenda

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Network space (Net Space), is the space-time system created by mankind, is the generic name of the concept, is the information processing and exchange of bearing space. It summarizes the three elements that make up the cyberspace: attributes, connection coverage, and the ability to carry processing information. Regardless of the financial network, enterprise network, government network, regardless of the Internet, Internet, Internet, regardless of land-based network, aviation network, space network, regardless of cable network, wireless network, quantum network, regardless of public or private network related services Providers and operators of private access networks, and so on, there are independent connections to cover the space-time domain and bearer processing exchange of different information on the network space.

The cyberspace has not been able to rigorously, regulate and accurately reflect and embrace all of its inherent characteristics, and extend the scope of the cyber space in the new network space. The conditions and the basis for the development of the law of change. This network and the network between the super network space, inspired the “Internet space” (Nets Space) doctrine. Internet space is an integrated domain of cyberspace.

Standing in the Internet space height, depth and breadth of the full dimension, full view of cyberspace, our vision will be wider and farther and clearer, our thinking will be easier to jump out yesterday and today, looking to tomorrow, we will from the Internet , “Internet”, cyber space caused by chaos in the liberation of ideas, out of a computer network era beyond the new path of the human information society.

A network space, wireless networks, quantum communication, space networks and other interconnected, interactive, interdependent constitute the era of Internet space, has come and is entering a more advanced stage. The rise of China’s cyberspace strategy will inevitably lead to the rise of revolutionary thought, the rise of science and technology, the rise of economy, the rise of the nation, the rise of the country, the benefit of future generations, the impact and drive the global human society by leaps and bounds.

Internet space strategy and technical preparation has been put on the agenda, the best time may be in front of and in the next few years. China can not seize the opportunity to seize the opportunity to go beyond the United States to lead the new super cyberspace – Internet space era, to seize the day and night, to now move from scratch, to the number of romantic figures, but also to see the current.

3 , the development of Internet space to be the power of the whole country

The United States to push the country to push the Internet, push IPV6, push the Bo space, leading to chaos in the country and confused at the same time, but also indeed created a remarkable network technology, network economy and network military glory.

China has become the world’s second largest economy. China is fully capable, conditional and confident to develop the international space strategy and technology with the power of the whole country.

Ideological emancipation, institutional reform is China’s reform and opening up since the two initiatives complement each other. From this start, it is recommended:

⑴ the establishment of the CPC Central Committee, the National People’s Congress, the State Council and the CPPCC under the leadership and under the constraints of a highly authoritative, rule of law and error correction mechanism and error correction mechanism, and resolutely put an end to the confusion and decision-making road.

A small number of follow the United States, “experts”, “authority” long-term impact and intervention in the national network of information authorities who also a number of “one speech” strange thing, no longer allow, exist and continue, and must be resolutely reversed and broken.

Should immediately resolutely correct the “comprehensive introduction, upgrading, the deployment of IPV6” major strategic decision-making and planning mistakes, abolished with the United States signed all the hazards and endanger China’s cyberspace sovereignty and security of the unequal agreement; cyberspace field investment projects one by one The implementation of the audit and post-evaluation, obviously “for others to marry clothes,” all shut down and turn.

(2) The State encourages and supports the construction, development and maintenance of a sovereign public network on the basis of the premise and national ownership of intellectual property rights.

Should be clearly in the United States based on the current “Internet”, the construction of independent development of the Chinese public network and other sovereign public network and provide services, the people have the right to use the sovereign public network and non-sovereign public network rights. The state should introduce the tendency of the incentive policies and measures to allow the sovereign public network using IPV9, Zheng code, Tao Chen code, CFL safety certification, MISC, and so on with national independent intellectual property rights technology. Actively build, develop and maintain the domestic independent operation of the multi-network constitute the Internet, can build a global network space fate community to explore the model, the accumulation of experience and create the conditions.

(3) to seize the opportunity to create a national-led, social participation, private operation of the “Internet Space Research Institute”, all-round, multi-dimensional, deep-level research and development of Internet space technology and development of development strategies and strategies to create a world-class training of Internet space talent base , Build the sovereign network / future network / Internet space experiment, test the system application environment, explore and solve the sovereign network, cyberspace and the development of Internet space in various problems, strides in the lead in the forefront of the development of Internet space.

(4) First of all, with Russia, Iran, Germany, the European Union and other countries committed to the development, development and maintenance of their own sovereign cyberspace and actively organize the construction of cyberspace destiny community communication, exchange, negotiation and cooperation, joint multi- The United States is the main negotiator.

Clear the chaos, swing confused, we will no longer be subject to the people, let the mercy, we will be firmly into the era of cyberspace, we will be far-sighted toward the future of Internet space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

一、混沌的“互聯網”

1、從阿帕網到“互聯網”

“互聯網”究竟是什麼網?中國究竟有沒有“互聯網”?世界究竟有沒有“互聯網”?這本不是問題的問題,由於語言文化表達和理解的不同,由於利益追求範圍和目的的不同,由於學術研究條件和氛圍的不同,等等,這些年越來越顯得混沌不清。 “互聯網”、“中國互聯網”,“國際互聯網”、“移動互聯網”、“互聯網金融”、“互聯網+”……等等,什麼都掛上個“互聯網”,“互聯網”竟成為時尚用語。

今天的世界儼然成了“互聯網”囊括天下的世界,除了什麼都是“the Internet”那一張“互聯網”,許多人都不知道還有沒有其它網,還能不能有其它網,為什麼還會有其它網?。 “互聯網”到底是一張網?還是應該不止一張網?認識的混沌,混沌的認識,皆源於此。

1969年,許浚博士成為在美國加州大學洛杉磯分校(UCLA)實驗室誕生的第一個互聯網絡(internetwork)的研究成員,他後來成為貝爾實驗室歷史上唯一的華裔高級副總裁,美國電子電氣工程師學會(IEEE)院士,曾被譽為美國網絡通信界“第一華人”。 2004年,許先生告訴我,人們今天熱衷的“互聯網”,前身是阿帕網(ARPANET),是美國政府基於國防上的考量出錢給高校研究的大型計算機互相通信的一個實驗網,又經過20多年的創新和改進而來的一張網。

1970年,美國信息處理協會將計算機網絡定義為“以能夠共享資源(硬件、軟件和數據等)的方式連接起來,並且各自具備獨立功能的計算機系統之集合”。這個計算機網絡的美國定義,也許算是最早來自美國的“互聯網”定義?

