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Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures : China. DPRK, Russia, US // 中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

Comparative Analysis of Military Command Structures :China. DPRK, Russia, US //

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

China ‘s Armed Forces Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Overview of China ‘s Armed Forces

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

 

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

 

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Description: blue font for the deputy military units. Xinjiang Military Region is the only deputy deputy military district, under the Lanzhou Military Region.

American military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

US military command system description
  

The president of the United States is the commander in chief of the armed forces and the supreme commander of the armed forces. The president, through the Ministry of Defense leadership and command of the army, emergency can be leapfrog command. The strategic nuclear forces are controlled by the president at all times.
  

The National Security Council is the supreme defense decision-making advisory body. Its legal members include the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Defense Minister. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military adviser to the National Security Council. The Director of the CIA is the National Security Council’s statutory intelligence adviser. The daily work of the National Security Council is the responsibility of the President’s National Security Adviser (Consultant).
  

The Ministry of Defense is the supreme military organ that leads and directs the US Armed Forces, is responsible for the defense policy, the formulation and implementation of the plan, and the management of the defense affairs, and through the joint meeting of the Chief of Staff to carry out operational command. It consists of the Ministry of Defense headquarters system, the military system and operational command system composed of three parts.
  

Department of Defense Department of the system is mainly responsible for the policy, finance, military and other military affairs, as well as the coordination between the military. Under the policy, procurement and technical, personnel and combat readiness, auditing and finance, directing communication control and intelligence, legislation, logistics affairs, intelligence supervision, administration, public affairs, supervision, combat test and evaluation departments, respectively, by the Deputy Defense Minister , Assistant defense minister, director, director or department head and other supervisors.
  

The military system consists of the Ministry of War, the Air Force Department and the Department of the Navy three military (military department). The military departments are responsible for the administration of the service, education and training, weapons and equipment development and procurement and logistical support and other duties, and the responsibility to warfare to the joint operations headquarters to provide combat troops and the corresponding service and logistical support, but no combat Command. The military minister is a civilian officer, under which he is the chief of staff (Navy for the combat minister). The chief of staff (naval combat minister) is the highest military officer of the service.
  

The operational command system refers to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Command and Special Command affiliated to it. The Joint Chiefs of Staff is both the President, the Minister of Defense, the Military Advisory Body of the National Security Council, and the Military Commander of the President and the Minister of Defense to issue operational orders to the Joint Command and Special Command. In a sense, the Department of Defense is the military and government departments of the President, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the President’s military order.

The former Soviet Union military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Russian military command system

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

North Korea ‘s Military Command System

China, the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, North Korea armed forces command system

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中国武装力量指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

中国武装力量总览

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

 

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

说明:兰色字体为副大军区单位。新疆军区是唯一一个副大军区编制,隶属兰州军区。

美国军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

美国军事指挥系统说明
  

美国总统是武装部队总司令,全军最高统帅。总统通过国防部领导和指挥全军,紧急情况下可越级指挥。战略核力量不论何时都由总统指挥控制。
  

国家安全委员会是最高防务决策咨询机构。其法定成员包括总统、副总统、国务卿、国防部长。参谋长联席会议主席是国家安全委员会法定军事顾问,中央情报局局长是国家安全委员会法定情报顾问。国家安全委员会日常工作由总统国家安全事务助理(顾问)负责。
  

国防部是总统领导与指挥美国武装力量的最高军事机关,负责防务政策、计划的制定和实施,以及国防事务管理,并通过参谋长联席会议对全军实施作战指挥。它由国防部本部系统、军事部系统和作战指挥系统三部分组成。
  

国防部本部系统主要负责政策、财政、军务等全军性事务,以及各军事部间的协调。下设政策、采购与技术、人事与战备、审计与财务、指挥通信控制与情报、立法、后勤事务、情报监督、行政管理、公共事务、监察、作战试验与评估等部门,分别由副国防部长、助理国防部长、主任、局长或部门长等主管。
  

军事部系统包括陆军部、空军部和海军部3个军事部(军种部)。各军事部负责本军种的行政管理、教育训练、武器装备研制和采购及后勤保障等事务,并有责任在战时向各联合作战司令部提供作战部队及相应的勤务和后勤支援,但无作战指挥权。军事部长为文官,在其下设军种参谋长(海军为作战部长)。军种参谋长(海军作战部长)是本军种最高军事长官。
  

作战指挥系统指参谋长联席会议及隶属于它的各联合司令部、特种司令部。参谋长联席会议既是总统、国防部长、国家安全委员会的军事咨询机构,也是总统和国防部长向联合司令部和特种司令部发布作战命令的军事指挥机关。从某种意义上讲,国防部是总统的军政部门,而参谋长联席会议是总统的军令部门。

前苏联军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

俄罗斯军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

朝鲜军事指挥体系

中,美,苏,俄罗斯,朝鲜武装力量指挥体系

中國政府要求公開評論保護中國關鍵基礎設施 // Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure

中國政府要求公開評論保護中國關鍵基礎設施

Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure

Notice of the National Internet Information Office on the Public Opinion on the Protection of Key Information Infrastructure Security Regulations (Draft for Soliciting Opinions)

    In order to ensure the security of key information infrastructure, according to the “Internet Security Law of the People’s Republic of China”, we will draft the “Key Information Infrastructure Safety Protection Regulations (draft)” with the relevant departments. The relevant units and people of all walks of life may submit their views by August 10, 2017 by:

First, by mail to the views sent to: Xicheng District, Beijing Chegongzhuang Street on the 11th National Internet Information Office Network Security Coordination Bureau, Zip code 100044, and in the envelope marked “comments”.

Second, by e-mail to: security@cac.gov.cn.

 

Annex: Key information infrastructure security regulations (draft)

 

National Internet Information Office

 July 10, 2017

Key information infrastructure security regulations

(Draft)

Chapter 1 General Provisions

    Article 1 These Regulations are enacted in accordance with the Network Security Law of the People’s Republic of China in order to ensure the safety of key information infrastructures.

Article 2 These Regulations shall apply to the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and use of key information infrastructures within the territory of the People’s Republic of China and the protection of key information infrastructures.

Article 3 The key information infrastructure security protection adhere to the top design, overall protection, coordination, division of labor is responsible for the principle, give full play to the role of the main operation, the active participation of all parties to jointly protect the key information infrastructure security.

Article 4 The competent department of national industry or the supervisory department shall be responsible for guiding and supervising the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in the field in accordance with the division of responsibilities stipulated by the State Council.

State network letter department is responsible for coordinating the key information infrastructure security protection and related supervision and management work. The State Council public security, national security, state secrecy administration, national password management and other departments within their respective responsibilities are responsible for the relevant network security protection and supervision and management work.

The relevant departments of the local people’s governments at or above the county level shall carry out the key information infrastructure safety protection work in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State.

Article 5 The operator of the key information infrastructure (hereinafter referred to as the operator) shall bear the responsibility for the security of the key information infrastructure of the unit, perform the obligation of network security protection, accept the government and social supervision, and bear social responsibility.

The country encourages network operators outside key information infrastructures to participate voluntarily in critical information infrastructure protection systems.

Article 6 Key information infrastructure In the network security level protection system, based on the implementation of key protection.

Article 7 Any person or organization who discovers the safety of the infrastructure of the critical information infrastructure shall have the right to report to the department of the letter, telecommunications, public security and industry supervisors or supervisors.

The department that receives the report shall handle it in a timely manner and if it does not belong to the duties of the department, it shall promptly transfer the department to be handled.

The relevant departments shall keep the relevant information of the whistleblower and protect the legitimate rights and interests of the whistleblower.

 

Chapter II Support and Safeguard

    Article 8 The State shall take measures to monitor, defend and dispose of network security risks and threats arising from the territory of the People ‘s Republic of China, protect the critical information infrastructure from attack, intrusion, interference and destruction, and punish the criminal activities of the Internet according to law.

Article 9 The State shall formulate policies such as industry, finance, taxation, finance and personnel, support the innovation of key information infrastructure related technologies, products and services, promote safe and reliable network products and services, train and select network security personnel, and improve key information The level of safety of the infrastructure.

Article 10 The State shall establish and improve the network security standard system and use standard guidance to standardize the work of key information infrastructure security protection.

Article 11 The people ‘s governments at or above the municipal level shall incorporate the key information infrastructure security protection into the overall planning of the economic and social development of the district, increase the investment and carry out the evaluation and evaluation of the work performance.

Article 12 The State encourages government departments, operators, scientific research institutions, network security services, industry organizations, network products and service providers to carry out key information infrastructure security cooperation.

Article 13 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall set up or clarify the institutions and personnel who are responsible for the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in this field, and compile and organize the implementation of the industry, the network security planning in the field, and establish a sound work Funding protection mechanism and supervise the implementation.

Article 14 Energy, telecommunications, transportation and other industries shall provide key support and support for power supply, network communication, transportation and other aspects of emergency management and network function restoration of key information infrastructure network security incidents.

Article 15 Public security organs and other departments shall, according to law, investigate and punish illegal and criminal activities against and use key information infrastructures.

Article 16 Any individual or organization shall not engage in any of the following activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure:

(I) attacks, intrusion, interference, and destruction of critical information infrastructures;

(B) illegally obtaining, selling or unauthorized access to information such as technical information that may be used exclusively for the safety of critical information infrastructures;

(Iii) unauthorized penetration of critical information infrastructures, aggressive scanning detection;

(D) knowing that others are engaged in activities that endanger the security of key information infrastructure and still provide assistance such as Internet access, server hosting, network storage, communication transmission, advertising promotion, payment settlement and so on;

(E) other activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure.

Article 17 The State shall safeguard the network security based on the open environment and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation in the field of key information infrastructure security.

 

Chapter 3 Key Information Infrastructure Scope

    Article 18 The network facilities and information systems operated and managed by the following units shall be included in the scope of protection of key information infrastructures in the event of damage, loss of function or data leakage, which may seriously endanger the national security, the people’s livelihood and the public interest.

(A) government agencies and energy, finance, transportation, water conservancy, health care, education, social security, environmental protection, public utilities and other sectors of the unit;

(B) telecommunications networks, radio and television networks, the Internet and other information networks, and provide cloud computing, large data and other large public information network services units;

(3) scientific research and production units in the fields of national defense science and technology, large-scale equipment, chemical industry, food and medicine industry;

(4) news units such as radio stations, television stations and news malls;

(5) other key units.

Article 19 The State Network Letter Department shall, in conjunction with the competent departments of telecommunications under the State Council and the public security departments, formulate guidelines for the identification of key information infrastructure.

National industry supervisors or regulators organize identification of the industry and key information infrastructures in the field in accordance with the key information infrastructure identification guidelines and submit the identification results according to the procedures.

Key information infrastructure identification process, should give full play to the role of experts, improve the identification of key information infrastructure identification accuracy, rationality and scientific.

Article 20 If a major change in the key information infrastructure or key information infrastructure has occurred, the operator shall promptly report the relevant situation to the national competent or supervisory department.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall promptly carry out the identification and adjustment according to the situation reported by the operator and submit the adjustment according to the procedure.

 

Chapter IV Operator Safety Protection

    Article 21 The construction of a key information infrastructure shall ensure that it has the performance of supporting the stable and continuous operation of the business and ensures that the safety and technical measures are synchronized, synchronized and synchronized.

Article 22 The principal responsible person of the operator is the first person responsible for the safety protection work of the key information infrastructure of the unit. It is responsible for establishing and perfecting the network security responsibility system and organizing the implementation, and is fully responsible for the security protection of the key information infrastructure of the unit.

Article 23 The operator shall, in accordance with the requirements of the network security level protection system, perform the following security protection obligations to protect the critical information infrastructure from interference, damage or unauthorized access to prevent the leakage or theft of the network data:

(1) to formulate internal safety management systems and operating procedures, strict identity authentication and rights management;

(B) to take technical measures to prevent computer viruses and network attacks, network intrusion and other hazards to network security behavior;

(3) to take technical measures to monitor and record the operation status of the network and the network security incident, and keep the relevant network log in accordance with the regulations for not less than six months;

(D) to take data classification, important data backup and encryption authentication and other measures.

Article 24 In addition to Article 23 of these Regulations, the operator shall perform the following safety and protection obligations in accordance with the requirements of national laws and regulations and the mandatory requirements of the relevant national standards:

(A) set up a dedicated network security management and network security management, and the person in charge and key positions for security background review;

(2) regularly carry out network security education, technical training and skills assessment for employees;

(C) of the important systems and databases for disaster recovery, in time for system vulnerabilities and other security risks to take remedial measures;

(D) the development of network security incident contingency plans and regular exercise;

(5) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations.

Article 25 The person in charge of network security management of the operator shall perform the following duties:

(1) to formulate network security rules and regulations, operational procedures and supervise the implementation;

(2) organizing the skills assessment of key positions;

(3) to formulate and implement the network safety education and training program of the unit;

(4) to organize network security checks and emergency drills to deal with the handling of network security incidents;

(5) to report to the relevant departments of the country on network security important matters, events.

Article twenty-sixth operators of network security key positions of professional and technical personnel to implement the system of certificates.

The specific provisions of the promulgation of posts by the State Council human resources and social security departments in conjunction with the State Network letter and other departments to develop.

Article 27 Operators shall organize the training of network safety education for employees. Each year, the training time shall not be less than one working day, and the number of professional and technical personnel in key positions shall not be less than 3 working days per year.

Article 28 The operator shall establish and improve the safety assessment and evaluation system for the key information infrastructure, and carry out the safety inspection and evaluation when the key information infrastructure is on or after the major changes.

The operator shall, at its own expense, entrust the network security service organization to carry out at least one annual inspection and evaluation of the safety and possible risk of the key information infrastructure, rectify the problems found in time and report the relevant situation to the national industry supervisor or the supervisory department The

Article 29 Personal information and important data collected and produced by the operator in the operation of the People’s Republic of China shall be stored in the territory. For business needs, it is necessary to provide overseas, should be in accordance with personal information and important data outbound security assessment methods to assess; laws, administrative regulations otherwise provided, in accordance with its provisions.

 

Chapter 5 Product and Service Security

    Article 30 The key equipment and network security special products purchased and used by the operators shall comply with the requirements of laws and administrative regulations and the mandatory requirements of relevant national standards.

Article 31 Where an operator purchases a network product and service that may affect the security of the State, it shall, through the network security review, sign a security confidentiality agreement with the provider in accordance with the requirements of the safety inspection method of the network product and service.

Article 32 Operators shall carry out safety testing on the system, software, and donated network products that have been developed for outsourcing.

Article 33 Where an operator finds that there is a risk of security defects or loopholes in the use of the network products and services, it shall promptly take measures to eliminate the risks and involve significant risks in reporting to the relevant departments.

Article 34 The operation and maintenance of key information infrastructures shall be implemented in the territory. Due to business needs, do need to remote maintenance, should be reported to the national industry executives or regulatory authorities and the State Council public security departments.

Article 35 Institutions that carry out safety assessment and evaluation, publish security threats such as system vulnerabilities, computer viruses, and network attacks for key information infrastructures, provide services such as cloud computing and information technology outsourcing, shall meet the relevant requirements.

The specific requirements by the State Network letter department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council to develop.

 

Chapter 6 Monitoring, Early Warning, Emergency Handling and Testing

    Article 36 The national network communication department shall co-ordinate the establishment of the key information infrastructure network security monitoring and early warning system and the information communication system, organize and guide the relevant agencies to carry out the network security information summary, analyze and judge the report, and publish the network security monitoring and early warning information according to the regulations The

Article 37 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall establish and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and information reporting system of the key information infrastructure in this industry, and keep abreast of the industry, the operation status of the key information infrastructure in the field and the security risks, Inform the operator about safety risks and related work information.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall organize the judgment of the safety monitoring information, and if it is necessary to take immediate preventive measures, it shall promptly issue the early warning information and emergency preventive measures to the relevant operators and, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, Relevant departments report.

Article 38 The national network communication department shall coordinate the relevant departments, operators and relevant research institutions and network security service agencies to establish a network information sharing mechanism for key information infrastructure and promote the sharing of network security information.

Article 39 In accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan , the State Network shall, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, coordinate the relevant departments to establish and perfect the key information infrastructure network security emergency coordination mechanism, strengthen the network security emergency power construction, and coordinate the relevant departments to organize cross- Regional network security emergency drills.

National industry supervisors or regulators should organize the development of the industry, the field of network security incident contingency plans, and regularly organize exercises to enhance the network security incident response and disaster recovery capabilities. After major network security incidents or early warning information received by the network letter department, should immediately start the contingency plan to respond, and timely report on the situation.

Article 40 The competent department of national industry or the regulatory department shall regularly organize the inspection and inspection of the safety risks of the industry and the key information infrastructure in the field and the performance of the operators’ performance of safety protection, and propose measures to improve the supervision and supervision of the operators in time The problems found in the assessment.

State network letter department co-ordinate the relevant departments to carry out the spot checks to prevent cross-testing and evaluation.

Article 41 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment and evaluation of the key information infrastructure safety, and shall adhere to the principle of objectivity, impartiality, efficiency and transparency, adopt a scientific evaluation and evaluation method, standardize the inspection and evaluation process and control the risk of testing and evaluation.

Operators should be carried out by the relevant departments to implement the assessment and assessment to the assessment of the problems found in time for rectification.

Article 42 The relevant departments may organize the following measures to carry out the safety inspection and evaluation of key information infrastructure:

(1) requiring the relevant personnel of the operator to make a statement on the examination and evaluation;

(B) access to, retrieval, reproduction and safety protection related documents, records;

(C) to view the network security management system development, implementation and network security technical measures planning, construction, operation;

(4) to use the testing tools or commissioned by the network security services for technical testing;

(5) other necessary means agreed by the operator.

Article 43 The information obtained by the relevant departments and the network security service organizations in the assessment of key information infrastructure safety inspection and evaluation can only be used for the maintenance of network security and shall not be used for other purposes.

Article 44 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment of the security of the key information infrastructure, and shall not charge the units to be tested and tested, and shall not require the persons to be tested and appraised to purchase the designated brand or the products and services of the designated production and sales units.

 

Chapter VII Legal Liability

    Article 45 An operator shall fail to perform the provisions of Article 20, Paragraph 1, Article 21, Article 23, Article 24, Article 26, Article 27, and Article 2 Article 18, Article 30, Article 32, Article 33, Article 34 of the network security protection obligations, by the relevant authorities in accordance with their duties ordered to correct, give a warning; refused to correct or Resulting in damage to the network security and other consequences, at a fine of more than 100,000 yuan a million yuan, the person in charge directly responsible for more than 10,000 yuan more than 100,000 yuan fine.

Article 46 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 29 of these Regulations, he or she shall, in accordance with his / her duties, make corrections, give a warning, confiscate the illegal income, And shall be ordered to suspend the relevant business, suspend business for rectification, close the website, revoke the relevant business license; the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan The

Article 47 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 31 of these Regulations and uses the network products or services that have not passed the security examination or security examination, the relevant competent department of the State shall order it to cease to use and double the purchase amount More than ten times the fine; the person in charge directly responsible and other directly responsible persons at a fine of not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 48 Where an individual violates the provisions of Article 16 of these Regulations and does not constitute a crime, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and shall be detained for less than five days and shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; Shall be imposed a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan; if the case constitutes a crime, the criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

If the unit has any of the acts mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and impose a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan and impose penalties on the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Violation of the provisions of Article XVI of the Ordinance, the criminal punishment of personnel, life shall not be engaged in key information infrastructure security management and network operations key positions in the work.

Article 49 Where the operator of a key information infrastructure of a state organ fails to perform the obligations of the network security protection provided for in these Regulations, the superior organ or the relevant organ shall order it to make corrections; and the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law.

Article 50 Where any of the following departments and their staff members commits any of the following acts, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law; if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(A) in the work of the use of authority to obtain, accept bribes;

(B) neglect of duty, abuse of authority;

(Iii) unauthorized disclosure of relevant information, information and data files of key information infrastructures;

(4) other acts that violate statutory duties.

 Article 51 Where a major cyber security incident occurs in a critical information infrastructure, the responsibility for the investigation shall be identified, and the responsibility for the relevant network security service and relevant departments shall be identified in addition to the investigation of the responsibility of the operating unit and the investigation , For dereliction of duty, dereliction of duty and other violations, shall be held accountable.

Article 52 If the organs, organizations and individuals engaged in attack, intrusion, interference, or damage to the key information infrastructure of the People’s Republic of China cause serious consequences, they shall be investigated for legal responsibility according to law; the public security department of the State Council and the State security organ And the relevant departments and may decide to impose a frozen property or other necessary sanctions on the institution, organization or individual.

 

Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions

    Article 53 The security protection of key information infrastructures involved in the storage and handling of information concerning state secrets shall also be subject to the provisions of confidentiality laws and administrative regulations.

Critical information infrastructure in the use and management of passwords, should also comply with the password laws and administrative regulations.

 Article 54 The security protection of military key information infrastructures shall be separately stipulated by the Central Military Commission.

Article 55 These Regulations shall enter into force on the date of ****.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護條例
(徵求意見稿)

第一章 總則
第一條 為了保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,根據《中華人民共和國網絡安全法》,制定本條例。
第二條 在中華人民共和國境內規劃、建設、運營、維護、使用關鍵信息基礎設施,以及開展關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,適用本條例。
第三條 關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護堅持頂層設計、整體防護,統籌協調、分工負責的原則,充分發揮運營主體作用,社會各方積極參與,共同保護關鍵信息基礎設施安全。
第四條 國家行業主管或監管部門按照國務院規定的職責分工,負責指導和監督本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
國家網信部門負責統籌協調關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作和相關監督管理工作。國務院公安、國家安全、國家保密行政管理、國家密碼管理等部門在各自職責範圍內負責相關網絡安全保護和監督管理工作。
縣級以上地方人民政府有關部門按照國家有關規定開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第五條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者(以下稱運營者)對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全負主體責任,履行網絡安全保護義務,接受政府和社會監督,承擔社會責任。
國家鼓勵關鍵信息基礎設施以外的網絡運營者自願參與關鍵信息基礎設施保護體系。
第六條 關鍵信息基礎設施在網絡安全等級保護製度基礎上,實行重點保護。
第七條 任何個人和組織發現危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的行為,有權向網信、電信、公安等部門以及行業主管或監管部門舉報。
收到舉報的部門應當及時依法作出處理;不屬於本部門職責的,應當及時移送有權處理的部門。
有關部門應當對舉報人的相關信息予以保密,保護舉報人的合法權益。

第二章 支持與保障
第八條 國家採取措施,監測、防禦、處置來源於中華人民共和國境內外的網絡安全風險和威脅,保護關鍵信息基礎設施免受攻擊、侵入、干擾和破壞,依法懲治網絡違法犯罪活動。
第九條國家製定產業、財稅、金融、人才等政策,支持關鍵信息基礎設施安全相關的技術、產品、服務創新,推廣安全可信的網絡產品和服務,培養和選拔網絡安全人才,提高關鍵信息基礎設施的安全水平。
第十條 國家建立和完善網絡安全標準體系,利用標準指導、規範關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第十一條 地市級以上人民政府應當將關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作納入地區經濟社會發展總體規劃,加大投入,開展工作績效考核評價。
第十二條 國家鼓勵政府部門、運營者、科研機構、網絡安全服務機構、行業組織、網絡產品和服務提供者開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全合作。
第十三條國家行業主管或監管部門應當設立或明確專門負責本行業、本領域關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作的機構和人員,編制並組織實施本行業、本領域的網絡安全規劃,建立健全工作經費保障機制並督促落實。
第十四條 能源、電信、交通等行業應當為關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全事件應急處置與網絡功能恢復提供電力供應、網絡通信、交通運輸等方面的重點保障和支持。
第十五條 公安機關等部門依法偵查打擊針對和利用關鍵信息基礎設施實施的違法犯罪活動。
第十六條 任何個人和組織不得從事下列危害關鍵信息基礎設施的活動和行為:
(一)攻擊、侵入、干擾、破壞關鍵信息基礎設施;
(二)非法獲取、出售或者未經授權向他人提供可能被專門用於危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的技術資料等信息;
(三)未經授權對關鍵信息基礎設施開展滲透性、攻擊性掃描探測;
(四)明知他人從事危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的活動,仍然為其提供互聯網接入、服務器託管、網絡存儲、通訊傳輸、廣告推廣、支付結算等幫助;
(五)其他危害關鍵信息基礎設施的活動和行為。
第十七條 國家立足開放環境維護網絡安全,積極開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全領域的國際交流與合作。

第三章 關鍵信息基礎設施範圍
第十八條 下列單位運行、管理的網絡設施和信息系統,一旦遭到破壞、喪失功能或者數據洩露,可能嚴重危害國家安全、國計民生、公共利益的,應當納入關鍵信息基礎設施保護範圍:
(一)政府機關和能源、金融、交通、水利、衛生醫療、教育、社保、環境保護、公用事業等行業領域的單位;
(二)電信網、廣播電視網、互聯網等信息網絡,以及提供雲計算、大數據和其他大型公共信息網絡服務的單位;
(三)國防科工、大型裝備、化工、食品藥品等行業領域科研生產單位;
(四)廣播電台、電視台、通訊社等新聞單位;
(五)其他重點單位。
第十九條 國家網信部門會同國務院電信主管部門、公安部門等部門製定關鍵信息基礎設施識別指南。
國家行業主管或監管部門按照關鍵信息基礎設施識別指南,組織識別本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施,並按程序報送識別結果。
關鍵信息基礎設施識別認定過程中,應當充分發揮有關專家作用,提高關鍵信息基礎設施識別認定的準確性、合理性和科學性。
第二十條 新建、停運關鍵信息基礎設施,或關鍵信息基礎設施發生重大變化的,運營者應當及時將相關情況報告國家行業主管或監管部門。
國家行業主管或監管部門應當根據運營者報告的情況及時進行識別調整,並按程序報送調整情況。

第四章 運營者安全保護
第二十一條 建設關鍵信息基礎設施應當確保其具有支持業務穩定、持續運行的性能,並保證安全技術措施同步規劃、同步建設、同步使用。
第二十二條 運營者主要負責人是本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作第一責任人,負責建立健全網絡安全責任制並組織落實,對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作全面負責。
第二十三條 運營者應當按照網絡安全等級保護製度的要求,履行下列安全保護義務,保障關鍵信息基礎設施免受干擾、破壞或者未經授權的訪問,防止網絡數據洩漏或者被竊取、篡改:
(一)制定內部安全管理制度和操作規程,嚴格身份認證和權限管理;
(二)採取技術措施,防範計算機病毒和網絡攻擊、網絡侵入等危害網絡安全行為;
(三)採取技術措施,監測、記錄網絡運行狀態、網絡安全事件,並按照規定留存相關的網絡日誌不少於六個月;
(四)採取數據分類、重要數據備份和加密認證等措施。
第二十四條 除本條例第二十三條外,運營者還應當按照國家法律法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求,履行下列安全保護義務:
(一)設置專門網絡安全管理機構和網絡安全管理負責人,並對該負責人和關鍵崗位人員進行安全背景審查;
(二)定期對從業人員進行網絡安全教育、技術培訓和技能考核;
(三)對重要係統和數據庫進行容災備份,及時對系統漏洞等安全風險採取補救措施;
(四)制定網絡安全事件應急預案並定期進行演練;
(五)法律、行政法規規定的其他義務。
第二十五條 運營者網絡安全管理負責人履行下列職責:
(一) 組織製定網絡安全規章制度、操作規程並監督執行;
(二)組織對關鍵崗位人員的技能考核;
(三)組織製定並實施本單位網絡安全教育和培訓計劃;
(四)組織開展網絡安全檢查和應急演練,應對處置網絡安全事件;
(五)按規定向國家有關部門報告網絡安全重要事項、事件。
第二十六條 運營者網絡安全關鍵崗位專業技術人員實行執證上崗制度。
執證上崗具體規定由國務院人力資源社會保障部門會同國家網信部門等部門製定。
第二十七條 運營者應當組織從業人員網絡安全教育培訓,每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於1個工作日,關鍵崗位專業技術人員每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於3個工作日。
第二十八條 運營者應當建立健全關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估制度,關鍵信息基礎設施上線運行前或者發生重大變化時應當進行安全檢測評估。
運營者應當自行或委託網絡安全服務機構對關鍵信息基礎設施的安全性和可能存在的風險隱患每年至少進行一次檢測評估,對發現的問題及時進行整改,並將有關情況報國家行業主管或監管部門。
第二十九條 運營者在中華人民共和國境內運營中收集和產生的個人信息和重要數據應當在境內存儲。因業務需要,確需向境外提供的,應當按照個人信息和重要數據出境安全評估辦法進行評估;法律、行政法規另有規定的,依照其規定。

