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China Military Operational Use of Information Warfare Equipment //中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用

中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用

中國作家源

2004年12月06日

中國軍事信息戰

Information warfare is against C4ISR systems and C4ISR systems, information superiority is the competition, the main purpose is to ensure the normal operation of one’s own information systems, from the enemy’s use, paralysis and destruction; the same time, trying to use, paralysis and destruction of the enemy’s information systems, make paralyzed, confused state. Including strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield information warfare two parts.

Strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield

Strategic information warfare is the main features of a wide range of sectors covering all key political, economic, technological, military and special areas; special way, relates to psychological warfare, media warfare, deception warfare, media warfare and other special tools; special target, mainly through the decoy attack warfare, psychological warfare, information awareness enemy deterrence system and thinking system; great harm, make the whole country’s economic, political or military to a standstill, even regime change can make it happen; special person, not necessarily military combatants, computer experts, international crime syndicates, hacking or terrorist organizations with ulterior motives and so may become combatants.

Battlefield Information War battle took place in the space of information warfare, refers to the battle for the preparation and the integrated use of information technology tools and a variety of information weapons, information warfare platform and C4ISR systems, reconnaissance and early warning detection, information processing and transmission, arms control and guidance, operational command and control, deception and disguise interference and military strategy and other aspects of all-out confrontation and struggle. Battlefield Information War by interfering with or disrupting the enemy’s decision-making process, so that the enemy can not effectively coordinated action. Thus, the first enemy influence decisions, then the impact of their actions, which is to win air superiority electromagnetic, and then obtain air superiority, and finally the use of conventional forces to take combat operations. Seized control of information, seize the initiative on the battle space, and the competition for the right to make land, air, naval supremacy and control of space to lay a good foundation and a necessary condition.

Basic information warfare battlefield combat forces and means of information is digitized forces and weapons and equipment, the main contents include operational secrecy, military deception, electronic warfare, psychological warfare and firepower to destroy, core purpose is to fight for the right to access information battle space, control and use rights. Battlefield Information War is against information systems, which directly affects the entire battle space, processes, and success or failure of the entire war. The main battlefield information warfare style combat electronic warfare and cyber warfare. Electronic warfare is an important part of information warfare battlefield, mainly decoy for enemy communications, radar and other electromagnetic radiation sources of interference, sabotage and destruction activities. The Gulf War, not only the first large-scale use of electronic warfare, and formally adopted as a battle of the war and the particular stage of the battle action. Kosovo War, NATO used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the first use of electromagnetic pulse bombs and conducted the first network warfare. Cyber ​​warfare in cyberspace computer, using a network against the Internet activities, and for the first time in the Kosovo war. NATO cyber warfare measures include: network publicity; hacker attacks; attacks on financial networks. The main characteristics of the FRY cyberwarfare is people’s war mode, geek, geeks and computer enthusiasts spontaneously a lot of network operations, such as conduct online propaganda attack NATO website, use the Internet to pass intelligence.

War information warfare equipment, electronic warfare equipment.

Electronic warfare equipment, the development trend of increasing integration and universal, local wars under conditions of informatization, the electromagnetic environment on the battlefield increasingly complex, kind of separation from each other in the past, single-function electronic warfare equipment has been far can not meet the operational needs.Integration and generalization has become the focus of the development of electronic warfare equipment and electronic warfare equipment, the total future direction of development. In order to deal more effectively with the threat of information warfare electromagnetic complex, the next generation of electronic warfare equipment, the extensive use of advanced computer technology to significantly improve the automation of the entire system in order to have better real-time capabilities, since the adaptability and full power management capabilities. Working frequency electronic warfare equipment continuously expanding, increasing the transmission power, the development of millimeter-wave technology and photovoltaic technology, the modern electronic warfare equipment to keep the operating frequency band wider development.Overall, the future scope of work of electronic warfare equipment will be extended to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. GPS interference and anti-interference will be concerned about the practice of war has shown that, if they lose the support of GPS, information superiority will be greatly weakened, so that command and control, reconnaissance, combat, troop movement and other military links are facing a severe test, severely reduced combat effectiveness. Focus on the development of new anti-radiation and electronic warfare jamming aircraft, emphasis on the development of new, special electronic warfare technology and equipment, such as for anti-satellite laser weapons, high-energy particle beam weapons, and meteor burst communications, neutrino communication and the like.

Computer viruses as weapons

Within military information systems, battlefield information acquisition, transmission, processing and other functions required to complete computer and network, computer network is performed on the basis of information warfare and Pioneer. Use of software drivers and hardware magnetic induction sniffer sniffer network sniffer, etc. is an important way to attack networks. These sniffing tool was originally a test device, used to diagnose and repair assistance network, so it is a powerful tool for network administrators to monitor the network, but in the information war is a terrible computer virus weapons. It enables network “denial of service”, “information tampering” Information “halfway stealing” and so on. In addition, it will focus on design “trap door.” “Trap door” also known as “back door” is an agency computer system designers previously configured in the system, appear in the application or during the operating system, programmers insert some debugging mechanism. System Programmer For the purpose of attacking the system, deliberately left few trap door for a person familiar with the system to outdo each other to sneak into the normal system protection system. Network is an important infrastructure of information warfare, network centric warfare is mainly carried out based network, the network is reliable to determine the outcome of the war. Therefore, to strengthen the research network attack and defense operations for the win future information warfare is essential.

Electromagnetic pulse bomb

During the Iraq war, the US used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and use of electromagnetic pulse bombs fell on Iraq and the Iraqi army broadcast television systems of various types of electronic radiation. Electromagnetic pulse bomb, also known as microwave pulse bomb, by a microwave beam into electromagnetic energy, a new type of directed energy weapons damage other electronic facilities and personnel.Its working principle is: after high power microwave antenna gathered into a bunch of very narrow, very strong electromagnetic waves toward each other, heat, ionizing radiation, etc. relying on the combined effect of electromagnetic waves generated by this beam, lethal voltages in electronic circuits inside the target and current, breakdown or burn sensitive components which, damage data stored in the computer, so that each other’s arms and paralyzed the command system, the loss of combat effectiveness. According to tests, a briefcase-sized microwave bomb, can produce up to 300 million watts of power pulse. After its plurality of coupling, then become adjustable radiation source, generating more than 2 billion watts of pulse waves. This is somewhat similar to pulse electromagnetic pulse generated when nuclear explosions, can easily enter the underground bunker from power and communication channels, which rely on radio to make, radar, computer, power grids and telephone modern weapons systems, biological and chemical weapons and their production Libraries workshop in an instant paralysis.

GPS jamming devices

Also in the Iraq war, the Iraqi use of GPS jamming device for Tomahawk cruise missiles were effective interference, this is the first time in actual combat on the GPS guidance system interference. GPS signal is weak, it is easy to interference. A Russian company to provide a 4-watt power handheld GPS jammers, less than $ 4,000 can buy.If purchased from retail electronic component assembly shops, you can spend $ 400 to create a disturbance over a radius of 16 km of GPS jammers. Before the war in Iraq war, the United States had expected to interfere with the GPS signal the Iraqi side. In fact, the United States had already given their GPS bombs and missiles loaded with anti-jamming technology to make these GPS-guided weapons to continue to use the GPS signal in the case of interference; even if the GPS signal is lost, they can also use their own weapons guidance systems other inertial navigation, laser-guided, so that their own to reach the target. Nevertheless, early in the war in Iraq, the US military more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles due to interference or deviates from a predetermined route, fell Turkey, Syria and Iran. Small GPS jammers problem alerted the US government, Powell personally investigate the source of Iraq GPS jammers, Russia and other countries exerted considerable pressure.

During the first Gulf War, GPS navigator as a trial product for the first time issued to desert warfare personnel, the effect is obvious. At that time, all weapons, including cruise missiles, including not using the GPS navigation device. The war in Iraq, we see that almost all combat platforms, every man, almost all of missiles and bombs have adopted this navigation device, so that the tanks, planes, ships maneuver more accurate missiles and bombs original the probability of error reduced to 1-3 meters, maximum 10 meters range.   Everything there is a benefit must be a disadvantage. Disadvantages and drawbacks of GPS navigation information is the same weaponry, is the electronic interference.From the perspective of the development of weapons and equipment, the purchase of a cruise missile costs $ 100 million, while manufacturing a GPS jammer only a few hundred dollars, as a strategic defensive side, if a large number of development and the development of GPS jammers, not only for the US missile and the bomb is a threat to its tanks, planes, ships and navigation personnel will also have a huge impact. Of course, we should also see the US fight a battle, and further, after the end of the war in Iraq is bound according to the lessons of the war, improved GPS system. Is expected to be improved in three areas: First, the GPS satellites, satellite launch is mainly to enhance the signal and transmit as many GPS satellites; the second is to improve the guidance system, mainly to increase the combined guidance system, after interference in the GPS guidance, automatic recovery or transfer other inertial navigation mode to ensure the normal operation of the platform and weapons; the third is GPS anti-jamming, mainly to improve the GPS receiver anti-jamming capability, the development of new GPS receiver, in the theater of the local military and civilian GPS reception machines and electronic jammers and interference suppression.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

信息戰是C4ISR系統與C4ISR系統的對抗,是信息優勢的爭奪,主要目的是確保己方信息系統正常運行,免遭敵方利用、癱瘓和破壞﹔同時,設法利用、癱瘓和破壞敵人的信息系統,使之處於癱瘓、迷茫狀態。信息戰包括戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰兩大部分。

戰略信息戰和戰場信息戰

戰略信息戰主要特征是范圍廣泛,涉及國家政治、經濟、科技、軍事等各個要害部門和特殊領域﹔方式特殊,涉及心理戰、輿論戰、欺騙戰、媒體戰等特殊手段﹔目標特殊,主要是通過誘騙戰、心理戰、信息威懾等攻擊敵人的認識體系和思維體系﹔危害巨大,能使整個國家的經濟、政治或軍事陷入癱瘓,甚至能使其發生政權交替﹔人員特殊,參戰人員不一定軍人,計算機專家、國際犯罪集團、別有用心的黑客或恐怖組織等都可能成為參戰人員。

戰場信息戰是發生在戰斗空間內的信息戰,是指為准備和進行一場戰役,綜合運用信息技術手段和各種信息化武器、信息化作戰平台和C4ISR系統,在偵察探測及預警、信息處理與傳遞、武器控制和制導、作戰指揮與控制、偽裝欺騙與干擾以及軍事謀略等方面展開的全面對抗和斗爭。戰場信息戰是通過干擾或打亂敵方決策程序,使敵方無法有效採取協調一致的行動。因此,要先影響敵人決策,然后再影響其行動,即先贏得空中電磁優勢,再取得空中優勢,最后使用常規部隊採取作戰行動。奪取了制信息權,就奪取了戰斗空間的主動權,而且為爭奪制陸權、制空權、制海權和制天權奠定一個良好基礎和必要條件。

戰場信息戰的基本作戰力量和手段是數字化部隊及信息化武器裝備,主要內容包括作戰保密、軍事欺騙、電子戰、心理戰和火力摧毀,核心目的是爭奪戰斗空間的信息獲取權、控制權和使用權。戰場信息戰是信息體系的對抗,它直接影響到整個戰斗空間、整場戰爭的進程和成敗。戰場信息戰的主要作戰樣式是電子戰和網絡戰。電子戰是戰場信息戰的一個重要組成部分,主要是針對敵人通信、雷達等電磁輻射源進行的誘騙、干擾、破壞和摧毀活動。海灣戰爭中,電子戰不僅首次大規模使用,而且正式作為戰爭中的一個戰役階段和特定戰役行動。科索沃戰爭中,北約使用了大量電子戰裝備,並首次使用了電磁脈沖炸彈並首次進行了網絡戰。網絡戰是在計算機網絡空間,利用因特網進行的一種網絡對抗活動,並在科索沃戰爭中首次使用。北約網絡戰的措施包括:網絡宣傳﹔黑客攻擊﹔襲擊金融網絡等。南聯盟網絡戰的主要特征是人民戰爭模式,網迷、電腦迷和計算機愛好者自發地進行了大量網絡作戰行動,如開展網上宣傳、攻擊北約網站、利用網絡傳遞情報等。