2、兩張網絡體系結構

20世紀50年代,美國建立了一個半自動的地面防空系統(SAGE,中文譯作“賽琪”),進行了計算機技術與通信技術相結合的應用嘗試。 60年代初,美國航空訂票系統(SABRE-1)由一台中心計算機和分佈在全美範圍內的2000多個終端組成計算機通信網絡,更大規模地實現了各終端通過電話線連接到中心計算機的典型應用。這種以單個計算機為中心、通過多重線路控制器與遠程終端相連接的聯機系統,被稱做面向終端的遠程聯機系統,即早期的計算機網絡。

20世紀70年代末,國際標準化組織ISO的計算機與信息處理標準化技術委員會著手研究和製定網絡通信標準,以實現網絡體系結構的國際標準化。 1984年,ISO正式頒布了稱為“開放系統互連基本參考模型”的國際標準ISO 7498,簡稱OSI RM(Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model),即著名的OSI七層模型。 OSI RM及標準協議的製定和完善推動了統一、開放的網絡體系結構,大大加速了計算機網絡的發展。

但是,美國並不把ISO放在眼裡,堅持獨斷專行。 1983年,美國在阿帕網中正式推出TCP/IP協議取代原有的NCP網絡控制協議,進而形成因特網(Internet)。 30多年來,美國利用其科技、經濟和軍事優勢,以舉國之力推行因特網一張網連接覆蓋全球的戰略。美國因特網任務工作組(ICANN)赤裸裸地提出“同一個世界,同一個因特網”的蠱惑人心口號。奧巴馬政府更是讚譽“因特網在國際環境中獨樹一幟”。由此,因特網被美國及其蟄伏在各國的鐵粉們津津樂道為“互聯網”。

實際上,因特網就是美國製定規則、控制交換、監控信息的一種計算機網絡體系結構,並不完全符合國際標準組織ISO正式頒布的OSI RM的要求。也就是說,目前世界上存在著兩種占主導地位的網絡體系結構:一種是國際標準化組織ISO提出的OSI RM(開放式系統互連參考模型);另一種是因特網使用和力推的TCP/IP RM(TCP/IP參考模型)。兩種模型的根本區別在於,OSI RM推動全球計算機網絡開放式系統互連,TCP/IP迫使世界所有計算機終端都接入因特網一張網之中;ISO致力於各國、各種類型的計算機網絡系統之間的相互連接,美國強調的是計算機端對端之間的信息互通。

3、“互聯網”的定義

迄今,各國科技界、學術界、教育界、工商界,沒有統一、清晰、準確、規範的互聯網定義。這裡的中文互聯網,指的是早在1997年7月18日就經我國國務院授權的全國科學技術名詞審定委員會明確的英文internetwork,而不是Internet。

追隨美國因特網一張網戰略的某些人堅持說,“因特網就是互聯網”,“中國就是將因特網翻譯成互聯網”。這不是科學的、學術的定義,也不像是出自院士和“權威”之口,更像是不明事理的“阿Q”之說。

還是奧巴馬坦誠。他在白宮發表的《網絡空間國際戰略》的序言裡說,“通過因特網連接,美國公司的業務可以延伸至全球任何一個地方,為美國民眾創造無以計數的就業崗位和機會”,他承認, “因特網本身無法開啟國際合作的新紀元。”

因特網,源自英文的Internet。作為專有名詞,它所指的是使用TCP/IP通訊協議的一種計算機系統,以及這個系統所提供的信息、服務與用戶。因特網要求用戶(終端)按照其特定的規則在限定的因特網框架內使用指定的域名和地址進行信息交換,它對採用其它通訊協議的網絡是排斥和封閉的,或者乾脆越俎代庖、取而代之。

有人說,因特網的定義,英文應該是“a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.”翻譯成中文,就是“一個由使用TCP / IP網絡協議促進數據傳輸和交換的計算機網絡組成的全球網絡。”請注意,這個“定義”說得很明確:

第一,必須使用TCP/IP協議;

第二,必須是同樣使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡組成;

第三,必須是在TCP/IP協議基礎上構成的全球一張網絡。

繞了這麼長一個繞口令一般的圈子,歸齊還是“使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡”!只能接受和使用TCP/IP同一種協議、同一類規則、在同一個網絡空間內進行傳輸與交換的網絡,這不還是因特網嗎?怎麼就成了“互聯網”了?到底是愚鈍產生了混沌,還是混沌導致了愚鈍?

有人說,在國外的文獻中,因特網被描述成“沒有領導、沒有法律、沒有政治、沒有軍隊……的不可思議的社會組織結構”。敢問,美國政府向全球推行這樣的網絡結構是何居心呢?是確保、誘導或迫使各國、各地區、各組織以及每個使用計算機的世界各地用戶都通過因特網屈從於、受制於、聽命於美國嗎?

有人說,從一般的角度認為,因特網的定義應包括三個方面內容,即:

——是一個基於TCP/IP協議的網絡;

——是一個計算機用戶的網絡集團,用戶在使用網絡資源的同時,也為網絡的發展壯大貢獻力量;

——是所有可被訪問和利用的信息資源的集合。

問題在於,不使用或者不適用TCP/IP協議的其它計算機網絡是否存在?是否允許存在?是否應該存在?使用不同協議網絡之間相互連接、融合、交換構成的是不是互聯網、是不是互連互通的網絡空間?即便同樣源於TCP/IP協議的網絡,IPV6與IPV4網絡之間是互連互通的關係,還是升級換代的關係?具有我國民族自主知識產權的IPV9與美國擁有知識產權的IPV6、 IPV4網絡之間,是主權平等的網絡互連關係,還是技術兼容的覆蓋替代關係?如果實現IPV9、V6、V4技術體系網絡的相互融通與共享共管共治,這是互聯網呢?還僅僅是因特網走向未來網絡的技術進步?

按照以上的因特網、“互聯網”定義和說法,中國祇有因特網框架內的一張網,沒有與國家主權相吻合、相一致的公眾網絡,沒有與非主權公眾網絡互聯互通的互聯網(internetwork)。

一個連美國人自己都說不清定義的“因特網就是互聯網”的概念,近些年來,接二連三地出現在我國戰略性、規劃性、決策性的文件和媒體連篇累牘地報導渲染之中。某些“權威”人士藉機喧囂塵上,不斷延伸、膨脹、曲解、編造其內涵和外延,實在令人不寒而栗。如果僅僅被美國忽悠,還不至於禁錮我們的自主創新思維,不至於不能扭轉和調整決策的失誤和失誤的策略。如果我們自己一個勁地忽悠自己,自欺欺人,難道不是意味著我們認識的混沌已經深陷泥沼、難以自拔了嗎?