第五章 產品和服務安全
第三十條 運營者採購、使用的網絡關鍵設備、網絡安全專用產品,應當符合法律、行政法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求。
第三十一條 運營者採購網絡產品和服務,可能影響國家安全的,應當按照網絡產品和服務安全審查辦法的要求,通過網絡安全審查,並與提供者簽訂安全保密協議。
第三十二條 運營者應當對外包開發的系統、軟件,接受捐贈的網絡產品,在其上線應用前進行安全檢測。
第三十三條 運營者發現使用的網絡產品、服務存在安全缺陷、漏洞等風險的,應當及時採取措施消除風險隱患,涉及重大風險的應當按規定向有關部門報告。
第三十四條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運行維護應當在境內實施。因業務需要,確需進行境外遠程維護的,應事先報國家行業主管或監管部門和國務院公安部門。
第三十五條 面向關鍵信息基礎設施開展安全檢測評估,發布系統漏洞、計算機病毒、網絡攻擊等安全威脅信息,提供雲計算、信息技術外包等服務的機構,應當符合有關要求。
具體要求由國家網信部門會同國務院有關部門製定。

第六章 監測預警、應急處置和檢測評估
第三十六條國家網信部門統籌建立關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全監測預警體系和信息通報製度,組織指導有關機構開展網絡安全信息匯總、分析研判和通報工作,按照規定統一發佈網絡安全監測預警信息。
第三十七條國家行業主管或監管部門應當建立健全本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全監測預警和信息通報製度,及時掌握本行業、本領域關鍵信息基礎設施運行狀況和安全風險,向有關運營者通報安全風險和相關工作信息。
國家行業主管或監管部門應當組織對安全監測信息進行研判,認為需要立即採取防範應對措施的,應當及時向有關運營者發布預警信息和應急防範措施建議,並按照國家網絡安全事件應急預案的要求向有關部門報告。
第三十八條 國家網信部門統籌協調有關部門、運營者以及有關研究機構、網絡安全服務機構建立關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全信息共享機制,促進網絡安全信息共享。
第三十九條國家網信部門按照國家網絡安全事件應急預案的要求,統籌有關部門建立健全關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全應急協作機制,加強網絡安全應急力量建設,指導協調有關部門組織跨行業、跨地域網絡安全應急演練。
國家行業主管或監管部門應當組織製定本行業、本領域的網絡安全事件應急預案,並定期組織演練,提升網絡安全事件應對和災難恢復能力。發生重大網絡安全事件或接到網信部門的預警信息後,應立即啟動應急預案組織應對,並及時報告有關情況。
第四十條國家行業主管或監管部門應當定期組織對本行業、本領域關鍵信息基礎設施的安全風險以及運營者履行安全保護義務的情況進行抽查檢測,提出改進措施,指導、督促運營者及時整改檢測評估中發現的問題。
國家網信部門統籌協調有關部門開展的抽查檢測工作,避免交叉重複檢測評估。
第四十一條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,應堅持客觀公正、高效透明的原則,採取科學的檢測評估方法,規範檢測評估流程,控制檢測評估風險。
運營者應當對有關部門依法實施的檢測評估予以配合,對檢測評估發現的問題及時進行整改。
第四十二條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,可採取下列措施:
(一)要求運營者相關人員就檢測評估事項作出說明;
(二)查閱、調取、複製與安全保護有關的文檔、記錄;
(三)查看網絡安全管理制度製訂、落實情況以及網絡安全技術措施規劃、建設、運行情況;
(四)利用檢測工具或委託網絡安全服務機構進行技術檢測;
(五)經運營者同意的其他必要方式。
第四十三條 有關部門以及網絡安全服務機構在關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估中獲取的信息,只能用於維護網絡安全的需要,不得用於其他用途。
第四十四條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,不得向被檢測評估單位收取費用,不得要求被檢測評估單位購買指定品牌或者指定生產、銷售單位的產品和服務。

第七章 法律責任
第四十五條運營者不履行本條例第二十條第一款、第二十一條、第二十三條、第二十四條、第二十六條、第二十七條、第二十八條、第三十條、第三十二條、第三十三條、第三十四條規定的網絡安全保護義務的,由有關主管部門依據職責責令改正,給予警告;拒不改正或者導致危害網絡安全等後果的,處十萬元以上一百萬元以下罰款,對直接負責的主管人員處一萬元以上十萬元以下罰款。
第四十六條運營者違反本條例第二十九條規定,在境外存儲網絡數據,或者向境外提供網絡數據的,由國家有關主管部門依據職責責令改正,給予警告,沒收違法所得,處五萬元以上五十萬元以下罰款,並可以責令暫停相關業務、停業整頓、關閉網站、吊銷相關業務許可證;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員處一萬元以上十萬元以下罰款。
第四十七條運營者違反本條例第三十一條規定,使用未經安全審查或安全審查未通過的網絡產品或者服務的,由國家有關主管部門依據職責責令停止使用,處採購金額一倍以上十倍以下罰款;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員處一萬元以上十萬元以下罰款。
第四十八條個人違反本條例第十六條規定,尚不構成犯罪的,由公安機關沒收違法所得,處五日以下拘留,可以並處五萬元以上五十萬元以下罰款;情節較重的,處五日以上十五日以下拘留,可以並處十萬元以上一百萬元以下罰款;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任。
單位有前款行為的,由公安機關沒收違法所得,處十萬元以上一百萬元以下罰款,並對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依照前款規定處罰。
違反本條例第十六條規定,受到刑事處罰的人員,終身不得從事關鍵信息基礎設施安全管理和網絡運營關鍵崗位的工作。
第四十九條 國家機關關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者不履行本條例規定的網絡安全保護義務的,由其上級機關或者有關機關責令改正;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接負責人員依法給予處分。
第五十條 有關部門及其工作人員有下列行為之一的,對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依法給予處分;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任:
(一)在工作中利用職權索取、收受賄賂;
(二)玩忽職守、濫用職權;
(三)擅自洩露關鍵信息基礎設施有關信息、資料及數據文件;
(四)其他違反法定職責的行為。
第五十一條關鍵信息基礎設施發生重大網絡安全事件,經調查確定為責任事故的,除應當查明運營單位責任並依法予以追究外,還應查明相關網絡安全服務機構及有關部門的責任,對有失職、瀆職及其他違法行為的,依法追究責任。
第五十二條境外的機構、組織、個人從事攻擊、侵入、干擾、破壞等危害中華人民共和國的關鍵信息基礎設施的活動,造成嚴重後果的,依法追究法律責任;國務院公安部門、國家安全機關和有關部門並可以決定對該機構、組織、個人採取凍結財產或者其他必要的製裁措施。

第八章 附則
第五十三條 存儲、處理涉及國家秘密信息的關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,還應當遵守保密法律、行政法規的規定。
關鍵信息基礎設施中的密碼使用和管理,還應當遵守密碼法律、行政法規的規定。
第五十四條 軍事關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,由中央軍事委員會另行規定。
第五十五條 本條例自****年**月**日起施行。

Referring URL:

http://www.cac.gov.cn/2017-07/11/c_1121294220.htm

中國網絡安全防禦將是量子計算…未來將面臨這些網絡攻擊威脅 // China network security defense will be quantum computing… The future will face these cyber-attack threats

中國網絡安全防禦將是量子計算…未來將面臨這些網絡攻擊威脅

China network security defense will be quantum computing… The future will face these cyber-attack threats

 

Quantum computers can give attackers the ability to crack the current encryption standard overnight and steal personal data. Imagine, if you wake up and lose all the important information, what kind of helpless?

Experts predict that by 2026, commercial quantum computers can crack the code we now rely on. “IEEE Spectrum” magazine reported last year that quantum computers were fast enough to crack the level of RSA encryption.

The nine years from 2026 are not long and the consequences of failing to update the security technology through quantum security solutions are not yet clear. In order to ensure that the arrival of quantum computers to protect data security, need to upgrade from now on to quantum security needs.

What is a quantum computer?

Quantum computer (quantum computer) is a class of quantum mechanics to follow the law of high-speed mathematical and logical operations, storage and processing of quantum information, physical devices. When a device processes and computes quantum information, it is a quantum computer when it runs a quantum algorithm.

It can be achieved for each superposition of the transformation of the equivalent of a classic calculation, all of these classic calculations at the same time, and according to a certain probability amplitude superimposed, given the output of quantum computers. This calculation is called quantum parallel computing, but also the most important advantages of quantum computers. (Source Baidu)

Quantum computer can invade daily network activities

If an attacker uses a quantum computer to successfully crack the encryption technology that we currently trust and rely on, then sensitive data may be vented, giving serious consequences to users and organizations. As a technical user, people may perform the following common activities on any day:

Send an e-mail: The user logs on to the laptop and sends several e-mails, whose information may be read by the attacker and published publicly for everyone to read.

Check the online banking account: the user login bank account and transfer, the financial data will be attacked by the attacker, and the account balance looted.

Update the social media account information: user login microblogging and other social media publishing dynamic, share family photos, etc., if the user only choose to share these dynamic friends, the attacker can all photos and personal information “everyone visible”, and in addition to The user himself, others can arbitrarily tamper with.

Updating software on the smartphone: If the user receives a software update notification and accepts the update, it is not aware that the verification process from a trusted source (such as Google or Apple’s official download) will also be compromised. Malware may enter the smartphone, disguised as a trusted update, so that the attacker gets the application’s login credentials and data.

Driving the network car: the network will automatically accept the software update. These updates may come from an attacker, the user without the knowledge of the circumstances, may allow third parties to control the car’s embedded system, undermine navigation, cut off the car power and so on.

In addition, many other day-to-day transactions may be vulnerable to attack.E.g:

Use the original security of the Internet equipment: thermostat, home security system or baby monitor;

Transfer funds to public transport as prepaid expenses;

Use VPN to log on to the corporate network.

Public transport, security systems, and physical access systems can also have many public safety risks.

As the networking equipment provides more attack surface, data leakage events are frequent. As companies and governments continue to prevent cyber security attacks through technological advances, quantum computing may make cybercriminals more arbitrary and unscrupulous.

The key to quantum secure encryption solutions will be to update the vulnerable quantum solution in a timely manner, which means that it is now necessary to understand which systems will be affected by quantum risk and plan to migrate to quantum security solutions (including appropriate testing and test).

This transition can be done from a hybrid solution, enabling flexible encryption, and the classic encryption technology used today.

Quantum computers or will change the pattern of artificial intelligence research

Source: Artificial Intelligenceologist

Summary: Chinese scientists have built quantum computers that are “natural photonics” by reviewers called “ENIAC in Quantum Computers”.

Chinese scientists have built quantum computers that are “natural photonics” by reviewers called “ENIAC in Quantum Computers.” Quantum computer of this achievement and the subsequent development, it is possible to change the current pattern of artificial intelligence research.

First, it may mean strong, weak artificial intelligence, and “quantum” approach of the three technical paradigm of confluence. Second, it is possible to open up the traditional Chinese culture “programming” approach, as well as more to explore the Chinese and Eastern traditions and pre-traditional culture of resources. Third, in the human cognitive structure can not keep up with the pace of technological development, the quantum computer may help the human hand, set up from the original understanding of the future of the world bridge.

Although all this can not change the fate of mankind will eventually be replaced by “singularity”, but may change in the singularity of the continuation of the “human” connotation.

Competition and confluence of three paradigms

Artificial intelligence The current research mainly exists strong artificial intelligence, weak artificial intelligence two kinds of technical paradigm.

The strong artificial intelligence paradigm follows the development of technology along the form of movement from low to high order, by the first industrial revolution in the basic physical movement (mechanical, thermal and electromagnetic motion), by the second industrial revolution of chemical movement (organic synthesis ), The end of the 20th century high-tech life movement (genetic engineering, gene editing), and then into the human brain and consciousness of the field; technology step by step, all the way to follow the natural to the human footprint. The human brain is the highest achievement of the evolution of nature, the nature of consciousness is far from being revealed.Artificial intelligence will continue to follow this trajectory, there is no reason to leave this path of success.

In this journey, “physical and mental” relationship is an insurmountable peak. Polanyi’s knowledge of congregation is well known, and IQ and EQ are inseparable. “Artificial intelligence is no more intelligent and only emotionally.”

Weak artificial intelligence paradigm is taking the “smart is intelligent” path. Science and technology may not follow the people as a whole, emotional intelligence and IQ, heart and brain synchronization of the path of evolution, but can take the path of heart and brain separation. Artificial intelligence is only “wisdom”, is the “cylinder in the brain” (“three body” as the envoy of the earth Cheng Tianming), rather than “love” non-human; because of this, artificial intelligence beyond the situation ( Including all kinds of ideological struggle) the trapped people’s intelligence, regardless of “emotional” when things do better, more absolutely. Through the repeated game and the evolution of the game, the development of in-depth learning, step by step, migration learning, learn by analogy, and even into the rules and boundaries across the “Texas poker” to achieve a major breakthrough in artificial intelligence.

The achievement of these results follows the pace of the West since Descartes. “Epistemological turn”, “brain” debut, “head to the ground.”Intelligence is intelligent, do not care about the heart; one to do, do not do all-around champion; step by step to do, do not think people are people. Why should artificial intelligence be based on human beings as a reference system?Get rid of anthropocentrism.

The development of artificial intelligence will eventually go beyond the basic weakness of human nature: people are self-interested, people are limited.The development of artificial intelligence has nothing to do with dignity, but to follow the law. Not to overcome, but to bypass the weakness of human nature.No self-consciousness, means that does not matter “self-interest”, for all the emotions “do not feel”; and in time and space endless large data and extraordinary computing power is beyond the “limited.”

Strong artificial intelligence and weak artificial intelligence combination model, perhaps “God’s return to God, Caesar’s return to Caesar”. Please take care of the soul of God, and I take care of the flesh of men. People, take care of their own souls, make decisions; machine, artificial intelligence in the calculation, to provide decision-making basis and options. “Mind machine brain”.

“Quantum paradigm” can be said to be strong, weak artificial intelligence outside the two paradigms of the third paradigm, related to the relationship between consciousness or free will and quantum entanglement, and quantum computer. “From this point of view, not to quantum up before, that is less than the era of quantum artificial intelligence, I was not worried about artificial intelligence will replace humans.” Pan Jianwei said. Ma Zhaoyuan holds the same view, before understanding by the nano-scale consciousness, “artificial intelligence at least three hundred years there is no chance to go beyond the human brain.”

From the perspective of quantum cut, there may be more than other ways to approach the nature of consciousness, which is “strong artificial intelligence” paradigm of the pursuit of the goal. At this point these two paradigms came together. However, even if this paradigm is a breakthrough, from the current trend, “quantum paradigm” hardware is not “complete life form”, may lead to “strong artificial intelligence” paradigm of dissatisfaction.

This breakthrough in the quantum computer highlights the strength of the artificial intelligence technology paradigm outside the third paradigm. On the one hand it is possible in a sense to set up a bridge between the two paradigms.If you can manipulate more than 1000 quantum, you may be able to study the generation of consciousness. Pan Jianwei predicted that quantum computers will eventually expand into the field of quantum artificial intelligence.

On the other hand, the purpose of studying quantum computers is not to replace existing computers. Quantum computing is suitable for discrete optimization, and high performance computing systems (HPC) perform better in large-scale numerical simulations. Need to determine what problems are suitable for quantum computing, the two complement each other. There are many examples of quantum computer assisting high performance computing systems. In a certain sense, the classic computer with universal, quantum computer may be “earmarked.”From the standard computing power, the D-Wave quantum computer is still much slower than the traditional computer, but in solving some specific engineering problems, the quantum computer is several thousand times faster than the existing supercomputer.

China ‘s Resources and Opportunities

With the development of the Internet, a virtual world has been generated and is continuing to develop and improve. Everything in the real world is constantly moving to the virtual world. From the center, intervene, embedding, blurring, conferencing, going to the center, non-embedding, precision and coding; real world in virtual world reconstruction. As the real world moves to the virtual world, the weight of the virtual world is growing, and non-participants will be marginalized.

From the real to the virtual link is the core of programming. Virtual world is not a real world simple mapping, projection, but selective reconstruction.Not everything in the real world can move to the virtual world. Any programming language written by the instructions on the current computer must be accurate without any ambiguity to ensure that under the same conditions, this code is executed in accordance with established procedures. This is what the so-called software defines everything. All kinds of software, defined the data, the model, the function, the machine, the definition of the process, the rules, the network, the definition can define everything [1].

“People are the sum of social relations.” When the social relations continue to move from the real world to the virtual world, and even the latter as the most important, the status of people in the real world will be affected. Stay in the real world is only a personal secret of the faith, can not be part of the software definition [2]. Can not be moved to the virtual world, can not be mapped, but can not operate the real world, there may be dismissed in the virtual world “ball”, and even come back to the real world can not interact with others. The rapid development of the block chain further highlights the importance of being virtual and real. Human beings continue to enter the orderly degree of machine and society [3]. In society, the order of the carrier is also more and more by the machine to complete. When the basic contract of mankind, such as education, economy and law, its normal operation is carried by the machine, the mission of human beings as an orderly transfer has been completed.The society of machines will replace the real society that can not be moved.

The so-called “programming”, in other words is the code, through programming, the real world projection to the virtual world.

In a sense it can be said that Western culture is “coding culture”. Science and technology, industrial revolution, market economy, universal value, contractual relationship, and so on, all without coding. It is important to note that the first day of computer birth, the development of computer language is infiltrated in the Western coding culture. Computer language is the most basic statement is if-else, as the switchcase statement can be replaced with if else statement, in the if-else behind that is either: 0, or 1, orthogonal. Thus, relatively speaking, the already “encoded” Western society easier to “programming” into the virtual world, and in turn accept the virtual world of the real world norms and constraints.

In contrast, Chinese culture is clearly “conception culture”. Road to Road, very Avenue. “Road”, how to encode? TOEFL IELTS, 20,000 words; Chinese, 5000 words is enough, the word polysemy. So the United Nations documents can not prevail in Chinese, even if the feelings of the Chinese people hurt. Words made up of words are more ambiguous. Winter, how much can wear to wear how much; summer, how much can wear to wear how much. Contextual correlation. In the face of such Chinese examinations, foreign candidates can only be “kneeling”. China’s various levels of documents must be “in principle” three words, the back is endless and not for example and case handling. The highest state is simply: “do not say”. Such a society and its operation process, not if-else, also far from the switchcase can be included, can be exhausted. Can not be programmed, does it mean that China’s traditional culture and social operation can not be mapped to the virtual world?

Quantum computer may be the traditional Chinese culture, the way for the operation of Chinese society programming.

The key to quantum computers is the essential nature of quantum mechanics, such as the superposition and coherence of quantum states. Superposition, coherence, entanglement, so that some concepts and the meaning of knowledge have the same place. The input and output states of the quantum computer are generally superimposed states of multiple states between 0 and 1, which are usually not orthogonal to each other. The quantum computer transforms each superimposed component, where each “component” can be considered to correspond to one of the “cases” in Chinese society.

But in real life these cases are difficult to compare with the same standard, and in the quantum computer, all of these transformations at the same time, and according to a certain probability of superposition, give the results.Quantum computers are probabilistic rather than deterministic, and return to the user may be multiple sets of values, not only to provide the system to find the best solution, but also provide other alternative alternatives. The user can specify the number of systems that the system sends to itself.

The classic way of solving a problem by a classic computer is similar to trying to escape a maze – try all possible aisle, on the way will encounter a dead end until the final find the exit. The magic of the superposition state is that it allows the quantum computer to try all the paths at the same time, that is, it will quickly find a shortcut. In a sense, it can be said that the quantum computer not only contains the highly complex and “conception” characteristics of Chinese traditional culture and real society, but also gives the possibility of coding and programming. The former retains the particularity of China to a certain extent , Which makes this particularity compatible with the universality of human society.

In turn, China has special resources, such as hieroglyphics, language, and traditional culture, which may be another way for the development of quantum computers.

Quantum computers operate in much the same way as classic computers, and now quantum computing is very early, and even specialized programming languages ​​are not [4]. Since non-orthogonal, or if-else? When the need to compare the more things, or a lot of other control process, with if else statement control will be very cumbersome, and poor readability, and the switch statement is more simple and intuitive, more readable and more. But if it is further fragmented, embedded in the infinite number of specific contexts? Quantum computer is completely different from today’s CPU mechanism, nor is the if-else mechanism, can not use the current computer language for its programming. Otherwise it may be as Sokal triggered the science war in the “post-modern text generator”, with a series of contradictory words superimposed together, so that the reader in the fog, no solution.

“The scientific revolution in the 21st century will show two main themes, one is” the convergence of physics and life sciences “; the second is” the confluence of modern science and Chinese philosophy ” The Quantum computer development, it is possible to let the latter “confluence” down the philosophy of the altar, to a certain extent, into the operational level. The advent of quantum computers suggests that it is possible to look at Chinese words and grammar from a new perspective. Perhaps, the ancient “Book of Changes”, River map book, there may be in the dialogue with the quantum computer complement each other.

3 Human reversion and continuation

In the Qiwen “decarburization into the silicon”, the author of the Czech Republic, there are four sets of human cognitive system: the original reptile cognitive system, 50,000 years ago when the language developed, 5000 years ago, after the development of the text, And 500 years ago after the rise of science and development. Each set is more than the previous set of “natural”, more energy consumption, slower. So people tend to use low-level cognitive systems.Every time the cognitive system is advanced, some people are thrown off. Here you can also add the fifth set of cognitive systems, 50 years ago the rise of programming + computing + learning +.

Everyone is a combination of multiple cognitive methods, the difference is the proportion of a variety of cognitive methods. The overall population, in 90% of the human brain “machine”, is that the original cognition at work. The majority of the population as a whole tends to “do not mind” in most of the time. Analysis, symbols and rationality are enemies of the brain, and must be used to fight them all the time.

In this sense, Bao Jie to “stupid” under a definition. Stupid is a human inertia of inertia, the individual is more inclined to use 50,000 years ago mature set of thinking system, rather than 5000 years ago, and five years ago after the development of science and development of these two sets of thinking system, more Not 50 years ago programming. This is the advertising and other means of marketing and election canvassing and so the effectiveness of the human nature of the foundation. Artificial intelligence goes beyond human intelligence and does not need to be smarter than people, just to avoid people’s stupid enough. The machine is just stupid and people are stupid. Stupid can rule, stupid from the human physiological basis, no medicine to save.

The advent of quantum computers, it is possible for humans to open the “sixth set of cognitive systems.” The new cognitive system may emerge within five years if the fifth set of 50-year rhythms are added in the “decarburization of silicon” in the range of 50,000 to 5,000 to 500, and by the experts, Five years, the computing power of quantum computers may catch up with the current supercomputer). The classical computer is linear, and all input states are orthogonal to each other. And thinking is often parallel, pluralistic, and even jumping. With quantum computers, it is possible to understand the human behavior based on the first and second sets of cognitive systems, changes in mind, and even emotional changes.

What is the “cognitive system” of the so-called “first and second sets of cognitive systems”? Levi’s “original thinking” and Levi-Strauss’s “wild thinking” made a profound study of this.

Levi – Boulei stressed that the original thinking of the “mutual infiltration”, both specific to trivial, natives can recognize the footprints of each acquaintance, after the rain, the pit of water retained the longest; and by mutual penetration and care of the whole The For example, call a name or name, also implicated it or he embedded everything. Embedded in every detail, all have the object of all the information. The original logical thinking is essentially a comprehensive thinking, different from the logical thinking of the synthesis, does not require pre-analysis. “The logical thinking of the original logic is broader than our thinking, if we do not say it’s better than our rich.” The idea of ​​D-Wave America’s president, BoEwald, is that “the traditional computer will always get the same answer, and the answer to the quantum computer Is a probability, just like the principles of the universe, “says David Mermin, a physicist at Cornell University, in a related argument:” Close your mouth and calculate your mind! ”

Levi-Strauss argues that [5] that the concrete thinking of uncivilized people and the enlightening thinking of the enlightened people are not different from those of “primitive” and “modern” or “primary” and “advanced” Thinking mode, but the history of mankind has always been the existence of two parallel development, the Secretary of different cultural functions, complement each other to infiltrate the way of thinking. As the plants have “wild” and “garden” two categories, the way of thinking can be divided into “wild” (or “wild”) and “civilized” two categories.

It seems that the human “stupid” may not be really stupid, but there is no corresponding means and means to understand the original and wild cognitive system, when not yet. The advent of quantum computers may indicate that time has arrived.

The knowledge of the traditional society is the starting point of human knowledge, both the object of non-embedded coding knowledge denial, and the goal of dialectical reversion of the 21st century. In the original state of knowledge, is the source of human knowledge inexhaustible, which contains the endless treasure to be excavated.

Primitive thinking or wild thinking, human first and second sets of cognitive systems, although the rise of words and technology, especially the “fifth set” of cognitive system after the rise of such as the clogs, but also may be 21 The Object of Dialectical Return of Human Cognitive System in the Century. Fundamentally, Bao Jie’s view of four sets of cognitive systems implied a certain linear implication. Similarly, Kevin Kelly thinks [6] that the most common misconception about artificial intelligence is that natural intelligence is a single dimension that does not have a smart ladder to say. The different parts of the mind, or the interdependence of the “five sets” of cognitive methods, are thus proposed.

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

量子計算機能賦予攻擊者能力,一夜之間破解當前加密標準,並竊取個人數據。想像一下,如果一覺醒來丟失了所有重要信息,這將是一種怎樣的無助?