戰爭中的信息戰裝備

電子戰裝備

電子戰裝備的發展趨勢日趨一體化和通用化,信息化條件下的局部戰爭中,戰場上的電磁環境日益復雜,以往那種彼此分立、功能單一的電子戰裝備已遠遠不能適應作戰需要了。一體化和通用化已成為當前電子戰裝備發展的重點和未來電子戰裝備總的發展方向。為了更有效地對付信息化戰爭中復雜多變的電磁威脅,未來新一代的電子對抗裝備,將廣泛採用先進的計算機技術,大幅度提高整個系統的自動化程度,以具備更好的實時能力、自適應能力和全功率管理能力。電子戰裝備的工作頻段不斷拓寬,發射功率不斷增大,毫米波技術和光電技術的發展,使現代電子戰裝備的工作頻率不斷向更寬的頻段發展。從整體上看,未來電子戰裝備的工作范圍必將擴展到整個電磁波頻譜。GPS干擾與反干擾將受到關注,戰爭實踐已經表明,如果失去GPS的支持,就會極大地削弱信息優勢,使指揮、控制、偵察、打擊、部隊機動等各個軍事環節都面臨嚴峻考驗,嚴重降低戰斗力。重點發展反輻射和新型電子戰干擾機,重視發展新型、特殊的電子戰技術裝備,如用於反衛星的激光武器、高能粒子束武器,以及流星余跡通信、中微子通信等等。

計算機病毒武器

在軍事信息系統中,戰場信息的獲取、傳遞、處理等功能需要計算機及網絡來完成,計算機網絡是進行信息戰的基礎和先鋒。利用軟件驅動嗅探器和硬件磁感應嗅探器等對網絡進行嗅探是進攻網絡的重要方法。這些嗅探工具原本是一種測試設備,用來診斷和協助修理網絡,因此它是網管人員管理網絡的一種得力工具,但在信息戰中卻是一種可怕的計算機病毒武器。它能使網絡“服務否認”、“信息篡改”、信息“中途竊取”等。另外,也將重視設計“門戶陷阱”。“門戶陷阱”又稱“后門”,是計算機系統設計者預先在系統中構造的一種機構,在應用出現或操作系統期間,程序員插入一些調試機構。系統程序員為了達到攻擊系統的目的,特意留下少數門戶陷阱,供熟悉系統的人員用以超越對方正常的系統保護而潛入系統。網絡是信息化戰爭的重要基礎設施,網絡中心戰主要是基於網絡而進行的,網絡是否可靠決定戰爭的勝負。因此,加強網絡攻防作戰的研究,對於贏得未來信息化戰爭至關重要。

電磁脈沖炸彈

伊拉克戰爭中,美軍使用了大量電子戰裝備,並使用電磁脈沖炸彈襲擊了伊拉克廣播電視系統及伊軍各類電子輻射源。電磁脈沖炸彈也稱微波脈沖炸彈,是通過把微波束轉化為電磁能,毀傷對方電子設施和人員的一種新型定向能武器。其工作原理是:高功率微波經過天線聚集成一束很窄、很強的電磁波射向對方,依靠這束電磁波產生的高溫、電離、輻射等綜合效應,在目標內部的電子線路中產生致命的電壓和電流,擊穿或燒毀其中的敏感元器件,毀損電腦中存貯的數據,從而使對方的武器和指揮系統陷於癱瘓,喪失戰斗力。據測試,一枚公文包大小的微波炸彈,可產生功率達3億瓦的脈沖波。將其多個聯接后,則能成為可調整的輻射源,產生20億瓦以上的脈沖波。這種脈沖波有點類似核爆炸時產生的電磁脈沖,可以輕易地從電力和通訊管道進入地下掩體,使其中依賴無線電、雷達、計算機、電網和電話等的現代化武器系統、生化武器庫及其生產車間在瞬間癱瘓。

GPS干擾設備

伊拉克戰爭中,伊軍利用GPS干擾儀對戰斧巡航導彈進行了有效的干擾,這是第一次在實戰中對GPS制導系統進行干擾。GPS信號很弱,很易於干擾。一家俄羅斯公司提供的一種4瓦功率的手持GPS干擾機,不到4000美元就能買到。如果從零售電子商店購買部件組裝,花400美元就可以制造一個干擾半徑16公裡以上的GPS干擾機。伊拉克戰爭開戰之前,美國就已經預料到伊拉克方面會干擾GPS信號。美國其實早已經給其GPS炸彈和導彈裝載了抗干擾技術,使這些GPS導引的武器能夠在干擾的情況下繼續使用GPS信號﹔即使GPS信號丟失,這些武器還可以使用自身的其他導引系統如慣性導航、激光制導等,使自己到達目標。盡管如此,伊拉克戰爭初期,美軍十幾枚戰斧式巡航導彈還是因受干擾偏離預定航線,落在土耳其、敘利亞和伊朗境內。小小的GPS干擾機問題驚動了美國朝野,鮑威爾親自出面調查伊拉克GPS干擾機的來源,對俄羅斯等國施加了不小的壓力。

海灣戰爭中,GPS導航儀作為試用品首次發放給沙漠作戰人員使用,效果明顯。當時,包括巡航導彈在內的所有武器都沒有採用GPS導航裝置。伊拉克戰爭中,我們看到幾乎所有的作戰平台,每一個單兵,幾乎全部的導彈和炸彈都採用了這種導航裝置,從而使坦克、飛機、艦艇的機動更加精確,使導彈和炸彈的原概率誤差縮小到1—3米,最大10米范圍之內。

凡事有一利必有一弊。GPS導航的弊端與信息化武器裝備的弊端是一樣的,就是電子干擾問題。從武器裝備發展角度來看,購買一枚巡航導彈需要100多萬美元,而制造一部GPS干擾機才幾百美元,作為戰略防御一方,如果能夠大量發展和研制GPS干擾機,不僅對於美軍導彈和炸彈是一種威脅,對其坦克、飛機、艦艇和人員的導航定位也將產生巨大影響。當然,也應看到美軍打一仗、進一步,伊拉克戰爭結束后必將根據戰爭中的教訓,改進GPS系統。預計將在三個方面進行改進:一是GPS衛星,主要是增強衛星發射信號,並盡可能多的發射GPS衛星﹔二是改進制導系統,主要是增加復合制導裝置,在GPS指導受到干擾之后,自動恢復或轉入慣性等其他導航方式,以保証平台和武器的正常運行﹔三是GPS反干擾,主要是提高GPS接收機抗干擾能力,研制新型GPS接收機,在戰區對地方軍民用GPS接收機和干擾機進行電子壓制和干擾等。

China NPC Emphasis on Solving National Security System Issues//中國家安全體系「全國人大會議公布了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》

中國家安全體系「全國人大會議公布了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》

March 5, 2016 during the Chinese NPC and CPPCC, National People’s Congress announced the “Thirteen Five-Year Plan (draft)”, under the title “establishment of a national security system,” complete the chapter, first expounded on China’s implementation of “the country’s overall security View of concrete ideas “in. Prior to that, although related concepts to promote its fast, but in addition to the super-agency “National Security Council” has been officially running, as well as a small amount of the agency personnel arrangements, almost no more news.

The first place to prevent hostile forces subversive

From an international perspective, “Comprehensive security concept” for a class is not the first thought. After all, since the end of the Cold War, the security environment upheaval, insecurity diversification, already is a common phenomenon faced by countries. But domestic letters of “overall national security” still kill any world trend, because this piece can be described as all-encompassing grand – covering “political, land, military, economic, cultural, social, science and technology, information, ecology, resources …… and nuclear safety. ”

Although the “official stereotyped” perfect frame Description: “people-safe for the purpose, as the fundamental political security, economic security, based on the Social Security for the protection of military culture in order to promote international security as the basis”, but this piece is clearly ambitious where to start challenge.

When “KNB” first appeared in late 2013 eighteen Third Plenary Session of the resolution, only to see hastily put some “innovative social governance” at the end. Until five months later, the agency announced that it has officially running, trying to explain its official mouthpiece of great significance, it is still mainly externally or internally, vary.

During the two sessions, elaborate “Thirteen five Outline” published by the NPC session, so this kind of ambiguity resolved.

Although the outline, “national sovereignty security regime” concept beautifully, has made the world’s political circles unheard of, but more surprising is that in the fight against the three forces’ violent terror, ethnic separatism, religious extremism “previous activity, will also impressively “hostile forces infiltrate subversive activity” in the first place.

Obviously, to prevent subversion of urgency regime was as if beyond the anti-terrorism, anti-spyware and other traditional threats to national security.

Traditionally, law enforcement departments, the Ministry of Public Security and the famous “national security” system, and its huge cost “stability maintenance” system billions compared to only as a spy / Ministry of National Security Abwehr, more in line with narrowly “national security” concept. The system has also been set up at all levels of “national security leadership team,” leading narrow “national security” and its work force.

Jiang Zemin period, Beijing began to envy the role of the US National Security Council (NSC) at the highest decision-making. As president advisory body, NSC members including President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence and National Security Affairs Assistant to the President, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of highest operational commander and director of national intelligence, were appointed to act as the statutory military advisers and intelligence advisers, other government departments and competent officials, invited participants only when needed.

“The Central Leading Group for National Security,” in the year 2000, although the head of the pro-Jiang, but deputy head in charge of foreign affairs for the Central Committee, the Central Foreign Affairs Office director concurrently by the Office, in particular from the group and “Foreign Affairs Leading Group “under one roof, the main coordinating its national security and external affairs. Although not as good as NSC high level, because China and the US but the basic political structure fundamentally different, are also considered to meet the conditions of moderate learning.

Jiang later period, the Chinese domestic policy increasingly independent, and the West in the system of values ​​and rules of becoming the opposition, senior party growing emphasis on co-ordination “International and Domestic Situation.” After learning more individuals came to power centralization, theoretical innovation and the urgent need to safeguard stability of the regime. Thus, despite the increased legitimacy, the study of “KNB” is still brewing since Jiang Zemin claimed, but the design of the system may differ.

Thus, the Chinese Communist Party and the previous system separately, in order to avoid the party on behalf of the administration and other rare progress, is now being accused of “fragmentation, excessive power scattered.” By adding a permanent body, will the party, government, military, law, economics, culture and even social life, and where the “national security” detached power clean sweep, then became “the country to explore a new way of governance.”

Now, in “Baidu Encyclopedia” in terms of self-built, actually it was assumed added, “National Security Council People’s Republic of China” entry, content only involved “state security committee.”

Beijing whether through a constitutional amendment to set up a shadow-style “national KNB” hard to say. However, by the time the CPC Central Committee, the National Security Committee to get the full decision-making power for national security affairs, responsible only to the Politburo and its Standing Committee. As heads of the supreme legislative body of the People’s Congress, only its Vice-President, the National Security Committee of the degree of centralization, even beyond the Central Military Commission.In contrast, the United States NSC decisions, but also to exercise its statutory powers to rely on the President and subject to legislative, judicial checks and balances.

Further overhead Politburo and State Council

The current maximum suspense, or “KNB” materialized, decision-making and institutional settings large to what extent.

An analogy example, although in the network area, the original Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Industry, the Central Foreign Affairs Office / State Council Information Office, Press and Publication Administration and other agencies bull management, but also from 18 Third Plenary session of the decision, the CPC network security and information technology leadership team established in 2014 (referred to as the “net channel group”) / national Internet information office of People’s Republic of China ( “the State Council informatization office”), and set up a separate large business functions, took a lot of network management and monitoring powers.

At the top of its home page, the two names are alternately displayed, complete with party and government bodies.

Rationale for establishing this institution, because the State Department is also the system’s “National Informatization Leading Group” and their offices, “the State Council Information Office” (also referred to as the “State Council Informatization Office”) is difficult to coordinate the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, the NPC, etc. authority. However, the greater the motivation or senior party controls the Internet public exigencies, and the use of information warfare means to challenge the United States needs. To promote the domestic information technology process, the agency more than the promotion of hand shackles.