二、網絡空間的迷茫與錯亂

1、因特網構成的網絡空間

經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室首次發布的《國家網絡空間安全戰略》中表述,網絡空間是由“互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的”,是“國家主權的新疆域”,是“與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。”

以上述及的“互聯網”是指什麼?是指因特網一張網覆蓋全球構成的網絡空間?還是世界多張主權網互連互通構成的網絡空間?這個問題不搞清楚,人們的網絡空間意識、認識和識別辨析能力仍然深陷混沌、迷茫和錯亂之中。

因特網就是因特網,是為了實現終端與終端之間的信息交換而在一張網框架之內形成聯合的網絡空間;互聯網就是互聯網,是多個不同類型的網絡為了共享共治共贏的目的構成互連互通的網絡空間。因特網與互聯網各自構成的網絡空間存在融合、包容的共性,更存在各自專有與特定的規則、範疇、生態等特性。不同的網絡空間不能一概而論、混為一談。我們的認識不應該被攪和得越來越混沌不清。

不同的網絡空間最根本、最典型的特性區別在於,各國在互聯網絡(internetwork)框架下的主權不可改變,不可掩蓋,不可逆襲,只能是主權之間的握手言歡、握手言和,不可刀槍相向、恃強凌弱。因特網的主權只有一個,即美國一家獨有的主權,或者說是霸權。在因特網一張網的框架內,任何國家的主權都被美國單方面製定和嚴密掌控的規則、範疇和生態束縛、捆綁、桎梏,不得不任憑美國及其盟國(例如日本)侵犯、滲透、改變、驅使,把玩於鼓掌之中。

特別需要深度明晰、高度重視的是,傳播信息、發展經濟、繁榮文化、治理社會、合作交流等,不是因特網的專利,各國的主權網絡同樣可以實施和實現,建立在各國主權網絡空間基礎上的網絡互聯可能會做得更好。美國利用因特網的一張網技術體系和手段,繞開各國網絡空間的主權、治權和法權,是導致各主權網絡空間不安全的最大根源,是對各主權國家安全最大的威脅,是長期危害各主權國家和平穩定、民族團結的最不安定因素。在因特網內,沒有國與國的外交,沒有平等與相互尊重的國際合作,只有美國一家獨大,一家獨強,一家獨霸,一家之言說了算。在這樣的一張網框架內,同美國談規則、講原則、說治理、論普惠,豈非與虎謀皮、與狼共舞?美國怎麼可能拿自己的國家利益讓其他國家分享,出讓自己的網絡主權允許其他國家分庭抗禮呢?各國的網絡空間“主權在我、不受制於人”,倘若受制於人,必受其亂、必受其害!這個道理,伊朗明白、德國明白、俄羅斯明白,許多國家都明白。這些年來,從亞洲、美洲、中東到歐盟的教訓一個接一個,我們有什麼理由不明白、不接受教訓嗎?

3、“互聯網”的定義

迄今,各國科技界、學術界、教育界、工商界,沒有統一、清晰、準確、規範的互聯網定義。這裡的中文互聯網,指的是早在1997年7月18日就經我國國務院授權的全國科學技術名詞審定委員會明確的英文internetwork,而不是Internet。

追隨美國因特網一張網戰略的某些人堅持說,“因特網就是互聯網”,“中國就是將因特網翻譯成互聯網”。這不是科學的、學術的定義,也不像是出自院士和“權威”之口,更像是不明事理的“阿Q”之說。

還是奧巴馬坦誠。他在白宮發表的《網絡空間國際戰略》的序言裡說,“通過因特網連接,美國公司的業務可以延伸至全球任何一個地方,為美國民眾創造無以計數的就業崗位和機會”,他承認, “因特網本身無法開啟國際合作的新紀元。”

因特網,源自英文的Internet。作為專有名詞,它所指的是使用TCP/IP通訊協議的一種計算機系統,以及這個系統所提供的信息、服務與用戶。因特網要求用戶(終端)按照其特定的規則在限定的因特網框架內使用指定的域名和地址進行信息交換,它對採用其它通訊協議的網絡是排斥和封閉的,或者乾脆越俎代庖、取而代之。

有人說,因特網的定義,英文應該是“a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.”翻譯成中文,就是“一個由使用TCP / IP網絡協議促進數據傳輸和交換的計算機網絡組成的全球網絡。”請注意,這個“定義”說得很明確:

第一,必須使用TCP/IP協議;

第二,必須是同樣使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡組成;

第三,必須是在TCP/IP協議基礎上構成的全球一張網絡。

繞了這麼長一個繞口令一般的圈子,歸齊還是“使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡”!只能接受和使用TCP/IP同一種協議、同一類規則、在同一個網絡空間內進行傳輸與交換的網絡,這不還是因特網嗎?怎麼就成了“互聯網”了?到底是愚鈍產生了混沌,還是混沌導致了愚鈍?

有人說,在國外的文獻中,因特網被描述成“沒有領導、沒有法律、沒有政治、沒有軍隊……的不可思議的社會組織結構”。敢問,美國政府向全球推行這樣的網絡結構是何居心呢?是確保、誘導或迫使各國、各地區、各組織以及每個使用計算機的世界各地用戶都通過因特網屈從於、受制於、聽命於美國嗎?

有人說,從一般的角度認為,因特網的定義應包括三個方面內容,即:

——是一個基於TCP/IP協議的網絡;

——是一個計算機用戶的網絡集團,用戶在使用網絡資源的同時,也為網絡的發展壯大貢獻力量;

——是所有可被訪問和利用的信息資源的集合。

問題在於,不使用或者不適用TCP/IP協議的其它計算機網絡是否存在?是否允許存在?是否應該存在?使用不同協議網絡之間相互連接、融合、交換構成的是不是互聯網、是不是互連互通的網絡空間?即便同樣源於TCP/IP協議的網絡,IPV6與IPV4網絡之間是互連互通的關係,還是升級換代的關係?具有我國民族自主知識產權的IPV9與美國擁有知識產權的IPV6、 IPV4網絡之間,是主權平等的網絡互連關係,還是技術兼容的覆蓋替代關係?如果實現IPV9、V6、V4技術體系網絡的相互融通與共享共管共治,這是互聯網呢?還僅僅是因特網走向未來網絡的技術進步?

按照以上的因特網、“互聯網”定義和說法,中國祇有因特網框架內的一張網,沒有與國家主權相吻合、相一致的公眾網絡,沒有與非主權公眾網絡互聯互通的互聯網(internetwork)。

一個連美國人自己都說不清定義的“因特網就是互聯網”的概念,近些年來,接二連三地出現在我國戰略性、規劃性、決策性的文件和媒體連篇累牘地報導渲染之中。某些“權威”人士藉機喧囂塵上,不斷延伸、膨脹、曲解、編造其內涵和外延,實在令人不寒而栗。如果僅僅被美國忽悠,還不至於禁錮我們的自主創新思維,不至於不能扭轉和調整決策的失誤和失誤的策略。如果我們自己一個勁地忽悠自己,自欺欺人,難道不是意味著我們認識的混沌已經深陷泥沼、難以自拔了嗎?