專家預計,到2026年,商用量子計算機能破解我們如今依賴的密碼。 《IEEE Spectrum》雜誌去年報告稱,量子計算機快達到可以破解RSA加密的水平。
距離2026年的9年時間並不算長,無法通過量子安全解決方案更新安全技術所帶來的後果目前尚不明確。為了確保量子計算機到來時能保護數據安全,需要從現在開始升級到量子安全需。
什麼是量子計算機?
量子計算機(quantum computer)是一類遵循量子力學規律進行高速數學和邏輯運算、存儲及處理量子信息的物理裝置。當某個裝置處理和計算的是量子信息,運行的是量子算法時,它就是量子計算機。
它能對每一個疊加分量實現的變換相當於一種經典計算,所有這些經典計算同時完成,並按一定的概率振幅疊加起來,給出量子計算機的輸出結果。這種計算稱為量子並行計算,也是量子計算機最重要的優越性。 (來源百度)

量子計算機能入侵日常網絡活動
如果攻擊者利用量子計算機成功破解當前我們所信任和依賴的加密技術,那麼敏感數據可能會被洩,從而給用戶和機構帶來嚴重後果。作為技術用戶,人們可能會在任何一天執行以下常見活動:
發送電子郵件:用戶登錄筆記本電腦,發送幾封電子郵件,其信息可能會被攻擊者讀取,並公開發布供所有人閱讀。
查看網銀賬號:用戶登錄銀行賬號並轉賬,財務數據會被攻擊者獲取,並將賬戶餘額洗劫一空。
更新社交媒體賬戶信息:用戶登錄微博等社交媒體發布動態,分享家人的照片等,如果用戶僅選擇將這些動態分享給好友,攻擊者可以將所有照片和個人信息“所有人可見”,且除了用戶自己,其它人可以任意篡改。
更新智能手機上的軟件:如果用戶收到軟件更新通知,並接受更新,而並未意識到是否來自可信源(例如Google或Apple官方下載)的驗證過程也會被入侵。惡意軟件可能會進入智能手機,偽裝成可信任的更新,從而使攻擊者獲取應用程序的登錄憑證以及數據。
駕駛聯網汽車:聯網汽車會自動接受軟件更新。這些更新可能來自攻擊者,用戶在不知情的情況下,可能會允許第三方控制車內的嵌入式系統、破壞導航、切斷汽車動力等。
此外,許多其它日常交易可能易於遭受攻擊。例如:
使用原本安全的物聯網設備:恆溫器、家庭安全系統或嬰兒監視器;
將資金轉入公共交通系統作為預付費用;
使用VPN登錄公司網絡等。
公共交通工具、安全系統和物理訪問系統遭遇攻擊也會帶來許多公共安全風險。
由於聯網設備提供了更多的攻擊面,因此,數據洩露事件頻發。隨著公司和政府不斷通過技術進步防範網絡安全攻擊,量子計算可能會讓網絡犯罪分子更加隨心所欲,肆無忌憚。
量子安全加密解決方案的關鍵將是及時更新易受攻擊的量子解決方案,這就意味著,現在要理解哪些系統將會受到量子風險影響,併計劃遷移到量子安全解決方案(包括適當的測試和試驗)。
這種過渡可以從混合解決方案開始,實現靈活加密,強化如今使用的經典加密技術。
量子計算機或將改變人工智能的研究格局
來源: 人工智能學家

概要:中國科學家建造出了被《自然·光子學》的審稿人稱之為“量子計算機中的ENIAC”的量子計算機。
中國科學家建造出了被《自然·光子學》的審稿人稱之為“量子計算機中的ENIAC”的量子計算機。量子計算機的這一成果及而後的發展,有可能改變當下人工智能的研究格局。
其一,可能意味著強、弱人工智能,以及“量子”途徑三種技術範式的合流。其二,有可能開拓將中國傳統文化“編程”的途徑,以及更多發掘中國與東方的傳統和前傳統文化中的資源。其三,在人類認知結構跟不上科技發展的腳步之時,量子計算機有可能助人類一臂之力,架起由原始認知到未來世界的橋樑。
這一切雖然不能改變人類終將被“奇點人”所取代的命運,但可能改變在奇點人中所延續下來的“人類”的內涵。
1三種範式的競爭與合流
人工智能目前的研究主要存在強人工智能、弱人工智能兩種技術範式。
強人工智能範式沿襲技術的發展沿運動形式由低到高的次序,由第一次工業革命中的基本物理運動(機械、熱和電磁運動),經第二次工業革命的化學運動(有機合成),20世紀末高技術中的生命運動(基因工程、基因編輯),接著進入人腦和意識的領域;技術亦步亦趨,一路跟隨由自然到人的足跡。人腦是自然界演化的最高成果,意識的本質遠未揭示。人工智能將繼續追隨這一軌跡,沒有理由脫離這一成功的路徑。
在這一征途上,“身心”關係是難以逾越的高峰。波蘭尼關於意會知識的研究廣為人知,智商與情商不可分割。 “人工智能再聰明也沒有情感,只是機器而已。”
弱人工智能範式走的是“智能就是智能”路徑。科學技術未必沿著人作為整體,情商與智商,心腦同步進化的路徑,而是可以走心腦分離的路徑。人工智能之所求原本只是“智”,是“缸中大腦”(《三體》中作為地球人使節的程天明),而非“情”非人;正因為此,人工智能超越為情(包括形形色色的意識形態之爭)所困的人的智能,在不顧及“情感”之時把事情做得更好,更絕。通過重複博弈而演進博弈,開發深度學習,步步為營,遷移學習,舉一反三,乃至進入跨越規則與邊界的“德州撲克”,實現人工智能的重大突破。
這些成果的取得沿襲了西方自笛卡爾以來的步點。 “認識論轉向”,“腦”登場,“以頭立地”。智能就是智能,不在乎心;一項一項去做,不做全能冠軍;一步一步去做,不去想人之為人。人工智能為什麼一定要以人類為參照系,為追趕的目標?擺脫人類中心主義的思路。
人工智能的發展將最終超越人性的基本弱點:人是自利的,人是有限的。人工智能的發展無關尊嚴,而是遵循規律。不是克服,而是繞過人性的弱點。沒有自我意識,意味著無所謂“自利”,對於所有的情感“沒感覺”;而在時空上無窮無盡的大數據和超凡脫俗的計算能力則超越人之“有限”。
強人工智能與弱人工智能結合的模式,或許是“上帝的歸上帝,凱撒的歸凱撒”。請上帝照看人的靈魂,我來照看人的肉體。人,照看自己的靈魂,做出決策;機,人工智能從事計算,提供決策的依據和選項。 “人心機腦”。
“量子範式”可以說是強、弱人工智能這兩種範式之外的第三種範式,關係到意識或自由意志與量子糾纏的關係,以及量子計算機。 “從這個角度上來講,沒有到量子用上去之前,即不到量子人工智能的時代,我是一點兒不擔心人工智能會取代人類。”潘建偉說道。馬兆遠持同樣的觀點,在由納米尺度理解意識之前,“人工智能至少在三百年內還沒什麼機會超越人腦”。
由量子的角度切入,有可能較之其他途徑更加逼近意識的本質,這也是“強人工智能”範式所追求的目標。在這一點這兩種範式走到了一起。然而,即使這一範式獲得某種突破,從目前趨勢來看,“量子範式”的硬件並非“完整的生命形態”,可能招致“強人工智能”範式的不滿。
這次量子計算機的突破凸現了強弱人工智能技術範式之外的第三種範式。一方面有可能在某種意義上架起強弱兩種範式的橋樑。如果能操縱1000個量子以上,或許可以研究意識的產生。潘建偉預測,量子計算機最終將拓展到量子人工智能領域。
另一方面,研究量子計算機的目的不是要取代現有的計算機。量子計算適合離散優化,高性能計算系統(HPC) 則在大規模數值模擬中表現更好。需要判斷哪些問題適合量子計算,二者相互補充。有很多量子計算機協助高性能計算系統的例子。在一定意義上,經典計算機具有普適性,量子計算機可能是“專款專用”。從標準的計算能力來看,D-Wave量子計算機還是會比傳統計算機慢得多,但在解決某些特定的工程問題方面,量子計算機要比現有超級計算機快幾千倍。
2中國的資源與機遇
隨著互聯網的發展,一個虛擬世界已經生成並正在繼續發展和完善。現實世界的一切正在不斷遷移到虛擬世界。從中心、干預、嵌入、模糊、意會,到去中心化、非嵌入、精確和編碼;現實世界在虛擬世界重構。隨著越來越大的現實世界移到虛擬世界,虛擬世界的權重越來越大,不參加者將自我邊緣化。
由實到虛的轉換環節的核心是編程。虛擬世界不是現實世界簡單的映射、投射,而是選擇性重構。不是現實世界的一切都可以移到虛擬世界。任何編程語言寫好的指令,對目前的計算機必須準確無誤沒有歧義,以保證在同樣的條件下,這段代碼按既定步驟執行。這就是所謂軟件定義一切。形形色色、大大小小、不同用途的軟件,定義了數據、模型、功能、機器,定義了過程、規則、網絡,定義了可以定義的一切[1]。
“人是社會關係的總和”。當社會關係不斷由現實世界遷移到虛擬世界,乃至以後者為重,人在現實世界的地位就受到影響。留在現實世界的只是個人隱秘的信仰,是不能被軟件定義的部分[2]。沒法移到虛擬世界,不能映射,更不能操作的現實世界,有可能被開除在虛擬世界的“球籍”,以至回過頭來沒法在現實世界與他人交往。區塊鏈的快速發展進一步凸現了由實到虛,以虛馭實的重要性。人類源源不斷地把有序度輸入機器和社會[3]。在社會中,有序度的載體也越來越多的由機器來完成。當人類的基礎契約,如教育、經濟和法律,其正常運作都是由機器來承載時,人類作為有序度轉移者的使命已經完成了。機器構成的社會將取代移不過去的現實社會。
所謂“編程”,換言之就是編碼,經由編程,把現實世界投射到虛擬世界。
在某種意義上可以說,西方文化就是“編碼文化”。科學技術、工業革命、市場經濟、普適價值、契約關係等等,無一不編碼。有必要指出,從計算機誕生的第一天起,計算機語言的發展就浸潤在西方的編碼文化之中。計算機語言最基本的語句是if-else,至於switchcase語句完全可以用if else語句來替換掉,在if-else的背後即非此即彼:0,或1,正交。由此可見,相對而言,本已“編碼”的西方社會較容易“編程”而進入虛擬世界,以及反過來接受虛擬世界對現實世界的規範與製約。
相比之下,中國文化顯然是“意會文化”。道可道非常道。 “道”,如何編碼?考托福雅思,2萬單詞;漢語,5000單詞足矣,一詞多義。所以聯合國文件不能以中文為準,即使傷害了中國人民的感情。由單詞組成的語句更多歧義。冬天,能穿多少就穿多少;夏天,能穿多少就穿多少。語境相關。面對這樣的中文考題,外國考生也只能是“跪了”。中國的各級文件中必有“原則上”三個字,其背後是無窮無盡的下不為例和個案處理。最高境界乾脆是:“盡在不言中”。這樣的社會及其運作過程,絕非if-else,亦遠非switchcase可以囊括,可以窮盡。不能編程,是否意味著中國的傳統文化與社會運行不能映射到虛擬世界?
量子計算機有可能為中國傳統文化,為中國社會的運行方式編程。
量子計算機的關鍵是用到量子力學的本質特性,如量子態的疊加性和相干性。疊加、相干、糾纏,這樣一些概念與意會知識有相通之處。量子計算機的輸入態和輸出態為一般為0到1之間的多個狀態的疊加態,相互之間通常不正交。量子計算機對每一個疊加分量進行變換,這裡的每一個“分量”或可認為對應於中國社會中的一個個“個案”。
但在現實生活中這些個案難以以同一標準相互比較,而在量子計算機,所有這些變換同時完成,並按一定的概率幅疊加起來,給出結果。量子計算機是概率性的而非確定性的,返回給用戶的可能是多組數值,不僅能提供系統尋找到的最佳解決方案,同時也提供其他可供選擇的優秀替代方案。用戶可以指定係統向自己發送解決方案的數量。
經典計算機解決一個問題的方式就類似於試圖逃離一個迷宮——嘗試所有可能的走道,途中會遇到死路,直到最終找到出口。而疊加態的魔力則在於,允許量子計算機在同一時間嘗試所有的路徑,也就是說,它會迅速的找到一條捷徑。在某種意義上可以說,量子計算機既包容中國傳統文化與現實社會的高度複雜性和“意會”特徵,又賦予其編碼和編程的可能性;前者在一定程度上保留了中國的特殊性,後者使這種特殊性與人類社會的普遍性兼容。
反過來,中國所具有的特殊資源,如像形文字、語言以及傳統文化有可能為量子計算機的發展另闢蹊徑。
量子計算機的運行方式與經典計算機大為不同,現在的量子計算還非常早期,甚至連專門的編程語言都沒有[4]。既然非正交,還是if-else嗎?當需要比較的事項較多,或者很多其他控制流程的時候,用if else語句控制起來就會很麻煩,且可讀性太差,而用switcase可以囊括,可以窮盡。不能編程,是否意味著中國的傳統文化與社會運行不能映射到虛擬世界?
量子計算機有可能為中國傳統文化,為中國社會的運行方式編程。
量子計算機的關鍵是用到量子力學的本質特性,如量子態的疊加性和相干性。疊加、相干、糾纏,這樣一些概念與意會知識有相通之處。量子計算機的輸入態和輸出態為一般為0到1之間的多個狀態的疊加態,相互之間通常不正交。量子計算機對每一個疊加分量進行變換,這裡的每一個“分量”或可認為對應於中國社會中的一個個“個案”。
但在現實生活中這些個案難以以同一標準相互比較,而在量子計算機,所有這些變換同時完成,並按一定的概率幅疊加起來,給出結果。量子計算機是概率性的而非確定性的,返回給用戶的可能是多組數值,不僅能提供系統尋找到的最佳解決方案,同時也提供其他可供選擇的優秀替代方案。用戶可以指定係統向自己發送解決方案的數量。
經典計算機解決一個問題的方式就類似於試圖逃離一個迷宮——嘗試所有可能的走道,途中會遇到死路,直到最終找到出口。而疊加態的魔力則在於,允許量子計算機在同一時間嘗試所有的路徑,也就是說,它會迅速的找到一條捷徑。在某種意義上可以說,量子計算機既包容中國傳統文化與現實社會的高度複雜性和“意會”特徵,又賦予其編碼和編程的可能性;前者在一定程度上保留了中國的特殊性,後者使這種特殊性與人類社會的普遍性兼容。
反過來,中國所具有的特殊資源,如像形文字、語言以及傳統文化有可能為量子計算機的發展另闢蹊徑。
量子計算機的運行方式與經典計算機大為不同,現在的量子計算還非常早期,甚至連專門的編程語言都沒有[4]。既然非正交,還是if-else嗎?當需要比較的事項較多,或者很多其他控制流程的時候,用if else語句控制起來就會很麻煩,且可讀性太差,而用switch語句就更加簡潔直觀,可讀性也更強。但要是進一步碎片化,嵌入於不可勝數的特定語境之中呢?量子計算機完全不同於今天的CPU機理,也不是if-else機理,沒法用現在的計算機語言為其編程。否則很可能如索卡爾引發的科學大戰中的“後現代文本發生器”,用一連串互相矛盾的詞彙疊加在一起,讓讀者云裡霧裡,不得其解。
中國科學院大學已故數學教授牛實為先生認為,21世紀的科學革命將呈現出兩個主旋律,其一是“物理學與生命科​​學的合流”;其二是“現代科學與中國哲學的合流” 。量子計算機的發展,有可能讓後一個“合流”走下哲學的聖壇,在一定程度上步入操作的層面。量子計算機的問世提示,或許可以從一個新的視角審視中文的單詞和語法。或許,古老的《易經》,河圖洛書,有可能在與量子計算機的對話中相得益彰。
3人類的複歸與延續
在奇文“脫碳入矽”中,作者鮑捷提出人類有四套認知系統:原始的爬行動物認知系統,5萬年前語言成熟時發展的,5000年前文字發明後發展的,和500年前科學興起後發展的。每一套都比前一套更不“自然”,更耗費能量,速度更慢。所以人總是傾向於用低層次的認知系統。認知系統的每一次進階,都甩下一部分人。在這裡還可以再加上第五套認知系統,50年前興起的編程+計算+學習+。
每個人都是多種認知方式的綜合,區別是多種認知方式的比例不同。而人群的總體,在90%的人腦“機時”裡,是那些原始的認知在起作用。總體人群的大多數在大多數時間傾向於“不動腦子”。分析、符號和理性都是大腦的敵人,必須無時無刻不和本能做鬥爭才能運用它們。
在此意義上,鮑捷給“愚蠢”下了一個定義。愚蠢是人類的一種認知的惰性,個體比較偏向於使用5萬年前成熟的那套思維繫統,而不是5000年前文字發明和500年前科學發展後發展的這兩套思維繫統,更不是50年前的編程。這是廣告之類營銷手段和選舉拉票等之所以奏效的人性基礎。人工智能超越人的智能,並不需要比人聰明,只需要避免人的愚蠢就夠了。機器只是笨,人是愚蠢。笨可以治,蠢源於人的生理基礎,無藥可救。
量子計算機的問世,有可能為人類開啟“第六套認知系統”。如果按“脫碳入矽”中5萬-5千-5百,以及筆者加上的第五套50年的節奏,新的認知系統可能在5年內出現(順便說,有專家指出,在五年之內,量子計算機的計算能力就可能赶超當前的超級計算機)。經典計算機是線性的,所有的輸入態均相互正交。而思維往往是並行、多元、甚至跳躍。借助量子計算機,以人類思考方式進行超高速計算,有可能理解人類基於第一、二套認知系統的群體性行為、思想變化,甚至情緒變化。
所謂“第一、二套認知系統”究竟是什麼樣的“認知系統”?列維-布留爾的《原始思維》和列維-斯特勞斯的《野性的思維》對此作了深刻的研究。
列維-布留爾強調了原始思維的“互滲”,既具體到瑣碎,土人能認出每個熟人的足跡,雨後,那個坑里的水留存最久;又經由互滲而關照整體。譬如呼喚一個名稱或名字,也就牽連它或他所嵌入的一切。嵌入的每一個細節,都擁有對象的全部信息。原邏輯思維本質上是綜合的思維,不同於邏輯思維的綜合,不要求預先的分析。原邏輯思維“比我們的思維廣闊,如果不說比我們的豐富。”D-Wave美國區總裁BoEwald的觀點是:“傳統計算機求解相同問題總會得到相同的答案,而量子計算機得到的答案卻是一種概率,就像宇宙的運行原理。”康奈爾大學物理學家David Mermin在一次相關的爭論中說:“閉上你的嘴,用心作計算吧!”
列維-斯特勞斯認為[5],未開化人的具體性思維與開化人的抽象性思維不是分屬“原始”與“現代”或“初級”與“高級”這兩種等級不同的思維方式,而是人類歷史上始終存在的兩種互相平行發展、各司不同文化職能、互相補充互相滲透的思維方式。正如植物有“野生”和“園植”兩大類一樣,思維方式也可分為“野性的”(或“野生的”)和“文明的”兩大類。
由此看來,人類的“蠢”,未必就是真的蠢,而是沒有相應的手段和途徑來理解原始及野性的認知系統,時候未到。量子計算機的問世,可能預示,時候已到。
前傳統社會的知識是人類知識的起點,既是而後非嵌入編碼知識否定的對象,也是21世紀的知識辯證復歸的目標。處於原始狀態的知識,是人類知識取之不盡的源泉,其中蘊藏了有待挖掘的無窮無盡的寶藏。
原始思維或野性的思維,人類的第一和第二套認知系統,雖然在文字與科技興起,特別是“第五套”認知系統興起後被棄之如敝屐,卻同樣可能是21世紀人類認知系統辯證復歸的對象。從根本上說,鮑捷關於四套認知系統的觀點隱含了某種線性的意味。類似的,凱文凱利認為[6],關於人工智能最常見的誤解是,自然智能是一個單一的維度,沒有智能階梯之說。思維的不同組成部分,或者說人猿相揖別以來的“五套”認知方式之間相互依賴,是共同創造的。

Original URL: http://wemedia.ifeng.com/17222299/wemedia.shtml

China Military Interpretation of information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber – centric warfare 中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战

中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战

China Military Interpretation of information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber – centric warfare

With the rapid development of information technology and its extensive application in the military field, some new operational concepts and operational styles came into being. Such as information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber-centric warfare, in recent days local war has demonstrated a powerful power, has become the topic of the current officers and men to explore. Then this new “war” in the end what is the difference and contact? How do you understand it? I have the following views.

The so-called information warfare, refers to the hostile parties in the field of information struggle and confrontation activities. Specifically, it is based on the digital forces as the basic strength to compete, control and use of information as the main content of a variety of information weapons and equipment as the main means of confrontation and struggle, with a transparent battlefield, real-time action, The overall coordination and the higher degree of intelligence. From the point of view of combat, information warfare is to control the “energy flow” and “material flow” with “information flow”, gain the advantage of decision-making and the advantage of action, and then end confrontation or reduce confrontation and realize ” Soldiers “. From the content and form of combat, information warfare is different from information warfare and information warfare. Information operations are specific actions of information warfare, can be divided into electronic warfare, intelligence warfare and network warfare. The information war is relative to the mechanized war, refers to a form of war. Information warfare is the main battlefield and core of information war.

The so-called network warfare refers to the information and network environment which the enemy and the enemy can use for the war, and surrounds the “system of information right” to compete, through the computer network to ensure that their own information and network system security at the same time, disrupt, destroy and threaten each other’s information and Network Systems. In essence, cyber warfare is a special form of information warfare, a kind of combat action carried out in cyberspace. Compared with the traditional war, the network war has a sudden, hidden, asymmetric and low cost, strong participation and so on. Network-centric warfare, whose English name is “NetworkCentricWarfare”, is a new concept of warfare relative to the traditional platform-centric warfare. The so-called platform center warfare, refers to the platform mainly rely on their own detectors and weapons to combat, its main feature is the platform between the information sharing is very limited. The network center war is through the network of the combat unit, the information advantage into the combat action advantage, so that the scattered configuration of the common sense of the battlefield situation, so as to coordinate their own actions to play the largest overall combat effectiveness of the combat style, it So that the focus of combat from the past platform to the network. It goes without saying that cyber-centric warfare can help combat forces create and exploit information superiority and dramatically improve combat effectiveness. It has the battlefield situation full-dimensional perception ability, the combat power integration, the combat action real-time, the army coordination synchronism and so on the characteristic.

In short, information warfare is the core of information war. Network warfare is a special form of information warfare, belonging to the category of information warfare. Network-centric warfare is the product of the transition from mechanized war form to informational warfare because the development of the network is the regeneration of the operational form of the mechanized forces of the industrial age. Therefore, whether it is information warfare or network warfare and network-centric warfare, are inseparable from the rapid development of information technology, but also inseparable from the application and popularization of network technology.

中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战

隨著信息技術的迅速發展及其在軍事領域的廣泛應用,一些新的作戰理念和作戰樣式應運而生。如信息戰、網絡戰、網絡中心戰,在近幾場局部戰爭已彰顯出強大威力,也成為當前官兵廣為探討的話題。那麼這新的“戰”到底有何區別和聯繫?怎樣理解把握才對呢?筆者有如下看法。
所謂信息戰,是指敵對雙方在信息領域的鬥爭和對抗活動。具體說來,是以數字化部隊為基本力量,以爭奪、控制和使用信息為主要內容,以各種信息武器和裝備為主要手段而進行的對抗和鬥爭,具有戰場透明、行動實時、打擊精確、整體協調和智能化程度高等特徵。從作戰目的上看,信息戰是以“信息流”控制“能量流”和“物質流”,以信息優勢獲得決策優勢和行動優勢,進而結束對抗或減少對抗,實現“不戰而屈人之兵”。從作戰內容與形式來看,信息戰不同於信息作戰和信息化戰爭。信息作戰是信息戰的具體行動,可分為電子戰、情報戰和網絡戰等。而信息化戰爭是相對於機械化戰爭而言,指一種戰爭形態。信息戰是信息化戰爭的主戰場和核心。
所謂網絡戰,是指敵對雙方針對戰爭可利用的信息和網絡環境,圍繞“制信息權”的爭奪,通過計算機網絡在保證己方信息和網絡系統安全的同時,擾亂、破壞與威脅對方的信息和網絡系統。從本質上講,網絡戰是信息戰的一種特殊形式,是在網絡空間上進行的一種作戰行動。與傳統戰爭相比,網絡戰具有突然性、隱蔽性、不對稱性和代價低、參與性強等特點。網絡中心戰,其英文名稱為“ NetworkCentricWarfare”,是相對於傳統的平台中心戰而提出的一種新作戰概念。所謂平台中心戰,是指各平台主要依靠自身探測器和武器進行作戰,其主要特點是平台之間的信息共享非常有限。而網絡中心戰是通過各作戰單元的網絡化,把信息優勢變為作戰行動優勢,使各分散配置的部隊共同感知戰場態勢,從而自主地協調行動,發揮出最大整體作戰效能的作戰樣式,它使作戰重心由過去的平台轉向網絡。不言而喻,網絡中心戰能夠幫助作戰部隊創造和利用信息優勢並大幅度提高戰鬥力。它具有戰場態勢全維感知能力,作戰力量一體化,作戰行動實時性,部隊協調同步性等特點。
總之,信息戰是信息化戰爭的核心。網絡戰是信息戰的特殊形式,屬於信息戰範疇。網絡中心戰是機械化戰爭形態向信息化戰爭形態過渡的產物,是因為網絡的發展為工業時代機械化部隊注入活力而帶來作戰形態的更新。因此,無論是信息戰還是網絡戰和網絡中心戰,都離不開信息技術的迅速發展,也離不開網絡技術的應用與普及。
《中國國防報》

Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage ~ 信息戰爭中使用心理戰爭中國的軍事優勢

信息戰爭中使用心理戰爭中國的軍事優勢

Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage

Since the eighties of the 20th century, with the development of science and technology and the evolution of war forms, so that the psychological war plug in the high-tech wings. In the information war, the psychological warfare fully demonstrated a series of distinctive features, its status, domain objects and methods of means have undergone major changes, the impact of the war far more than any period in history.

Status is strategic

Psychological warfare has been incorporated into the national strategic areas, to achieve the national strategic objectives of the important form of struggle. At the end of the twentieth century, the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union showed the success of the “peaceful evolution” strategy pursued by the Western capitalist countries headed by the United States. “Peaceful evolution” can be said to be synonymous with “psychological warfare.” Its success has made it more strongly aware that psychological warfare is no longer an adjunct to military struggle, but an important battlefield of strategic importance in international struggle The In view of this, the world in the strategic thinking, all the psychological warfare into the overall strategic structure. In the information war, the psychological war has become the country’s strategic behavior and basic tactics, not only troops and horses did not move, heart war first, and psychological attack and psychological defense throughout the whole, as all-round, all time and space, Level of strategic action, so that the psychological battle to become an important factor leading the war situation.

Psychological warfare of the macro-level has risen to the highest strategic decision-making level of the state and the army, and the psychological attack of the primary target directly to each other’s top strategic decision-makers. After the September 11 incident, under the instigation of the National Security Council, Bush decided to make a public opinion in the international community, the Iraqi as “evil axis”, for its military strike for political pave the way. In this overall decision-making traction, the United States Department of Psychology and Strategy and the control of the “Voice of America”, newspapers, publications, film, television, the International Exchange Department, are their responsibilities, from the strategic psychological war straight Refers to the Saddam regime, with a view to leading international public opinion, for the military action to create a suitable environment.

Psychological warfare has become an important factor in leading the war situation, the outcome of the war has a pivotal role. The most representative of the recent information war mainly four: 1991 Gulf War, the 1999 war in Kosovo, the 2001-2002 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 war in Iraq. The four wars are exactly the same in the strategic use of the psychological warfare. The United States is an important part of the military’s high-intensity psychological warfare as an indispensable part of the military strategy. The intensity, scope and time of the military strike are as limited as possible within the limits of politics, and even every military action Not only to consider the military value, but also to consider the political and psychological values, every stage of the war, to assess the psychological effects of the enemy, and then decide the next stage of military strike to achieve the military goals and political and psychological goals coincide. These four wars, not only to show people the psychological war is “war before the war, after the war of war”, but also to fully demonstrate the great power of psychological warfare and to play a major role in the war.

The field is broad

The psychological warfare in the information war has transcended the boundaries of military struggle and has become a well-planned and comprehensive strategic action in various fields such as politics, economy, military affairs, diplomacy, culture and religion.

Looking at the information war in recent years, we can clearly see that the United States is not political, economic, diplomatic, military, cultural and religious and other areas of the psychological war as a whole, so that the psychological battle became a veritable “psychological encirclement and suppression ”

The object of the war of information warfare has also completely broken through the scope of the traditional warfare against the military. “The whole purpose of mental warfare is to encourage emotions in foreign groups and people to influence their attitudes or behavior in order to support the goals of the United States.” That is to say, the psychological warfare of information war Object range, has been extended to both the enemy combat forces, but also against the enemy of the people, and even the psychological warfare to the war with the object of friendly countries and regions, pointing to neutral countries and neighboring countries and neighboring countries and the entire international community. Information war in the psychological war also bear the education of their own military and civilian, to maintain the heart to the same and psychological stability of the task.

Methods show diversity

From the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the war in Afghanistan to the war in Iraq, the United States not only attached great importance to “heart war” and “war” closely, but also in the psychological warfare will be used in a variety of ways to complement each other, complement each other , Thus greatly enhancing the effectiveness of psychological warfare. 9.11 after the incident, the United States to fight the psychological war, for the war on terror to lay the foundation of public opinion. The United States on the day of making a decision to send troops in Afghanistan, the State Council set up a “propaganda group”, the use of domestic major media, repeated rendering of the United States in the “9.11” loss, widely for the people to form a terrorist The On the eve of the military strike, the US Department of State has set up a “public relations team”, responsible for the full implementation of national propaganda strategy. After the war began, for the support of international public opinion, the United States in Washington, London and Islamabad established three “wartime press room”, the timely release of the so-called “real and reliable” battlefield information, and the Taliban propaganda to compete. The US Department of Defense has also set up a “strategic information office”, specifically concocted false information, through a variety of ways to pass abroad. In the implementation of military strikes, strengthen the deterrence of the enemy. First to deploy troops to push to change. In a short period of 20 days, within 500 km of Afghanistan, the assembly of five aircraft carrier formation, 18 million combat troops, 550 combat aircraft, from the air, the ground basically blocked the whole territory of Afghanistan, its intention is to Strong military pressure to force the Taliban unconditionally to meet the demands of the United States. Then, continuous blow to fried change. The US military every day out of hundreds of fighters on the Taliban strategy and tactical goals for continuous bombing. In the air raid, the US military intends to use a variety of powerful psychological deterrent effect of new weapons, such as AC-130 laser attack aircraft, this aircraft carrying a new laser weapons, it can be said that the light flash, that is, ashes, The Afghan army is called “the light of death”. US Department of Defense officials have made no secret that the main intention is not to completely eliminate the Taliban military forces, but to strive to defeat its morale, weaken its psychological affordability, triggering “internal chaos and fission.”