Regression KNB, although it has been interpreted as “national security and crisis handling the national level a permanent establishment,” but until March 2016, in the list of institutions directly under the CPC Central Committee and the Communist Party of China Xinhua News Network, the former are still ” central leading group for national security, “and not see” KNB. ”

Although “KNB” was praised as “reduce rules, enhance decision-making efficiency,” but in what things must be raised to this level resolved, which can be left in the original POLITICAL, military and diplomatic level processing is difficult to untangle.

It is with the Central Political and Law Commission as “directly under the central authorities,” the division of labor? It as “directly under the central coordinating body of procedure” in policing governance, anti-anti-cult operations, stability, maritime rights and interests, possession of Xinjiang, financial security, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao, net letter, confidentiality, the working group password (Note: the full name of each team name how to end the relationship) is? In the end how it Ministry of National Security and other government departments, as well as relations with the National Commission on cross-border and coastal defense ministries overseas Chinese citizens and institutions security work inter-ministerial joint conference and many other bureaucracies? I’m afraid that deep-rooted concerns about its effect, less effective, was not excessive.

From The National People’s Congress issued the “Outline”, the more difficult to find: as the basic starting point for the study of governance, the starting point and one of the ultimate value, political, land, economy, society, resources and networks, and other key areas are security policy and called for long-term goals, important areas, major reforms, major projects, programs and policies, require safety risk assessment.

This means that, even if only partially materialized, due to the requirement that all focus areas, all national security coordination mechanism established to maintain, “KNB” already with “deep change Team” (Note: Comprehensively Deepening the Reform Leading Group) as tantamount to a indeed affect the whole body, brought together a large number of power “small government.”

In addition to further overhead Politburo and State Council, set in one of the highest authority, through several sets of much needless repetition mechanism, calling the shots. However executor, it is still the same set of ministries and local, its efficiency, and can really ensure the complex demands of national security in a reasonable portion, not optimistic.


March 5, 2016, Beijing, China, in front of the Great Hall of People’s Liberation Army soldiers walked.Photo: Damir Sagolj / REUTERS

Endanger the interests of the former National Security Systems division, to stimulate the “spy” Country

It can be expected that with the proposed “Thirteen five Outline” “overall national security”, and in the rise of influence “KNB”, the original continent “national security”, “national security” systems are at risk.

“National security” has recently been rumored to be canceled. It is believed that its intelligence gathering in the field of domestic politics to defend the building (social monitoring) hidden forces, investigation of cases against dissent, control ethnic / religious positions against cults and other functions, will disperse to more legalization of criminal investigation and law and order department. Entered into force in 1993, “National Security Law” in 2014 was much more narrowly “anti-spyware law” instead.

And “Thirteen five Outline”, requires the integration of monitoring and early warning systems in different areas, intelligence gathering and analysis capabilities. From the work of national intelligence to see the movements of specific legislation, “national security” system will inevitably lose power “national security” monopoly.

This stimulus, 2014, 2015, Ministry of State Security systems, proactive disclosure reports uncovered espionage significantly increased, but in the end these cases leaked it?

March 2015, published by the National Security Henan province since the first espionage case, a taxi driver observed the airborne unit of foreign institutional Airport, the surrounding circumstances and models; July Sichuan national security nearly a decade for the first time publicly disclosed the spy case, a military unit 4 leakers, provided some military types, quantity, special materials, setting the test time and fault conditions, some provide aerospace internal publications; November, Jilin Baishan Jun captured the partitions a foreign spy shooting and hand-painted Chinese border troops distribution.

These cases certainly have leaked military secrets, but the scope and extent been greatly exaggerated. In recent years, Beijing strengthened its online publication and transmission of state secrets supervision, the biggest problem is still the “secret infinity.” Although Beijing has in recent years to speed up the clear “given secret” work “secret” and “non-secret” boundaries, but because the concept of paranoia, coupled with bureaucratic agencies should rely on “secret” to eat, they do not want to bear responsibility for the secret too wide, Fuzzy boundaries situation no better.

In fact, some experts mainland when rendering espionage threat, has admitted “we take the initiative to trafficking intelligence” indicating that “China also collect / buy foreign intelligence”; an expert in the Ministry of State Security emphasis on “cyber espionage nearly the year more and more active, “to actually” see them from the Internet’s remarks can be found in a number of valuable intelligence “as an example, but the latter is completely unlawful.

Henan above case, there is the Baidu from China “high One” satellite photographs taken by the airport, accurate to 20 meters, “Baidu Panorama” provides a neighboring street to the nearest airport each shop, military fans in China understanding Air transporter models thousands; Sichuan cases, internal publications fuzzy nature, contained a lot of technical discussion with the same military production. And unavoidably, everything is secret practice is nothing more than a cover closed, inefficient, and defects behind Beijing’s military, these are not exposed and supervision, the harm is far more than this information about the outside world.

At the same time, the Confidentiality Commission / Secrets systems have long been cured departmental interests, such as to secrecy, mandatory use map products “Nonlinear confidential treatment technology”, is formed on the map with the location of the actual existence of 100 to 600 meters random deviations. Such an approach, in addition to the official mapping agencies to create huge gains, related to the national industries and national tremendous trouble, there are no secret role – because the location does not become a military objective entity, foreign intelligence agencies and the military does not rely on Chinese map, which judged and attacks unaffected.

Of course, this by no means departmental interests to “spy” Country situation all causes.Overall, Beijing also needed on the mainland society, frequently rendering national security is facing a critical situation, hidden front struggle intense, so trees enemy awareness, inspire patriotic enthusiasm and even xenophobic, secretly strengthen social control.

Moreover, since the Beijing powers and budget oversight from society, the party and the national government itself parents, as long as the name of security, from the whole to the details, any information can be disclosed only to those who choose favorable, remaining airtight, so that with “espionage “Ruling tool if fabulous.

At the same time, Beijing legislative activity in recent years, national security and social stability and other interests in the name of full citizens with increased surveillance, public security mandatory intervention of civil liberties and privileges of the investigation.

November 2015, the National Security Office Jilin even announced espionage and accepted nationwide hotline to report clues, for reasons that remain unknown. The department asked citizens to report suspicious persons “spy, traitor, instigation personnel, intelligence agents, the external agents”, etc., but this is only a political rather than a legal concept concepts also include standard suspicious signs purely surface, many of which are only legal status or the performance of speech, may be entirely unrelated espionage, where “sensitive issues” and “reactionary remarks” but not operational on legal concepts.

Obviously, not called for such a system to report the current espionage, but a wide range of East German-style citizen informers and mutual monitoring, did not say infringe on civil liberties, even in the “dictatorship” discourse system, misunderstanding, framed and frame risks are high.

Criminal Law Amendment (IX), adopted in August 2015, the night the new information network security management refused to fulfill the obligations crime, the crime of illegal use of the information network, information network to help crime and criminal activities, to disrupt the order of state organs crime, the crime of illegal financing of the organization gathering fabricated deliberately spreading false information crime, the crime should be no public disclosure of information on cases of crime reporting and disclosure of information should not be disclosed in the cases, the other 20 counts, terrifying.

The case of Gao Yu, and bookstores case Causeway Bay, but are just beginning.

All this shows that in China, “national security” concept epitaxial greatly expanded, not only to adapt to contemporary national security multifactor interwoven trend, and it is a power struggle and the rule of magic weapon too superficial. In essence, it is the Beijing regime concentrated outpouring of anxiety. The “Thirteen Five Outline” in “protect country” a new action also marks the communist countries in times of crisis, to strengthen the “police state” color of nature, is rapidly recovering.

Note: Team organization full name:

The Central Committee for Comprehensive Management of Social Security, the Central Cult Prevention and Handling of the Leading Group, the Central Leading Group for the maintenance of stability, the central leading group for marine rights and interests, the Central Tibetan Coordination Leading Group, the Central Coordination Group Xinjiang, the Central Steering Committee on Financial Security, the CPC central / State Department double identity Taiwan Affairs leading group, Hong Kong and Macao work coordination group, a centralized network security and information technology leading group, the central Committee and the central password confidentiality work leading group.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

3月5日,中國2016年兩會期間,全國人大會議公佈了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》,以題為「建立國家安全體系」的完整一章,首次闡述了中國貫徹「總體國家安全觀」的具體設想。此前,儘管相關概念的宣傳風生水起,但除了超級機構「國家安全委員會」已正式運轉,以及該機構少量人事安排外,幾乎沒有更多消息。
將防止敵對勢力顛覆破壞放在首位
從國際範圍看,「綜合安全觀」一類思想並非首創。畢竟從冷戰結束起,安全環境劇變、不安全因素多樣化,就已是各國面臨的普遍現象。可是國內大書特書的「總體國家安全觀」,仍秒殺任何世界潮流,因為這幅宏圖可謂包羅萬象——覆蓋了「政治、國土、軍事、經濟、文化、社會、科技、信息、生態、資源和核安全……」。
儘管「官方八股」框架描述完美:「以人民安全為宗旨,政治安全為根本,經濟安全為基礎,軍事文化社會安全為保障,以促進國際安全為依託」,但是這幅宏圖從何下手顯然有挑戰。
「國安委」2013年底首次出現在十八屆三中全會決議中時,就僅見匆匆置於「創新社會治理」一段末尾。直到5個月後,該機構宣布已正式運轉,努力闡釋其偉大意義的官方喉舌,仍對它以對外還是對內為主,說法不一。
兩會期間,人大會議公佈的《十三五綱要》的闡述,讓這類歧義迎刃而解。
儘管綱要中,「國家政權主權安全」概念的粉墨登場,已經令世界政治學界聞所未聞,但更令人吃驚的是,在對付三股勢力「暴力恐怖、民族分裂、宗教極端」的活動之前,還赫然將「敵對勢力滲透顛覆破壞活動」放在首位。
顯然,防止政權被顛覆的迫切性儼然超越了反恐、反間諜等傳統國家安全威脅。
傳統上,在強力部門中,與大名鼎鼎的公安部「國內安全保衞」系統、及其耗資千億的龐大「維穩」體系相比,只有作為間諜/反間諜機關的國家安全部,更符合狹義的「國家安全」概念。該系統也曾在各級設立過「國家安全領導小組」,領導狹義「國安」工作及其隊伍。
到江澤民時期,北京開始羨慕美國國家安全委員會(NSC)在最高決策中的作用。作為總統諮詢機構,NSC成員包括總統、副總統、國務卿、財政部長、國防部長和總統國安事務助理,最高作戰指揮官參聯會主席和國家情報總監,分別充當該委法定軍事顧問和情報顧問,其他政府部門主管和高官,則只在需要時應邀參會。
「中央國家安全領導小組」於2000年產生,雖然江澤民親任組長,但副組長為分管外交事務的政治局委員,辦公室主任由中央外事辦公室主任兼任,特別是從該小組與「中央外事工作領導小組」合署辦公來看,它主要協調對外的國家安全事務。雖然其層級不如NSC高,但因為中美基本政治架構的根本不同,也算符合國情的適度學習。
江以後時期,中國國內政策日益特立獨行,與西方在價值觀和規則體系上漸趨對立,中共高層日益強調統籌「國際國內兩個大局」。習上台後更有個人集權、理論創新和政權維穩的迫切需要。因而,儘管為增加合法性,習的「國安委」仍自稱醖釀自江澤民,但在製度設計上可就大相徑庭了。
於是,中共原有體制中黨政分開、避免以黨代政等難得的進步,現在被指責為​​「條塊分割,權力過散」。通過增加一個常設機構,就將黨、政、軍、法、經、文乃至社會生活中,凡與「國家安全」沾邊的權力一網打盡,則成了「對國家治理方式的一種新探索」。
如今,在「百度百科」的自建詞條上,居然有人想當然地添加了「中華人民共和國國家安全委員會」詞條,內容卻只涉「中共國安委」。
北京是否經過修憲,來設立一個影子式的「國家國安委」還很難說。然而,經中共一次中央全會,國安委就獲得全部國家安全事務決策權,只向政治局及其常委會負責。作為最高立法機構的人大首腦,也只是其副主席,國安委的集權程度,甚至超越中央軍委。相比之下,美國NSC的決策,還只能靠總統行使其法定權力,並受立法、司法權制衡。
進一步架空政治局和國務院
當前最大的懸念,還是「國安委」的實體化、決策權和機構設置將大到何種程度。
一個可以比附的例子是,雖然在網絡領域,原有中宣部、公安部、國家安全部、工信部、中央外宣辦/國務院新聞辦、新聞出版總署等機構多頭管理,但同樣由十八屆三中全會決定、於2014年成立的中共中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組(簡稱「網信組」)/中華人民共和國國家互聯網信息辦公室(簡稱「國信辦」),又單獨設立了龐大的業務職能部門,接管了大量網絡管理和監控權力。
在其首頁頂部,兩個名稱交替顯示,黨政完全同體。
設立這一機構的理由,同樣是因為國務院系統的「國家信息化領導小組」及其辦事機構「國務院信息化工作辦公室」(也曾簡稱「國信辦」)難以協調黨中央、軍委、人大等權力機構。然而,其更大的動機,還是中共高層管制互聯網輿論的急迫需要,以及利用信息戰手段,挑戰美國的需要。對促進國內信息化進程,該機構反倒桎梏多於促進。
迴歸國安委,其雖然被解讀為「國家層面的國家安全和危機處理常設機構」,但直至2016年3月,在中國共產黨新聞網和新華網的中共中央直屬機構列表中,都仍有原「中央國家安全領導小組」而不見「國安委」。
儘管「國安委」被讚譽為「減少條條框框,提升決策效率」,然而在哪些事必須上升到這一層面議決,哪些可以留在原有政法、軍事和外交層面處理,則不易理清。
它與作為「中央直屬部門」的中央政法委如何分工?它與作為「中央直屬議事協調機構」的治安治理、防反邪教、維穩、海洋權益、藏疆、金融安全、對台、港澳、網信、保密、密碼等工作小組(注:各小組名稱全稱在文末)的關係如何?它與國家安全部等政府部門,以及與跨部委的國家邊海防委員會、境外中國公民和機構安全保護工作部際聯席會議等大批官僚機構的關係到底如何?恐怕擔憂其效果盤根錯節、事倍功半,並不為過。
而從本次人大會議公佈的《綱要》中,更不難發現:作為習治國理政的基本出發點、切入點和終極價值之一,政治、國土、經濟、社會、資源網絡等重點領域,均要求制訂安全政策和中長期目標,重要領域、重大改革、重大工程、項目和政策,都要求進行安全風險評估。
這意味著,哪怕只是部分​​實體化,由於要求所有重點領域,均建立維護國安工作協調機制,「國安委」已然同「深改小組」(注:全面深化改革領導小組)一樣,無異於一個牽一髮而動全身,匯聚大量權力的「小政府」。
在進一步架空政治局和國務院之外,集於一人的最高權力,通過疊床架屋的多套機制,來發號施令。然而執行者,則仍是同一套部委和地方,其效率,以及能否真正保證龐雜的國安訴求中的合理部分,不容樂觀。