二、網絡空間的迷茫與錯亂

1、因特網構成的網絡空間

經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室首次發布的《國家網絡空間安全戰略》中表述,網絡空間是由“互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的”,是“國家主權的新疆域”,是“與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。”

以上述及的“互聯網”是指什麼?是指因特網一張網覆蓋全球構成的網絡空間?還是世界多張主權網互連互通構成的網絡空間?這個問題不搞清楚,人們的網絡空間意識、認識和識別辨析能力仍然深陷混沌、迷茫和錯亂之中。

因特網就是因特網,是為了實現終端與終端之間的信息交換而在一張網框架之內形成聯合的網絡空間;互聯網就是互聯網,是多個不同類型的網絡為了共享共治共贏的目的構成互連互通的網絡空間。因特網與互聯網各自構成的網絡空間存在融合、包容的共性,更存在各自專有與特定的規則、範疇、生態等特性。不同的網絡空間不能一概而論、混為一談。我們的認識不應該被攪和得越來越混沌不清。

不同的網絡空間最根本、最典型的特性區別在於,各國在互聯網絡(internetwork)框架下的主權不可改變,不可掩蓋,不可逆襲,只能是主權之間的握手言歡、握手言和,不可刀槍相向、恃強凌弱。因特網的主權只有一個,即美國一家獨有的主權,或者說是霸權。在因特網一張網的框架內,任何國家的主權都被美國單方面製定和嚴密掌控的規則、範疇和生態束縛、捆綁、桎梏,不得不任憑美國及其盟國(例如日本)侵犯、滲透、改變、驅使,把玩於鼓掌之中。

特別需要深度明晰、高度重視的是,傳播信息、發展經濟、繁榮文化、治理社會、合作交流等,不是因特網的專利,各國的主權網絡同樣可以實施和實現,建立在各國主權網絡空間基礎上的網絡互聯可能會做得更好。美國利用因特網的一張網技術體系和手段,繞開各國網絡空間的主權、治權和法權,是導致各主權網絡空間不安全的最大根源,是對各主權國家安全最大的威脅,是長期危害各主權國家和平穩定、民族團結的最不安定因素。在因特網內,沒有國與國的外交,沒有平等與相互尊重的國際合作,只有美國一家獨大,一家獨強,一家獨霸,一家之言說了算。在這樣的一張網框架內,同美國談規則、講原則、說治理、論普惠,豈非與虎謀皮、與狼共舞?美國怎麼可能拿自己的國家利益讓其他國家分享,出讓自己的網絡主權允許其他國家分庭抗禮呢?各國的網絡空間“主權在我、不受制於人”,倘若受制於人,必受其亂、必受其害!這個道理,伊朗明白、德國明白、俄羅斯明白,許多國家都明白。這些年來,從亞洲、美洲、中東到歐盟的教訓一個接一個,我們有什麼理由不明白、不接受教訓嗎?

2、賽博空間主權屬於美國

有些人硬說賽博空間就是網絡空間,說英文的Cyber​​space就是internetwork。如果這兩個英文單詞完全是一個意思、指向同一個詞語範疇,為什麼非要分成怎麼看、怎麼讀、怎麼寫也挨不上的兩個單詞呢,說英語的外國人累不累呀!

有人說,Cyber​​space翻譯成中文的網絡空間意義更寬。有人說,美國的總統令關於Cyber​​space的定義表明,“互聯網是網絡空間重要的基礎設施”,“互聯網計算機是Cyber​​space最基本的元素”,“互聯網+才是互聯網向網絡空間擴展最重要的一個動作”。

此處的“互聯網”,明顯指的是因特網即Internet,“互聯網+”也就是Internet+。這裡又出現了令人頭暈眼花的混沌:因特網亦或“互聯網”不構成網絡空間,因特網亦或“互聯網”只不過是Cyber​​space這個網絡空間的基礎設施?“因特網+”只不過是因特網向Cyber​​space這個網絡空間擴展的一個重要動作,也並不歸屬於網絡空間?

英文Cyber​​space的中文直譯,就是賽博空間。 2008年美國總統布什發布的54號國家安全總統令(NSPD)/23號國土安全總統令,對賽博空間定義的中文翻譯是:“信息環境中的一個全球域,由獨立且相互依存的信息技術基礎設施網絡組成,包括因特網、電信網、計算機系統以及嵌入的處理器和控制器等。”這個看上去嚴謹的定義,將賽博空間圈定為全球信息環境域,囊括世界所有的“信息技術基礎設施網絡”。美國空軍參謀長說,賽博空間囊括了從“直流電到可見光波”的一切東西。說來說去,還是因特網一張網網羅天下的那一套概念的翻版,換了個名詞、換了個說法而已,不出其右。

這個定義,幾乎可以被看作是向世界所有網絡空間主權宣戰的美國總統詔書。該定義不承認各國建設和發展主權網絡空間的資源、條件和基礎,先入為主地將各國各種網絡基礎設施統統納入美國賽博空間的範疇;該定義搶先拋出捆綁他國政治、經濟、軍事、文化手腳的“一定之規”,甩出了束縛各國科學家、戰略家在未來網絡發展領域創新遠航的纜繩;該定義只許州官放火,不許百姓點燈,霸氣十足、野心昭彰、咄咄逼人。

3、互聯網主權與治權迷茫

儘管國際標準化組織ISO提出的OSI RM(開放式系統互連參考模型)是目前世界上兩種占主導地位的網絡體系結構之一,但這些年並沒有形成規模化的市場應用。有人認為,該模型存在層次數量與內容不是最佳、會話層和表示層幾乎為空、相應的服務定義和協議複雜等技術缺點。

而因特網技術先天不足導致的諸多顯而易見的不安全問題,已為各國和各國際組織普遍關注。從根本上改變因特網的單一控制中心框架結構、TCP/IP協議、標識與安全認證機制等,已經成為全球重大的關鍵核心技術創新攻關課題。

也許正因為此,目前各國還沒有形成在主權網絡空間基礎上構建全球互聯網(internetwork)的條件、資源和依托,還沒有能力與因特網“劃江而治”、“平分秋色”、“共享太平”,只能“寄人籬下”,在接入因特網、租用因特網服務、防止因特網過分滲透等方面,投入巨大成本與美國討價還價地周旋,試圖盡量減少危害和損失。各國平等參與互聯網治理、公平分配互聯網基礎資源、共同管理互聯網根服務器等關鍵信息基礎設施、加強發展中國家的代表性和發言權等,好像口號,又好像海市蜃樓,喊喊罷了,觸不可及。

在美國因特網一張網的框架內、在美國賽博空間主權和安全的嚴重威懾下,和平發展為主題的網絡空間國際合作戰略很可能只是一廂情願的奢談,前提和基礎錯了,方向與路線偏頗。耗費巨大的人力物力財力追隨美國的因特網升級部署及賽博空間戰略,拼精力、拼時間、拼智商、磨牙口,終將導致我國及世界各國繼續在網絡空間長期落後於美國、受制於美國、屈從於美國,並將實際上喪失網絡空間主權、痛失發展良機和戰略契機,得不償失,悔不當初。

4、網絡空間國際合作權衡

與中文網絡空間對應的英文是Net Space,科學的定義是:信息基礎設施連接、覆蓋及承載信息處理的時空域。

這個定義,指明了因特網、互聯網、賽博網絡空間以及其它任何網絡空間最基本的共性,不以某個國家、某個利益集團的意志為轉移,不局限於專指某一張網、某一個國家構建的網絡空間。

以這個定義為前提,支持各國加強主權網絡空間的建設與發展,推動國際社會本著相互尊重的精神開展對話與合作,才有資源保障公眾在網絡空間的知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權,才有條件構建多邊、民主、透明的全球網絡空間治理體系,才有可能實現科學合理、公平有序、平等互惠、安全制衡的網絡空間國際合作。