Means to show high technology

High-tech makes the psychological warfare endless. In the recent wars, the United States has made use of satellite positioning and direction finding, television broadcasting technology, computer information processing technology, network technology, signal simulation and distortion technology, audio and video technology and other high-tech means to improve the psychological warfare comprehensive combat effect The According to incomplete statistics, in the Iraq war, the United States used military and civilian satellites up to 160, compared with the Gulf War increased by 23. The US news media is through these communications satellites to the domestic and the world launched a large number of favorable to the enemy is not conducive to the enemy’s war information and images. Now, people can use computer graphics synthesis technology, easy to create such as “a country army in the enemy capital square lined up”, “a country leader and the enemy leaders secret talks, shake hands” and other fictional photos or television pictures, to Suddenly these “information bomb” fired at each other’s military and civilian, to destroy the other side of the military and civilian defense line. People can use the audio and video technology to simulate the voice of the head of the enemy and battlefield commander, issued a wrong command of the war, so that the enemy decision-making mistakes, command into chaos, and can use these high-tech means to adjust their military and civilian psychology, inspire morale. In 1993, the United States in the Somali Marine Corps in the implementation of peacekeeping missions, suffered some setbacks. Once, the wind, the dust storm suddenly, the troops suddenly chaos up. At this critical moment, the American Army forces suddenly appeared on a head of up to 150 meters of Jesus image, the US soldiers saw after kneeling, and some frightened, and some burst into tears, that God is really with them, they Somali warfare is “the will of God” and is “fighting for God”. Later, this image exists for a full five minutes to disperse. It is said that this is the United States psychological warfare forces with laser holographic imaging system projection to the air image, to improve the morale of the troops. The United States also attaches great importance to the use of network technology, network infiltration, information and psychological attacks. Network transmission speed, in a very short period of time, heart war information up to front-line officers and men, up to the warrior family, can affect the highest decision-making body, under the ordinary people, its influence is self-evident. In the Iraq war, the United States even organized “hackers” experts to crack the Iraqi military high-level characters e-mail password, send a large number of e-mail, but also directly call the Iraqi high-level mobile phone, the implementation of psychological deterrence and inducement. There is a recent report that the US military engaged in a “666” computer virus, the virus into the computer, you can make the screen repeated an image, people repeatedly see this image, will produce some inexplicable potential awareness, leading to nerve Disorder, hallucinations and even death.

Power show professional

In contemporary times, the developed countries in the world not only attach great importance to the use of psychological warfare, but also pay special attention to strengthening the psychological warfare from all levels.

First, the establishment of a scientific and effective organization and leadership institutions. Now, many countries in order to effectively carry out psychological defense and external implementation of psychological operations, have established a corresponding psychological warfare organizational system. The United States is the most complete system of psychological warfare, the commander of the body by the President of the psychological warfare counsel, chief of staff of the joint meeting of the psychological warfare, the Ministry of Defense of the General Office of the Department of psychological operations; middle institutions by the Joint Command and the theater headquarters of the psychological war department; The lower body consists of psychological war camps and psychological warfare groups. The state and the armed forces have unified their organization and coordinated mental warfare work from top to bottom, serving not only for military struggle but also for international and domestic political struggle.

Second, the establishment of psychological warfare research and think tank institutions. The United States and some Western countries and military personnel attach great importance to the study of psychological warfare, and the establishment of research institutions, specializing in psychological warfare theory and technology research. But also pay attention to play the role of civil “think tank”, the use of universities, research institutions and a variety of senior specialized personnel for the psychological warfare service.

Third, the establishment of professional psychological warfare forces and training of psychological warfare professionals. The US military has a large number of psychological warfare troops, allocated in the land and sea and air forces, including the army has four psychological battle groups, 12 psychological war camps, 22 psychological warfare, the Navy has a psychological warfare brigade, the Air Force has a special operations The wing is used to support the psychological warfare. At the same time, also set up a special psychological warfare institutions or professional, training professional psychological warfare talent. In the war in Afghanistan, the US military to the two most combat capability of the psychological warfare force – Air Force 193 Special Combat Wing and the Army 4th psychological war brigade, deployed in Uzbekistan and Pakistan, the use of various means to start the Taliban The battlefield psychological attack, such as flight radio, cast leaflets, block the Taliban news channel. Iraq war, the US military used almost all of the current psychological warfare forces, but also mobilized and organized a folk psychological strength. The Air Force Psychological Warfare Force is equipped with EC-130E psychological warfare aircraft, from time, space, audio-visual, electromagnetic and other dimensions of the release of psychological warfare information; the Army psychological warfare forces are mostly proficient in Arabic, by telephone, e-mail, And so on to lobby the Iranian specific figures, but also with the Iraqi people and soldiers in general face to face dialogue and exchange.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

20世紀八十年代以來,隨著科學技術的發展和戰爭形態的演變,使心理戰插上了高技術的翅膀。在信息化戰爭中心理戰充分展示出一系列鮮明的特點,其地位作用、領域對象和方法手段等都發生了重大變化,對戰爭的影響遠超過歷史上任何一個時期。
地位顯現戰略性
心理戰已被納入國家戰略範疇,成為實現國家戰略目標的重要鬥爭形式。 20世紀末期,東歐劇變和蘇聯解體,顯現了以美國為首的西方資本主義國家推行的“和平演變”戰略取得成功。 “和平演變”可以說是“心理戰”的代名詞,它的成功,使人們更加強烈地認識到,心理戰已不再是軍事鬥爭的輔助性手段,而是國際鬥爭上具有戰略意義的重要戰場。有鑑於此,世界各國在戰略思維中,無不把心理戰納入整體戰略結構之中。在信息化戰爭中,心理戰已成為國家的戰略行為和基本戰法,不僅兵馬未動,心戰先行,而且把心理進攻和心理防禦貫穿全程,作為全方位、全時空、多領域、多層次的戰略行動,使心理戰成為主導戰局走向的重要因素。
心理戰的宏觀策動層次已上升為國家和軍隊的最高戰略決策層,並將心理戰的首要攻擊目標直接指向對方的最高戰略決策者。 9·11事件之後,布什在國家安全委員會的策動下,決定在國際進行輿論布勢,將伊拉克列為“邪惡軸心”,為其進行軍事打擊作政治鋪墊。在這一總的決策牽引下,美國務院心理戰略局和控制“美國之音”、報紙、出版物、電影、電視的國際交流署,都各司其責,從戰略上將心理戰的鋒芒直指薩達姆政權,以期主導國際輿論,為軍事行動營造適宜的環境。
心理戰已成為主導戰局走向的重要因素,對戰爭結局具有舉足輕重的作用。近期最具代表性的信息化戰爭主要有四場:1991年的海灣戰爭、1999年的科索沃戰爭、2001—2002年的阿富汗戰爭和2003年的伊拉克戰爭。這四場戰爭在心理戰的戰略運用上如出一轍。美國都是把對敵的高強度心理戰作為軍事戰略中不可或缺的重要組成部分,將軍事打擊的力度、範圍、時間等盡可能限制在政治允許的範圍之內,甚至每個軍事行動都不僅要考慮軍事價值,而且要考慮政治心理價值,戰爭每進行一階段,都要評估對敵所取得的心理效果,爾後再決定下一階段軍事打擊力度,以實現軍事目標與政治心理目標的高度重合。這四場戰爭,不僅向人們充分展示了心理戰是“戰爭之前的戰爭,戰爭之後的戰爭”,而且更是向人們充分展示了心理戰的巨大威力和為贏得戰爭所發揮的重大作用。
領域顯現廣闊性
信息化戰爭中的心理戰,已逾越了軍事鬥爭的界限,成為一種精心策劃的,在政治、經濟、軍事、外交、文化、宗教等各個領域進行的全方位戰略行動。
縱覽近些年的幾場信息化戰爭,可以清楚地看到,美國無不融政治、經濟、外交、軍事、文化和宗教等各個領域的心理戰為一體,使心理戰成了名副其實的“心理圍剿”。
信息化戰爭中心理戰的對像也已完全突破了主要是針對軍人的傳統戰爭範圍。美國《心理作戰條令》提出:“心理作戰的全部目的在於,在國外團體和民眾中鼓動情緒,影響其態度或行為,以此支援美國的目標。”這就是說,信息化戰爭中心理戰的對象範圍,已擴大到既針對敵國作戰部隊,也針對敵國的民眾,甚至將心理戰指向與作戰對象友好的國家和地區,指向中立國和與敵國相鄰的周邊國家及整個國際社會。信息化戰爭中的心理戰還擔負著教育本國軍民,使其保持心向一致和心理穩定的任務。
方法顯現多樣性


從海灣戰爭、科索沃戰爭、阿富汗戰爭到伊拉克戰爭,美國不僅高度重視“心戰”與“兵戰”的緊密結合,而且在心理戰中還將各種方法綜合運用,使之互為補充,相得益彰,從而大大地增強了心理戰的功效。 9·11事件以後,美國大打宣傳心理戰,為反恐戰爭奠定輿論基礎。美國在做出對阿富汗出兵決策的當天,國務院即成立“宣傳小組”,利用國內各主要媒體,反复渲染美國在“9·11”中的損失,廣泛爭取民心,以形成對恐怖主義的輿論圍剿。軍事打擊前夕,美國務院又成立了“公關小組”,負責全面執行國家宣傳戰略。戰爭開始後,為爭取國際輿論的支持,美國在華盛頓、倫敦和伊斯蘭堡建立了三個“戰時新聞發布室”,及時發布所謂“真實可靠的”戰場信息,與塔利班的宣傳相抗衡。美國防部還成立了“戰略新聞辦公室”,專門砲制虛假信息,通過各種途徑向國外傳遞。在實施軍事打擊中,強化對敵心理威懾。先是調兵遣將,以壓促變。在短短的20天內,在阿富汗周邊500公里的範圍內,集結了5個航母編隊、18萬軍作戰部隊、550架作戰飛機,從空中、地面基本封鎖了阿富汗全境,其意圖是,以強大的軍事壓力威逼塔利班無條件滿足美國的要求。接著,連續打擊,以炸促變。美軍每天均出動上百架戰機對塔利班戰略與戰術目標進行連續轟炸。在空襲中,美國軍有意使用多種具有強大心理震懾作用的新式武器,如AC—130激光攻擊機,這種飛機載有新型激光武器,可以說是光閃之處,即化為灰燼,被阿富汗軍隊稱為“死亡之光”。美國防部官員曾毫不掩飾地說,主要意圖不在於完全消滅塔利班軍事力量,而是力求打垮其士氣,削弱其心理承受能力,引發“內部混亂與裂變”。
手段顯現高技術性
高新技術使心理戰手段層出不窮。在近期的幾場戰爭中,美國均利用了衛星定位測向、電視轉播技術、計算機信息處理技術、網絡技術、信號模擬和失真技術、聲像技術等高新技術手段,努力提高心理戰綜合作戰效果。據不完全統計,在伊拉克戰爭中,美國使用的軍用和民用衛星達160顆,比海灣戰爭時增加了23顆。美國的新聞媒體就是通過這些通信衛星向國內和世界發播了大量有利於己、不利於敵的戰爭信息和圖像。現在,人們可以利用計算機圖像合成技術,輕鬆地製造出諸如“某國軍隊在敵國首都廣場上列隊前進”、“某國領導人與敵國首腦秘密會談,握手言和”等虛構的照片或電視畫面,到時突然將這些“信息炸彈”射向對方軍民,以摧毀對方軍民的心理防線。人們可以利用聲像技術模擬敵方國家元首和戰場指揮員的聲音,下達錯誤的作戰命令,使敵方決策失誤、指揮陷入混亂,並可以利用這些高技術手段調節本國軍民心理,鼓舞己方士氣。 1993年,美國駐索馬里海軍陸戰隊在執行維和任務中,受到一些挫折。一次,狂風大作,沙塵暴驟起,部隊一下子混亂起來。在這個關鍵時刻,美軍部隊頭頂上突然出現了一個高達150米的耶穌圖像,美軍士兵見到後紛紛跪下,有的大驚失色,有的痛哭流涕,認為上帝確實與他們同在,他們來索馬里作戰更是“上帝的旨意”,是“為上帝而戰”。後來這個圖像存在了足足五分鐘才散去。有資料說,這是美國心理戰部隊用激光全息成像系統投影到空中的圖像,用以提高部隊的士氣。美國還十分重視利用網絡技術,進行網絡滲透、信息恐怖和心理攻擊。網絡傳播速度快,在極短的時間內,心戰信息前可達前線官兵,後可達參戰者家庭,上可影響最高決策機構,下可及普通民眾,其影響力不言而喻。伊拉克戰爭中,美國甚至組織“黑客”專家,破解伊軍方高層人物的電子郵箱密碼,發送大量電子郵件,還直接撥打伊拉克高層人物的手機,實施心理威懾和誘降。近期有一則報導,稱美軍搞了一個“666”計算機病毒,這種病毒進入電腦後,可以使屏幕反復出現一種圖像,人們反复看到這一圖像,會產生一些莫名其妙的潛在意識,導致神經錯亂、幻覺甚至死亡。
力量顯現專業性
在當代,世界各發達國家不但高度重視心理戰的運用,而且特別重視從各個層面加強心理戰的力量建設。
一是建立科學有效的組織領導機構。現在,許多國家為了有效地進行心理防禦和對外實施心理作戰,都建立了相應的心理戰組織系統。美國的心理戰體系最為完備,其統帥機構由總統心理戰顧問、參謀長聯席會議心理戰處、國防部辦公廳心理作戰部組成;中層機構由聯合司令部和戰區司令部的心理戰部門組成;下層機構由心理戰營連和心理戰小組組成。國家和軍隊自上而下統一組織和協調心理戰工作,不僅為軍事鬥爭服務,而且為國際國內政治鬥爭服務。
二是建立心理戰的科研和智囊機構。美國和一些西方國家及軍人都非常重視心理戰的研究工作,並建立研究機構,專門從事心理戰的理論和技術研究。同時還重視發揮民間“思想庫”的作用,利用各大學、科研機構和各種高級專門人才為心理戰服務。
三是建立專業化的心理戰部隊和培養心理戰專門人才。美軍有一支人數眾多的心理戰部隊,編配在陸海空部隊,其中陸軍有4個心理戰群、12個心理戰營、22個心理戰連,海軍有一個心理戰欺騙大隊,空軍有一個特種作戰聯隊用於支援心理戰活動。同時,還設立了專門的心理戰院校或專業,培養專業化的心理戰人才。在阿富汗戰爭中,美軍把兩支作戰能力最強的心理戰部隊——空軍第193特種作戰聯隊和陸軍第4心理戰大隊,部署在烏茲別克斯坦和巴基斯坦兩國,運用多種手段對塔利班展開了戰場心理進攻,如飛行廣播、投撒傳單、封鎖塔利班新聞傳播渠道等。伊拉克戰爭,美軍動用了幾乎全部現役心理戰力量,還動員和組織了民間的心理戰力量。其空軍心理戰部隊裝備有EC—130E心理戰專用飛機,能夠從時間、空間、視聽、電磁等各個維度發布心理戰信息;其陸軍心理戰部隊大多精通阿拉伯語,能夠通過電話、電子郵件、信函等遊說伊方特定人物,也能與伊拉克普遍民眾和軍人進行面對面的對話和交流。

China’s “Network-centric warfare”: let the future battlefield dominate ~ 中國“網絡中心戰”:讓未來戰場占主導地位

中國“網絡中心戰”:讓未來戰場占主導地位

China’s “Network-centric warfare”: let the future battlefield dominate

“Network-centric warfare” is an important symbol in the process of the evolution of the mechanized war form to the information war form. It is the advanced form of the joint operation of the information age. It is a new mode of warfare on the information warfare platform which is relatively “platform center war” At present, from the “network-centric warfare,” the real arrival, although there is a long distance, but with its gradual maturity and rise, will inevitably lead to revolutionary changes in the future battlefield.

Combat operations from “asynchronous” to “synchronization”

The operations of the mechanized era are the same as the production lines of the industrial age, and there is usually a clear sequence of stages, such as firepower preparation, assembly and entry, and the first echelon attack. In the sequence of operations, due to the lack of real-time information can not grasp the battlefield, let alone the information sharing between the various forces, so the process of combat, mutual action can only be pre-planned asynchronous collaboration. In the “network center war”, the entire battlefield is a “information grid”, “sensor network” and “war network” composed of interconnection, seamless connection, dynamic open integrated network, commanders at all levels through The network can continue to perceive the entire battlefield situation, the full access to the battlefield information, and the use of the network to obtain information on the rapid processing, the development of operational plans and the issuance of operational orders, combat operations at all levels of the network at the same time almost at the same time get the same information, The command and order of the superior commander, according to the “network” to act, thus a high degree of autonomy to implement operations, to achieve operational synergy with self-synchronization.

Power concentration from the “quantity” to “system”

Since ancient times, the principle of concentrated forces has been regarded as the combat power of the military forces of the golden rule. The history of large-scale naval warfare, air combat and land brigade combat, concentrated tens of thousands of troops to fight the battlefield battle case too numerous. However, in the information age, the use of combat forces will be a series of major changes. In the “network-centric warfare”, the army became a complex and large-scale integrated system consisting of a number of command and control systems, battlefield awareness systems and weapons systems, in order to manage such a system and make it most efficient And give full play to the power and potential of the system, it must be information network technology as a link to the battlefield operation of the various functional systems highly integrated, into an organic whole, the formation of a high-performance war power system. This is by the traditional number of concentration can not be achieved, we must rely on the highly integrated system. Highly integrated combat system can make the theater, battlefield, warriors at all levels through the digital network, linked into a string of closely related chain, so that a general through the screen to see the fighting scene, a soldier can also see from his monitor , And thus achieve different combat forces, different levels of command of the real joint.

Combat group from “hard link” to “soft connection”

The general joint operations, to achieve only the combat entities of the “hard” connection, and “network-centric” approach, through the computer network as the core of the wide-area distribution, seamless connection, dynamic open integrated network system, not only To achieve combat entities “hard” connection, but also to achieve “combat procedures”, “operating mechanism” of the soft connection. Therefore, the “network-centric warfare” is a high-level form of joint operations in the information age, in this battlefield, land, sea, air and other military (soldiers) kind of block-like division of the group has no practical significance, the battlefield all combat units Are integrated network system in an equivalent cell, while the perception of the various states of the battlefield. Therefore, in the “network-centric warfare” approach, the combat group structure will be more grouped by ability, according to the need for joint “useful” combination. The so-called grouping by ability, that is, to break the boundaries of military and civilian forces will have the same combat capability of the unified grouping, thus greatly reducing the arms and arms between the overlap and waste; the so-called joint need, is based on the actual needs of combat, to have different Combat capability of the troops together, the joint operations.

Logistics support from “build” to “focus”

“Network-centric warfare” under the battlefield, will show a typical multi-dimensional, non-linear and non-contact characteristics. Logistics forces to build a large number of traditional means of protection, in this battlefield environment, will appear extremely cumbersome and discomfort. And the information, materials and transportation technology into one, through the automated supply network system to track and master the flow of a variety of materials and the demand situation of the troops, the required logistical supplies in a timely manner to the strategy, campaign and tactical units of the ” Focus “logistics, will become” network-centric warfare “in the logistics of the inevitable choice.

“Network center war” mode, the entire battlefield is a computer network technology as the core of the intelligent integrated system, through a highly integrated and highly intelligent information network, can achieve information, materials and transportation technology integration; through the combat Troops on the various sites to access the computer system, the security sector can grasp the needs of combat forces in real time, the combat forces can also real-time understanding of combat materials consumption and supplement the situation, so that real-time as needed to the required direction Materials, and to keep track of the material throughout. To ensure that logistical support is more accurate, flexible and accurate in terms of time, location and quantity.

Combat mission from “stability” to “change”

On the traditional battlefield, due to the weak sense of the battlefield, from the discovery of the target to attack the target reaction is slow, combat mission allocation is mostly planned, the middle rarely change. In the “network-centric warfare” approach, due to the battlefield perception, command and control and fire strike has become a whole, from the discovery of the target to the implementation of the attack time difference is getting smaller, near real time, the commander can change the battlefield situation, at any time To carry out dynamic adjustment and redistribution of the tasks of the troops, so as to maximize the operational potential of combat troops. In the Iraq war, the US military used its advanced and powerful information and network technology to reduce the time from the discovery of the target to the completion of the attack from the Gulf War 3 days, 2 hours of the Kosovo war to tens of minutes. And the real realization of the “network-centric warfare”, the reaction time will be further reduced or even reached in seconds to calculate, which makes the commander of the battlefield can make a quick change, more sensitive response, timely and efficient command, Control and coordination, greatly improving the ability to temporarily change the operational response to the rapid response. (Liu Yushan)

“China Defense News” July 1, 2004

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“網絡中心戰”是機械化戰爭形態向信息化戰爭形態演變過程中的一個重要標誌;是信息時代聯合作戰的高級形態;是相對“平台中心戰”的信息化戰場上的一種新型作戰模式,目前,離“網絡中心戰”的真正到來雖然還有較長距離,但隨著它的逐漸成熟和崛起,必將引起未來戰場的革命性變革。
作戰行動由“異步”轉向“同步”
機械化時代的作戰行動與工業時代的流水線生產一樣,通常是有明顯階段性的順序,如依次進行火力準備、集結與開進、第一梯隊發起攻擊等。在順序作戰中,由於無法掌握戰場實時信息,更談不上各部隊之間信息共享,因而作戰過程中,相互之間的行動只能按預先計劃進行異步協同。而在“網絡中心戰”中,整個戰場是一個由“信息柵網”、“傳感器網”和“交戰網”組成的互連互通,無縫連接,動態開放的綜合網絡,各級指揮員通過網絡能夠持續不斷地感知整個戰場態勢,全面獲取戰場信息,並利用網絡對獲取的信息進行快速處理,制定作戰計劃和發布作戰命令,各級作戰部隊通過網絡幾乎可在同時獲得同樣的信息,了解上級指揮員的意圖和指令,依“網”行事,從而高度自主地實施作戰,實現作戰協同自我同步。
力量集中由“數量”轉向“系統”
自古以來,集中兵力原則一直被兵家奉為作戰力量運用的金科玉律。歷史上大規模海戰、空戰和陸上大兵團作戰,集中成千上萬部隊進行戰場廝殺的戰例不勝枚舉。然而,在信息時代,作戰力量的運用將發生一系列重大變化。在“網絡中心戰”中,軍隊成為了一個由眾多指揮控制系統、戰場感知系統和打擊武器系統等構成的複雜而又龐大的綜合體系,要想駛馭這樣一個體系,使之最有效地運轉並充分發揮各系統的威力和潛能,就必須以信息化網絡技術為紐帶,把戰場運行中的各個功能係統高度集成,聯結成一個有機的整體,形成一種高效能的戰爭力量體系。這一點靠傳統的數量集中是無法實現的,必須依靠系統的高度集成。高度集成化的作戰系統可使戰區、戰場、戰士各個層面通過數字化網絡,聯結成一串息息相關的鏈條,使一個將軍通過視屏所看到的戰鬥景象,一個士兵也同樣能從他的顯示器中看到,進而實現不同作戰力量、不同指揮層次的真正聯合。
作戰編組由“硬聯接”轉向“軟聯接”
一般的聯合作戰,實現的只是各作戰實體的“硬”連接,而“網絡中心戰” 方式下,通過以計算機網絡為核心的廣域分佈,無縫連接,動態開放的綜合網絡系統,不僅可實現作戰實體的“硬”連接,而且可實現“作戰程序”、“運行機制”的軟連接。因此,“網絡中心戰”是信息時代聯合作戰的高級形態,在這種戰場上,陸、海、空等各軍(兵)種條塊式的區分編組已無實際意義,戰場上所有作戰單元都是綜合網絡系統裡的一個等同的細胞,同時感知著戰場的各種狀態。因此,在“網絡中心戰”方式下,作戰編組結構更多的將是按能力編組、按需要聯合的“有用”組合。所謂按能力編組,就是打破軍兵種界限將具備同樣作戰能力的部隊統一進行編組,從而大大減少各軍兵種力量之間的重疊和浪費;所謂按需要聯合,就是根據作戰的實際需要,把具備不同作戰能力的部隊組合起來,進行聯合作戰。
後勤保障由“集結”轉向“聚焦”

“網絡中心戰”下的戰場,將呈現出典型的多維性、非線性和非接觸性特點。後勤部隊大量集結進行保障的傳統方式,在這種戰場環境下,將顯得極為笨重和不適。而將信息、物資和運輸技術融為一體,通過自動化補給網絡系統,跟踪和掌握多種物資的流動和部隊的需求狀況,將所需的後勤物資及時發放到各戰略、戰役及戰術單位的“聚焦”式後勤,將成為“網絡中心戰”中後勤保障的必然選擇。
“網絡中心戰”方式下,整個戰場是一個以計算機網絡技術為核心的智能化的綜合系統,通過高度集成和高度智能化的信息網絡,可實現信息、物資和運輸技術一體化;通過在作戰部隊機動的各個站點上接入計算機系統,可使保障部門實時掌握作戰部隊的需要,作戰部隊也能實時了解作戰中物資的消耗和補充情況,從而做到實時按需要向多個所需方向運送物資,並保持對物資的全程跟踪。確保後勤保障在時間上、地點上和數量上的精確,使後勤保障更加及時、靈活和準確。
作戰任務由“穩定”轉向“多變”
傳統戰場上,由於戰場感知能力弱、從發現目標到攻擊目標反應慢,作戰任務分配多是預先計劃,中間很少有變。而在“網絡中心戰”方式下,由於戰場感知、指揮控制和火力打擊已成為一個整體,從發現目標到實施攻擊的時差越來越小,近乎實時,指揮員可以根據戰場態勢的變化,隨時對部隊的任務進行動態的調整和重新分配,從而最大限度地發揮作戰部隊的作戰潛能。伊拉克戰爭中,美軍運用其先進和強大的信息及網絡技術,使戰場上從發現目標到完成攻擊的時間從海灣戰爭時的3天,科索沃戰爭時的2小時縮短至幾十分鐘。而真正實現“網絡中心戰”後,這一反應時間還會進一步縮短甚至達到以秒來計算,這使得指揮員可對戰場的瞬息變化作出更快、更靈敏的反應,及時高效地進行指揮、控制與協調,大大提高臨時改變作戰計劃的快速反應能力。 (劉玉山)
《中國國防報》 2004年07月01日

互聯網”的混沌與網絡空間的迷茫 ~ China’s Internet – creating chaos and confusion in cyberspace

互聯網”的混沌與網絡空間的迷茫

China’s Internet – creating chaos and confusion in cyberspace

One, chaotic “internet”

1 , from the Apache network to the “Internet”

“Internet” What is the network? China has no “Internet”? The world whether there is no “Internet”? This is not a problem, due to language and cultural expression and understanding of different interests due to the scope and purpose of the different Academic research conditions and the different atmosphere, and so on, these years more and more chaotic. “Internet”, “Internet”, “Internet”, “Mobile Internet”, “Internet Finance”, “Internet +” … … and so on, what are linked to a “Internet”, “Internet” has become a fashion term.

Today’s world has become the “Internet” encompasses the world of the world, in addition to what are “the Internet” that an “Internet”, many people do not know there is no other network, but also can not have other networks, why There are other networks. “Internet” in the end is a network or should be more than one network? Recognize the chaos, chaos awareness, are derived from this.

In 1969, Dr. Xu became the first member of the internetwork at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and later became the only senior vice president of Chinese lab in the history of Bell Labs, Institute of Engineers (IEEE) academician, has been known as the US network communications industry, “the first Chinese.” In 2004, Mr. Xu told me that people today are keen on the “Internet”, the predecessor of the ARPANET (ARPANET), the US government based on the defense considerations to the university to study the large computer mutual communication of an experimental network, 20 years of innovation and improvement from a network.

In 1970, the American Information Processing Association defined the computer network as “a collection of computer systems with separate functions that could be shared in a way that shared resources (hardware, software, data, etc.).” The definition of this computer network in the United States, perhaps regarded as the earliest from the United States “Internet” definition?

2 , two network architecture

In the 1950s, the United States established a semi-automatic ground air defense system (SAGE, Chinese translation “赛 Qi”), the computer technology and communication technology combined application attempt. In the early 1960s, the American Air Ticket Booking System (SABRE-1) consisted of a central computer and more than 2,000 terminals distributed across the United States to form a computer communication network, enabling the terminals to connect to the central computer via telephone lines on a larger scale Of the typical application. This is a single computer-centric, through the multi-line controller and remote terminal connected to the online system, known as the terminal-based remote online system, that is, early computer network.

At the end of the 20th century, the International Organization for Standardization ISO standardization of computer and information processing technology committee to study and develop network communication standards to achieve the international standardization of network architecture. In 1984, ISO formally promulgated the International Standard ISO 7498, referred to as the “Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model”, referred to as the OSI RM (Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model), the famous OSI seven-layer model. OSI RM and standard protocol development and improvement to promote a unified, open network architecture, greatly accelerating the development of computer networks.

However, the United States does not put ISO in the eyes, insist on arbitrary. In 1983, the United States in the Apache network officially launched TCP / IP protocol to replace the original NCP network control protocol, and then the formation of the Internet (Internet). For more than 30 years, the United States has used its technology, economy and military advantages to implement the Internet’s Internet-wide network strategy. The Internet Task Force (ICANN) is naked to put forward the slogan of “the same world, the same Internet”. The Obama administration is also praised “the Internet is unique in the international environment.” As a result, the Internet by the United States and its dormant countries in the iron powder are relish for the “Internet”.