2016年3月5日,中國北京,解放軍士兵在人民大會堂前走過。攝:Damir Sagolj/REUTERS
危及原國安系統部門利益,刺激以「諜」治國
可以預計,隨著《十三五綱要》的「總體國家安全觀」的提出,在「國安委」的崛起影響下,大陸原有「國保」、「國安」系統均岌岌可危。
「國保」近來盛傳將被取消。據信,其在國內政治保衞領域的蒐集情報、建設(社會監視)隱蔽力量、偵查異見反對案件、控制民族/宗教陣地、打擊邪教組織等職能,仍將分散到更加合法化的刑偵和治安等部門。從1993年生效的《國家安全法》,於2014年被狹義得多的《反間諜法》取代。
而《十三五綱要》,則要求整合不同領域的安全監測預警系統,及情報蒐集分析處理能力。從對國家情報工作專門立法的動向看,「國安」系統也必然失去對「國家安全」的權力壟斷。
受此刺激,2014、2015年的國家安全部系統,主動披露破獲間諜案的報道明顯增多,可是這些案例到底洩露了什麼?
2015年3月,河南國安公佈的該省首起間諜案中,一名的士司機為境外機構觀察空降兵某部的機場位置、週邊情況和​​機型;7月四川國安近十年首次公開披露的間諜案中,某軍工單位的4名洩密者,有的提供了軍品型號、產量、特殊材料、定型試驗時間和故障情況,有的提供了航空航天內部刊物;11月,吉林白山軍分區擒獲一名拍攝和手繪中國邊境兵力分佈的外籍間諜。
這些案例中洩露的當然有軍事機密,然而範圍和程度被嚴重誇大。近年北京加強了對網上發布和傳遞國家秘密的監管,最大問題仍是「密無邊際」。雖然北京近年一直要求加快明確「密」和「非密」界線的「定密」工作,但由於風聲鶴唳的觀念,加之官僚機關既要靠「密」吃飯,又不願擔責,秘密過寬、界限模糊的局面毫無改觀。
實際上,大陸有的專家在渲染間諜威脅時,也承認有「主動向我方販賣情報的」,這說明「中國也蒐集/收買外國情報」;國安部一專家在強調「網絡間諜活動近兩年越來越活躍」時,居然也以「他們從網上看到的言論中就可以發現若干有價值的情報」為例,然而後者完全是合法的行為。
上述河南案例中,百度上就有來自中國「高分一號」衞星拍攝的該機場照片,精確到20米,「百度全景」則提供了機場週邊精確到每家店鋪的街景,中國軍迷中認識空軍運輸機機型的數以萬計;四川案例中,內部刊物性質模糊,所載的大量技術探討同軍品生產一樣。而事無鉅細,一切皆密的做法,無非掩蓋了北京軍工的封閉、低效、落後和缺陷,這些問題得不到曝光和監督,其危害遠超這些情報被外界了解。
同時,保密委員會/保密局系統也早已固化了部門利益,比如以保密為由,強制要求地圖產品採用「非線性保密處理技術」,形成圖上位置與實際存在100~600米的隨機偏差。此種做法,除了給官方測繪機構創造鉅額收益,給本國相關產業和國民帶來巨大麻煩外,沒有任何保密作用——因為軍事目標實體位置並不會變,外國情報機構和軍方也不依靠中國地圖,其研判和攻擊絲毫不受影響。
當然,部門利益絕非這種以「諜」治國局面的全部原因。整體上,北京也需要在大陸社會,頻頻渲染國家安全面臨危局、隱蔽戰線鬥爭激烈,從而大樹敵情意識,激發愛國甚至仇外熱情,暗中強化社會控制。
而且,由於北京權力和預算不受社會監督,黨和政府以國民父母自居,只要以安全為名,從整體到細節,任何信息均可只擇有利者公開,其餘密不透風,使以「諜」治國工具如有神助。
同時,北京近年的立法活動,以國家安全和社會穩定等利益為名,全面增大了對公民配合監視、調查的強制性和公安干預公民自由的權限。
2015年11月,吉林省國家安全廳竟然公佈了接受全國範圍間諜行為和線索舉報的專線電話,原因至今不明。該部門要求公民舉報可疑人員「間諜、內姦、策反人員、情報員、外圍代理人」 等,但這只是政治概念而非法律概念,列舉的可疑標準也純屬表面跡象,很多是合法身份或僅表現為言論,完全可能與間諜毫無關係,其中的「敏感問題」和「反動言論」更不是法律上可操作的概念。
顯然,這種制度號召的絕非對現行間諜行為的舉報,而是東德風格的公民大範圍相互監視和告密,侵犯公民自由不說,即使在​​「專政」話語體系內,誤解、誣陷和栽贓風險也很高。
2015年8月通過的刑法修正案(九),一夜新增拒不履行信息網絡安全管理義務罪、非法利用信息網絡罪、幫助信息網絡犯罪活動罪、擾亂國家機關工作秩​​序罪、組織資助非法聚集罪、編造故意傳播虛假信息罪、洩露不應公開的案件信息罪和披露報道不應公開的案件信息罪,等20項罪名,令人恐怖。
而高瑜案、以及銅鑼灣書店案,均不過是才剛剛開始。
這一切表明,在中國,「國家安全」概念外延的大幅擴展,絕不只是為適應當代國家安全保障多要素交織的趨勢,而說它是權鬥利器和治國法寶也流於表面。實質上,它是北京政權焦慮的集中流露。而《十三五綱要》裏「保江山」的全新動作,也標誌著共產主義國家在危機時刻,強化「警察國家」色彩的天性,正快速復甦。
註:小組機構全稱為:
中央社會治安綜合治理委員會、中央防範和處理邪教問題領導小組、中央維護穩定工作領導小組、中央海洋權益工作領導小組、中央藏區工作協調領導小組、中央新疆工作協調小組、中央金融安全指導委員會,與有中共中央/國務院雙重身份的對台工作領導小組、港澳工作協調小組、中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組、中央保密委員會和中央密碼工作領導小組。

China Military Strategic High Ground of Information Warfare: Spatial Information Confrontation //中國軍事空間信息對抗:信息化戰爭的戰略制高點

中國軍事空间信息对抗:信息化战争的战略制高点

作者:穆志勇 李莉

來源:學習時報2015-06-15

信息化战争的战略制高点

Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely.

All things Internet era, we must rethink the current and future military struggle in the forefront of what? We are talking about local information technology local war where?Information War made the strategic high ground right where?

All things Internet era, control of information has become the battlefield to win the right to the core of an integrated system, “no network without fighting,” “no victorious day” has become iron law, made ​​winning the war of spatial information right to become a strategic safeguarding national sovereignty, security and development interests ground. It extends to the battlefield where, where the initiative will expand the competition. The main countries in the world attach great importance to and respond to threats and challenges from outer space, the space around the right to development, ownership and control, in a fierce competition.

Spatial information against a new means of strategic deterrence quality checks and balances

Spatial information can play against fighting the enemy afraid, Gongdi key is a new means of strategic deterrence quality of checks and balances. On the one hand, with a strong spatial information attack capability, can effectively curb space power, space to defend the sovereignty, enhance the right to speak and the initiative in the international arena; on the other hand, has enough spatial information defense, deterrence and containment can launch the Iraq war opponents button, effectively resist the threat and destruction in outer space, to prevent loss of control of the space.

The United States will “Space confrontation” as a strategic deterrent capability and the “Global Strike” and “nuclear strike” both, and since 2001 has performed seven times, “Schriever” space combat computer simulation exercises; vigorously the development, testing and deployment of space information weapon, launching the world’s first reusable aircraft able to detect, control, capture, destroy the spacecraft his country “orbital test vehicle” X-37B space fighter, space fighter plans to deploy 2025 troops in outer space; “global commons domain intervention and joint mobility “concept vowed to quickly weaken the enemy space facilities capacity through non-kinetic measures to destroy its anti-space capabilities in key elements.Russia to develop “military space recovery plan,” President Putin has restarted “crown” anti-satellite project, focusing on the development of anti-satellite weapons, the “strategic air and space battles” as the basic style of air and space operations, three satellite launch last year and aerospace It is regarded by the United States’ aerospace killer “and ready after 2016 to establish a modern space combat system. Japan’s new “cosmic basic plan” clearly states “actively enter the field of space”, was “modern security”, expanded and enhanced features for satellites to monitor vessels at sea and ground facilities, and trying to build a set of positioning, communication and intelligence gathering and other functions in one of the new satellite systems, the scope of application of force to achieve the SDF land, sea, air, space-round leap.

Spatial information into a military confrontation priority areas for capacity-building

From the world’s military development, the right to take on the overall system of spatial information system other rights, the right to seize control of the spatial information is action battle for dominance of the main action. Local Wars practice, there is no right to make spatial information, the Air Force is difficult to combat, navy naval difficult, with even the best of other weapons and equipment may also be vulnerable to attack. Spatial Information confrontation multidimensional space operations provide important support, “new quality” of the combat system is the ability to generate combat multiplier, it will be the focus of capacity-building in the military field. From the fight for control of space means, the spatial information against strong controllability, flexibility, use of low threshold, a wide scope, with less damage, be cost-effective, it should be current and future space supremacy capacity-building period key development areas.