我國在超級計算機研製、航天計算機系統應用等方面已經沖在了世界的前列,可以兼容覆蓋IPV6和IPV4的IPV9技術體系試運行測試令人滿意。俄羅斯在國內網絡信息控制和防範外來網絡侵襲等方面積累了很好的經驗、建立了良好的系統。歐盟已經著手製衡因特網的潛在威脅,致力於打造獨立自主的網絡空間體系。越來越多的國家提出網絡空間主權訴求,贊成習近平主席“共同構建網絡空間命運共同體”的主張。

在當前有限的條件、基礎和可預期的前景下,我國的網絡空間國際合作舉措應當審時度勢、量力而行、精心運籌操作,不可貿然鑽進他國的套路里。應當一手搶占與美國及他國談判國際網絡空間治理的外交先機、未雨綢繆,一手以舉國之力打造足以製衡美國因特網和賽博空間的我國主權公眾網絡體系。同時,採取果斷有力的措施,堅決處置來源於境內外的網絡安全風險和威脅,堅決懲治網絡違法犯罪活動,堅決打擊危害我國網絡空間主權、出賣國家和民族利益的行為,堅決糾正長期被動受制的網絡空間追隨戰略和策略。

三、世界網絡空間安全態勢

美國因特網主導下的世界網絡空間安全形勢日益嚴峻。穿戴“互聯網”衣帽的因特網安全問題千瘡百孔,越來越成為各國網絡空間難以救藥的頑疾和久治不癒的“心病”。

據《中國網絡空間安全報告(2016)》藍皮書,2015年以來,基於因特網和賽博空間的網絡衝突和攻擊,成為國家間對抗的主要形式。俄羅斯卡巴斯基公司指責美國“方程式小組”通過植入間諜軟件,感染伊朗、俄羅斯、中國等30多個國家的軍事、金融、能源等關鍵部門的上萬台電腦。伊朗稱挫敗了美國對其石油部門的網絡攻擊。意大利“Hacking Team”公司逾400G的數據被公開後發現,美國、摩洛哥、埃塞俄比亞等20多個國家的機構向其購買了網絡間諜和漏洞工具。美國火眼公司指責俄羅斯“APT28”組織利用零日漏洞,攻擊北約和美國國防機構。

藍皮書披露,美國設立“網絡威脅情報整合中心”,並擴大國務院“反恐戰略信息中心”的規模,中情局設立“數字革新部”加強網絡情報蒐集能力。以色列國防部啟動網絡安全孵化器計劃,英國政府拓展其網絡安全研究能力,美國海軍籌備攻擊性網絡行動,北約宣布進行網絡混合戰準備等,各國註重網絡攻防與軟硬實力建設,力求安全保障與攻擊能力雙向提升。媒體披露,全球已經有50多個各個國家組建的網絡戰部隊,全球網絡空間“軍備賽”不斷升級。

另據披露,依托美國因特網技術、協議和基礎設施建設發展起來的“中國互聯網”,政府、銀行、能源等機要要害部門的網絡信息系統普遍無法實現安全可控,國內工業控制系統更是“安全漏洞百出”。 2015年出現的支付寶、攜程網數據丟失,網易郵箱信息洩漏等鬧得沸沸揚揚,近年來通過短信、微信實施的金融詐騙每天都在大量發生。工信部長苗圩告訴記者,現在平均一個月能夠搜索到1.73億條電信詐騙的信息。

據“國家互聯網信息中心”《網絡安全信息與動態週報》,2017年2月13日-19日,境內感染網絡病毒的主機數量為40萬台,比上週上升6.6%;境內被植入後門的政府網站上升47.1%;針對境內網站的仿冒頁面數量上升165.2%;新增信息安全高危漏洞上升26.2%。監測發現,網絡病毒傳播的源頭放馬站點,涉及的68個域名中30.9%為境外註冊,且頂級域為.com的約佔83.8%,大部分放馬站點通過域名訪問實施病毒傳播。

國防大學教授戴旭指出,今天的世界已在一張“網”中。軍事領域的變化已經發生。從以傳感器為核心、以電磁空間為邊界的電子信息戰(可稱之為“電信戰”),到以網絡為核心、以心理空間開闢為特徵的網絡、心理戰(可稱之為“網心戰”),“網絡”化為基本特徵的第七代戰爭,正在成為大國博弈的主戰場。從攻城略地到攻心掠民,中國的傳統戰略優勢正成為被對手破解的重點,中國又一次處於無自然屏障可以依賴的危險境地,面對被網絡訛詐的狀態。關於戰爭和反戰爭的傳統認知體系,亟須升級換代。在網絡化多形態混合戰爭的新軍事時代,中國必須也有能力牽住時代的“牛鼻子”。

2、網際空間戰略已提上日程

網絡空間(Net Space),是人類創造的時空體系,是泛指的名稱概念,是信息處理與交換的承載空間。它概括了構成網絡空間的三大要素:屬性、連接覆蓋範圍和承載處理信息的功能。無論金融網、企業網、政府網,無論因特網、互聯網、網間網,無論陸基網、航空網、太空網,無論有線網、無線網、量子網,無論公網或私網涉及的相關服務提供商和運營商的專用接入網絡,等等,都有自主連接覆蓋的時空域和承載處理交換不同信息的網絡空間。

地球各種網絡空間並存構成的集合體,已經大大超出了網絡空間泛指的概念和定義,“網絡空間”已不能嚴謹、規範、準確地反映和包容其全部的內在特徵、延伸範疇與在全新的條件和基礎上發展變化的規律。這種網絡與網絡之間構成的超級網絡空間,喚生了“網際空間”(Nets Space)的學說。網際空間是網絡空間的集成域。

站在網際空間的高度、深度和廣度全維度、全視角地審視網絡空間,我們的視野將更寬更遠更清晰,我們的思維將更加容易跳出昨天和今天、展望明天,我們將會從因特網、“互聯網”、賽博空間造成的混沌中解放思想,走出一條超越計算機網絡時代的人類信息社會的全新道路。

一個由有線網絡、無線網絡、量子通訊、太空網絡等相互聯繫、相互作用、相互依托構成的網際空間時代,已經來臨並正在進入更加高級的階段。中國網際空間戰略的崛起,必將引起革命性的思想崛起、科技崛起、經濟崛起、民族崛起,國家崛起,惠及子孫後代,影響和帶動全球人類社會的跨越式進步。

網際空間戰略和技術準備已經提上日程,最佳時機也許就在眼前和今後的幾年之中。中國能不能搶占先機、把握良機,超越美國引領全新的超級網絡空間——網際空間時代,須只爭朝夕,須而今邁步從頭越,須數風流人物、還看今朝。

3、網際空間發展須舉國之力

美國以舉國之力推因特網、推IPV6、推賽博空間,在導致他國混沌和迷茫的同時,也確實創造了令人矚目的網絡科技、網絡經濟和網絡軍事輝煌。

我國已經成為世界第二大經濟體。我國完全有能力、有條件、有信心以舉國之力發展網際空間戰略和技術。

思想解放、體制改革是我國改革開放以來相輔相成的兩大舉措。由此出發,建議:

⑴ 建立黨中央、全國人大、國務院和全國政協共同領導和約束下的具高度權威性、法治化的決策糾錯機構和糾錯機制,堅決杜絕借混淆視聽左右決策之路。

少數追隨美國的“專家”、“權威”長期影響和乾預國家各網絡信息主管部門的身兼數職“一言堂”的怪事,再也不能允許發生、存在和繼續下去了,必須堅決扭轉和破除。

應當立即堅決糾正“全面引進、升級、部署IPV6”的重大戰略決策和規劃失誤,廢除與美國簽署的所有危害和危及我國網絡空間主權與安全的不平等協議;對網絡空間領域的國家投資項目逐一實施審計與後評價,明顯“為他人作嫁衣裳”的一律關停並轉。

⑵ 國家鼓勵和支持在民族自主知識產權前提和基礎上建設、發展與維護主權公眾網絡。

應當旗幟鮮明地允許在目前基於美國因特網的“中國互聯網“之外,建設發展獨立運行的中華公網等其它主權公眾網絡並提供服務,國民有選擇使用主權公眾網絡和非主權公眾網絡的權利。國家應出台傾向性的激勵政策和措施,允許主權公眾網絡採用IPV9、鄭碼、陶陳碼、CFL安全認證、MISC等等具有民族自主知識產權的技術。積極建設、發展與維護國內獨立運行的多網構成的互聯網,可以為構建全球網絡空間命運共同體探索模式、積累經驗、創造條件。

⑶ 不失時機地創建國家主導、社會參與、民間操作的“網際空間研究院”,全方位、多維度、深層次研究開發網際空間技術並製訂發展戰略和策略,打造世界一流的培養鍛煉網際空間人才基地,構建主權網絡/未來網絡/網際空間實驗、測試架構系統應用環境,探索與解決主權網絡、網絡空間和網際空間發展中的各種問題,大踏步地走在引領網際空間發展的世界前列。

⑷ 首先與俄羅斯、伊朗、德國、歐盟等致力於建設、發展、維護各自主權網絡空間的國家和國際組織積極進行構建網絡空間命運共同體的溝通、交流、洽談與合作,聯合多國積蓄力量,不以美國為主要談判對手。

掃清混沌,蕩滌迷茫,我們將不再受制於人、任其擺佈,我們將穩健地步入嚮往的網絡空間時代,我們將高瞻遠矚地奔向網際空間的未來。

China Military Operational Use of Information Warfare Equipment //中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用

中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用

中國作家源

2004年12月06日

中國軍事信息戰

Information warfare is against C4ISR systems and C4ISR systems, information superiority is the competition, the main purpose is to ensure the normal operation of one’s own information systems, from the enemy’s use, paralysis and destruction; the same time, trying to use, paralysis and destruction of the enemy’s information systems, make paralyzed, confused state. Including strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield information warfare two parts.

Strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield

Strategic information warfare is the main features of a wide range of sectors covering all key political, economic, technological, military and special areas; special way, relates to psychological warfare, media warfare, deception warfare, media warfare and other special tools; special target, mainly through the decoy attack warfare, psychological warfare, information awareness enemy deterrence system and thinking system; great harm, make the whole country’s economic, political or military to a standstill, even regime change can make it happen; special person, not necessarily military combatants, computer experts, international crime syndicates, hacking or terrorist organizations with ulterior motives and so may become combatants.

Battlefield Information War battle took place in the space of information warfare, refers to the battle for the preparation and the integrated use of information technology tools and a variety of information weapons, information warfare platform and C4ISR systems, reconnaissance and early warning detection, information processing and transmission, arms control and guidance, operational command and control, deception and disguise interference and military strategy and other aspects of all-out confrontation and struggle. Battlefield Information War by interfering with or disrupting the enemy’s decision-making process, so that the enemy can not effectively coordinated action. Thus, the first enemy influence decisions, then the impact of their actions, which is to win air superiority electromagnetic, and then obtain air superiority, and finally the use of conventional forces to take combat operations. Seized control of information, seize the initiative on the battle space, and the competition for the right to make land, air, naval supremacy and control of space to lay a good foundation and a necessary condition.

Basic information warfare battlefield combat forces and means of information is digitized forces and weapons and equipment, the main contents include operational secrecy, military deception, electronic warfare, psychological warfare and firepower to destroy, core purpose is to fight for the right to access information battle space, control and use rights. Battlefield Information War is against information systems, which directly affects the entire battle space, processes, and success or failure of the entire war. The main battlefield information warfare style combat electronic warfare and cyber warfare. Electronic warfare is an important part of information warfare battlefield, mainly decoy for enemy communications, radar and other electromagnetic radiation sources of interference, sabotage and destruction activities. The Gulf War, not only the first large-scale use of electronic warfare, and formally adopted as a battle of the war and the particular stage of the battle action. Kosovo War, NATO used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the first use of electromagnetic pulse bombs and conducted the first network warfare. Cyber ​​warfare in cyberspace computer, using a network against the Internet activities, and for the first time in the Kosovo war. NATO cyber warfare measures include: network publicity; hacker attacks; attacks on financial networks. The main characteristics of the FRY cyberwarfare is people’s war mode, geek, geeks and computer enthusiasts spontaneously a lot of network operations, such as conduct online propaganda attack NATO website, use the Internet to pass intelligence.

War information warfare equipment, electronic warfare equipment.

Electronic warfare equipment, the development trend of increasing integration and universal, local wars under conditions of informatization, the electromagnetic environment on the battlefield increasingly complex, kind of separation from each other in the past, single-function electronic warfare equipment has been far can not meet the operational needs.Integration and generalization has become the focus of the development of electronic warfare equipment and electronic warfare equipment, the total future direction of development. In order to deal more effectively with the threat of information warfare electromagnetic complex, the next generation of electronic warfare equipment, the extensive use of advanced computer technology to significantly improve the automation of the entire system in order to have better real-time capabilities, since the adaptability and full power management capabilities. Working frequency electronic warfare equipment continuously expanding, increasing the transmission power, the development of millimeter-wave technology and photovoltaic technology, the modern electronic warfare equipment to keep the operating frequency band wider development.Overall, the future scope of work of electronic warfare equipment will be extended to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. GPS interference and anti-interference will be concerned about the practice of war has shown that, if they lose the support of GPS, information superiority will be greatly weakened, so that command and control, reconnaissance, combat, troop movement and other military links are facing a severe test, severely reduced combat effectiveness. Focus on the development of new anti-radiation and electronic warfare jamming aircraft, emphasis on the development of new, special electronic warfare technology and equipment, such as for anti-satellite laser weapons, high-energy particle beam weapons, and meteor burst communications, neutrino communication and the like.