In fact, the Internet is the United States to develop rules, control the exchange, monitoring information of a computer network architecture, does not fully comply with the International Organization for Standardization ISO officially issued OSI RM requirements. In other words, there are two dominant network architectures in the world: one is the OSI RM (open system interconnection reference model) proposed by the ISO, and the other is the use and pushing of the Internet. TCP / IP RM (TCP / IP reference model). The fundamental difference between the two models is that OSI RM to promote the global computer network open system interconnection, TCP / IP forced all the world’s computer terminals are connected to the Internet one network; ISO is committed to all countries, various types of computer network system The interconnection between the United States stressed that the computer between the end of the exchange of information between the end.

3 , “Internet” definition

So far, the scientific and technological circles, academia, education, industry and commerce, there is no uniform, clear, accurate and standardized Internet definition. Here the Chinese Internet, referring to the Internet as early as July 18, 1997 by the State Council authorized by the National Science and Technology Nomenclature Committee clear English internetwork, rather than the Internet.

Some people following the US Internet strategy insist that “the Internet is the Internet,” “China is the Internet translated into the Internet.” This is not a scientific, academic definition, nor is it from the academicians and “authority” of the mouth, more like an unidentified “Ah Q” said.

Or Obama frankly. “Through the Internet connection, the US company’s business can be extended to any place in the world to create countless jobs and opportunities for the American people,” he said in the preface to the International Strategy for cyberspace, published in the White House, “The Internet itself can not open a new era of international cooperation.”

Internet, Internet from English. As a proper noun, it refers to the use of TCP / IP communication protocol of a computer system, and the system provides information, services and users. The Internet requires that the user (the terminal) use the specified domain name and address for information exchange within the defined Internet framework in accordance with its specific rules, which is excluded and closed to the network using other communication protocols, or simply replace it.

Some people say that the definition of the Internet, English should be “a computer network forming of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP / IP network protocols to facilit data transmission and exchange.” Translated into Chinese, is “by a use of TCP / IP Network protocol to promote data transmission and exchange of computer networks composed of a global network. “Please note that this” definition “is very clear:

First, you must use the TCP / IP protocol;

Second, must be the same use of TCP / IP protocol composed of computer networks;

Third, must be in the TCP / IP protocol on the basis of a global network.

Around a long circle around the same circle, or “use TCP / IP protocol computer network”! Can only accept and use TCP / IP with a protocol, the same type of rules, in the same network space for transmission and exchange Of the network, which is not the Internet? How to become the “Internet” in the end is a dull chaos, or chaos led to a dull?

It is said that in the foreign literature, the Internet is described as “no leadership, no law, no political, no army … … incredible social organizational structure.” Dare to ask the US government to the global implementation of such a network structure is what is it? Is to ensure that to induce or force countries, regions, organizations and each use of computers around the world users have succumbed to the Internet, subject to, The United States?

It was argued that, from a general point of view, the definition of the Internet should include three aspects, namely:

– is a TCP / IP protocol based on the network;

– is a computer users of the network group, the user in the use of network resources at the same time, but also for the development and expansion of the network contribute;

– is a collection of all the information resources that can be accessed and used.

The question is whether or not the other computer networks that do not use or do not apply the TCP / IP protocol exist. Is it allowed to exist? Should it exist? Use different protocols The interconnection, convergence, exchange between networks is not the Internet, is it interconnected? Even if the same from the TCP / IP protocol network, IPV6 and IPV4 network is the relationship between the interconnection, or the upgrading of the relationship between China’s national intellectual property rights of IPV9 and the United States have intellectual property IPV6, IPV4 network, is the sovereign equality of network interconnection, or technology-compatible coverage of the alternative relationship? If the realization of IPV9, V6, V4 technology system network of mutual integration and sharing co-governance, which is the Internet? It is only the Internet To the future of the network of technological progress?

According to the above Internet, the definition and statement of the Internet, China only has a network within the Internet framework, there is no consistent with the national sovereignty, consistent with the public network, there is no interconnection with non-sovereign public Internet (internetwork).

The concept of “the Internet is the Internet” that the Americans themselves can not say clearly define, in recent years, have appeared in China’s strategic, planned, decision-making documents and media coverage. Some “authorities” who take the opportunity to hustle and dust, constantly extending, expanding, distorting, fabricating its connotation and extension, it is chilling. If only by the United States 忽悠, but also not detained our independent innovation thinking, and will not be able to reverse and adjust the decision-making mistakes and mistakes strategy. If we themselves fool yourself, self-deception, does not mean that we know the chaos has been deep mud, it is difficult to extricate themselves?

Second, the confusion and confusion of cyberspace

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1 , the Internet constitutes the network space

With the approval of the Central Network Security and Information Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office published the “National Network Space Security Strategy”, which was first published by “Internet, Communication Network, Computer System, Automated Control System, Digital Equipment and Its Bearer Which is “a new area of ​​human activity that is important to land, sea, sky and space. National sovereignty extension extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty becomes An important part of national sovereignty.

What is the “Internet” mentioned above? Refers to the network of Internet coverage of a global network of space or the world’s multiple sovereign network interconnection of the network space formed? This problem is not clear, people’s cyberspace awareness, Recognize and identify the ability to distinguish still deep chaos, confusion and confusion.

The Internet is the Internet, in order to achieve the exchange of information between the terminal and the terminal in a network within the framework of the formation of a joint network of space; the Internet is the Internet, is a number of different types of networks in order to share the purpose of mutual benefit Interconnected network space. The Internet and the Internet constitute the integration of the network space, inclusive of common, but also the existence of their own specific and specific rules, categories, ecological and other characteristics. Different cyberspace can not be generalized, confused. Our knowledge should not be disturbed more and more chaos.

Different network space is the most fundamental, the most typical characteristic difference is that countries in the Internet (internetwork) under the framework of sovereignty can not be changed, can not cover up, irreversible, can only be between the sovereignty of the handshake, shake hands, In contrast, bullying. The sovereignty of the Internet is only one, that is, the United States a unique sovereignty, or hegemony. Within the framework of the Internet, any country’s sovereignty has been unilaterally formulated and closely governed by the United States, the scope and the shackles and shackles of ecology, and have to let the United States and its allies (such as Japan) violate, penetrate, , To play, to play in the applause.

In particular, the need for deep and clear, highly important is the dissemination of information, economic development, prosperity, culture, governance, cooperation and exchanges, not the Internet patent, the national sovereign network can also be implemented and implemented, based on national sovereign cyberspace Internet interconnection may do better. The use of the Internet in the United States a network of technical systems and means to bypass the national network of sovereignty, governance and legal rights, is leading to the sovereign cyberspace security is the biggest source of security, is the sovereign state of the greatest threat to security, The most destabilizing factors that endanger the peace, stability and national unity of the sovereign states. In the Internet, there is no country with the country’s diplomacy, there is no equal and mutual respect for international cooperation, only the United States a dominance, a strong, one dominate, one of the words have the final say. In the framework of such a network, with the United States to talk about the rules, stresses the principle of governance, on the Pratt & Whitney, not with the tiger skin, dance with the wolf? How can the United States take their own national interests to share with other countries, to sell their own network sovereignty To allow other countries to rival the country’s cyberspace “sovereignty in me, not subject to people”, if subject to the people, will be subject to chaos, will suffer! The truth, Iran understand, Germany understand that Russia understands that many countries understand. Over the years, from Asia, the Americas, the Middle East to the EU lessons one by one, we have no reason not to understand, do not accept the lesson?

2 , cyber space sovereignty belongs to the United States

Some people say that cyberspace is cyberspace, that the English Cyberspace is internetwork. If the two English words is entirely a meaning, pointing to the same category of words, why have to be divided into how to see, how to read, how to write can not stand on the two words, speak English foreigners tired tired!

It is said that Cyberspace translated into Chinese cyberspace is more meaningful. Some people say that the US Presidential Decree on Cyberspace’s definition shows that “the Internet is an important infrastructure for cyberspace,” “Internet computers are the most basic elements of Cyberspace,” “Internet + is the Internet’s most important move to cyberspace ”

Here the “Internet”, obviously refers to the Internet that Internet, “Internet +” is the Internet +. There is also a dizzy chaos: the Internet or “Internet” does not constitute cyberspace, the Internet or “Internet” is only Cyberspace this cyberspace infrastructure? “Internet +” is only the Internet to Cyberspace this Network space expansion of an important action, but also does not belong to the network space?

English Cyberspace Chinese literal translation, is cyberspace. 2008 President of the United States President Bush issued the Presidential Decree No. 8 (NSPD) / 23 Homeland Security Presidential Decree, the Chinese translation of cyberspace definition is: “a global domain in the information environment, by independent and interdependent information Technology infrastructure network, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems and embedded processors and controllers, etc. “This seemingly rigorous definition defines cyberspace as a global information environment, encompassing all of the world’s” information technology Infrastructure network “. US Air Force Chief of Staff said the cyber space encompasses everything from “direct current to visible light”. To say that, or the Internet a network of the world that the concept of a replica, for a noun, changed the argument only, not the right.

This definition can be seen almost as an American imperial edict to declare war on all sovereignty over the world. The definition does not recognize the resources, conditions and foundations of countries to build and develop sovereign cyberspace, and first incorporate all kinds of network infrastructures into the category of cyber cyberspace. The definition is preemptively bundled with political, economic, military and cultural Hands and feet of the “certain rules”, thrown out of the national scientists, strategists in the future development of the field of network innovation voyage cable; the definition of only state officials set fire to the people not allowed to light, domineering, ambition, aggressive.

3 , Internet sovereignty and power confused

Although the OSI RM (Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model) proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is one of the two dominant network architectures in the world, these years have not resulted in large-scale market applications. Some people think that the model exists level and content is not the best, the session layer and presentation layer is almost empty, the corresponding service definition and protocol complexity and other technical shortcomings.

And the obvious and unsafe problems caused by the inherent lack of Internet technology have been widely concerned by countries and international organizations. Fundamentally change the Internet’s single control center framework, TCP / IP protocol, identity and security authentication mechanism, has become a major global key core technology innovation research topics.

Perhaps because of this, the current countries have not yet formed in the sovereign cyberspace based on the construction of the global Internet (internetwork) conditions, resources and support, not the ability and the Internet “zhongjiang governance”, “equally”, “shared peace” Can only “send people”, in access to the Internet, rent Internet services, to prevent excessive penetration of the Internet and so on, put huge costs and bargaining with the United States to try to minimize harm and loss. Countries are equally involved in Internet governance, equitable distribution of Internet infrastructure resources, common management of Internet root servers and other key information infrastructure, to strengthen the representation and voice of developing countries, like slogans, and like a mirage, shouting fills, and can not reach.

In the framework of the United States Internet within a network, in the United States cyberspace sovereignty and security under the serious deterrence, the peaceful development of the theme of cyberspace international cooperation strategy is likely to only wishful thinking, the premise and the foundation is wrong, direction and route Biased The United States and the rest of the world continue to lag behind the United States in the network space, subject to the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, Succumbed to the United States, and will actually lose cyberspace sovereignty, loss of development opportunities and strategic opportunities, more harm than good, regret not the beginning.

4 , cyberspace international cooperation trade-offs

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Corresponding to the Chinese cyberspace English is Net Space, the scientific definition is: information infrastructure to connect, cover and carry information processing space-time domain.

This definition specifies the most common commonality of the Internet, the Internet, cyberspace, and any other cyberspace, not to the will of a particular country or interest, not limited to a particular network, Country to build the network space.

With this definition as a prerequisite to support countries to strengthen the construction and development of sovereign cyberspace, to promote the international community in a spirit of mutual respect for dialogue and cooperation, have the resources to protect the public in the cyberspace of the right to know, participation, expression, supervision Rights and conditions to build a multilateral, democratic and transparent global network space management system, it is possible to achieve scientific and rational, fair and orderly, equal and reciprocal, security checks and balances of international cooperation in cyberspace.

China in the supercomputer development, aerospace computer system applications, etc. has been rushed in the forefront of the world, can be compatible with IPV6 and IPV4 IPV9 technical system test run test is satisfactory. Russia in the domestic network information control and prevention of foreign network invasion and so has accumulated a good experience, the establishment of a good system. The EU has embarked on a potential threat to the Internet and is committed to building an autonomous cyberspace system. More and more countries put forward cyber space sovereignty demands, in favor of Xi Jinping President “jointly build cyberspace fate community” claims.

In the current limited conditions, the basis and the expected prospects, China’s international cooperation in cyberspace initiatives should be able to assess the situation, do what, careful operation, not rushed into the routines of other countries. Should be single-handedly with the United States and other countries to negotiate international Internet space governance diplomacy, a rainy day, one hand to build the power of the United States enough to balance the US Internet and cyberspace of China’s sovereign public network system. At the same time, take decisive and resolute measures to resolutely deal with domestic and foreign network security risks and threats, and resolutely punish the network of criminal activities, and resolutely crack down on China’s cyberspace sovereignty, betrayal of national and national interests, resolutely correct long passive Cyberspace following strategy and strategy.

Third, the world cyberspace security situation

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The US Internet-dominated world cyberspace security situation is increasingly grim. Wearing the “Internet” caps of the Internet security problems riddled with more and more countries to become difficult to save the network of ills and long-lasting “heart disease.”

According to the “China cyberspace security report (2016)” Blue Book, since 2015, based on the Internet and cyber space network conflict and attack, become the main form of confrontation between countries. Russia Kaspersky accused the United States “Formula Group” through the implantation of spyware, infected Iran, Russia, China, more than 30 countries such as military, financial, energy and other key sectors of the tens of thousands of computers. Iran says it has thwarted the United States’ cyber attacks on its oil sector. Italy “Hacking Team” more than 400G of the company’s data was open and found that the United States, Morocco, Ethiopia and other institutions in more than 20 countries to buy a network of spy and vulnerability tools. The company blames Russia’s “APT28” organization for exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities to attack NATO and US defense agencies.

Blue Book Disclosure, the United States set up “Network Threat Intelligence Integration Center”, and expand the State Council “Anti-Terrorism Strategy Information Center” scale, the CIA set up “Digital Innovation Department” to strengthen the network intelligence gathering capacity. The US Department of Defense launched a network security incubator program, the British government to expand its network security research capabilities, the US Navy prepared offensive network action, NATO announced the preparation of mixed network warfare, countries focus on network attack and defense and hard and soft strength, and strive to security and attack Ability to enhance the two-way. Media disclosure, the world has more than 50 countries set up a network warfare forces, the global cyberspace “military race” escalating.

According to the disclosure, relying on the United States Internet technology, agreements and infrastructure development developed “China Internet”, government, banking, energy and other vital departments of the network information system generally can not achieve safe and controllable, the domestic industrial control system is ” Security loopholes. ” 2015 appears Alipay, Ctrip data loss, Netease e-mail leakage and other troubles, in recent years through SMS, WeChat implementation of financial fraud every day in a large number of occur. Minister of Industry and Trade Miao Wei told reporters that now an average of one month to search for 173 million telecommunications fraud information.

According to the “National Internet Information Center”, “Network Security Information and Dynamic Weekly”, February 13, 20-19, the number of domestic infected network virus host 400,000 units, up 6.6% over last week; territory was implanted back door Of the government website rose 47.1%; for the domestic website of the number of counterfeit pages increased by 165.2%; new information security high-risk loopholes rose 26.2%. Monitoring found that the source of network virus transmission to the site of the horse, involving 68 domain names in 30.9% for overseas registration, and the top domain for the .com about 83.8%, most of the horse site through the domain name to visit the implementation of the virus spread.

National Defense University professor Dai Xu pointed out that today’s world has been in a “network”. Changes in the military field have taken place. From the sensor as the core, to electromagnetic space as the boundary of the electronic information warfare (which can be called “telecommunications war”), to the network as the core, to the psychological space for the characteristics of the network, psychological warfare (can be called “network Heart war “),” network “into the basic characteristics of the seventh generation of war, is becoming the main battle of the big country game. China’s traditional strategic advantage is becoming the focus of opponents crack, China once again in a natural barrier can rely on the dangerous situation, the face of being blackmail the state of the network. The traditional cognitive system of war and anti-war requires urgent upgrading. In the new era of mixed warfare of the network, China must also have the ability to hold the “bull nose” of the times.

Fourth, the history of sovereign cyberspace

1 , “cyber space” alert the world

The United States carefully thrown out the “cyberspace” theory, self-righteous, and then without hesitation in its delineation of the “cyber space that cyberspace” large-scale global information monitoring, network war deployment and network information intelligence collection And plunder, etc., alert the world’s scientists, economists, military scientists, socialists and businessmen, politicians, people and so on. People suddenly realized that “the Internet is the Internet” and “cyber space is cyberspace” exactly the same. In the final analysis, the superpower capitalist hegemony of the United States regarded himself as the head of the “global village” and regarded “economic globalization” as “selfish”. “I am my, you or my, this earth on the land and sea sky all everything is my” – this is the real United States, which is all the interests of the United States. The United States, is so arrogant unreasonable.

However, reality and science have repeatedly verified that cyberspace is only a type of network that exists in a variety of independent runs, and is part of a space for different types of networks that are different in technology, different in purpose, and for different purposes. Cyberspace is not equal to cyberspace, cyberspace covers cyberspace, cyberspace is a subset of cyberspace.

Since the performance of the United States sovereignty and interests of cyber space, indicating that all constitute a subset of cyberspace, all countries and areas of the network space, have their sovereignty and interests of the demands. Iran, Russia, Germany, China and so on the EU and so on, should have, there must be, otherwise there is no construction of “cyberspace fate community,” the basic conditions and the necessary basis for peace, sharing, co-governance, win-win International cyberspace is out of the question.

In this way, to strengthen the national sovereignty network construction and development, build and maintain their own security and stability, national unity, and promote the prosperity of the domestic community of sovereign cyberspace, become a sovereign state important event. This is the common responsibility of the United Nations, the United States and the world’s sovereign States. “Cyber ​​space” deter the world, is the United States contempt for the world’s cyberspace strategy of the major errors; any follow the US Internet, cyber space strategy decisions and initiatives, will be lost in the direction of major mistakes.

2 , Internet space strategy has been put on the agenda

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Network space (Net Space), is the space-time system created by mankind, is the generic name of the concept, is the information processing and exchange of bearing space. It summarizes the three elements that make up the cyberspace: attributes, connection coverage, and the ability to carry processing information. Regardless of the financial network, enterprise network, government network, regardless of the Internet, Internet, Internet, regardless of land-based network, aviation network, space network, regardless of cable network, wireless network, quantum network, regardless of public or private network related services Providers and operators of private access networks, and so on, there are independent connections to cover the space-time domain and bearer processing exchange of different information on the network space.

The cyberspace has not been able to rigorously, regulate and accurately reflect and embrace all of its inherent characteristics, and extend the scope of the cyber space in the new network space. The conditions and the basis for the development of the law of change. This network and the network between the super network space, inspired the “Internet space” (Nets Space) doctrine. Internet space is an integrated domain of cyberspace.

Standing in the Internet space height, depth and breadth of the full dimension, full view of cyberspace, our vision will be wider and farther and clearer, our thinking will be easier to jump out yesterday and today, looking to tomorrow, we will from the Internet , “Internet”, cyber space caused by chaos in the liberation of ideas, out of a computer network era beyond the new path of the human information society.

A network space, wireless networks, quantum communication, space networks and other interconnected, interactive, interdependent constitute the era of Internet space, has come and is entering a more advanced stage. The rise of China’s cyberspace strategy will inevitably lead to the rise of revolutionary thought, the rise of science and technology, the rise of economy, the rise of the nation, the rise of the country, the benefit of future generations, the impact and drive the global human society by leaps and bounds.

Internet space strategy and technical preparation has been put on the agenda, the best time may be in front of and in the next few years. China can not seize the opportunity to seize the opportunity to go beyond the United States to lead the new super cyberspace – Internet space era, to seize the day and night, to now move from scratch, to the number of romantic figures, but also to see the current.

3 , the development of Internet space to be the power of the whole country

The United States to push the country to push the Internet, push IPV6, push the Bo space, leading to chaos in the country and confused at the same time, but also indeed created a remarkable network technology, network economy and network military glory.

China has become the world’s second largest economy. China is fully capable, conditional and confident to develop the international space strategy and technology with the power of the whole country.

Ideological emancipation, institutional reform is China’s reform and opening up since the two initiatives complement each other. From this start, it is recommended:

⑴ the establishment of the CPC Central Committee, the National People’s Congress, the State Council and the CPPCC under the leadership and under the constraints of a highly authoritative, rule of law and error correction mechanism and error correction mechanism, and resolutely put an end to the confusion and decision-making road.

A small number of follow the United States, “experts”, “authority” long-term impact and intervention in the national network of information authorities who also a number of “one speech” strange thing, no longer allow, exist and continue, and must be resolutely reversed and broken.

Should immediately resolutely correct the “comprehensive introduction, upgrading, the deployment of IPV6” major strategic decision-making and planning mistakes, abolished with the United States signed all the hazards and endanger China’s cyberspace sovereignty and security of the unequal agreement; cyberspace field investment projects one by one The implementation of the audit and post-evaluation, obviously “for others to marry clothes,” all shut down and turn.

(2) The State encourages and supports the construction, development and maintenance of a sovereign public network on the basis of the premise and national ownership of intellectual property rights.

Should be clearly in the United States based on the current “Internet”, the construction of independent development of the Chinese public network and other sovereign public network and provide services, the people have the right to use the sovereign public network and non-sovereign public network rights. The state should introduce the tendency of the incentive policies and measures to allow the sovereign public network using IPV9, Zheng code, Tao Chen code, CFL safety certification, MISC, and so on with national independent intellectual property rights technology. Actively build, develop and maintain the domestic independent operation of the multi-network constitute the Internet, can build a global network space fate community to explore the model, the accumulation of experience and create the conditions.

(3) to seize the opportunity to create a national-led, social participation, private operation of the “Internet Space Research Institute”, all-round, multi-dimensional, deep-level research and development of Internet space technology and development of development strategies and strategies to create a world-class training of Internet space talent base , Build the sovereign network / future network / Internet space experiment, test the system application environment, explore and solve the sovereign network, cyberspace and the development of Internet space in various problems, strides in the lead in the forefront of the development of Internet space.

(4) First of all, with Russia, Iran, Germany, the European Union and other countries committed to the development, development and maintenance of their own sovereign cyberspace and actively organize the construction of cyberspace destiny community communication, exchange, negotiation and cooperation, joint multi- The United States is the main negotiator.

Clear the chaos, swing confused, we will no longer be subject to the people, let the mercy, we will be firmly into the era of cyberspace, we will be far-sighted toward the future of Internet space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

一、混沌的“互聯網”

1、從阿帕網到“互聯網”

“互聯網”究竟是什麼網?中國究竟有沒有“互聯網”?世界究竟有沒有“互聯網”?這本不是問題的問題,由於語言文化表達和理解的不同,由於利益追求範圍和目的的不同,由於學術研究條件和氛圍的不同,等等,這些年越來越顯得混沌不清。 “互聯網”、“中國互聯網”,“國際互聯網”、“移動互聯網”、“互聯網金融”、“互聯網+”……等等,什麼都掛上個“互聯網”,“互聯網”竟成為時尚用語。

今天的世界儼然成了“互聯網”囊括天下的世界,除了什麼都是“the Internet”那一張“互聯網”,許多人都不知道還有沒有其它網,還能不能有其它網,為什麼還會有其它網?。 “互聯網”到底是一張網?還是應該不止一張網?認識的混沌,混沌的認識,皆源於此。

1969年,許浚博士成為在美國加州大學洛杉磯分校(UCLA)實驗室誕生的第一個互聯網絡(internetwork)的研究成員,他後來成為貝爾實驗室歷史上唯一的華裔高級副總裁,美國電子電氣工程師學會(IEEE)院士,曾被譽為美國網絡通信界“第一華人”。 2004年,許先生告訴我,人們今天熱衷的“互聯網”,前身是阿帕網(ARPANET),是美國政府基於國防上的考量出錢給高校研究的大型計算機互相通信的一個實驗網,又經過20多年的創新和改進而來的一張網。

1970年,美國信息處理協會將計算機網絡定義為“以能夠共享資源(硬件、軟件和數據等)的方式連接起來,並且各自具備獨立功能的計算機系統之集合”。這個計算機網絡的美國定義,也許算是最早來自美國的“互聯網”定義?

2、兩張網絡體系結構

20世紀50年代,美國建立了一個半自動的地面防空系統(SAGE,中文譯作“賽琪”),進行了計算機技術與通信技術相結合的應用嘗試。 60年代初,美國航空訂票系統(SABRE-1)由一台中心計算機和分佈在全美範圍內的2000多個終端組成計算機通信網絡,更大規模地實現了各終端通過電話線連接到中心計算機的典型應用。這種以單個計算機為中心、通過多重線路控制器與遠程終端相連接的聯機系統,被稱做面向終端的遠程聯機系統,即早期的計算機網絡。

20世紀70年代末,國際標準化組織ISO的計算機與信息處理標準化技術委員會著手研究和製定網絡通信標準,以實現網絡體系結構的國際標準化。 1984年,ISO正式頒布了稱為“開放系統互連基本參考模型”的國際標準ISO 7498,簡稱OSI RM(Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model),即著名的OSI七層模型。 OSI RM及標準協議的製定和完善推動了統一、開放的網絡體系結構,大大加速了計算機網絡的發展。

但是,美國並不把ISO放在眼裡,堅持獨斷專行。 1983年,美國在阿帕網中正式推出TCP/IP協議取代原有的NCP網絡控制協議,進而形成因特網(Internet)。 30多年來,美國利用其科技、經濟和軍事優勢,以舉國之力推行因特網一張網連接覆蓋全球的戰略。美國因特網任務工作組(ICANN)赤裸裸地提出“同一個世界,同一個因特網”的蠱惑人心口號。奧巴馬政府更是讚譽“因特網在國際環境中獨樹一幟”。由此,因特網被美國及其蟄伏在各國的鐵粉們津津樂道為“互聯網”。

實際上,因特網就是美國製定規則、控制交換、監控信息的一種計算機網絡體系結構,並不完全符合國際標準組織ISO正式頒布的OSI RM的要求。也就是說,目前世界上存在著兩種占主導地位的網絡體系結構:一種是國際標準化組織ISO提出的OSI RM(開放式系統互連參考模型);另一種是因特網使用和力推的TCP/IP RM(TCP/IP參考模型)。兩種模型的根本區別在於,OSI RM推動全球計算機網絡開放式系統互連,TCP/IP迫使世界所有計算機終端都接入因特網一張網之中;ISO致力於各國、各種類型的計算機網絡系統之間的相互連接,美國強調的是計算機端對端之間的信息互通。

3、“互聯網”的定義

迄今,各國科技界、學術界、教育界、工商界,沒有統一、清晰、準確、規範的互聯網定義。這裡的中文互聯網,指的是早在1997年7月18日就經我國國務院授權的全國科學技術名詞審定委員會明確的英文internetwork,而不是Internet。

追隨美國因特網一張網戰略的某些人堅持說,“因特網就是互聯網”,“中國就是將因特網翻譯成互聯網”。這不是科學的、學術的定義,也不像是出自院士和“權威”之口,更像是不明事理的“阿Q”之說。

還是奧巴馬坦誠。他在白宮發表的《網絡空間國際戰略》的序言裡說,“通過因特網連接,美國公司的業務可以延伸至全球任何一個地方,為美國民眾創造無以計數的就業崗位和機會”,他承認, “因特網本身無法開啟國際合作的新紀元。”

因特網,源自英文的Internet。作為專有名詞,它所指的是使用TCP/IP通訊協議的一種計算機系統,以及這個系統所提供的信息、服務與用戶。因特網要求用戶(終端)按照其特定的規則在限定的因特網框架內使用指定的域名和地址進行信息交換,它對採用其它通訊協議的網絡是排斥和封閉的,或者乾脆越俎代庖、取而代之。

有人說,因特網的定義,英文應該是“a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.”翻譯成中文,就是“一個由使用TCP / IP網絡協議促進數據傳輸和交換的計算機網絡組成的全球網絡。”請注意,這個“定義”說得很明確:

第一,必須使用TCP/IP協議;

第二,必須是同樣使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡組成;

第三,必須是在TCP/IP協議基礎上構成的全球一張網絡。

繞了這麼長一個繞口令一般的圈子,歸齊還是“使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡”!只能接受和使用TCP/IP同一種協議、同一類規則、在同一個網絡空間內進行傳輸與交換的網絡,這不還是因特網嗎?怎麼就成了“互聯網”了?到底是愚鈍產生了混沌,還是混沌導致了愚鈍?

有人說,在國外的文獻中,因特網被描述成“沒有領導、沒有法律、沒有政治、沒有軍隊……的不可思議的社會組織結構”。敢問,美國政府向全球推行這樣的網絡結構是何居心呢?是確保、誘導或迫使各國、各地區、各組織以及每個使用計算機的世界各地用戶都通過因特網屈從於、受制於、聽命於美國嗎?