Currently, the United States actively promote Asia “rebalancing” strategy, trying to fight the development of spatial information capabilities, not only to develop electronic interference and covert soft kill hard against damage and other spatial information means, actively develop their own approach, rendezvous and docking and other space-based technology against the core , also focused on the development of satellite communications electronic jamming, near real-time detection, interference signal feature recognition, sources of interference positioning technology, efforts to develop a variety of space-based anti-satellite weapons, and has begun to deploy automated attacks, identity systems. November 14, 2012 the United States and Australia announced that the US will place a powerful Air Force C-band radar and space telescope in Australia, and it is clear that the United States will shift the strategic part of Asia.This will enable the US forward-deployed every day to keep better track of up to 200 confirmed over the Asia-Pacific and orbital spacecraft and potential anomalies. According to US media reports, the US Air Force and Lockheed Martin in February this year to start construction work in the future, “Space Fence” The new radar system, which also marks the United States started the S-band ground-based radar system, the radar system will replace the United States in the 1960s developed space surveillance systems. Russia’s “Military News” May 18 reported that Air Force Secretary James declared that the US Air Force budget of $ 5 billion has been requested to establish a defense system for the military space to prepare for a possible conflict. Japan’s space development strategy headquarters set up monitoring force and space, and proposed the next 10 years will be launched 45 satellites ambitious goals in the positive development of the second generation of IGS reconnaissance satellite system, while seeking cooperation with ASEAN countries, to build a Japan center, a network of 68 satellite Earth observation satellites, in an attempt to obtain information from other countries and share with the United States at the same time, strengthen the surrounding sea routes to Japan, the Diaoyu Islands and the adjacent waters of the maritime surveillance capability. According to Japan’s Kyodo News reported, the new “US-Japan defense cooperation guidelines” emphasize the importance of space situational awareness, Japan’s “quasi-zenith” satellite system with US satellite positioning system to achieve docking, the US and Japan will strengthen ocean surveillance satellite, by sharing global marine intelligence, to ensure maritime security channel. Russia already has “reconnaissance, attack, defense” against the ability of spatial information integration, particularly in the fight against satellite communications, missile and space defense confrontation, GPS confrontation, antagonism and kinetic energy anti-satellite laser, etc., with strong technical reserves. Indian space reconnaissance and surveillance satellite system has taken shape, the satellite communication network has covered South Asia and the surrounding area, it has achieved near-real-time satellite communication between the services.

Spatial information warfare against the construction and development should focus grasp

Do a good job preparing military struggle, we must make efforts to grasp the initiative in the military struggle space and cyberspace, problem-oriented and adhere to asymmetric development, according to the lean, joint, multi-energy, high efficiency requirements, to ensure the good spatial information focus of fighting against the construction.

Set the right strategic direction. On the basis of the importance of space supremacy, attaches great importance to the construction and development of spatial information against the problem, deal with spatial information science strength confrontational relationship with other strategic force for development, to ensure priority development of spatial information countervailing force. Implement the military strategy for the new period, co-ordination within and outside Xinjiang Xinjiang, preparing for war with the stop, deter and combat, constantly important areas and key links to achieve new breakthroughs; spatial information against the building into the overall layout of the army information construction, improve space iNFORMATION wARFARE development strategy planning; constantly improve the system of operational doctrines, promote space information against the construction work and orderly conduct.

Adhere to military and civilian integration. Strengthening military and civilian integration concept, the basic role of market in resource allocation, according to civil-military integration path of development, through laws, and rich integration of forms and expand the scope of integration, improve the level of integration in the scientific research and technology, weaponry, personnel training, etc. aspects, all-round, multi-domain integration, spatial information against the construction of rich resources and development potential. Pay attention to the military think tank function, strengthen the theoretical study of spatial information confrontation and practical issues, exploration of space information confrontation theoretical system, a clear focus on the construction, development of specific plans, enrich and develop operational guidance to ensure that the substantive work forward.

Construction expertise system. According to aim at the forefront, major breakthroughs require leapfrog development, accelerate the building space information confrontation power system, the formation of spatial information ability to fight as soon as possible. Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely. Actively promote the use of force against spatial information, spatial information to support real-time navigation information reconnaissance operations exercises, testing and training, the formation of combat capability as soon as possible.

Focus on technological innovation. Strengthen technology research efforts, emphasis on spatial information against key technological innovation, stepping up confrontation frontier exploration of space information technology, focusing on the development of advanced satellite communications confrontation, confrontation reconnaissance and surveillance, target feature recognition, information processing technology, and make breakthroughs can promote space information confrontation key technology and equipment updates; attention, independent research and development may change combat style, disruptive technology group rules of engagement, to prevent enemies of my technical strategy formulation sudden, efforts to form the enemy I have, I have no enemy some non symmetrical technological superiority.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

把空間信息對抗武器裝備切實擺上戰略位置,注重發揮空間信息對抗力量對傳統力量的帶動作用和空間信息力量與傳統力量的跨域聯合,實現信息在全維空間自由流動。

萬物互聯的時代,我們必須重新思考,當前和未來軍事鬥爭的前沿在哪?我們所說的信息化局部戰爭的局部在哪?信息化戰爭制權的戰略制高點在哪?
萬物互聯的時代,制信息權成為奪取戰場綜合製權的核心,“無網不戰”“無天不勝”成為戰爭制勝的鐵律,制空間信息權成為維護國家主權、安全和發展利益的戰略制高點。戰場延伸到哪裡,哪裡就會展開主動權的爭奪。世界主要國家高度重視和應對來自外層空間的威脅與挑戰,圍繞太空發展權、主導權和控制權,展開了激烈角逐。
空間信息對抗成為戰略威懾制衡的新質手段
空間信息對抗作戰能打敵所怕、攻敵要害,是戰略威懾制衡的新質手段。一方面,具備強大的空間信息攻擊能力,就可有效遏制太空霸權、捍衛空間主權,提昇在國際舞台的話語權和主動權;另一方面,擁有足夠的空間信息防禦能力,就可威懾和遏制對手輕啟戰爭按鈕,有效抵禦外層空間的威脅和破壞,防止失去對太空的控制權。
美將“空間對抗行動”視為與“全球打擊”和“核打擊”並重的戰略威懾能力,2001年以來先後進行7次“施里弗”太空作戰計算機模擬演習;大力研製、試驗和部署空間信息作戰武器,發射全球首架可重複使用的能夠偵察、控制、捕獲、摧毀他國航天器的“軌道試驗飛行器”X-37B空天戰機,計劃2025年在外層空間部署太空戰鬥機部隊;“全球公域介入與機動聯合”概念宣稱要通過非動能措施迅速弱化敵太空設施能力,破壞其反太空能力中的關鍵要素。俄羅斯制定“太空軍事復興計劃”,總統普京已重啟“樹冠”反衛星項目,重點發展反衛武器,把“戰略性空天戰役”作為空天作戰的基本樣式,去年發射的3顆衛星和航天器被美視為“航天殺手”,並準備在2016年前後建成現代太空作戰系統。日本新《宇宙基本計劃》明確指出要“積極進入太空領域”,獲得“現代化的安全保障”,擴充和強化用於監視海上船舶和地面設施的偵察衛星的功能,試圖通過構建一個集測位、通信和情報蒐集等多功能於一體的新衛星系統,實現自衛隊力量運用範圍的陸、海、空、天全方位跨越。
空間信息對抗成為軍事能力建設重點領域
從世界軍事發展看,制空間信息權統攬其他制權,奪取制空間信息權行動是爭奪戰爭主導權的主體行動。從局部戰爭實踐看,沒有製空間信息權,空軍難以空戰,海軍難以海戰,擁有再好的其他武器裝備也可能被動挨打。空間信息對抗為多維空間作戰行動提供重要支撐,是作戰體系的“新質”,是作戰能力生成的倍增器,必將是軍事能力建設的重點領域。從爭奪制天權的手段看,空間信息對抗可控性強、靈活性好,運用門檻低、作用範圍廣、附帶損傷小、效費比高,應是當前和今後一個時期制天權能力建設發展的重點領域。
目前,美積極推進亞太“再平衡”戰略,竭力發展空間信息對抗能力,不僅大力發展電子乾擾軟殺傷和隱性硬毀傷等空間信息對抗手段,積極發展自主逼近、交會對接等天基對抗核心技術,還重點研製衛星通信電子乾擾、近實時探測、干擾信號特徵識別、干擾源定位技術,努力發展各種天基反衛星武器,且已開始部署自動攻擊、識別系統。 2012年11月14日美國和澳大利亞聯合宣布,美軍將在澳大利亞安置功能強大的空軍C波段雷達和太空望遠鏡,並明確表示這是美國將戰略轉向亞洲的一部分。這一前沿部署將使美每天能夠更好地跟踪確認多達200個亞太上空航天器及其軌道和潛在的異常現象。據美國媒體披露,美國空軍與洛克希德馬丁公司在今年2月啟動了未來“太空籬笆”新型雷達系統的建設工作,這也標誌著美國開始啟動了S波段地基雷達系統,該雷達系統將取代美國20世紀60年代研發的太空監視系統。俄羅斯《軍工新聞網》5月18日報導,美國空軍部長詹姆斯宣稱,美空軍已要求50億美元的預算以建立一個防禦系統,為可能發生的太空軍事衝突做準備。日本成立宇宙開發戰略總部和太空監測部隊,並提出今後10年將發射45顆衛星的宏偉目標,在積極發展第二代IGS偵察衛星系統的同時,正在謀求與東盟國家合作,構建一個以日本為中心、由68顆衛星組成的地球觀測衛星網絡,企圖從他國獲得情報並與美國共享的同時,加強對日本周邊海上要道、釣魚島及其附近海域的海洋監視能力。據日本共同社報導,新版《美日防衛合作指針》強調太空態勢感知的重要性,日本“準天頂”衛星系統與美國衛星定位系統將實現對接,美日將利用衛星加強海洋監視,通過共享全球海洋情報,確保海上通道安全等。俄已具備“偵、攻、防”一體的空間信息對抗能力,特別是在衛星通信對抗、導彈和空間防禦對抗、GPS對抗、激光對抗和動能反衛等方面,擁有雄厚的技術儲備。印度空間偵察監視衛星系統已初具規模,衛星通信網已覆蓋南亞及周邊地區,各軍種之間已實現近實時衛星通信。
空間信息對抗作戰建設發展應把握的著力點
抓好軍事鬥爭準備,必須努力掌握太空和網絡空間軍事鬥爭主動權,堅持問題導向和非對稱發展,按照精幹、聯合、多能、高效的要求,切實把好空間信息對抗作戰建設的著力點。
確立正確戰略指導。在重視制天權的基礎上,高度重視空間信息對抗建設發展問題,科學處理空間信息對抗力量與其他戰略力量發展的關係,保證優先重點發展空間信息對抗力量。貫​​徹新時期軍事戰略方針,統籌疆內與疆外、備戰與止戰、威懾與實戰,不斷實現重要領域和關鍵環節的新突破;把空間信息對抗建設納入軍隊信息化建設總體佈局,搞好空間信息對抗發展戰略籌劃;不斷完善作戰條令體系,促進空間信​​息對抗各項建設和工作有序開展。
堅持軍民融合發展。強化軍民融合發展觀念,發揮市場在資源配置中的基礎性作用,按照軍民融合式發展路子,通過法規建設,豐富融合形式、拓寬融合範圍、提高融合層次,在科研技術、武器裝備、人才培養等方面,進行全方位、多領域融合,為空間信息對抗建設提供豐富資源和發展後勁。注重發揮軍地智庫功能,加強空間信息對抗的理論和實踐問題研究,探索空間信息對抗理論體系,明確建設重點、制定具體計劃,豐富和發展行動指導,確保各項工作實質性推進。
構建專業力量體系。按照瞄準前沿、重點突破、跨越式發展的要求,加速構建空間信息對抗力量體系,盡快形成空間信息對抗能力。把空間信息對抗武器裝備切實擺上戰略位置,注重發揮空間信息對抗力量對傳統力量的帶動作用和空間信息力量與傳統力量的跨域聯合,實現信息在全維空間自由流動。積極推進空間信息對抗力量運用,進行空間信息偵察實時支援引導信息作戰行動的演習、試驗和訓練,盡快形成體係作戰能力。
關注技術創新。加強技術攻關力度,重視空間信息對抗關鍵技術創新,加緊探索空間信息對抗前沿技術,注重發展先進的衛星通信對抗、偵察和監視對抗、目標特徵識別、信息處理等技術,著力突破能夠推動空間信息對抗裝備更新的關鍵技術;高度關注、自主研發可能改變作戰樣式、作戰規則的顛覆性技術群,防止強敵對我形成技術上的戰略突然性,努力形成敵有我有、敵無我有的非對稱技術優勢。

China’s Future Wars: Seize Control of Information with Big Data // 中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權

中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權

Source: 《中国科学报

Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war. From the conversion of the entire information flow point of view, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war. Seize control of information has become the air superiority prerequisites command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war.