Computer viruses as weapons

Within military information systems, battlefield information acquisition, transmission, processing and other functions required to complete computer and network, computer network is performed on the basis of information warfare and Pioneer. Use of software drivers and hardware magnetic induction sniffer sniffer network sniffer, etc. is an important way to attack networks. These sniffing tool was originally a test device, used to diagnose and repair assistance network, so it is a powerful tool for network administrators to monitor the network, but in the information war is a terrible computer virus weapons. It enables network “denial of service”, “information tampering” Information “halfway stealing” and so on. In addition, it will focus on design “trap door.” “Trap door” also known as “back door” is an agency computer system designers previously configured in the system, appear in the application or during the operating system, programmers insert some debugging mechanism. System Programmer For the purpose of attacking the system, deliberately left few trap door for a person familiar with the system to outdo each other to sneak into the normal system protection system. Network is an important infrastructure of information warfare, network centric warfare is mainly carried out based network, the network is reliable to determine the outcome of the war. Therefore, to strengthen the research network attack and defense operations for the win future information warfare is essential.

Electromagnetic pulse bomb

During the Iraq war, the US used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and use of electromagnetic pulse bombs fell on Iraq and the Iraqi army broadcast television systems of various types of electronic radiation. Electromagnetic pulse bomb, also known as microwave pulse bomb, by a microwave beam into electromagnetic energy, a new type of directed energy weapons damage other electronic facilities and personnel.Its working principle is: after high power microwave antenna gathered into a bunch of very narrow, very strong electromagnetic waves toward each other, heat, ionizing radiation, etc. relying on the combined effect of electromagnetic waves generated by this beam, lethal voltages in electronic circuits inside the target and current, breakdown or burn sensitive components which, damage data stored in the computer, so that each other’s arms and paralyzed the command system, the loss of combat effectiveness. According to tests, a briefcase-sized microwave bomb, can produce up to 300 million watts of power pulse. After its plurality of coupling, then become adjustable radiation source, generating more than 2 billion watts of pulse waves. This is somewhat similar to pulse electromagnetic pulse generated when nuclear explosions, can easily enter the underground bunker from power and communication channels, which rely on radio to make, radar, computer, power grids and telephone modern weapons systems, biological and chemical weapons and their production Libraries workshop in an instant paralysis.

GPS jamming devices

Also in the Iraq war, the Iraqi use of GPS jamming device for Tomahawk cruise missiles were effective interference, this is the first time in actual combat on the GPS guidance system interference. GPS signal is weak, it is easy to interference. A Russian company to provide a 4-watt power handheld GPS jammers, less than $ 4,000 can buy.If purchased from retail electronic component assembly shops, you can spend $ 400 to create a disturbance over a radius of 16 km of GPS jammers. Before the war in Iraq war, the United States had expected to interfere with the GPS signal the Iraqi side. In fact, the United States had already given their GPS bombs and missiles loaded with anti-jamming technology to make these GPS-guided weapons to continue to use the GPS signal in the case of interference; even if the GPS signal is lost, they can also use their own weapons guidance systems other inertial navigation, laser-guided, so that their own to reach the target. Nevertheless, early in the war in Iraq, the US military more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles due to interference or deviates from a predetermined route, fell Turkey, Syria and Iran. Small GPS jammers problem alerted the US government, Powell personally investigate the source of Iraq GPS jammers, Russia and other countries exerted considerable pressure.

During the first Gulf War, GPS navigator as a trial product for the first time issued to desert warfare personnel, the effect is obvious. At that time, all weapons, including cruise missiles, including not using the GPS navigation device. The war in Iraq, we see that almost all combat platforms, every man, almost all of missiles and bombs have adopted this navigation device, so that the tanks, planes, ships maneuver more accurate missiles and bombs original the probability of error reduced to 1-3 meters, maximum 10 meters range.   Everything there is a benefit must be a disadvantage. Disadvantages and drawbacks of GPS navigation information is the same weaponry, is the electronic interference.From the perspective of the development of weapons and equipment, the purchase of a cruise missile costs $ 100 million, while manufacturing a GPS jammer only a few hundred dollars, as a strategic defensive side, if a large number of development and the development of GPS jammers, not only for the US missile and the bomb is a threat to its tanks, planes, ships and navigation personnel will also have a huge impact. Of course, we should also see the US fight a battle, and further, after the end of the war in Iraq is bound according to the lessons of the war, improved GPS system. Is expected to be improved in three areas: First, the GPS satellites, satellite launch is mainly to enhance the signal and transmit as many GPS satellites; the second is to improve the guidance system, mainly to increase the combined guidance system, after interference in the GPS guidance, automatic recovery or transfer other inertial navigation mode to ensure the normal operation of the platform and weapons; the third is GPS anti-jamming, mainly to improve the GPS receiver anti-jamming capability, the development of new GPS receiver, in the theater of the local military and civilian GPS reception machines and electronic jammers and interference suppression.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

信息戰是C4ISR系統與C4ISR系統的對抗,是信息優勢的爭奪,主要目的是確保己方信息系統正常運行,免遭敵方利用、癱瘓和破壞﹔同時,設法利用、癱瘓和破壞敵人的信息系統,使之處於癱瘓、迷茫狀態。信息戰包括戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰兩大部分。

戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰

戰略信息戰主要特征是范圍廣泛,涉及國家政治、經濟、科技、軍事等各個要害部門和特殊領域﹔方式特殊,涉及心理戰、輿論戰、欺騙戰、媒體戰等特殊手段﹔目標特殊,主要是通過誘騙戰、心理戰、信息威懾等攻擊敵人的認識體系和思維體系﹔危害巨大,能使整個國家的經濟、政治或軍事陷入癱瘓,甚至能使其發生政權交替﹔人員特殊,參戰人員不一定軍人,計算機專家、國際犯罪集團、別有用心的黑客或恐怖組織等都可能成為參戰人員。

戰場信息戰是發生在戰斗空間內的信息戰,是指為准備和進行一場戰役,綜合運用信息技術手段和各種信息化武器、信息化作戰平台和C4ISR系統,在偵察探測及預警、信息處理與傳遞、武器控制和制導、作戰指揮與控制、偽裝欺騙與干擾以及軍事謀略等方面展開的全面對抗和斗爭。戰場信息戰是通過干擾或打亂敵方決策程序,使敵方無法有效採取協調一致的行動。因此,要先影響敵人決策,然后再影響其行動,即先贏得空中電磁優勢,再取得空中優勢,最后使用常規部隊採取作戰行動。奪取了制信息權,就奪取了戰斗空間的主動權,而且為爭奪制陸權、制空權、制海權和制天權奠定一個良好基礎和必要條件。

戰場信息戰的基本作戰力量和手段是數字化部隊及信息化武器裝備,主要內容包括作戰保密、軍事欺騙、電子戰、心理戰和火力摧毀,核心目的是爭奪戰斗空間的信息獲取權、控制權和使用權。戰場信息戰是信息體系的對抗,它直接影響到整個戰斗空間、整場戰爭的進程和成敗。戰場信息戰的主要作戰樣式是電子戰和網絡戰。電子戰是戰場信息戰的一個重要組成部分,主要是針對敵人通信、雷達等電磁輻射源進行的誘騙、干擾、破壞和摧毀活動。海灣戰爭中,電子戰不僅首次大規模使用,而且正式作為戰爭中的一個戰役階段和特定戰役行動。科索沃戰爭中,北約使用了大量電子戰裝備,並首次使用了電磁脈沖炸彈並首次進行了網絡戰。網絡戰是在計算機網絡空間,利用因特網進行的一種網絡對抗活動,並在科索沃戰爭中首次使用。北約網絡戰的措施包括:網絡宣傳﹔黑客攻擊﹔襲擊金融網絡等。南聯盟網絡戰的主要特征是人民戰爭模式,網迷、電腦迷和計算機愛好者自發地進行了大量網絡作戰行動,如開展網上宣傳、攻擊北約網站、利用網絡傳遞情報等。