有人說,從一般的角度認為,因特網的定義應包括三個方面內容,即:

——是一個基於TCP/IP協議的網絡;

——是一個計算機用戶的網絡集團,用戶在使用網絡資源的同時,也為網絡的發展壯大貢獻力量;

——是所有可被訪問和利用的信息資源的集合。

問題在於,不使用或者不適用TCP/IP協議的其它計算機網絡是否存在?是否允許存在?是否應該存在?使用不同協議網絡之間相互連接、融合、交換構成的是不是互聯網、是不是互連互通的網絡空間?即便同樣源於TCP/IP協議的網絡,IPV6與IPV4網絡之間是互連互通的關係,還是升級換代的關係?具有我國民族自主知識產權的IPV9與美國擁有知識產權的IPV6、 IPV4網絡之間,是主權平等的網絡互連關係,還是技術兼容的覆蓋替代關係?如果實現IPV9、V6、V4技術體系網絡的相互融通與共享共管共治,這是互聯網呢?還僅僅是因特網走向未來網絡的技術進步?

按照以上的因特網、“互聯網”定義和說法,中國祇有因特網框架內的一張網,沒有與國家主權相吻合、相一致的公眾網絡,沒有與非主權公眾網絡互聯互通的互聯網(internetwork)。

一個連美國人自己都說不清定義的“因特網就是互聯網”的概念,近些年來,接二連三地出現在我國戰略性、規劃性、決策性的文件和媒體連篇累牘地報導渲染之中。某些“權威”人士藉機喧囂塵上,不斷延伸、膨脹、曲解、編造其內涵和外延,實在令人不寒而栗。如果僅僅被美國忽悠,還不至於禁錮我們的自主創新思維,不至於不能扭轉和調整決策的失誤和失誤的策略。如果我們自己一個勁地忽悠自己,自欺欺人,難道不是意味著我們認識的混沌已經深陷泥沼、難以自拔了嗎?

二、網絡空間的迷茫與錯亂

1、因特網構成的網絡空間

經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室首次發布的《國家網絡空間安全戰略》中表述,網絡空間是由“互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的”,是“國家主權的新疆域”,是“與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。”

以上述及的“互聯網”是指什麼?是指因特網一張網覆蓋全球構成的網絡空間?還是世界多張主權網互連互通構成的網絡空間?這個問題不搞清楚,人們的網絡空間意識、認識和識別辨析能力仍然深陷混沌、迷茫和錯亂之中。

因特網就是因特網,是為了實現終端與終端之間的信息交換而在一張網框架之內形成聯合的網絡空間;互聯網就是互聯網,是多個不同類型的網絡為了共享共治共贏的目的構成互連互通的網絡空間。因特網與互聯網各自構成的網絡空間存在融合、包容的共性,更存在各自專有與特定的規則、範疇、生態等特性。不同的網絡空間不能一概而論、混為一談。我們的認識不應該被攪和得越來越混沌不清。

不同的網絡空間最根本、最典型的特性區別在於,各國在互聯網絡(internetwork)框架下的主權不可改變,不可掩蓋,不可逆襲,只能是主權之間的握手言歡、握手言和,不可刀槍相向、恃強凌弱。因特網的主權只有一個,即美國一家獨有的主權,或者說是霸權。在因特網一張網的框架內,任何國家的主權都被美國單方面製定和嚴密掌控的規則、範疇和生態束縛、捆綁、桎梏,不得不任憑美國及其盟國(例如日本)侵犯、滲透、改變、驅使,把玩於鼓掌之中。

特別需要深度明晰、高度重視的是,傳播信息、發展經濟、繁榮文化、治理社會、合作交流等,不是因特網的專利,各國的主權網絡同樣可以實施和實現,建立在各國主權網絡空間基礎上的網絡互聯可能會做得更好。美國利用因特網的一張網技術體系和手段,繞開各國網絡空間的主權、治權和法權,是導致各主權網絡空間不安全的最大根源,是對各主權國家安全最大的威脅,是長期危害各主權國家和平穩定、民族團結的最不安定因素。在因特網內,沒有國與國的外交,沒有平等與相互尊重的國際合作,只有美國一家獨大,一家獨強,一家獨霸,一家之言說了算。在這樣的一張網框架內,同美國談規則、講原則、說治理、論普惠,豈非與虎謀皮、與狼共舞?美國怎麼可能拿自己的國家利益讓其他國家分享,出讓自己的網絡主權允許其他國家分庭抗禮呢?各國的網絡空間“主權在我、不受制於人”,倘若受制於人,必受其亂、必受其害!這個道理,伊朗明白、德國明白、俄羅斯明白,許多國家都明白。這些年來,從亞洲、美洲、中東到歐盟的教訓一個接一個,我們有什麼理由不明白、不接受教訓嗎?

3、“互聯網”的定義

迄今,各國科技界、學術界、教育界、工商界,沒有統一、清晰、準確、規範的互聯網定義。這裡的中文互聯網,指的是早在1997年7月18日就經我國國務院授權的全國科學技術名詞審定委員會明確的英文internetwork,而不是Internet。

追隨美國因特網一張網戰略的某些人堅持說,“因特網就是互聯網”,“中國就是將因特網翻譯成互聯網”。這不是科學的、學術的定義,也不像是出自院士和“權威”之口,更像是不明事理的“阿Q”之說。

還是奧巴馬坦誠。他在白宮發表的《網絡空間國際戰略》的序言裡說,“通過因特網連接,美國公司的業務可以延伸至全球任何一個地方,為美國民眾創造無以計數的就業崗位和機會”,他承認, “因特網本身無法開啟國際合作的新紀元。”

因特網,源自英文的Internet。作為專有名詞,它所指的是使用TCP/IP通訊協議的一種計算機系統,以及這個系統所提供的信息、服務與用戶。因特網要求用戶(終端)按照其特定的規則在限定的因特網框架內使用指定的域名和地址進行信息交換,它對採用其它通訊協議的網絡是排斥和封閉的,或者乾脆越俎代庖、取而代之。

有人說,因特網的定義,英文應該是“a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.”翻譯成中文,就是“一個由使用TCP / IP網絡協議促進數據傳輸和交換的計算機網絡組成的全球網絡。”請注意,這個“定義”說得很明確:

第一,必須使用TCP/IP協議;

第二,必須是同樣使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡組成;

第三,必須是在TCP/IP協議基礎上構成的全球一張網絡。

繞了這麼長一個繞口令一般的圈子,歸齊還是“使用TCP/IP協議的計算機網絡”!只能接受和使用TCP/IP同一種協議、同一類規則、在同一個網絡空間內進行傳輸與交換的網絡,這不還是因特網嗎?怎麼就成了“互聯網”了?到底是愚鈍產生了混沌,還是混沌導致了愚鈍?

有人說,在國外的文獻中,因特網被描述成“沒有領導、沒有法律、沒有政治、沒有軍隊……的不可思議的社會組織結構”。敢問,美國政府向全球推行這樣的網絡結構是何居心呢?是確保、誘導或迫使各國、各地區、各組織以及每個使用計算機的世界各地用戶都通過因特網屈從於、受制於、聽命於美國嗎?

有人說,從一般的角度認為,因特網的定義應包括三個方面內容,即:

——是一個基於TCP/IP協議的網絡;

——是一個計算機用戶的網絡集團,用戶在使用網絡資源的同時,也為網絡的發展壯大貢獻力量;

——是所有可被訪問和利用的信息資源的集合。

問題在於,不使用或者不適用TCP/IP協議的其它計算機網絡是否存在?是否允許存在?是否應該存在?使用不同協議網絡之間相互連接、融合、交換構成的是不是互聯網、是不是互連互通的網絡空間?即便同樣源於TCP/IP協議的網絡,IPV6與IPV4網絡之間是互連互通的關係,還是升級換代的關係?具有我國民族自主知識產權的IPV9與美國擁有知識產權的IPV6、 IPV4網絡之間,是主權平等的網絡互連關係,還是技術兼容的覆蓋替代關係?如果實現IPV9、V6、V4技術體系網絡的相互融通與共享共管共治,這是互聯網呢?還僅僅是因特網走向未來網絡的技術進步?

按照以上的因特網、“互聯網”定義和說法,中國祇有因特網框架內的一張網,沒有與國家主權相吻合、相一致的公眾網絡,沒有與非主權公眾網絡互聯互通的互聯網(internetwork)。

一個連美國人自己都說不清定義的“因特網就是互聯網”的概念,近些年來,接二連三地出現在我國戰略性、規劃性、決策性的文件和媒體連篇累牘地報導渲染之中。某些“權威”人士藉機喧囂塵上,不斷延伸、膨脹、曲解、編造其內涵和外延,實在令人不寒而栗。如果僅僅被美國忽悠,還不至於禁錮我們的自主創新思維,不至於不能扭轉和調整決策的失誤和失誤的策略。如果我們自己一個勁地忽悠自己,自欺欺人,難道不是意味著我們認識的混沌已經深陷泥沼、難以自拔了嗎?

二、網絡空間的迷茫與錯亂

1、因特網構成的網絡空間

經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室首次發布的《國家網絡空間安全戰略》中表述,網絡空間是由“互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的”,是“國家主權的新疆域”,是“與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。”

以上述及的“互聯網”是指什麼?是指因特網一張網覆蓋全球構成的網絡空間?還是世界多張主權網互連互通構成的網絡空間?這個問題不搞清楚,人們的網絡空間意識、認識和識別辨析能力仍然深陷混沌、迷茫和錯亂之中。

因特網就是因特網,是為了實現終端與終端之間的信息交換而在一張網框架之內形成聯合的網絡空間;互聯網就是互聯網,是多個不同類型的網絡為了共享共治共贏的目的構成互連互通的網絡空間。因特網與互聯網各自構成的網絡空間存在融合、包容的共性,更存在各自專有與特定的規則、範疇、生態等特性。不同的網絡空間不能一概而論、混為一談。我們的認識不應該被攪和得越來越混沌不清。

不同的網絡空間最根本、最典型的特性區別在於,各國在互聯網絡(internetwork)框架下的主權不可改變,不可掩蓋,不可逆襲,只能是主權之間的握手言歡、握手言和,不可刀槍相向、恃強凌弱。因特網的主權只有一個,即美國一家獨有的主權,或者說是霸權。在因特網一張網的框架內,任何國家的主權都被美國單方面製定和嚴密掌控的規則、範疇和生態束縛、捆綁、桎梏,不得不任憑美國及其盟國(例如日本)侵犯、滲透、改變、驅使,把玩於鼓掌之中。

特別需要深度明晰、高度重視的是,傳播信息、發展經濟、繁榮文化、治理社會、合作交流等,不是因特網的專利,各國的主權網絡同樣可以實施和實現,建立在各國主權網絡空間基礎上的網絡互聯可能會做得更好。美國利用因特網的一張網技術體系和手段,繞開各國網絡空間的主權、治權和法權,是導致各主權網絡空間不安全的最大根源,是對各主權國家安全最大的威脅,是長期危害各主權國家和平穩定、民族團結的最不安定因素。在因特網內,沒有國與國的外交,沒有平等與相互尊重的國際合作,只有美國一家獨大,一家獨強,一家獨霸,一家之言說了算。在這樣的一張網框架內,同美國談規則、講原則、說治理、論普惠,豈非與虎謀皮、與狼共舞?美國怎麼可能拿自己的國家利益讓其他國家分享,出讓自己的網絡主權允許其他國家分庭抗禮呢?各國的網絡空間“主權在我、不受制於人”,倘若受制於人,必受其亂、必受其害!這個道理,伊朗明白、德國明白、俄羅斯明白,許多國家都明白。這些年來,從亞洲、美洲、中東到歐盟的教訓一個接一個,我們有什麼理由不明白、不接受教訓嗎?

2、賽博空間主權屬於美國

有些人硬說賽博空間就是網絡空間,說英文的Cyber​​space就是internetwork。如果這兩個英文單詞完全是一個意思、指向同一個詞語範疇,為什麼非要分成怎麼看、怎麼讀、怎麼寫也挨不上的兩個單詞呢,說英語的外國人累不累呀!

有人說,Cyber​​space翻譯成中文的網絡空間意義更寬。有人說,美國的總統令關於Cyber​​space的定義表明,“互聯網是網絡空間重要的基礎設施”,“互聯網計算機是Cyber​​space最基本的元素”,“互聯網+才是互聯網向網絡空間擴展最重要的一個動作”。

此處的“互聯網”,明顯指的是因特網即Internet,“互聯網+”也就是Internet+。這裡又出現了令人頭暈眼花的混沌:因特網亦或“互聯網”不構成網絡空間,因特網亦或“互聯網”只不過是Cyber​​space這個網絡空間的基礎設施?“因特網+”只不過是因特網向Cyber​​space這個網絡空間擴展的一個重要動作,也並不歸屬於網絡空間?

英文Cyber​​space的中文直譯,就是賽博空間。 2008年美國總統布什發布的54號國家安全總統令(NSPD)/23號國土安全總統令,對賽博空間定義的中文翻譯是:“信息環境中的一個全球域,由獨立且相互依存的信息技術基礎設施網絡組成,包括因特網、電信網、計算機系統以及嵌入的處理器和控制器等。”這個看上去嚴謹的定義,將賽博空間圈定為全球信息環境域,囊括世界所有的“信息技術基礎設施網絡”。美國空軍參謀長說,賽博空間囊括了從“直流電到可見光波”的一切東西。說來說去,還是因特網一張網網羅天下的那一套概念的翻版,換了個名詞、換了個說法而已,不出其右。

這個定義,幾乎可以被看作是向世界所有網絡空間主權宣戰的美國總統詔書。該定義不承認各國建設和發展主權網絡空間的資源、條件和基礎,先入為主地將各國各種網絡基礎設施統統納入美國賽博空間的範疇;該定義搶先拋出捆綁他國政治、經濟、軍事、文化手腳的“一定之規”,甩出了束縛各國科學家、戰略家在未來網絡發展領域創新遠航的纜繩;該定義只許州官放火,不許百姓點燈,霸氣十足、野心昭彰、咄咄逼人。

3、互聯網主權與治權迷茫

儘管國際標準化組織ISO提出的OSI RM(開放式系統互連參考模型)是目前世界上兩種占主導地位的網絡體系結構之一,但這些年並沒有形成規模化的市場應用。有人認為,該模型存在層次數量與內容不是最佳、會話層和表示層幾乎為空、相應的服務定義和協議複雜等技術缺點。

而因特網技術先天不足導致的諸多顯而易見的不安全問題,已為各國和各國際組織普遍關注。從根本上改變因特網的單一控制中心框架結構、TCP/IP協議、標識與安全認證機制等,已經成為全球重大的關鍵核心技術創新攻關課題。

也許正因為此,目前各國還沒有形成在主權網絡空間基礎上構建全球互聯網(internetwork)的條件、資源和依托,還沒有能力與因特網“劃江而治”、“平分秋色”、“共享太平”,只能“寄人籬下”,在接入因特網、租用因特網服務、防止因特網過分滲透等方面,投入巨大成本與美國討價還價地周旋,試圖盡量減少危害和損失。各國平等參與互聯網治理、公平分配互聯網基礎資源、共同管理互聯網根服務器等關鍵信息基礎設施、加強發展中國家的代表性和發言權等,好像口號,又好像海市蜃樓,喊喊罷了,觸不可及。

在美國因特網一張網的框架內、在美國賽博空間主權和安全的嚴重威懾下,和平發展為主題的網絡空間國際合作戰略很可能只是一廂情願的奢談,前提和基礎錯了,方向與路線偏頗。耗費巨大的人力物力財力追隨美國的因特網升級部署及賽博空間戰略,拼精力、拼時間、拼智商、磨牙口,終將導致我國及世界各國繼續在網絡空間長期落後於美國、受制於美國、屈從於美國,並將實際上喪失網絡空間主權、痛失發展良機和戰略契機,得不償失,悔不當初。

4、網絡空間國際合作權衡

與中文網絡空間對應的英文是Net Space,科學的定義是:信息基礎設施連接、覆蓋及承載信息處理的時空域。

這個定義,指明了因特網、互聯網、賽博網絡空間以及其它任何網絡空間最基本的共性,不以某個國家、某個利益集團的意志為轉移,不局限於專指某一張網、某一個國家構建的網絡空間。

以這個定義為前提,支持各國加強主權網絡空間的建設與發展,推動國際社會本著相互尊重的精神開展對話與合作,才有資源保障公眾在網絡空間的知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權,才有條件構建多邊、民主、透明的全球網絡空間治理體系,才有可能實現科學合理、公平有序、平等互惠、安全制衡的網絡空間國際合作。

我國在超級計算機研製、航天計算機系統應用等方面已經沖在了世界的前列,可以兼容覆蓋IPV6和IPV4的IPV9技術體系試運行測試令人滿意。俄羅斯在國內網絡信息控制和防範外來網絡侵襲等方面積累了很好的經驗、建立了良好的系統。歐盟已經著手製衡因特網的潛在威脅,致力於打造獨立自主的網絡空間體系。越來越多的國家提出網絡空間主權訴求,贊成習近平主席“共同構建網絡空間命運共同體”的主張。

在當前有限的條件、基礎和可預期的前景下,我國的網絡空間國際合作舉措應當審時度勢、量力而行、精心運籌操作,不可貿然鑽進他國的套路里。應當一手搶占與美國及他國談判國際網絡空間治理的外交先機、未雨綢繆,一手以舉國之力打造足以製衡美國因特網和賽博空間的我國主權公眾網絡體系。同時,採取果斷有力的措施,堅決處置來源於境內外的網絡安全風險和威脅,堅決懲治網絡違法犯罪活動,堅決打擊危害我國網絡空間主權、出賣國家和民族利益的行為,堅決糾正長期被動受制的網絡空間追隨戰略和策略。

三、世界網絡空間安全態勢

美國因特網主導下的世界網絡空間安全形勢日益嚴峻。穿戴“互聯網”衣帽的因特網安全問題千瘡百孔,越來越成為各國網絡空間難以救藥的頑疾和久治不癒的“心病”。

據《中國網絡空間安全報告(2016)》藍皮書,2015年以來,基於因特網和賽博空間的網絡衝突和攻擊,成為國家間對抗的主要形式。俄羅斯卡巴斯基公司指責美國“方程式小組”通過植入間諜軟件,感染伊朗、俄羅斯、中國等30多個國家的軍事、金融、能源等關鍵部門的上萬台電腦。伊朗稱挫敗了美國對其石油部門的網絡攻擊。意大利“Hacking Team”公司逾400G的數據被公開後發現,美國、摩洛哥、埃塞俄比亞等20多個國家的機構向其購買了網絡間諜和漏洞工具。美國火眼公司指責俄羅斯“APT28”組織利用零日漏洞,攻擊北約和美國國防機構。

藍皮書披露,美國設立“網絡威脅情報整合中心”,並擴大國務院“反恐戰略信息中心”的規模,中情局設立“數字革新部”加強網絡情報蒐集能力。以色列國防部啟動網絡安全孵化器計劃,英國政府拓展其網絡安全研究能力,美國海軍籌備攻擊性網絡行動,北約宣布進行網絡混合戰準備等,各國註重網絡攻防與軟硬實力建設,力求安全保障與攻擊能力雙向提升。媒體披露,全球已經有50多個各個國家組建的網絡戰部隊,全球網絡空間“軍備賽”不斷升級。

另據披露,依托美國因特網技術、協議和基礎設施建設發展起來的“中國互聯網”,政府、銀行、能源等機要要害部門的網絡信息系統普遍無法實現安全可控,國內工業控制系統更是“安全漏洞百出”。 2015年出現的支付寶、攜程網數據丟失,網易郵箱信息洩漏等鬧得沸沸揚揚,近年來通過短信、微信實施的金融詐騙每天都在大量發生。工信部長苗圩告訴記者,現在平均一個月能夠搜索到1.73億條電信詐騙的信息。

據“國家互聯網信息中心”《網絡安全信息與動態週報》,2017年2月13日-19日,境內感染網絡病毒的主機數量為40萬台,比上週上升6.6%;境內被植入後門的政府網站上升47.1%;針對境內網站的仿冒頁面數量上升165.2%;新增信息安全高危漏洞上升26.2%。監測發現,網絡病毒傳播的源頭放馬站點,涉及的68個域名中30.9%為境外註冊,且頂級域為.com的約佔83.8%,大部分放馬站點通過域名訪問實施病毒傳播。

國防大學教授戴旭指出,今天的世界已在一張“網”中。軍事領域的變化已經發生。從以傳感器為核心、以電磁空間為邊界的電子信息戰(可稱之為“電信戰”),到以網絡為核心、以心理空間開闢為特徵的網絡、心理戰(可稱之為“網心戰”),“網絡”化為基本特徵的第七代戰爭,正在成為大國博弈的主戰場。從攻城略地到攻心掠民,中國的傳統戰略優勢正成為被對手破解的重點,中國又一次處於無自然屏障可以依賴的危險境地,面對被網絡訛詐的狀態。關於戰爭和反戰爭的傳統認知體系,亟須升級換代。在網絡化多形態混合戰爭的新軍事時代,中國必須也有能力牽住時代的“牛鼻子”。

2、網際空間戰略已提上日程

網絡空間(Net Space),是人類創造的時空體系,是泛指的名稱概念,是信息處理與交換的承載空間。它概括了構成網絡空間的三大要素:屬性、連接覆蓋範圍和承載處理信息的功能。無論金融網、企業網、政府網,無論因特網、互聯網、網間網,無論陸基網、航空網、太空網,無論有線網、無線網、量子網,無論公網或私網涉及的相關服務提供商和運營商的專用接入網絡,等等,都有自主連接覆蓋的時空域和承載處理交換不同信息的網絡空間。

地球各種網絡空間並存構成的集合體,已經大大超出了網絡空間泛指的概念和定義,“網絡空間”已不能嚴謹、規範、準確地反映和包容其全部的內在特徵、延伸範疇與在全新的條件和基礎上發展變化的規律。這種網絡與網絡之間構成的超級網絡空間,喚生了“網際空間”(Nets Space)的學說。網際空間是網絡空間的集成域。

站在網際空間的高度、深度和廣度全維度、全視角地審視網絡空間,我們的視野將更寬更遠更清晰,我們的思維將更加容易跳出昨天和今天、展望明天,我們將會從因特網、“互聯網”、賽博空間造成的混沌中解放思想,走出一條超越計算機網絡時代的人類信息社會的全新道路。

一個由有線網絡、無線網絡、量子通訊、太空網絡等相互聯繫、相互作用、相互依托構成的網際空間時代,已經來臨並正在進入更加高級的階段。中國網際空間戰略的崛起,必將引起革命性的思想崛起、科技崛起、經濟崛起、民族崛起,國家崛起,惠及子孫後代,影響和帶動全球人類社會的跨越式進步。

網際空間戰略和技術準備已經提上日程,最佳時機也許就在眼前和今後的幾年之中。中國能不能搶占先機、把握良機,超越美國引領全新的超級網絡空間——網際空間時代,須只爭朝夕,須而今邁步從頭越,須數風流人物、還看今朝。

3、網際空間發展須舉國之力

美國以舉國之力推因特網、推IPV6、推賽博空間,在導致他國混沌和迷茫的同時,也確實創造了令人矚目的網絡科技、網絡經濟和網絡軍事輝煌。

我國已經成為世界第二大經濟體。我國完全有能力、有條件、有信心以舉國之力發展網際空間戰略和技術。

思想解放、體制改革是我國改革開放以來相輔相成的兩大舉措。由此出發,建議:

⑴ 建立黨中央、全國人大、國務院和全國政協共同領導和約束下的具高度權威性、法治化的決策糾錯機構和糾錯機制,堅決杜絕借混淆視聽左右決策之路。

少數追隨美國的“專家”、“權威”長期影響和乾預國家各網絡信息主管部門的身兼數職“一言堂”的怪事,再也不能允許發生、存在和繼續下去了,必須堅決扭轉和破除。

應當立即堅決糾正“全面引進、升級、部署IPV6”的重大戰略決策和規劃失誤,廢除與美國簽署的所有危害和危及我國網絡空間主權與安全的不平等協議;對網絡空間領域的國家投資項目逐一實施審計與後評價,明顯“為他人作嫁衣裳”的一律關停並轉。

⑵ 國家鼓勵和支持在民族自主知識產權前提和基礎上建設、發展與維護主權公眾網絡。

應當旗幟鮮明地允許在目前基於美國因特網的“中國互聯網“之外,建設發展獨立運行的中華公網等其它主權公眾網絡並提供服務,國民有選擇使用主權公眾網絡和非主權公眾網絡的權利。國家應出台傾向性的激勵政策和措施,允許主權公眾網絡採用IPV9、鄭碼、陶陳碼、CFL安全認證、MISC等等具有民族自主知識產權的技術。積極建設、發展與維護國內獨立運行的多網構成的互聯網,可以為構建全球網絡空間命運共同體探索模式、積累經驗、創造條件。

⑶ 不失時機地創建國家主導、社會參與、民間操作的“網際空間研究院”,全方位、多維度、深層次研究開發網際空間技術並製訂發展戰略和策略,打造世界一流的培養鍛煉網際空間人才基地,構建主權網絡/未來網絡/網際空間實驗、測試架構系統應用環境,探索與解決主權網絡、網絡空間和網際空間發展中的各種問題,大踏步地走在引領網際空間發展的世界前列。

⑷ 首先與俄羅斯、伊朗、德國、歐盟等致力於建設、發展、維護各自主權網絡空間的國家和國際組織積極進行構建網絡空間命運共同體的溝通、交流、洽談與合作,聯合多國積蓄力量,不以美國為主要談判對手。

掃清混沌,蕩滌迷茫,我們將不再受制於人、任其擺佈,我們將穩健地步入嚮往的網絡空間時代,我們將高瞻遠矚地奔向網際空間的未來。

China Military Operational Use of Information Warfare Equipment //中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用

中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用

中國作家源

2004年12月06日

中國軍事信息戰

Information warfare is against C4ISR systems and C4ISR systems, information superiority is the competition, the main purpose is to ensure the normal operation of one’s own information systems, from the enemy’s use, paralysis and destruction; the same time, trying to use, paralysis and destruction of the enemy’s information systems, make paralyzed, confused state. Including strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield information warfare two parts.

Strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield

Strategic information warfare is the main features of a wide range of sectors covering all key political, economic, technological, military and special areas; special way, relates to psychological warfare, media warfare, deception warfare, media warfare and other special tools; special target, mainly through the decoy attack warfare, psychological warfare, information awareness enemy deterrence system and thinking system; great harm, make the whole country’s economic, political or military to a standstill, even regime change can make it happen; special person, not necessarily military combatants, computer experts, international crime syndicates, hacking or terrorist organizations with ulterior motives and so may become combatants.

Battlefield Information War battle took place in the space of information warfare, refers to the battle for the preparation and the integrated use of information technology tools and a variety of information weapons, information warfare platform and C4ISR systems, reconnaissance and early warning detection, information processing and transmission, arms control and guidance, operational command and control, deception and disguise interference and military strategy and other aspects of all-out confrontation and struggle. Battlefield Information War by interfering with or disrupting the enemy’s decision-making process, so that the enemy can not effectively coordinated action. Thus, the first enemy influence decisions, then the impact of their actions, which is to win air superiority electromagnetic, and then obtain air superiority, and finally the use of conventional forces to take combat operations. Seized control of information, seize the initiative on the battle space, and the competition for the right to make land, air, naval supremacy and control of space to lay a good foundation and a necessary condition.

Basic information warfare battlefield combat forces and means of information is digitized forces and weapons and equipment, the main contents include operational secrecy, military deception, electronic warfare, psychological warfare and firepower to destroy, core purpose is to fight for the right to access information battle space, control and use rights. Battlefield Information War is against information systems, which directly affects the entire battle space, processes, and success or failure of the entire war. The main battlefield information warfare style combat electronic warfare and cyber warfare. Electronic warfare is an important part of information warfare battlefield, mainly decoy for enemy communications, radar and other electromagnetic radiation sources of interference, sabotage and destruction activities. The Gulf War, not only the first large-scale use of electronic warfare, and formally adopted as a battle of the war and the particular stage of the battle action. Kosovo War, NATO used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the first use of electromagnetic pulse bombs and conducted the first network warfare. Cyber ​​warfare in cyberspace computer, using a network against the Internet activities, and for the first time in the Kosovo war. NATO cyber warfare measures include: network publicity; hacker attacks; attacks on financial networks. The main characteristics of the FRY cyberwarfare is people’s war mode, geek, geeks and computer enthusiasts spontaneously a lot of network operations, such as conduct online propaganda attack NATO website, use the Internet to pass intelligence.