■ reporter Hu Min Qi

With the continuous development of information technology, human society has entered a letter of “big data era.” Every day, in every corner of the world sensors, mobile devices, social networks and online trading platform to generate hundreds of gigabytes of data.Obama administration even large data called a “future of the new oil,” Who will come to control the flow of data will dominate the future of the world. As we all know, in the military field has been mankind’s most advanced technology laboratory, big data will no doubt shape the future of the war brought a huge change.

Big Data “big” Where

US Global Institutes define big data as: a large scale in the acquisition, storage, management, analysis far beyond the capabilities of traditional database software tool data set (datasets).

Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Wang Weiping told the computer “China Science News” reporter, big data, “big”, of course, first of all refers to the unprecedentedly large volume of data, far beyond the traditional level of computer processing data volume.

With the current popularity of high-speed computer network technology and the rapid development of the Internet, the information data by TB (1TB = 1024GB) level was raised to PB (1PB = 1024TB), EB (1EB = 1024PB), ZB (1ZB = 1024EB) level , and is still explosive growth. It is reported that, in 2010, officially entered the global era ZB 2012 global data reaches 5.2ZB, 2020, the world will have a total amount of data 35ZB. There is a vivid metaphor can help people understand the scale of the data. If 35ZB to burn all the data capacity of a 9GB disc superimposed height will reach 2.33 million km, equivalent to three round-trip between the Earth and the Moon.

Secondly, Wang Weiping said, “big” is also reflected in the type of data processing diversification, far beyond the traditional format and data analysis tools can handle.

Most of the conventional two-dimensional data structure presentation, but with the Internet, the rapid development of multimedia technology and the popularity of video, audio, images, e-mail, HTML, RFID, GPS and sensors to generate unstructured data, every year 60 % growth rate. We expected to account for over 80% of the amount of data in unstructured data.

In addition, he believes that big data also requires real-time data processing. Big data stream is often a high-speed real-time data streams, and often require rapid, continuous real-time processing, to seize the important events that occurred in the first time.

If you look from the military field, command and control systems, space-based support systems, information processing systems, various reconnaissance, surveillance, increasing the amount of information detection system, big data management in the command structure of the complex and also more important than ever . How massive battlefield data storage and in-depth analysis, how to determine the authenticity of the data, the reliability of data sources to ensure the security of data transmission is a key issue facing the warring parties.

Information warfare against large data requirements

Military theorists generally believe that, as early as the 90s of last century, the information war began to rise. It is a weapon of war by the use of information technology affect adversary information and information systems, to protect one’s own information and information systems, to obtain information superiority battlefield combat style. It is essentially by means of information operations, “information flow” control “energy flow” and “material flow”, depriving the enemy of information superiority, information superiority to maintain one’s own, thus seize control of information battlefield.

Military commentator 宋忠平 to “China Science News” reporter explained, the traditional network of information warfare include battle, conventional combat interference and anti-interference system under criminal investigation as well as detection and anti-detection and other content. “Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war from the point of view convert the entire flow of information, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war.” 宋忠平 he said, “to seize control of information air superiority has become a prerequisite for command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war. ”

But he also said that traditional information warfare in dealing with information and data encountered various challenges. The first is the limited traditional information channels, you can not get a lot of information. At the same time, not only a substantial increase in the amount of data, including various types of data in the form of situational awareness data, images, video intelligence, relying on existing information technology, can not be effectively analyze and process the data.

According to reports, the day of the outbreak of the war in Iraq, the US military forward command post in Qatar and Kuwait because the security agencies can not handle large amounts of data have to turn off the device, resulting in correspondence with some assault command post direction almost interrupted.

In addition, Song Zhongping pointed out, data sharing capabilities of traditional information system is relatively weak. “War is the traditional way of fighting off state, superior to subordinate assignments and perform offline, last victories to report a higher level. And only control one army general command of a division, because they tend to be as an independent combat units, which also led to the relevant departments are often their own business, the impact of coordinated operations efficiency. ”

In this context, information war on large data transfer, storage, analysis yielded specific requirements.

The first is the real-time requirements of data processing. Information warfare ultimately generated vast amounts of data collection and processing center to the command center at all levels, the steady stream of gathering data from a variety of sensors, intelligence agencies and the information transmitted to the center together, these data to be processed in real time. Song Zhongping believe that all the information even if it is a battlefield soldier needs to spread information command and control center through the large data to understand the situation frontline, under special circumstances even for a soldier’s equipment orders. Because he may be at the most favorable terrain, you can get maximum advantage.

Followed by data fusion. Song Zhongping proposed by datalink even pull a short road that used to take four to five orders of management skills, the future may only need to complete the three-level management, so as to contribute to the integration of operations, rather than individual branches of the military to fight alone anywhere, anytime to adjust operational command.

Moreover, in his view, the era of big data, in particular to increase the difficulty of defense information, for higher data security requirements. In general, the information war against information security requirements for data transmission is mainly reflected in addressing anti-eavesdropping, jamming and prevent the problem of false information to deceive. I am afraid the future needs a new defense mechanisms to ensure information security.

Thus, in the information war era of big data, the system of military confrontation countries will rely on a variety of military information systems, software and data to a greater extent, at the right time, the right place for the right decisions, directing control and provide the correct information. Leaving the information provided to achieve a reasonable distribution of fast, it is to have the data and unified management, so that the most immediate battlefield information to the department most urgently needed. With the increasing amount of data the battlefield, and efficient mass data storage and analysis, identify the enemy situation changes from the data, the most reasonable prediction of operational programs to better serve the massive data information war military service is a large data processing aims.

Military data mining challenge

However, Wang Weiping noted that a major challenge facing the era of big data is the low value of the density of information. Whether or intelligent systems analysts need to “needle in a haystack” to find useful information from massive data. “It also fully reflects the importance of data mining.” He stressed.

Data mining is a use in massive data analysis tools discovery process between model and data relationships that can help decision-makers to find a correlation between potential data, by discovering the hidden, overlooked factors, it is possible in data storage and management process, dig out important intelligence information, as a basis for decision-making and action.

According 宋忠平 revealed before the “September 11” incident, intelligence officers are judged to master a lot of data, but it ignores the valuable information.

Thus, after the “September 11” incident, the US Defense Advanced research projects in the following year’s annual technology conference, explains how to use the data in a unified and integrated database mining techniques.

The so-called new data sources is the “transaction space.” If the terrorists to plan and execute a terrorist activity, they will certainly leave some kind of “data footprint” in the information space. That is, they need to “deal.” Data records of such transactions, which can be communications, finance, education, health care, can also travel, transportation, immigration, housing and so on all other data records. It is the application data in the United States “transaction” space mining technology to detect and track terrorists.

It is understood that, in 2002, the big drug lords in Afghanistan preparing to provide funding for al-Qaeda and other terrorists, US military intelligence analysts is through data mining, data funds operational plan with the Al-Qaida Curry Curry’s case data in real time, independent association to guide the US military before the enemy further action.

So, how to enhance the ability of data mining technically. Wang Weiping told the “China Science News” reporter, at the entrance of the control of data quality is critical. That is, the data preparation is an important prerequisite for data mining, because it directly affects the accuracy and efficiency of data mining. “If all the data of varying quality into the channel, it is difficult and then the quality is not high, data processing, they will cause serious interference of useful information.”

In short, the data preparation phase, the need for data cleansing, and secondly, the need to analyze the selected data, reduction processing range. In data preprocessing stage, including the elimination of duplicate data, remove noise, missing data processing, data type conversion, etc. The purpose is to process the data into a form suitable for data mining, and on the basis of data selected on mining data for further reduction to reduce processing time and memory resources, making mining more efficient.

Future wars will change shape

The Obama administration on March 29, 2012 issued a “big data research and development initiatives” (Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative), will enhance the development of big data for national policy. The US Big Data project is an important part of the US national projects. It is understood that the United States Department of Defense and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the existing big data projects a total of 10, wherein the data to decision-making, internal network threats, video search and analysis, X- and other project data are representative.

The most important data to decision-making projects, mainly refers to a variety of new ways to take advantage of huge amounts of data, integrate perception, cognition and decision support systems to create a truly autonomous system, making it possible to customize the motorized operation and decision-making ; video search and analysis; network project aimed at internal threats through the use of new cyber threats judgment technology to improve the accuracy of Discovery network spying activities, frequency and speed, so early exposure and prevent sabotage opponents, and enhance network security level of one’s own Once the project is successful, analysts massive video library will be able to quickly and accurately retrieve specific video content, thereby enabling fully, efficiently mine the useful information hidden in the image; X- data project mainly through the development of large capacity scalable data analysis algorithms needed to handle distributed data repository irregular data. Through the development of efficient human-computer interaction devices and visual user interface technology, in order to better diversify tasks, perform operations more quickly.

With the implementation and realization of large data projects, future wars revolutionary change may occur.

Song Zhongping considered one of the most important large-value data is predicted that the data algorithm is applied to a mass of data to predict the likelihood happening up, therefore, the ability to command and decision-making future war can produce a great leap forward.

He told the “China Science News” reporters, for example, as early as in the first Gulf War, the US military before the war with improved civil war games, war process, outcomes and casualties were deduction, the deduction results and the actual results of the war are basically the same. And before the war in Iraq, the US military use of computer systems wargame exercises, deduction “against Iraq” war plan. Then the reality of the invasion of Iraq and the US military victory actions, and also the results of war games are almost exactly the same. At this point, combat simulations have changed from manual mode to computer mode.

“Relying on big data and cloud computing platform, pre-war simulation deduction, from the use of weapons, to play war command means, it can be clearly revealed, as a basis for decision-making during the war.” 宋忠平 said, “Once operational plan has question, can adjust to ensure a minimum combat casualties and win. ”

Secondly, the integration of data is expected to break the barriers between the military services. Big Data can solve troops across military services, cross-sectoral coordination problems, truly integrated operations.

In addition, Song Zhongping believe big data can change the future form of war. In particular, the pursuit of large US data have supported autonomy unmanned combat platform.For example, currently the world’s most advanced unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, “Global Hawk”, to continuously monitor the moving target, to accurately identify the various types of aircraft ground, missiles, and vehicles, and even can clearly distinguish gear car tires. Song Zhongping pointed out that UAVs the ability to do real-time image transmission is critical. Currently, the US is using a new generation of very high frequency communications satellite as a support big data platform.

Future, UAVs could even get rid of human control to achieve full autonomy of action. US unmanned experimental aircraft X-47B is the representative of that already in the case of fully human intervention, automatically take off and land on aircraft carriers and perform combat missions.

“Global Hawk” unmanned aerial vehicles

Further reading  From Data to Decisions

Speed ​​of information processing information systems, target acquisition time situation, the decision cycle and fast response time determines the success of military operations. In the background of big data, speed up the transfer of battlefield information, shortening “from sensor to shooter” cycle, and “discovery that is destroyed,” the operational objectives, the most important issue information system must address. Therefore, the “Data to Decisions project” has become a big data project in the US the most critical one.Currently, the US Army has increased its massive information fusion capability, combat is building intelligent decision support system has made some achievements.