戰爭中的信息戰裝備

電子戰裝備

電子戰裝備的發展趨勢日趨一體化和通用化,信息化條件下的局部戰爭中,戰場上的電磁環境日益復雜,以往那種彼此分立、功能單一的電子戰裝備已遠遠不能適應作戰需要了。一體化和通用化已成為當前電子戰裝備發展的重點和未來電子戰裝備總的發展方向。為了更有效地對付信息化戰爭中復雜多變的電磁威脅,未來新一代的電子對抗裝備,將廣泛採用先進的計算機技術,大幅度提高整個系統的自動化程度,以具備更好的實時能力、自適應能力和全功率管理能力。電子戰裝備的工作頻段不斷拓寬,發射功率不斷增大,毫米波技術和光電技術的發展,使現代電子戰裝備的工作頻率不斷向更寬的頻段發展。從整體上看,未來電子戰裝備的工作范圍必將擴展到整個電磁波頻譜。GPS干擾與反干擾將受到關注,戰爭實踐已經表明,如果失去GPS的支持,就會極大地削弱信息優勢,使指揮、控制、偵察、打擊、部隊機動等各個軍事環節都面臨嚴峻考驗,嚴重降低戰斗力。重點發展反輻射和新型電子戰干擾機,重視發展新型、特殊的電子戰技術裝備,如用於反衛星的激光武器、高能粒子束武器,以及流星余跡通信、中微子通信等等。

計算機病毒武器

在軍事信息系統中,戰場信息的獲取、傳遞、處理等功能需要計算機及網絡來完成,計算機網絡是進行信息戰的基礎和先鋒。利用軟件驅動嗅探器和硬件磁感應嗅探器等對網絡進行嗅探是進攻網絡的重要方法。這些嗅探工具原本是一種測試設備,用來診斷和協助修理網絡,因此它是網管人員管理網絡的一種得力工具,但在信息戰中卻是一種可怕的計算機病毒武器。它能使網絡“服務否認”、“信息篡改”、信息“中途竊取”等。另外,也將重視設計“門戶陷阱”。“門戶陷阱”又稱“后門”,是計算機系統設計者預先在系統中構造的一種機構,在應用出現或操作系統期間,程序員插入一些調試機構。系統程序員為了達到攻擊系統的目的,特意留下少數門戶陷阱,供熟悉系統的人員用以超越對方正常的系統保護而潛入系統。網絡是信息化戰爭的重要基礎設施,網絡中心戰主要是基於網絡而進行的,網絡是否可靠決定戰爭的勝負。因此,加強網絡攻防作戰的研究,對於贏得未來信息化戰爭至關重要。

電磁脈沖炸彈

伊拉克戰爭中,美軍使用了大量電子戰裝備,並使用電磁脈沖炸彈襲擊了伊拉克廣播電視系統及伊軍各類電子輻射源。電磁脈沖炸彈也稱微波脈沖炸彈,是通過把微波束轉化為電磁能,毀傷對方電子設施和人員的一種新型定向能武器。其工作原理是:高功率微波經過天線聚集成一束很窄、很強的電磁波射向對方,依靠這束電磁波產生的高溫、電離、輻射等綜合效應,在目標內部的電子線路中產生致命的電壓和電流,擊穿或燒毀其中的敏感元器件,毀損電腦中存貯的數據,從而使對方的武器和指揮系統陷於癱瘓,喪失戰斗力。據測試,一枚公文包大小的微波炸彈,可產生功率達3億瓦的脈沖波。將其多個聯接后,則能成為可調整的輻射源,產生20億瓦以上的脈沖波。這種脈沖波有點類似核爆炸時產生的電磁脈沖,可以輕易地從電力和通訊管道進入地下掩體,使其中依賴無線電、雷達、計算機、電網和電話等的現代化武器系統、生化武器庫及其生產車間在瞬間癱瘓。

GPS干擾設備

伊拉克戰爭中,伊軍利用GPS干擾儀對戰斧巡航導彈進行了有效的干擾,這是第一次在實戰中對GPS制導系統進行干擾。GPS信號很弱,很易於干擾。一家俄羅斯公司提供的一種4瓦功率的手持GPS干擾機,不到4000美元就能買到。如果從零售電子商店購買部件組裝,花400美元就可以制造一個干擾半徑16公裡以上的GPS干擾機。伊拉克戰爭開戰之前,美國就已經預料到伊拉克方面會干擾GPS信號。美國其實早已經給其GPS炸彈和導彈裝載了抗干擾技術,使這些GPS導引的武器能夠在干擾的情況下繼續使用GPS信號﹔即使GPS信號丟失,這些武器還可以使用自身的其他導引系統如慣性導航、激光制導等,使自己到達目標。盡管如此,伊拉克戰爭初期,美軍十幾枚戰斧式巡航導彈還是因受干擾偏離預定航線,落在土耳其、敘利亞和伊朗境內。小小的GPS干擾機問題驚動了美國朝野,鮑威爾親自出面調查伊拉克GPS干擾機的來源,對俄羅斯等國施加了不小的壓力。

海灣戰爭中,GPS導航儀作為試用品首次發放給沙漠作戰人員使用,效果明顯。當時,包括巡航導彈在內的所有武器都沒有採用GPS導航裝置。伊拉克戰爭中,我們看到幾乎所有的作戰平台,每一個單兵,幾乎全部的導彈和炸彈都採用了這種導航裝置,從而使坦克、飛機、艦艇的機動更加精確,使導彈和炸彈的原概率誤差縮小到1—3米,最大10米范圍之內。

凡事有一利必有一弊。GPS導航的弊端與信息化武器裝備的弊端是一樣的,就是電子干擾問題。從武器裝備發展角度來看,購買一枚巡航導彈需要100多萬美元,而制造一部GPS干擾機才幾百美元,作為戰略防御一方,如果能夠大量發展和研制GPS干擾機,不僅對於美軍導彈和炸彈是一種威脅,對其坦克、飛機、艦艇和人員的導航定位也將產生巨大影響。當然,也應看到美軍打一仗、進一步,伊拉克戰爭結束后必將根據戰爭中的教訓,改進GPS系統。預計將在三個方面進行改進:一是GPS衛星,主要是增強衛星發射信號,並盡可能多的發射GPS衛星﹔二是改進制導系統,主要是增加復合制導裝置,在GPS指導受到干擾之后,自動恢復或轉入慣性等其他導航方式,以保証平台和武器的正常運行﹔三是GPS反干擾,主要是提高GPS接收機抗干擾能力,研制新型GPS接收機,在戰區對地方軍民用GPS接收機和干擾機進行電子壓制和干擾等。