War information warfare equipment, electronic warfare equipment.

Electronic warfare equipment, the development trend of increasing integration and universal, local wars under conditions of informatization, the electromagnetic environment on the battlefield increasingly complex, kind of separation from each other in the past, single-function electronic warfare equipment has been far can not meet the operational needs.Integration and generalization has become the focus of the development of electronic warfare equipment and electronic warfare equipment, the total future direction of development. In order to deal more effectively with the threat of information warfare electromagnetic complex, the next generation of electronic warfare equipment, the extensive use of advanced computer technology to significantly improve the automation of the entire system in order to have better real-time capabilities, since the adaptability and full power management capabilities. Working frequency electronic warfare equipment continuously expanding, increasing the transmission power, the development of millimeter-wave technology and photovoltaic technology, the modern electronic warfare equipment to keep the operating frequency band wider development.Overall, the future scope of work of electronic warfare equipment will be extended to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. GPS interference and anti-interference will be concerned about the practice of war has shown that, if they lose the support of GPS, information superiority will be greatly weakened, so that command and control, reconnaissance, combat, troop movement and other military links are facing a severe test, severely reduced combat effectiveness. Focus on the development of new anti-radiation and electronic warfare jamming aircraft, emphasis on the development of new, special electronic warfare technology and equipment, such as for anti-satellite laser weapons, high-energy particle beam weapons, and meteor burst communications, neutrino communication and the like.

Computer viruses as weapons

Within military information systems, battlefield information acquisition, transmission, processing and other functions required to complete computer and network, computer network is performed on the basis of information warfare and Pioneer. Use of software drivers and hardware magnetic induction sniffer sniffer network sniffer, etc. is an important way to attack networks. These sniffing tool was originally a test device, used to diagnose and repair assistance network, so it is a powerful tool for network administrators to monitor the network, but in the information war is a terrible computer virus weapons. It enables network “denial of service”, “information tampering” Information “halfway stealing” and so on. In addition, it will focus on design “trap door.” “Trap door” also known as “back door” is an agency computer system designers previously configured in the system, appear in the application or during the operating system, programmers insert some debugging mechanism. System Programmer For the purpose of attacking the system, deliberately left few trap door for a person familiar with the system to outdo each other to sneak into the normal system protection system. Network is an important infrastructure of information warfare, network centric warfare is mainly carried out based network, the network is reliable to determine the outcome of the war. Therefore, to strengthen the research network attack and defense operations for the win future information warfare is essential.

Electromagnetic pulse bomb

During the Iraq war, the US used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and use of electromagnetic pulse bombs fell on Iraq and the Iraqi army broadcast television systems of various types of electronic radiation. Electromagnetic pulse bomb, also known as microwave pulse bomb, by a microwave beam into electromagnetic energy, a new type of directed energy weapons damage other electronic facilities and personnel.Its working principle is: after high power microwave antenna gathered into a bunch of very narrow, very strong electromagnetic waves toward each other, heat, ionizing radiation, etc. relying on the combined effect of electromagnetic waves generated by this beam, lethal voltages in electronic circuits inside the target and current, breakdown or burn sensitive components which, damage data stored in the computer, so that each other’s arms and paralyzed the command system, the loss of combat effectiveness. According to tests, a briefcase-sized microwave bomb, can produce up to 300 million watts of power pulse. After its plurality of coupling, then become adjustable radiation source, generating more than 2 billion watts of pulse waves. This is somewhat similar to pulse electromagnetic pulse generated when nuclear explosions, can easily enter the underground bunker from power and communication channels, which rely on radio to make, radar, computer, power grids and telephone modern weapons systems, biological and chemical weapons and their production Libraries workshop in an instant paralysis.

GPS jamming devices

Also in the Iraq war, the Iraqi use of GPS jamming device for Tomahawk cruise missiles were effective interference, this is the first time in actual combat on the GPS guidance system interference. GPS signal is weak, it is easy to interference. A Russian company to provide a 4-watt power handheld GPS jammers, less than $ 4,000 can buy.If purchased from retail electronic component assembly shops, you can spend $ 400 to create a disturbance over a radius of 16 km of GPS jammers. Before the war in Iraq war, the United States had expected to interfere with the GPS signal the Iraqi side. In fact, the United States had already given their GPS bombs and missiles loaded with anti-jamming technology to make these GPS-guided weapons to continue to use the GPS signal in the case of interference; even if the GPS signal is lost, they can also use their own weapons guidance systems other inertial navigation, laser-guided, so that their own to reach the target. Nevertheless, early in the war in Iraq, the US military more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles due to interference or deviates from a predetermined route, fell Turkey, Syria and Iran. Small GPS jammers problem alerted the US government, Powell personally investigate the source of Iraq GPS jammers, Russia and other countries exerted considerable pressure.

During the first Gulf War, GPS navigator as a trial product for the first time issued to desert warfare personnel, the effect is obvious. At that time, all weapons, including cruise missiles, including not using the GPS navigation device. The war in Iraq, we see that almost all combat platforms, every man, almost all of missiles and bombs have adopted this navigation device, so that the tanks, planes, ships maneuver more accurate missiles and bombs original the probability of error reduced to 1-3 meters, maximum 10 meters range.   Everything there is a benefit must be a disadvantage. Disadvantages and drawbacks of GPS navigation information is the same weaponry, is the electronic interference.From the perspective of the development of weapons and equipment, the purchase of a cruise missile costs $ 100 million, while manufacturing a GPS jammer only a few hundred dollars, as a strategic defensive side, if a large number of development and the development of GPS jammers, not only for the US missile and the bomb is a threat to its tanks, planes, ships and navigation personnel will also have a huge impact. Of course, we should also see the US fight a battle, and further, after the end of the war in Iraq is bound according to the lessons of the war, improved GPS system. Is expected to be improved in three areas: First, the GPS satellites, satellite launch is mainly to enhance the signal and transmit as many GPS satellites; the second is to improve the guidance system, mainly to increase the combined guidance system, after interference in the GPS guidance, automatic recovery or transfer other inertial navigation mode to ensure the normal operation of the platform and weapons; the third is GPS anti-jamming, mainly to improve the GPS receiver anti-jamming capability, the development of new GPS receiver, in the theater of the local military and civilian GPS reception machines and electronic jammers and interference suppression.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

信息戰是C4ISR系統與C4ISR系統的對抗,是信息優勢的爭奪,主要目的是確保己方信息系統正常運行,免遭敵方利用、癱瘓和破壞﹔同時,設法利用、癱瘓和破壞敵人的信息系統,使之處於癱瘓、迷茫狀態。信息戰包括戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰兩大部分。

戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰

戰略信息戰主要特征是范圍廣泛,涉及國家政治、經濟、科技、軍事等各個要害部門和特殊領域﹔方式特殊,涉及心理戰、輿論戰、欺騙戰、媒體戰等特殊手段﹔目標特殊,主要是通過誘騙戰、心理戰、信息威懾等攻擊敵人的認識體系和思維體系﹔危害巨大,能使整個國家的經濟、政治或軍事陷入癱瘓,甚至能使其發生政權交替﹔人員特殊,參戰人員不一定軍人,計算機專家、國際犯罪集團、別有用心的黑客或恐怖組織等都可能成為參戰人員。

戰場信息戰是發生在戰斗空間內的信息戰,是指為准備和進行一場戰役,綜合運用信息技術手段和各種信息化武器、信息化作戰平台和C4ISR系統,在偵察探測及預警、信息處理與傳遞、武器控制和制導、作戰指揮與控制、偽裝欺騙與干擾以及軍事謀略等方面展開的全面對抗和斗爭。戰場信息戰是通過干擾或打亂敵方決策程序,使敵方無法有效採取協調一致的行動。因此,要先影響敵人決策,然后再影響其行動,即先贏得空中電磁優勢,再取得空中優勢,最后使用常規部隊採取作戰行動。奪取了制信息權,就奪取了戰斗空間的主動權,而且為爭奪制陸權、制空權、制海權和制天權奠定一個良好基礎和必要條件。

戰場信息戰的基本作戰力量和手段是數字化部隊及信息化武器裝備,主要內容包括作戰保密、軍事欺騙、電子戰、心理戰和火力摧毀,核心目的是爭奪戰斗空間的信息獲取權、控制權和使用權。戰場信息戰是信息體系的對抗,它直接影響到整個戰斗空間、整場戰爭的進程和成敗。戰場信息戰的主要作戰樣式是電子戰和網絡戰。電子戰是戰場信息戰的一個重要組成部分,主要是針對敵人通信、雷達等電磁輻射源進行的誘騙、干擾、破壞和摧毀活動。海灣戰爭中,電子戰不僅首次大規模使用,而且正式作為戰爭中的一個戰役階段和特定戰役行動。科索沃戰爭中,北約使用了大量電子戰裝備,並首次使用了電磁脈沖炸彈並首次進行了網絡戰。網絡戰是在計算機網絡空間,利用因特網進行的一種網絡對抗活動,並在科索沃戰爭中首次使用。北約網絡戰的措施包括:網絡宣傳﹔黑客攻擊﹔襲擊金融網絡等。南聯盟網絡戰的主要特征是人民戰爭模式,網迷、電腦迷和計算機愛好者自發地進行了大量網絡作戰行動,如開展網上宣傳、攻擊北約網站、利用網絡傳遞情報等。

戰爭中的信息戰裝備

電子戰裝備

電子戰裝備的發展趨勢日趨一體化和通用化,信息化條件下的局部戰爭中,戰場上的電磁環境日益復雜,以往那種彼此分立、功能單一的電子戰裝備已遠遠不能適應作戰需要了。一體化和通用化已成為當前電子戰裝備發展的重點和未來電子戰裝備總的發展方向。為了更有效地對付信息化戰爭中復雜多變的電磁威脅,未來新一代的電子對抗裝備,將廣泛採用先進的計算機技術,大幅度提高整個系統的自動化程度,以具備更好的實時能力、自適應能力和全功率管理能力。電子戰裝備的工作頻段不斷拓寬,發射功率不斷增大,毫米波技術和光電技術的發展,使現代電子戰裝備的工作頻率不斷向更寬的頻段發展。從整體上看,未來電子戰裝備的工作范圍必將擴展到整個電磁波頻譜。GPS干擾與反干擾將受到關注,戰爭實踐已經表明,如果失去GPS的支持,就會極大地削弱信息優勢,使指揮、控制、偵察、打擊、部隊機動等各個軍事環節都面臨嚴峻考驗,嚴重降低戰斗力。重點發展反輻射和新型電子戰干擾機,重視發展新型、特殊的電子戰技術裝備,如用於反衛星的激光武器、高能粒子束武器,以及流星余跡通信、中微子通信等等。

計算機病毒武器

在軍事信息系統中,戰場信息的獲取、傳遞、處理等功能需要計算機及網絡來完成,計算機網絡是進行信息戰的基礎和先鋒。利用軟件驅動嗅探器和硬件磁感應嗅探器等對網絡進行嗅探是進攻網絡的重要方法。這些嗅探工具原本是一種測試設備,用來診斷和協助修理網絡,因此它是網管人員管理網絡的一種得力工具,但在信息戰中卻是一種可怕的計算機病毒武器。它能使網絡“服務否認”、“信息篡改”、信息“中途竊取”等。另外,也將重視設計“門戶陷阱”。“門戶陷阱”又稱“后門”,是計算機系統設計者預先在系統中構造的一種機構,在應用出現或操作系統期間,程序員插入一些調試機構。系統程序員為了達到攻擊系統的目的,特意留下少數門戶陷阱,供熟悉系統的人員用以超越對方正常的系統保護而潛入系統。網絡是信息化戰爭的重要基礎設施,網絡中心戰主要是基於網絡而進行的,網絡是否可靠決定戰爭的勝負。因此,加強網絡攻防作戰的研究,對於贏得未來信息化戰爭至關重要。

電磁脈沖炸彈

伊拉克戰爭中,美軍使用了大量電子戰裝備,並使用電磁脈沖炸彈襲擊了伊拉克廣播電視系統及伊軍各類電子輻射源。電磁脈沖炸彈也稱微波脈沖炸彈,是通過把微波束轉化為電磁能,毀傷對方電子設施和人員的一種新型定向能武器。其工作原理是:高功率微波經過天線聚集成一束很窄、很強的電磁波射向對方,依靠這束電磁波產生的高溫、電離、輻射等綜合效應,在目標內部的電子線路中產生致命的電壓和電流,擊穿或燒毀其中的敏感元器件,毀損電腦中存貯的數據,從而使對方的武器和指揮系統陷於癱瘓,喪失戰斗力。據測試,一枚公文包大小的微波炸彈,可產生功率達3億瓦的脈沖波。將其多個聯接后,則能成為可調整的輻射源,產生20億瓦以上的脈沖波。這種脈沖波有點類似核爆炸時產生的電磁脈沖,可以輕易地從電力和通訊管道進入地下掩體,使其中依賴無線電、雷達、計算機、電網和電話等的現代化武器系統、生化武器庫及其生產車間在瞬間癱瘓。

GPS干擾設備

伊拉克戰爭中,伊軍利用GPS干擾儀對戰斧巡航導彈進行了有效的干擾,這是第一次在實戰中對GPS制導系統進行干擾。GPS信號很弱,很易於干擾。一家俄羅斯公司提供的一種4瓦功率的手持GPS干擾機,不到4000美元就能買到。如果從零售電子商店購買部件組裝,花400美元就可以制造一個干擾半徑16公裡以上的GPS干擾機。伊拉克戰爭開戰之前,美國就已經預料到伊拉克方面會干擾GPS信號。美國其實早已經給其GPS炸彈和導彈裝載了抗干擾技術,使這些GPS導引的武器能夠在干擾的情況下繼續使用GPS信號﹔即使GPS信號丟失,這些武器還可以使用自身的其他導引系統如慣性導航、激光制導等,使自己到達目標。盡管如此,伊拉克戰爭初期,美軍十幾枚戰斧式巡航導彈還是因受干擾偏離預定航線,落在土耳其、敘利亞和伊朗境內。小小的GPS干擾機問題驚動了美國朝野,鮑威爾親自出面調查伊拉克GPS干擾機的來源,對俄羅斯等國施加了不小的壓力。

海灣戰爭中,GPS導航儀作為試用品首次發放給沙漠作戰人員使用,效果明顯。當時,包括巡航導彈在內的所有武器都沒有採用GPS導航裝置。伊拉克戰爭中,我們看到幾乎所有的作戰平台,每一個單兵,幾乎全部的導彈和炸彈都採用了這種導航裝置,從而使坦克、飛機、艦艇的機動更加精確,使導彈和炸彈的原概率誤差縮小到1—3米,最大10米范圍之內。

凡事有一利必有一弊。GPS導航的弊端與信息化武器裝備的弊端是一樣的,就是電子干擾問題。從武器裝備發展角度來看,購買一枚巡航導彈需要100多萬美元,而制造一部GPS干擾機才幾百美元,作為戰略防御一方,如果能夠大量發展和研制GPS干擾機,不僅對於美軍導彈和炸彈是一種威脅,對其坦克、飛機、艦艇和人員的導航定位也將產生巨大影響。當然,也應看到美軍打一仗、進一步,伊拉克戰爭結束后必將根據戰爭中的教訓,改進GPS系統。預計將在三個方面進行改進:一是GPS衛星,主要是增強衛星發射信號,並盡可能多的發射GPS衛星﹔二是改進制導系統,主要是增加復合制導裝置,在GPS指導受到干擾之后,自動恢復或轉入慣性等其他導航方式,以保証平台和武器的正常運行﹔三是GPS反干擾,主要是提高GPS接收機抗干擾能力,研制新型GPS接收機,在戰區對地方軍民用GPS接收機和干擾機進行電子壓制和干擾等。

China NPC Emphasis on Solving National Security System Issues//中國家安全體系「全國人大會議公布了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》

中國家安全體系「全國人大會議公布了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》

March 5, 2016 during the Chinese NPC and CPPCC, National People’s Congress announced the “Thirteen Five-Year Plan (draft)”, under the title “establishment of a national security system,” complete the chapter, first expounded on China’s implementation of “the country’s overall security View of concrete ideas “in. Prior to that, although related concepts to promote its fast, but in addition to the super-agency “National Security Council” has been officially running, as well as a small amount of the agency personnel arrangements, almost no more news.

The first place to prevent hostile forces subversive

From an international perspective, “Comprehensive security concept” for a class is not the first thought. After all, since the end of the Cold War, the security environment upheaval, insecurity diversification, already is a common phenomenon faced by countries. But domestic letters of “overall national security” still kill any world trend, because this piece can be described as all-encompassing grand – covering “political, land, military, economic, cultural, social, science and technology, information, ecology, resources …… and nuclear safety. ”

Although the “official stereotyped” perfect frame Description: “people-safe for the purpose, as the fundamental political security, economic security, based on the Social Security for the protection of military culture in order to promote international security as the basis”, but this piece is clearly ambitious where to start challenge.

When “KNB” first appeared in late 2013 eighteen Third Plenary Session of the resolution, only to see hastily put some “innovative social governance” at the end. Until five months later, the agency announced that it has officially running, trying to explain its official mouthpiece of great significance, it is still mainly externally or internally, vary.

During the two sessions, elaborate “Thirteen five Outline” published by the NPC session, so this kind of ambiguity resolved.

Although the outline, “national sovereignty security regime” concept beautifully, has made the world’s political circles unheard of, but more surprising is that in the fight against the three forces’ violent terror, ethnic separatism, religious extremism “previous activity, will also impressively “hostile forces infiltrate subversive activity” in the first place.

Obviously, to prevent subversion of urgency regime was as if beyond the anti-terrorism, anti-spyware and other traditional threats to national security.

Traditionally, law enforcement departments, the Ministry of Public Security and the famous “national security” system, and its huge cost “stability maintenance” system billions compared to only as a spy / Ministry of National Security Abwehr, more in line with narrowly “national security” concept. The system has also been set up at all levels of “national security leadership team,” leading narrow “national security” and its work force.

Jiang Zemin period, Beijing began to envy the role of the US National Security Council (NSC) at the highest decision-making. As president advisory body, NSC members including President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence and National Security Affairs Assistant to the President, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of highest operational commander and director of national intelligence, were appointed to act as the statutory military advisers and intelligence advisers, other government departments and competent officials, invited participants only when needed.

“The Central Leading Group for National Security,” in the year 2000, although the head of the pro-Jiang, but deputy head in charge of foreign affairs for the Central Committee, the Central Foreign Affairs Office director concurrently by the Office, in particular from the group and “Foreign Affairs Leading Group “under one roof, the main coordinating its national security and external affairs. Although not as good as NSC high level, because China and the US but the basic political structure fundamentally different, are also considered to meet the conditions of moderate learning.

Jiang later period, the Chinese domestic policy increasingly independent, and the West in the system of values ​​and rules of becoming the opposition, senior party growing emphasis on co-ordination “International and Domestic Situation.” After learning more individuals came to power centralization, theoretical innovation and the urgent need to safeguard stability of the regime. Thus, despite the increased legitimacy, the study of “KNB” is still brewing since Jiang Zemin claimed, but the design of the system may differ.

Thus, the Chinese Communist Party and the previous system separately, in order to avoid the party on behalf of the administration and other rare progress, is now being accused of “fragmentation, excessive power scattered.” By adding a permanent body, will the party, government, military, law, economics, culture and even social life, and where the “national security” detached power clean sweep, then became “the country to explore a new way of governance.”

Now, in “Baidu Encyclopedia” in terms of self-built, actually it was assumed added, “National Security Council People’s Republic of China” entry, content only involved “state security committee.”

Beijing whether through a constitutional amendment to set up a shadow-style “national KNB” hard to say. However, by the time the CPC Central Committee, the National Security Committee to get the full decision-making power for national security affairs, responsible only to the Politburo and its Standing Committee. As heads of the supreme legislative body of the People’s Congress, only its Vice-President, the National Security Committee of the degree of centralization, even beyond the Central Military Commission.In contrast, the United States NSC decisions, but also to exercise its statutory powers to rely on the President and subject to legislative, judicial checks and balances.

Further overhead Politburo and State Council

The current maximum suspense, or “KNB” materialized, decision-making and institutional settings large to what extent.

An analogy example, although in the network area, the original Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Industry, the Central Foreign Affairs Office / State Council Information Office, Press and Publication Administration and other agencies bull management, but also from 18 Third Plenary session of the decision, the CPC network security and information technology leadership team established in 2014 (referred to as the “net channel group”) / national Internet information office of People’s Republic of China ( “the State Council informatization office”), and set up a separate large business functions, took a lot of network management and monitoring powers.

At the top of its home page, the two names are alternately displayed, complete with party and government bodies.

Rationale for establishing this institution, because the State Department is also the system’s “National Informatization Leading Group” and their offices, “the State Council Information Office” (also referred to as the “State Council Informatization Office”) is difficult to coordinate the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, the NPC, etc. authority. However, the greater the motivation or senior party controls the Internet public exigencies, and the use of information warfare means to challenge the United States needs. To promote the domestic information technology process, the agency more than the promotion of hand shackles.

Regression KNB, although it has been interpreted as “national security and crisis handling the national level a permanent establishment,” but until March 2016, in the list of institutions directly under the CPC Central Committee and the Communist Party of China Xinhua News Network, the former are still ” central leading group for national security, “and not see” KNB. ”

Although “KNB” was praised as “reduce rules, enhance decision-making efficiency,” but in what things must be raised to this level resolved, which can be left in the original POLITICAL, military and diplomatic level processing is difficult to untangle.

It is with the Central Political and Law Commission as “directly under the central authorities,” the division of labor? It as “directly under the central coordinating body of procedure” in policing governance, anti-anti-cult operations, stability, maritime rights and interests, possession of Xinjiang, financial security, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao, net letter, confidentiality, the working group password (Note: the full name of each team name how to end the relationship) is? In the end how it Ministry of National Security and other government departments, as well as relations with the National Commission on cross-border and coastal defense ministries overseas Chinese citizens and institutions security work inter-ministerial joint conference and many other bureaucracies? I’m afraid that deep-rooted concerns about its effect, less effective, was not excessive.

From The National People’s Congress issued the “Outline”, the more difficult to find: as the basic starting point for the study of governance, the starting point and one of the ultimate value, political, land, economy, society, resources and networks, and other key areas are security policy and called for long-term goals, important areas, major reforms, major projects, programs and policies, require safety risk assessment.

This means that, even if only partially materialized, due to the requirement that all focus areas, all national security coordination mechanism established to maintain, “KNB” already with “deep change Team” (Note: Comprehensively Deepening the Reform Leading Group) as tantamount to a indeed affect the whole body, brought together a large number of power “small government.”

In addition to further overhead Politburo and State Council, set in one of the highest authority, through several sets of much needless repetition mechanism, calling the shots. However executor, it is still the same set of ministries and local, its efficiency, and can really ensure the complex demands of national security in a reasonable portion, not optimistic.

March 5, 2016, Beijing, China, in front of the Great Hall of People’s Liberation Army soldiers walked.Photo: Damir Sagolj / REUTERS

Endanger the interests of the former National Security Systems division, to stimulate the “spy” Country

It can be expected that with the proposed “Thirteen five Outline” “overall national security”, and in the rise of influence “KNB”, the original continent “national security”, “national security” systems are at risk.

“National security” has recently been rumored to be canceled. It is believed that its intelligence gathering in the field of domestic politics to defend the building (social monitoring) hidden forces, investigation of cases against dissent, control ethnic / religious positions against cults and other functions, will disperse to more legalization of criminal investigation and law and order department. Entered into force in 1993, “National Security Law” in 2014 was much more narrowly “anti-spyware law” instead.

And “Thirteen five Outline”, requires the integration of monitoring and early warning systems in different areas, intelligence gathering and analysis capabilities. From the work of national intelligence to see the movements of specific legislation, “national security” system will inevitably lose power “national security” monopoly.

This stimulus, 2014, 2015, Ministry of State Security systems, proactive disclosure reports uncovered espionage significantly increased, but in the end these cases leaked it?

March 2015, published by the National Security Henan province since the first espionage case, a taxi driver observed the airborne unit of foreign institutional Airport, the surrounding circumstances and models; July Sichuan national security nearly a decade for the first time publicly disclosed the spy case, a military unit 4 leakers, provided some military types, quantity, special materials, setting the test time and fault conditions, some provide aerospace internal publications; November, Jilin Baishan Jun captured the partitions a foreign spy shooting and hand-painted Chinese border troops distribution.

These cases certainly have leaked military secrets, but the scope and extent been greatly exaggerated. In recent years, Beijing strengthened its online publication and transmission of state secrets supervision, the biggest problem is still the “secret infinity.” Although Beijing has in recent years to speed up the clear “given secret” work “secret” and “non-secret” boundaries, but because the concept of paranoia, coupled with bureaucratic agencies should rely on “secret” to eat, they do not want to bear responsibility for the secret too wide, Fuzzy boundaries situation no better.

In fact, some experts mainland when rendering espionage threat, has admitted “we take the initiative to trafficking intelligence” indicating that “China also collect / buy foreign intelligence”; an expert in the Ministry of State Security emphasis on “cyber espionage nearly the year more and more active, “to actually” see them from the Internet’s remarks can be found in a number of valuable intelligence “as an example, but the latter is completely unlawful.

Henan above case, there is the Baidu from China “high One” satellite photographs taken by the airport, accurate to 20 meters, “Baidu Panorama” provides a neighboring street to the nearest airport each shop, military fans in China understanding Air transporter models thousands; Sichuan cases, internal publications fuzzy nature, contained a lot of technical discussion with the same military production. And unavoidably, everything is secret practice is nothing more than a cover closed, inefficient, and defects behind Beijing’s military, these are not exposed and supervision, the harm is far more than this information about the outside world.

At the same time, the Confidentiality Commission / Secrets systems have long been cured departmental interests, such as to secrecy, mandatory use map products “Nonlinear confidential treatment technology”, is formed on the map with the location of the actual existence of 100 to 600 meters random deviations. Such an approach, in addition to the official mapping agencies to create huge gains, related to the national industries and national tremendous trouble, there are no secret role – because the location does not become a military objective entity, foreign intelligence agencies and the military does not rely on Chinese map, which judged and attacks unaffected.

Of course, this by no means departmental interests to “spy” Country situation all causes.Overall, Beijing also needed on the mainland society, frequently rendering national security is facing a critical situation, hidden front struggle intense, so trees enemy awareness, inspire patriotic enthusiasm and even xenophobic, secretly strengthen social control.

Moreover, since the Beijing powers and budget oversight from society, the party and the national government itself parents, as long as the name of security, from the whole to the details, any information can be disclosed only to those who choose favorable, remaining airtight, so that with “espionage “Ruling tool if fabulous.

At the same time, Beijing legislative activity in recent years, national security and social stability and other interests in the name of full citizens with increased surveillance, public security mandatory intervention of civil liberties and privileges of the investigation.

November 2015, the National Security Office Jilin even announced espionage and accepted nationwide hotline to report clues, for reasons that remain unknown. The department asked citizens to report suspicious persons “spy, traitor, instigation personnel, intelligence agents, the external agents”, etc., but this is only a political rather than a legal concept concepts also include standard suspicious signs purely surface, many of which are only legal status or the performance of speech, may be entirely unrelated espionage, where “sensitive issues” and “reactionary remarks” but not operational on legal concepts.

Obviously, not called for such a system to report the current espionage, but a wide range of East German-style citizen informers and mutual monitoring, did not say infringe on civil liberties, even in the “dictatorship” discourse system, misunderstanding, framed and frame risks are high.

Criminal Law Amendment (IX), adopted in August 2015, the night the new information network security management refused to fulfill the obligations crime, the crime of illegal use of the information network, information network to help crime and criminal activities, to disrupt the order of state organs crime, the crime of illegal financing of the organization gathering fabricated deliberately spreading false information crime, the crime should be no public disclosure of information on cases of crime reporting and disclosure of information should not be disclosed in the cases, the other 20 counts, terrifying.

The case of Gao Yu, and bookstores case Causeway Bay, but are just beginning.

All this shows that in China, “national security” concept epitaxial greatly expanded, not only to adapt to contemporary national security multifactor interwoven trend, and it is a power struggle and the rule of magic weapon too superficial. In essence, it is the Beijing regime concentrated outpouring of anxiety. The “Thirteen Five Outline” in “protect country” a new action also marks the communist countries in times of crisis, to strengthen the “police state” color of nature, is rapidly recovering.