US Army Distributed Common Ground System

The end of 2012, the US Army has begun to deploy combat-proven through intelligence systems in the world. December 14, “the Army Distributed Common Ground System” (D6A) approved the Defense Acquisition Executive Committee (DAE) is responsible for implementation by.

Previously, D6A just as a quick reaction capability, successfully used in Iraq and Afghanistan. Currently D6A been approved for all Army troops, and has been deployed to all brigade-level units. “Rapid reaction capability” refers to a rapid deployment to meet the most immediate and most urgent needs of the system, such as combat environment, but it does not get the approval of the full deployment.

D6A task for the entire federal army and its intelligence agencies and between the Allies, processing, development and dissemination of information, instead of nine different types of legacy systems, an important part of the Army’s modernization program. D6A can help users to share applications, text files, graphics, photographs, maps, etc. Compared with the old system, D6A in 2012 and 2017 savings of $ 300 million. In the whole life cycle (2012 – 2034), D6A savings of approximately $ 1.2 billion.

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology (Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN) functions similar to Web search engine application software, commanders for tactical operations center to monitor the received instruction information and publish updated. “Titan” to filter information according to specific mission requirements, clearing commander computer screen (desktop), providing topographic maps, pictures, and text links concise instruction template to form a common operational picture. “Titan” also provides a command post of the future (CPOF) and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below / Blue Force Tracking Support (FBCB2-BFT) systems can be integrated with data from other critical areas.

Intelligent network control software mobile command center

Intelligent network control software mobile command center (Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software) is a handheld mission command systems, can receive and publish one’s own and enemy forces location information, integrated from the tactical unattended ground sensors various types of sensors and radar detection system information to the enemy in order to achieve progress in real-time monitoring and protection of the weak areas.

Combatants companion artificial intelligence software

Warfighter partner (Warfighter Associate) artificial intelligence software that can automatically search for information about the dialogue between the various types of sensitive target text chat tool to detect soldiers advance will be reported to the command post of the future common operational picture, for example, when a troop of soldiers found minefields, usually manually enter the relevant information on the various information systems, the software can automatically extract the grid coordinates minefields will automatically enter the next command post system, 15 to 20 minutes in advance, in the common operating picture generate relevant information, otherwise the message will be delayed or submerged. Driving artificial intelligence technology, operational and tactical knowledge database theory, the “combatants partner” to complete the cleanup command post next screen, highlight important information, provide warnings and recommendations, and other auxiliary functions users perform the correct decision and action programs.

Original mandarin Chinese:

中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權

信息戰打的就是信息流的戰爭。從整個信息流的轉換來看,誰控制了最真實的信息流,誰就控制了這場戰爭的主導權。奪取制信息權已經成為奪取制空權、制海權的先決條件,是未來戰爭勝敗的決定性因素。

■本報記者 胡珉琦

隨著信息化不斷發展,人類社會已經進入了一個不折不扣的“大數據時代”。每天,遍布世界各個角落的傳感器、移動設備、社交網絡和在線交易平台生成上百萬兆字節的數據。美國奧巴馬政府甚至將大數據稱為“未來的新石油”,誰掌控了數據流誰就將主宰未來世界。眾所周知,軍事領域一直都是人類最先進科技的實驗室,大數據無疑將給未來戰爭形態帶來巨大的改變。

大數據“大”在哪兒

麥肯錫全球研究所對大數據的定義是:一種規模大到在獲取、存儲、管理、分析方面大大超出了傳統數據庫軟件工具能力範圍的數據集合(datasets)。

中科院計算機所研究員王偉平告訴《中國科學報》記者,大數據的“大”,理所當然,首先指的是數據體量空前巨大,遠遠超出傳統計算機處理數據量的級別。

當前伴隨著計算機網絡技術的迅速發展和互聯網的高速普及,信息數據量已由TB(1TB=1024GB)級升至PB(1PB=1024TB)、EB(1EB=1024PB)、ZB(1ZB=1024EB)級,並仍在呈爆炸式地增長。據悉,全球在2010 年正式進入ZB 時代,2012 年全球數據量達到5.2ZB,預計到2020年,全球將總共擁有35ZB 的數據量。有一個形象的比喻可以幫助人們理解這些數據的規模。如果把35ZB 的數據全部刻錄到容量為9GB 的光盤上,其疊加的高度將達到233 萬公里,相當於在地球與月球之間往返三次。

其次,王偉平表示,“大”也體現在處理的數據類型多樣化,遠遠超出傳統數據格式和分析工具能處理的範疇。

以往數據大都以二維結構呈現,但隨著互聯網、多媒體等技術的快速發展和普及,視頻、音頻、圖片、郵件、HTML、RFID、GPS 和傳感器等產生的非結構化數據,每年都以60 %的速度增長。預計,非結構化數據將佔數據總量的80%以上。

此外,他認為大數據還要求數據處理的實時性。大數據的數據流往往為高速實時數據流,而且往往需要快速、持續的實時處理,能在第一時間抓住重要事件發生的信息。

如果從軍事領域看,指揮控制系統、天基支持系統、信息處理系統,各種偵察、監視、探測系統的信息量越來越大,大數據在指揮機構中的管理也變得空前重要和復雜。如何對海量戰場數據進行存儲與深度分析,如何判別數據的真實性,數據來源的可靠性,確保數據傳輸的安全性,是未來戰爭雙方面臨的問題。

信息化戰爭對大數據的要求

軍事理論界普遍認為,早在上個世紀​​90年代,信息化戰爭開始崛起。它是一種通過使用信息化戰爭武器影響敵方信息與信息系統,保護己方信息與信息系統,從而取得戰場信息優勢的作戰樣式。它本質上是通過信息作戰手段,以“信息流”控制“能量流”和“物質流”,剝奪敵方的信息優勢、保持己方的信息優勢,從而奪取戰場製信息權。

軍事評論員宋忠平向《中國科學報》記者解釋,傳統的信息戰包括了網絡攻防戰,常規作戰中的干擾與反干擾,還有刑偵系統下的偵測與反偵測等內容。 “信息戰打的就是信息流的戰爭。從整個信息流的轉換來看,誰控制了最真實的信息流,誰就控制了這場戰爭的主導權。”宋忠平說,“奪取制信息權已經成為奪取制空權、制海權的先決條件,是未來戰爭勝敗的決定性因素。”

但他也表示,傳統信息戰在處理信息以及數據方面遭遇到了各種挑戰。首先是傳統信息通道有限,無法一次獲取大量信息。同時,不僅僅是數據量大幅增加,數據形式包括了戰場感知數據、影像、視頻情報等各種類型,僅僅依靠現有信息技術,不能及時高效地分析和處理這些數據。

據報導,伊拉克戰爭爆發當日,美軍駐卡塔爾和科威特前進指揮所由於無法處理保障機構提供的海量數據,不得不關閉設備,從而造成指揮所與部分突擊方向的通信聯繫幾乎中斷。

此外,宋忠平指出,傳統信息系統的數據分享能力比較弱。 “傳統戰爭是一種離線狀態下的作戰方式,上級給下級分配任務,並在離線狀態下執行,最後向上級匯報一個戰果。而且命令一般只能管一個軍一個師,因為他們往往是作為一個獨立的作戰單位。這也導致了相關部門往往各自為營,影響協同作戰的效率。”

在這樣的背景下,信息化戰爭對大數據傳輸、存儲、分析產生了特殊的要求。

首先是數據處理的實時性要求。信息化戰爭中產生的海量數據最終要匯集到各級指揮中心和處理中心,這些數據源源不斷地從各種傳感器、情報機構以及信息中心傳輸匯聚到一起,要對這些數據進行實時處理。宋忠平認為,戰場所有信息哪怕是一個單兵的信息都需要通過大數據傳到指揮控制中心,以了解前線情況,特殊狀況下甚至可以對某個單兵的裝備下達命令。因為,他可能正處在最有利的地形,可以獲取最大的優勢。

其次是數據融合。宋忠平提出,通過使數據鏈的連路拉短,以前需要四至五級的管理才能下達命令,未來可能只需要三級管理完成,這樣才能有助於一體化作戰,而不是各個軍兵種單獨作戰,隨時隨地調整作戰指揮。

此外,在他看來,大數據時代,信息防禦難度尤其加大,對於數據安全要求更高。一般而言,信息化戰爭對數據傳輸的信息安全要求主要體現在解決防竊聽、抗干擾和防止虛假信息欺騙的問題上。未來恐怕需要一套新的防禦機制,以確保信息安全。

由此可見,在大數據時代的信息化戰爭中,各國軍事體系的對抗將在更大程度上依靠各種軍事信息系統、軟件和數據,在正確的時間、正確的地點為正確的決策、指揮和控制提供正確的信息。而使信息實現快速合理分發的前提,是要有對數據的統一調度和管理,讓最即時的戰場信息傳遞到最迫切需要的部門。隨著戰場數據量的增大,高效存儲與分析海量數據,從數據中發掘敵我態勢的變化,預測出最合理的作戰方案,使海量數據更好地為信息化戰爭服務是軍事大數據處理的目標。

軍事數據挖掘面臨挑戰

不過,王偉平指出,大數據時代面臨的一大挑戰是信息的價值密度低。無論是分析人員還是智能係統都需要“大海撈針”,從海量數據中找到有用信息。 “這也充分體現了數據挖掘的重要性。”他強調。

數據挖掘是一個在海量數據中利用各種分析工具發現模型與數據間關係的過程,它可以幫助決策者尋找數據間潛在的某種關聯,通過發現被隱藏的、被忽略的因素,就能夠在數據存儲和管理過程中,挖掘出重要的情報信息,作為決策和行動的依據。

據宋忠平透露,在“9·11”事件發生前,情報研判人員是掌握了大量數據的,但卻忽視了其中有價值的情報。

因此,在“9·11”事件之後,美國國防部高級項目研究在次年的技術年會上,闡述瞭如何在統一集成的數據庫中應用數據挖掘技術。

所謂新的數據資源就是“交易空間”。如果恐怖分子要計劃、執行一次恐怖活動,他們必定會在信息空間留下某種“數據腳印”。也就是說,他們需要“交易”。這種交易的數據記錄,可以是通訊、財務、教育、醫療,也可以是旅行、交通、出入境、房屋等等其他一切數據記錄。美國正是在“交易”空間中應用數據挖掘技術,從而發現和追踪恐怖分子的。

據了解,2002年,阿富汗境內的大毒梟準備為基地組織等恐怖分子提供資金時,美軍的情報分析人員正是通過數據挖掘,把作戰方案庫裡的數據與有關基地組織情況庫裡的資金數據進行實時、自主關聯,從而指導美軍先敵一步採取行動。

那麼,如何從技術上提升數據挖掘的能力。王偉平告訴《中國科學報》記者,在入口處對數據質量進行把控是非常關鍵的。也就是說,數據準備是數據挖掘的重要前提,因為它直接影響到數據挖掘的效率和精準度。 “如果質量參差不齊的數據統統進入通道,便很難再對質量不高的數據進行處理,他們將對有用信息造成嚴重的干擾。”

簡言之,在數據準備階段,需要對數據進行清洗,其次,選出需要分析的數據,縮小處理範圍。而在數據預處理階段,包括了消除重複數據、消除噪聲、遺漏數據處理、數據類型轉換等,目的是把數據處理成適合於數據挖掘的形式,並在數據選擇的基礎上對挖掘數據作進一步的約簡減少內存資源和處理時間,使挖掘更有效。

未來戰爭形態將發生改變

奧巴馬政府於2012年3月29日發布了《大數據研發倡議》(Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative),將大數據研發提升為國家政策。而美軍大數據項目正是美國國家項目的重要組成部分。據了解,美國國防部及其下屬國防高級研究計劃局現有的大數據項目共有10個,其中,數據到決策、網絡內部威脅、影像檢索與分析、X-數據項目等是具有代表性的。