Note: Team organization full name:

The Central Committee for Comprehensive Management of Social Security, the Central Cult Prevention and Handling of the Leading Group, the Central Leading Group for the maintenance of stability, the central leading group for marine rights and interests, the Central Tibetan Coordination Leading Group, the Central Coordination Group Xinjiang, the Central Steering Committee on Financial Security, the CPC central / State Department double identity Taiwan Affairs leading group, Hong Kong and Macao work coordination group, a centralized network security and information technology leading group, the central Committee and the central password confidentiality work leading group.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

3月5日,中國2016年兩會期間,全國人大會議公佈了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》,以題為「建立國家安全體系」的完整一章,首次闡述了中國貫徹「總體國家安全觀」的具體設想。此前,儘管相關概念的宣傳風生水起,但除了超級機構「國家安全委員會」已正式運轉,以及該機構少量人事安排外,幾乎沒有更多消息。
將防止敵對勢力顛覆破壞放在首位
從國際範圍看,「綜合安全觀」一類思想並非首創。畢竟從冷戰結束起,安全環境劇變、不安全因素多樣化,就已是各國面臨的普遍現象。可是國內大書特書的「總體國家安全觀」,仍秒殺任何世界潮流,因為這幅宏圖可謂包羅萬象——覆蓋了「政治、國土、軍事、經濟、文化、社會、科技、信息、生態、資源和核安全……」。
儘管「官方八股」框架描述完美:「以人民安全為宗旨,政治安全為根本,經濟安全為基礎,軍事文化社會安全為保障,以促進國際安全為依託」,但是這幅宏圖從何下手顯然有挑戰。
「國安委」2013年底首次出現在十八屆三中全會決議中時,就僅見匆匆置於「創新社會治理」一段末尾。直到5個月後,該機構宣布已正式運轉,努力闡釋其偉大意義的官方喉舌,仍對它以對外還是對內為主,說法不一。
兩會期間,人大會議公佈的《十三五綱要》的闡述,讓這類歧義迎刃而解。
儘管綱要中,「國家政權主權安全」概念的粉墨登場,已經令世界政治學界聞所未聞,但更令人吃驚的是,在對付三股勢力「暴力恐怖、民族分裂、宗教極端」的活動之前,還赫然將「敵對勢力滲透顛覆破壞活動」放在首位。
顯然,防止政權被顛覆的迫切性儼然超越了反恐、反間諜等傳統國家安全威脅。
傳統上,在強力部門中,與大名鼎鼎的公安部「國內安全保衞」系統、及其耗資千億的龐大「維穩」體系相比,只有作為間諜/反間諜機關的國家安全部,更符合狹義的「國家安全」概念。該系統也曾在各級設立過「國家安全領導小組」,領導狹義「國安」工作及其隊伍。
到江澤民時期,北京開始羨慕美國國家安全委員會(NSC)在最高決策中的作用。作為總統諮詢機構,NSC成員包括總統、副總統、國務卿、財政部長、國防部長和總統國安事務助理,最高作戰指揮官參聯會主席和國家情報總監,分別充當該委法定軍事顧問和情報顧問,其他政府部門主管和高官,則只在需要時應邀參會。
「中央國家安全領導小組」於2000年產生,雖然江澤民親任組長,但副組長為分管外交事務的政治局委員,辦公室主任由中央外事辦公室主任兼任,特別是從該小組與「中央外事工作領導小組」合署辦公來看,它主要協調對外的國家安全事務。雖然其層級不如NSC高,但因為中美基本政治架構的根本不同,也算符合國情的適度學習。
江以後時期,中國國內政策日益特立獨行,與西方在價值觀和規則體系上漸趨對立,中共高層日益強調統籌「國際國內兩個大局」。習上台後更有個人集權、理論創新和政權維穩的迫切需要。因而,儘管為增加合法性,習的「國安委」仍自稱醖釀自江澤民,但在製度設計上可就大相徑庭了。
於是,中共原有體制中黨政分開、避免以黨代政等難得的進步,現在被指責為​​「條塊分割,權力過散」。通過增加一個常設機構,就將黨、政、軍、法、經、文乃至社會生活中,凡與「國家安全」沾邊的權力一網打盡,則成了「對國家治理方式的一種新探索」。
如今,在「百度百科」的自建詞條上,居然有人想當然地添加了「中華人民共和國國家安全委員會」詞條,內容卻只涉「中共國安委」。
北京是否經過修憲,來設立一個影子式的「國家國安委」還很難說。然而,經中共一次中央全會,國安委就獲得全部國家安全事務決策權,只向政治局及其常委會負責。作為最高立法機構的人大首腦,也只是其副主席,國安委的集權程度,甚至超越中央軍委。相比之下,美國NSC的決策,還只能靠總統行使其法定權力,並受立法、司法權制衡。
進一步架空政治局和國務院
當前最大的懸念,還是「國安委」的實體化、決策權和機構設置將大到何種程度。
一個可以比附的例子是,雖然在網絡領域,原有中宣部、公安部、國家安全部、工信部、中央外宣辦/國務院新聞辦、新聞出版總署等機構多頭管理,但同樣由十八屆三中全會決定、於2014年成立的中共中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組(簡稱「網信組」)/中華人民共和國國家互聯網信息辦公室(簡稱「國信辦」),又單獨設立了龐大的業務職能部門,接管了大量網絡管理和監控權力。
在其首頁頂部,兩個名稱交替顯示,黨政完全同體。
設立這一機構的理由,同樣是因為國務院系統的「國家信息化領導小組」及其辦事機構「國務院信息化工作辦公室」(也曾簡稱「國信辦」)難以協調黨中央、軍委、人大等權力機構。然而,其更大的動機,還是中共高層管制互聯網輿論的急迫需要,以及利用信息戰手段,挑戰美國的需要。對促進國內信息化進程,該機構反倒桎梏多於促進。
迴歸國安委,其雖然被解讀為「國家層面的國家安全和危機處理常設機構」,但直至2016年3月,在中國共產黨新聞網和新華網的中共中央直屬機構列表中,都仍有原「中央國家安全領導小組」而不見「國安委」。
儘管「國安委」被讚譽為「減少條條框框,提升決策效率」,然而在哪些事必須上升到這一層面議決,哪些可以留在原有政法、軍事和外交層面處理,則不易理清。
它與作為「中央直屬部門」的中央政法委如何分工?它與作為「中央直屬議事協調機構」的治安治理、防反邪教、維穩、海洋權益、藏疆、金融安全、對台、港澳、網信、保密、密碼等工作小組(注:各小組名稱全稱在文末)的關係如何?它與國家安全部等政府部門,以及與跨部委的國家邊海防委員會、境外中國公民和機構安全保護工作部際聯席會議等大批官僚機構的關係到底如何?恐怕擔憂其效果盤根錯節、事倍功半,並不為過。
而從本次人大會議公佈的《綱要》中,更不難發現:作為習治國理政的基本出發點、切入點和終極價值之一,政治、國土、經濟、社會、資源網絡等重點領域,均要求制訂安全政策和中長期目標,重要領域、重大改革、重大工程、項目和政策,都要求進行安全風險評估。
這意味著,哪怕只是部分​​實體化,由於要求所有重點領域,均建立維護國安工作協調機制,「國安委」已然同「深改小組」(注:全面深化改革領導小組)一樣,無異於一個牽一髮而動全身,匯聚大量權力的「小政府」。
在進一步架空政治局和國務院之外,集於一人的最高權力,通過疊床架屋的多套機制,來發號施令。然而執行者,則仍是同一套部委和地方,其效率,以及能否真正保證龐雜的國安訴求中的合理部分,不容樂觀。

2016年3月5日,中國北京,解放軍士兵在人民大會堂前走過。攝:Damir Sagolj/REUTERS
危及原國安系統部門利益,刺激以「諜」治國
可以預計,隨著《十三五綱要》的「總體國家安全觀」的提出,在「國安委」的崛起影響下,大陸原有「國保」、「國安」系統均岌岌可危。
「國保」近來盛傳將被取消。據信,其在國內政治保衞領域的蒐集情報、建設(社會監視)隱蔽力量、偵查異見反對案件、控制民族/宗教陣地、打擊邪教組織等職能,仍將分散到更加合法化的刑偵和治安等部門。從1993年生效的《國家安全法》,於2014年被狹義得多的《反間諜法》取代。
而《十三五綱要》,則要求整合不同領域的安全監測預警系統,及情報蒐集分析處理能力。從對國家情報工作專門立法的動向看,「國安」系統也必然失去對「國家安全」的權力壟斷。
受此刺激,2014、2015年的國家安全部系統,主動披露破獲間諜案的報道明顯增多,可是這些案例到底洩露了什麼?
2015年3月,河南國安公佈的該省首起間諜案中,一名的士司機為境外機構觀察空降兵某部的機場位置、週邊情況和​​機型;7月四川國安近十年首次公開披露的間諜案中,某軍工單位的4名洩密者,有的提供了軍品型號、產量、特殊材料、定型試驗時間和故障情況,有的提供了航空航天內部刊物;11月,吉林白山軍分區擒獲一名拍攝和手繪中國邊境兵力分佈的外籍間諜。
這些案例中洩露的當然有軍事機密,然而範圍和程度被嚴重誇大。近年北京加強了對網上發布和傳遞國家秘密的監管,最大問題仍是「密無邊際」。雖然北京近年一直要求加快明確「密」和「非密」界線的「定密」工作,但由於風聲鶴唳的觀念,加之官僚機關既要靠「密」吃飯,又不願擔責,秘密過寬、界限模糊的局面毫無改觀。
實際上,大陸有的專家在渲染間諜威脅時,也承認有「主動向我方販賣情報的」,這說明「中國也蒐集/收買外國情報」;國安部一專家在強調「網絡間諜活動近兩年越來越活躍」時,居然也以「他們從網上看到的言論中就可以發現若干有價值的情報」為例,然而後者完全是合法的行為。
上述河南案例中,百度上就有來自中國「高分一號」衞星拍攝的該機場照片,精確到20米,「百度全景」則提供了機場週邊精確到每家店鋪的街景,中國軍迷中認識空軍運輸機機型的數以萬計;四川案例中,內部刊物性質模糊,所載的大量技術探討同軍品生產一樣。而事無鉅細,一切皆密的做法,無非掩蓋了北京軍工的封閉、低效、落後和缺陷,這些問題得不到曝光和監督,其危害遠超這些情報被外界了解。
同時,保密委員會/保密局系統也早已固化了部門利益,比如以保密為由,強制要求地圖產品採用「非線性保密處理技術」,形成圖上位置與實際存在100~600米的隨機偏差。此種做法,除了給官方測繪機構創造鉅額收益,給本國相關產業和國民帶來巨大麻煩外,沒有任何保密作用——因為軍事目標實體位置並不會變,外國情報機構和軍方也不依靠中國地圖,其研判和攻擊絲毫不受影響。
當然,部門利益絕非這種以「諜」治國局面的全部原因。整體上,北京也需要在大陸社會,頻頻渲染國家安全面臨危局、隱蔽戰線鬥爭激烈,從而大樹敵情意識,激發愛國甚至仇外熱情,暗中強化社會控制。
而且,由於北京權力和預算不受社會監督,黨和政府以國民父母自居,只要以安全為名,從整體到細節,任何信息均可只擇有利者公開,其餘密不透風,使以「諜」治國工具如有神助。
同時,北京近年的立法活動,以國家安全和社會穩定等利益為名,全面增大了對公民配合監視、調查的強制性和公安干預公民自由的權限。
2015年11月,吉林省國家安全廳竟然公佈了接受全國範圍間諜行為和線索舉報的專線電話,原因至今不明。該部門要求公民舉報可疑人員「間諜、內姦、策反人員、情報員、外圍代理人」 等,但這只是政治概念而非法律概念,列舉的可疑標準也純屬表面跡象,很多是合法身份或僅表現為言論,完全可能與間諜毫無關係,其中的「敏感問題」和「反動言論」更不是法律上可操作的概念。
顯然,這種制度號召的絕非對現行間諜行為的舉報,而是東德風格的公民大範圍相互監視和告密,侵犯公民自由不說,即使在​​「專政」話語體系內,誤解、誣陷和栽贓風險也很高。
2015年8月通過的刑法修正案(九),一夜新增拒不履行信息網絡安全管理義務罪、非法利用信息網絡罪、幫助信息網絡犯罪活動罪、擾亂國家機關工作秩​​序罪、組織資助非法聚集罪、編造故意傳播虛假信息罪、洩露不應公開的案件信息罪和披露報道不應公開的案件信息罪,等20項罪名,令人恐怖。
而高瑜案、以及銅鑼灣書店案,均不過是才剛剛開始。
這一切表明,在中國,「國家安全」概念外延的大幅擴展,絕不只是為適應當代國家安全保障多要素交織的趨勢,而說它是權鬥利器和治國法寶也流於表面。實質上,它是北京政權焦慮的集中流露。而《十三五綱要》裏「保江山」的全新動作,也標誌著共產主義國家在危機時刻,強化「警察國家」色彩的天性,正快速復甦。
註:小組機構全稱為:
中央社會治安綜合治理委員會、中央防範和處理邪教問題領導小組、中央維護穩定工作領導小組、中央海洋權益工作領導小組、中央藏區工作協調領導小組、中央新疆工作協調小組、中央金融安全指導委員會,與有中共中央/國務院雙重身份的對台工作領導小組、港澳工作協調小組、中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組、中央保密委員會和中央密碼工作領導小組。

China Military Strategic High Ground of Information Warfare: Spatial Information Confrontation //中國軍事空間信息對抗:信息化戰爭的戰略制高點

中國軍事空间信息对抗:信息化战争的战略制高点

作者:穆志勇 李莉

來源:學習時報2015-06-15

信息化战争的战略制高点

Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely.

All things Internet era, we must rethink the current and future military struggle in the forefront of what? We are talking about local information technology local war where?Information War made the strategic high ground right where?

All things Internet era, control of information has become the battlefield to win the right to the core of an integrated system, “no network without fighting,” “no victorious day” has become iron law, made ​​winning the war of spatial information right to become a strategic safeguarding national sovereignty, security and development interests ground. It extends to the battlefield where, where the initiative will expand the competition. The main countries in the world attach great importance to and respond to threats and challenges from outer space, the space around the right to development, ownership and control, in a fierce competition.

Spatial information against a new means of strategic deterrence quality checks and balances

Spatial information can play against fighting the enemy afraid, Gongdi key is a new means of strategic deterrence quality of checks and balances. On the one hand, with a strong spatial information attack capability, can effectively curb space power, space to defend the sovereignty, enhance the right to speak and the initiative in the international arena; on the other hand, has enough spatial information defense, deterrence and containment can launch the Iraq war opponents button, effectively resist the threat and destruction in outer space, to prevent loss of control of the space.

The United States will “Space confrontation” as a strategic deterrent capability and the “Global Strike” and “nuclear strike” both, and since 2001 has performed seven times, “Schriever” space combat computer simulation exercises; vigorously the development, testing and deployment of space information weapon, launching the world’s first reusable aircraft able to detect, control, capture, destroy the spacecraft his country “orbital test vehicle” X-37B space fighter, space fighter plans to deploy 2025 troops in outer space; “global commons domain intervention and joint mobility “concept vowed to quickly weaken the enemy space facilities capacity through non-kinetic measures to destroy its anti-space capabilities in key elements.Russia to develop “military space recovery plan,” President Putin has restarted “crown” anti-satellite project, focusing on the development of anti-satellite weapons, the “strategic air and space battles” as the basic style of air and space operations, three satellite launch last year and aerospace It is regarded by the United States’ aerospace killer “and ready after 2016 to establish a modern space combat system. Japan’s new “cosmic basic plan” clearly states “actively enter the field of space”, was “modern security”, expanded and enhanced features for satellites to monitor vessels at sea and ground facilities, and trying to build a set of positioning, communication and intelligence gathering and other functions in one of the new satellite systems, the scope of application of force to achieve the SDF land, sea, air, space-round leap.

Spatial information into a military confrontation priority areas for capacity-building

From the world’s military development, the right to take on the overall system of spatial information system other rights, the right to seize control of the spatial information is action battle for dominance of the main action. Local Wars practice, there is no right to make spatial information, the Air Force is difficult to combat, navy naval difficult, with even the best of other weapons and equipment may also be vulnerable to attack. Spatial Information confrontation multidimensional space operations provide important support, “new quality” of the combat system is the ability to generate combat multiplier, it will be the focus of capacity-building in the military field. From the fight for control of space means, the spatial information against strong controllability, flexibility, use of low threshold, a wide scope, with less damage, be cost-effective, it should be current and future space supremacy capacity-building period key development areas.

Currently, the United States actively promote Asia “rebalancing” strategy, trying to fight the development of spatial information capabilities, not only to develop electronic interference and covert soft kill hard against damage and other spatial information means, actively develop their own approach, rendezvous and docking and other space-based technology against the core , also focused on the development of satellite communications electronic jamming, near real-time detection, interference signal feature recognition, sources of interference positioning technology, efforts to develop a variety of space-based anti-satellite weapons, and has begun to deploy automated attacks, identity systems. November 14, 2012 the United States and Australia announced that the US will place a powerful Air Force C-band radar and space telescope in Australia, and it is clear that the United States will shift the strategic part of Asia.This will enable the US forward-deployed every day to keep better track of up to 200 confirmed over the Asia-Pacific and orbital spacecraft and potential anomalies. According to US media reports, the US Air Force and Lockheed Martin in February this year to start construction work in the future, “Space Fence” The new radar system, which also marks the United States started the S-band ground-based radar system, the radar system will replace the United States in the 1960s developed space surveillance systems. Russia’s “Military News” May 18 reported that Air Force Secretary James declared that the US Air Force budget of $ 5 billion has been requested to establish a defense system for the military space to prepare for a possible conflict. Japan’s space development strategy headquarters set up monitoring force and space, and proposed the next 10 years will be launched 45 satellites ambitious goals in the positive development of the second generation of IGS reconnaissance satellite system, while seeking cooperation with ASEAN countries, to build a Japan center, a network of 68 satellite Earth observation satellites, in an attempt to obtain information from other countries and share with the United States at the same time, strengthen the surrounding sea routes to Japan, the Diaoyu Islands and the adjacent waters of the maritime surveillance capability. According to Japan’s Kyodo News reported, the new “US-Japan defense cooperation guidelines” emphasize the importance of space situational awareness, Japan’s “quasi-zenith” satellite system with US satellite positioning system to achieve docking, the US and Japan will strengthen ocean surveillance satellite, by sharing global marine intelligence, to ensure maritime security channel. Russia already has “reconnaissance, attack, defense” against the ability of spatial information integration, particularly in the fight against satellite communications, missile and space defense confrontation, GPS confrontation, antagonism and kinetic energy anti-satellite laser, etc., with strong technical reserves. Indian space reconnaissance and surveillance satellite system has taken shape, the satellite communication network has covered South Asia and the surrounding area, it has achieved near-real-time satellite communication between the services.

Spatial information warfare against the construction and development should focus grasp

Do a good job preparing military struggle, we must make efforts to grasp the initiative in the military struggle space and cyberspace, problem-oriented and adhere to asymmetric development, according to the lean, joint, multi-energy, high efficiency requirements, to ensure the good spatial information focus of fighting against the construction.

Set the right strategic direction. On the basis of the importance of space supremacy, attaches great importance to the construction and development of spatial information against the problem, deal with spatial information science strength confrontational relationship with other strategic force for development, to ensure priority development of spatial information countervailing force. Implement the military strategy for the new period, co-ordination within and outside Xinjiang Xinjiang, preparing for war with the stop, deter and combat, constantly important areas and key links to achieve new breakthroughs; spatial information against the building into the overall layout of the army information construction, improve space iNFORMATION wARFARE development strategy planning; constantly improve the system of operational doctrines, promote space information against the construction work and orderly conduct.

Adhere to military and civilian integration. Strengthening military and civilian integration concept, the basic role of market in resource allocation, according to civil-military integration path of development, through laws, and rich integration of forms and expand the scope of integration, improve the level of integration in the scientific research and technology, weaponry, personnel training, etc. aspects, all-round, multi-domain integration, spatial information against the construction of rich resources and development potential. Pay attention to the military think tank function, strengthen the theoretical study of spatial information confrontation and practical issues, exploration of space information confrontation theoretical system, a clear focus on the construction, development of specific plans, enrich and develop operational guidance to ensure that the substantive work forward.

Construction expertise system. According to aim at the forefront, major breakthroughs require leapfrog development, accelerate the building space information confrontation power system, the formation of spatial information ability to fight as soon as possible. Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely. Actively promote the use of force against spatial information, spatial information to support real-time navigation information reconnaissance operations exercises, testing and training, the formation of combat capability as soon as possible.

Focus on technological innovation. Strengthen technology research efforts, emphasis on spatial information against key technological innovation, stepping up confrontation frontier exploration of space information technology, focusing on the development of advanced satellite communications confrontation, confrontation reconnaissance and surveillance, target feature recognition, information processing technology, and make breakthroughs can promote space information confrontation key technology and equipment updates; attention, independent research and development may change combat style, disruptive technology group rules of engagement, to prevent enemies of my technical strategy formulation sudden, efforts to form the enemy I have, I have no enemy some non symmetrical technological superiority.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

把空間信息對抗武器裝備切實擺上戰略位置,注重發揮空間信息對抗力量對傳統力量的帶動作用和空間信息力量與傳統力量的跨域聯合,實現信息在全維空間自由流動。

萬物互聯的時代,我們必須重新思考,當前和未來軍事鬥爭的前沿在哪?我們所說的信息化局部戰爭的局部在哪?信息化戰爭制權的戰略制高點在哪?
萬物互聯的時代,制信息權成為奪取戰場綜合製權的核心,“無網不戰”“無天不勝”成為戰爭制勝的鐵律,制空間信息權成為維護國家主權、安全和發展利益的戰略制高點。戰場延伸到哪裡,哪裡就會展開主動權的爭奪。世界主要國家高度重視和應對來自外層空間的威脅與挑戰,圍繞太空發展權、主導權和控制權,展開了激烈角逐。
空間信息對抗成為戰略威懾制衡的新質手段
空間信息對抗作戰能打敵所怕、攻敵要害,是戰略威懾制衡的新質手段。一方面,具備強大的空間信息攻擊能力,就可有效遏制太空霸權、捍衛空間主權,提昇在國際舞台的話語權和主動權;另一方面,擁有足夠的空間信息防禦能力,就可威懾和遏制對手輕啟戰爭按鈕,有效抵禦外層空間的威脅和破壞,防止失去對太空的控制權。
美將“空間對抗行動”視為與“全球打擊”和“核打擊”並重的戰略威懾能力,2001年以來先後進行7次“施里弗”太空作戰計算機模擬演習;大力研製、試驗和部署空間信息作戰武器,發射全球首架可重複使用的能夠偵察、控制、捕獲、摧毀他國航天器的“軌道試驗飛行器”X-37B空天戰機,計劃2025年在外層空間部署太空戰鬥機部隊;“全球公域介入與機動聯合”概念宣稱要通過非動能措施迅速弱化敵太空設施能力,破壞其反太空能力中的關鍵要素。俄羅斯制定“太空軍事復興計劃”,總統普京已重啟“樹冠”反衛星項目,重點發展反衛武器,把“戰略性空天戰役”作為空天作戰的基本樣式,去年發射的3顆衛星和航天器被美視為“航天殺手”,並準備在2016年前後建成現代太空作戰系統。日本新《宇宙基本計劃》明確指出要“積極進入太空領域”,獲得“現代化的安全保障”,擴充和強化用於監視海上船舶和地面設施的偵察衛星的功能,試圖通過構建一個集測位、通信和情報蒐集等多功能於一體的新衛星系統,實現自衛隊力量運用範圍的陸、海、空、天全方位跨越。
空間信息對抗成為軍事能力建設重點領域
從世界軍事發展看,制空間信息權統攬其他制權,奪取制空間信息權行動是爭奪戰爭主導權的主體行動。從局部戰爭實踐看,沒有製空間信息權,空軍難以空戰,海軍難以海戰,擁有再好的其他武器裝備也可能被動挨打。空間信息對抗為多維空間作戰行動提供重要支撐,是作戰體系的“新質”,是作戰能力生成的倍增器,必將是軍事能力建設的重點領域。從爭奪制天權的手段看,空間信息對抗可控性強、靈活性好,運用門檻低、作用範圍廣、附帶損傷小、效費比高,應是當前和今後一個時期制天權能力建設發展的重點領域。
目前,美積極推進亞太“再平衡”戰略,竭力發展空間信息對抗能力,不僅大力發展電子乾擾軟殺傷和隱性硬毀傷等空間信息對抗手段,積極發展自主逼近、交會對接等天基對抗核心技術,還重點研製衛星通信電子乾擾、近實時探測、干擾信號特徵識別、干擾源定位技術,努力發展各種天基反衛星武器,且已開始部署自動攻擊、識別系統。 2012年11月14日美國和澳大利亞聯合宣布,美軍將在澳大利亞安置功能強大的空軍C波段雷達和太空望遠鏡,並明確表示這是美國將戰略轉向亞洲的一部分。這一前沿部署將使美每天能夠更好地跟踪確認多達200個亞太上空航天器及其軌道和潛在的異常現象。據美國媒體披露,美國空軍與洛克希德馬丁公司在今年2月啟動了未來“太空籬笆”新型雷達系統的建設工作,這也標誌著美國開始啟動了S波段地基雷達系統,該雷達系統將取代美國20世紀60年代研發的太空監視系統。俄羅斯《軍工新聞網》5月18日報導,美國空軍部長詹姆斯宣稱,美空軍已要求50億美元的預算以建立一個防禦系統,為可能發生的太空軍事衝突做準備。日本成立宇宙開發戰略總部和太空監測部隊,並提出今後10年將發射45顆衛星的宏偉目標,在積極發展第二代IGS偵察衛星系統的同時,正在謀求與東盟國家合作,構建一個以日本為中心、由68顆衛星組成的地球觀測衛星網絡,企圖從他國獲得情報並與美國共享的同時,加強對日本周邊海上要道、釣魚島及其附近海域的海洋監視能力。據日本共同社報導,新版《美日防衛合作指針》強調太空態勢感知的重要性,日本“準天頂”衛星系統與美國衛星定位系統將實現對接,美日將利用衛星加強海洋監視,通過共享全球海洋情報,確保海上通道安全等。俄已具備“偵、攻、防”一體的空間信息對抗能力,特別是在衛星通信對抗、導彈和空間防禦對抗、GPS對抗、激光對抗和動能反衛等方面,擁有雄厚的技術儲備。印度空間偵察監視衛星系統已初具規模,衛星通信網已覆蓋南亞及周邊地區,各軍種之間已實現近實時衛星通信。
空間信息對抗作戰建設發展應把握的著力點
抓好軍事鬥爭準備,必須努力掌握太空和網絡空間軍事鬥爭主動權,堅持問題導向和非對稱發展,按照精幹、聯合、多能、高效的要求,切實把好空間信息對抗作戰建設的著力點。
確立正確戰略指導。在重視制天權的基礎上,高度重視空間信息對抗建設發展問題,科學處理空間信息對抗力量與其他戰略力量發展的關係,保證優先重點發展空間信息對抗力量。貫​​徹新時期軍事戰略方針,統籌疆內與疆外、備戰與止戰、威懾與實戰,不斷實現重要領域和關鍵環節的新突破;把空間信息對抗建設納入軍隊信息化建設總體佈局,搞好空間信息對抗發展戰略籌劃;不斷完善作戰條令體系,促進空間信​​息對抗各項建設和工作有序開展。
堅持軍民融合發展。強化軍民融合發展觀念,發揮市場在資源配置中的基礎性作用,按照軍民融合式發展路子,通過法規建設,豐富融合形式、拓寬融合範圍、提高融合層次,在科研技術、武器裝備、人才培養等方面,進行全方位、多領域融合,為空間信息對抗建設提供豐富資源和發展後勁。注重發揮軍地智庫功能,加強空間信息對抗的理論和實踐問題研究,探索空間信息對抗理論體系,明確建設重點、制定具體計劃,豐富和發展行動指導,確保各項工作實質性推進。
構建專業力量體系。按照瞄準前沿、重點突破、跨越式發展的要求,加速構建空間信息對抗力量體系,盡快形成空間信息對抗能力。把空間信息對抗武器裝備切實擺上戰略位置,注重發揮空間信息對抗力量對傳統力量的帶動作用和空間信息力量與傳統力量的跨域聯合,實現信息在全維空間自由流動。積極推進空間信息對抗力量運用,進行空間信息偵察實時支援引導信息作戰行動的演習、試驗和訓練,盡快形成體係作戰能力。
關注技術創新。加強技術攻關力度,重視空間信息對抗關鍵技術創新,加緊探索空間信息對抗前沿技術,注重發展先進的衛星通信對抗、偵察和監視對抗、目標特徵識別、信息處理等技術,著力突破能夠推動空間信息對抗裝備更新的關鍵技術;高度關注、自主研發可能改變作戰樣式、作戰規則的顛覆性技術群,防止強敵對我形成技術上的戰略突然性,努力形成敵有我有、敵無我有的非對稱技術優勢。