最重要的數據到決策項目,主要指的是通過各種新途徑充分利用海量數據,整合感知、認知和決策保障系統,以創造一種真正自主的系統,使之可以自主機動作業並作出決策;網絡內部威脅項目目的是通過採用新式網絡威脅判斷技術,提高探知網絡刺探活動的精度、頻度和速度,從而及早暴露和防範對手的破壞活動,並提升己方的網絡安全水平;影像檢索與分析項目一旦取得成功,分析人員將能從海量視頻庫中快速、精確地檢索特定的視頻內容,由此便能充分、高效地挖掘影像中隱藏的有用信息; X-數據項目主要是通過開發大容量數據分析所需的可擴展算法, 以便處理分佈式數據存儲庫中的不規則數據。通過開發高效的人機互動設備和可視用戶界面技術,以便在多樣化任務中更好、更快地執行操作。

有了大數據項目的實施和實現,未來戰爭可能發生革命性的變化。

宋忠平認為,大數據最重要的價值之一是預測,把數據算法運用到海量的數據上來預測事情發生的可能性,因此,未來戰爭的指揮決策能力可以產生很大的飛躍。

他向《中國科學報》記者舉例,早在第一次海灣戰爭中,美軍戰前利用改進的民間兵棋,對戰爭進程、結果及傷亡人數進行了推演,推演結果與戰爭的實際結果基本一致。而在伊拉克戰爭前,美軍利用計算機兵棋系統進行演習,推演“打擊伊拉克”作戰預案。隨後美軍現實中進攻伊拉克並取得勝利的行動,也和兵棋推演的結果幾乎完全一致。至此,作戰模擬已經從人工模式轉變為計算機模式。

“依託大數據和雲計算平台,戰前的模擬推演,從武器使用、戰爭打法到指揮手段,都可以清晰地顯現,作為戰時決策的依據。”宋忠平說,“一旦發現作戰計劃有問題,可以及時調整,以確保實戰傷亡最小並取得勝利。”

其次,數據的融合有望打破軍種之間的壁壘。大數據可以解決軍隊跨軍種、跨部門協作的問題,真正實現一體化作戰。

除此之外,宋忠平認為,大數據可以改變未來的戰爭形態。美軍尤其追求大數據支撐的擁有自主能力的無人作戰平台。例如,目前全世界最先進的無人偵查機“全球鷹”,能連續監視運動目標,準確識別地面的各種飛機、導彈和車輛的類型,甚至能清晰分辨出汽車輪胎的齒輪。宋忠平指出,無人機能否做到實時地對圖像進行傳輸非常關鍵。目前,美國正使用新一代極高頻的通訊衛星作為大數據平台的支撐。

未來,無人機甚至有可能擺脫人的控制實現完全的自主行動。美軍試驗型無人戰鬥機X-47B就是這一代表,它已經可以在完全無人干預的情況下,自動在航母上完成起降並執行作戰任務。

“全球鷹”無人機

 

延伸閱讀

從數據到決策

信息系統的信息處理速度、目標態勢獲取時間、決策週期以及快速響應時間決定著軍事行動的成敗。在大數據背景下,加快戰場信息流轉,縮短“從傳感器到射手”的周期,實現“發現即摧毀”的作戰目標,成為信息系統建設必須解決的首要問題。因此,“數據到決策項目”成為了美軍大數據項目中最為關鍵的一個。目前,美陸軍已經提高了對海量信息的融合處理能力,正在建設的智能化作戰決策支持系統也取得了一些成果。

美陸軍分佈式通用地面系統

2012年底,美國陸軍開始在全球全面部署經過作戰驗證的情報系統。 12月14日,“陸軍分佈式通用地面系統”(D6A)獲得批准,並由國防採辦執行委員會(DAE)負責實施。

此前,D6A只是作為一種快速反應能力,成功用於伊拉克和阿富汗。目前D6A已獲批用於陸軍所有部隊,並已部署到所有旅級單位。 “快速反應能力”是指一種可以快速部署,以滿足最直接、最迫切需要的系統,比如作戰環境,但它不一定獲得了全面部署的批准。

D6A用於整個陸軍以及它與聯邦情報機構和盟軍之間的任務、處理、開發和傳播情報,取代了9種不同類型的舊系統,成為陸軍現代化計劃的重要組成部分。 D6A可以幫助用戶共享應用程序、文本文件、圖表、照片、地圖等等。與舊系統相比,D6A在2012~2017年可節約3億美元。而在整個壽命週期中(2012~2034年),D6A可節約大約12億美元。

“泰坦”認證網絡戰術信息技術

“泰坦”認證網絡戰術信息技術(Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN)的功能類似於網絡搜索引擎應用軟件,指揮官用於在戰術作戰中心監控接收到的信息和發布更新後的指令。 “泰坦”可根據具體任務需求過濾信息,清理指揮官的計算機屏幕(桌面),提供與地形圖、圖片和文本鏈接的簡明指令模板,以形成通用作戰圖。 “泰坦”還提供了對未來指揮所(CPOF)和21世紀部隊旅及旅以下作戰指揮/藍軍跟踪(FBCB2-BFT)系統的支持,可融合來自其他領域的關鍵數據。

智能式網絡中心移動指揮控制軟件

智能式網絡中心移動指揮控制軟件(Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software)是一種手持式任務指揮系統,可接收和發布己方和敵軍部隊的位置信息,綜合來自戰術無人值守地面傳感器等各類傳感器和雷達探測系統的信息,從而實現對敵軍進展的實時監控和對薄弱區域的防護。

作戰人員伴侶人工智能軟件

作戰人員伴侶(Warfighter Associate)人工智能軟件,可自動搜尋各類文本交談工具,探測士兵之間有關敏感目標的對話信息,提前將其反饋給未來指揮所的通用作戰圖,例如當某部隊的士兵發現地雷場後,通常會在各類信息系統上人工輸入相關信息,該軟件能夠自動提取地雷場的網格坐標,將其自動輸入未來指揮所繫統,提前15~20分鐘,在通用作戰圖上生成相關信息,否則該信息會延遲或被淹沒。在人工智能技術、作戰理論與戰術知識數據庫的驅動下,“作戰人員伴侶”能完成清理未來指揮所顯示屏、突出重要信息、提供警告和建議等輔助用戶決策和執行正確的行動方案的功能。

Source: 《中国科学报

China Options and the New US Network Warfare Strategy // 中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略

中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略

来源: 中国电子报

中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略

April 23, the US Department of Defense released a new web strategy to replace in 2011 issued a “cyberspace operations strategy.” The new network strategy clearly reflects the “war to end war”, “pre-emptive” thinking explicit proposal to strengthen the construction of the network deterrence, and under what circumstances you can use cyber weapons against network attacks, and lists the greatest threat to countries China, Russia, Iran, North Korea thinks it. The US strategy is bound to intensify the arms race in cyberspace, increasing the likelihood of cyber war broke out, bring more unrest to cyberspace, our response should be prepared in advance, to prepare for contingencies.

The new network strategy “new” Where?

First, a clear network deterrence as a strategic objective. Prior to this, the US has been pursuing a strategy of active defense, the Department of Defense in 2011 issued a “cyberspace operations strategy” in spite of the new network to be deployed weapons, but still mainly focus on cyber defense. The new network strategy will focus on the network as a deterrent, will build the power of the Internet to deal with cyber war as a key objective, and clearly the network architecture includes 133 troops teams. As US Secretary of Defense Carter said, the new network strategy will show the determination of the American cyber attacks to retaliate, “We need to prove to the world that we will protect themselves.”

Second, a clear expansion of the coverage of the network of national defense. The United States has multiple departments, including the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security and the National Security Bureau in network security, while the United States a lot of critical information infrastructure by the private sector operators, in order to protect the network security of government departments closely between public and private institutions Cooperation.Although the 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” in the proposed public-private partnership to strengthen, also referred to strengthen cooperation between the Department of Homeland Security, but the new strategy will be directly “to protect local interests are not destructive and core network attack “the department of Defense and other written tasks, network infrastructure, private sector operators are also included in the scope of protection of the department of Defense, but also proposes strengthening cybersecurity information sharing among government departments and between public and private institutions.

The third is clearly cyber war adversary. Although the United States has been an enemy list, but its previous strategy documents are rarely directly named 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” in only a general reference to rival cyberspace. But the new network strategy was to dedicate China, Russia, Iran and North Korea and other countries put forward, which is the number of countries in recent years has repeatedly accused. In fact, the United States has been through a variety of ways to find a reasonable excuse for network monitoring, network armaments and other acts taken against cyber attacks accusing China, Russia and other countries are most common in the United States in April 2015 the company released a FireCam accused China and Russia were two reports of cyber attacks.

What impact will the world?

First, the network will be further intensified competition in armaments. According to the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research in 2013 statistics, there are 47 countries, announced the formation of a network warfare units, 67 countries set up a network of non-military security agencies. With further exacerbated cyberspace security threats, data still growing, new network strategy to attack the United States and deterrence as the core will further aggravate the situation. As the world network of the most powerful country, the United States continued to increase network armaments efforts, other countries will inevitably increase its own power into the network.

Second, large-scale networks will continue to increase the risk of war. In recent years, cyber conflict between nations has been emerging, but the conflict is still the main non-governmental forces, the conflict broke out between the network such as Malaysia and the Philippines, North Korea and South Korea, although part of the conflict emerge out of the shadow of national power, but there is no State publicly acknowledged. US network to the new network strategy war on its head, and set trigger conditions for cyber attacks, in the current absence of international standards related to cyberspace, cyber war risk between countries will continue to increase.

Third, the network will become the fuse of conflict in the real world war. In recent years, the United States has been trying to set a standard network warfare, from the 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” to 2013’s “Tallinn Manual”, to the new network strategy, the United States has been as a response to the reality of armed combat cyber attacks a means. However, due to technical limitations, network attacks traced still difficult to achieve, the US government and corporate network attacks blamed the lack of direct evidence, or even need to confirm whether the other attacks by cyber attacks, such as the media reported that the United States finds that a North Korean attack from Sony Sony Korea nearly 10 years of network attacks. In this case, it is the United States armed attacks as an excuse to invade his country may occur.

How should China respond?

First, the introduction of national cybersecurity strategy. Based on important principles and national positions to protect national security in cyberspace, the formation of a clear framework for strategic action in cyberspace, improve top-level design Cyberspace national strategic layout.Key areas and key elements for the development of integrated package of cyberspace action plan, including countries such as the protection of critical information infrastructure, the establishment of a sound network and information security system.

The second is to establish a network of space defense forces. Established under the Ministry of Defence into the establishment of the network unit, identify core functions and the main task of the network forces, formed a dedicated network security personnel training and selection of channels, rapid formation of cyberspace defense capability. Set up in the National Technology Plan network security technology projects, research network attack and defense technology and equipment, the establishment of Cyber ​​Range, conduct regular network attack and defense drills, form a network combat capability.

Third, actively participate in international cooperation in cyberspace. Participation in the intergovernmental process of network security cooperation, strengthen dialogue between Russia and the United States, European Union and other countries and regions, forming a major cyber security incident communication and coordination mechanisms. Actively promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation within the framework of the United Nations, the promotion of international conventions to resist the formation of cyber war, the establishment of a unified network of weapons found, network attacks and other recognized international standards.Actively participate in international exchanges and publicly announced our attitude to cyber war, emphasized that States have the responsibility and obligation to protect its cyberspace and critical infrastructure from threats, interference and sabotage attacks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

4月23日,美国国防部发布了新的网络战略,以替换于2011年发布的《网络空间行动战略》。新的网络战略明显体现了“以战止战”、“先发制人”的思想,明确提出要强化网络威慑力量的建设,以及在何种情况下可以使用网络武器来对付网络攻击者,并列出了中国、俄罗斯、伊朗、朝鲜等其自认为威胁最大的国家。美国这一战略势必加剧网络空间军备竞赛,增加网络战争爆发的可能性,给网络空间安全带来更多不安定因素,我国应提前做好应对措施,以备不时之需。

新版网络战略“新”在何处?

一是明确将网络威慑作为战略目标。在此之前,美国一直推行积极防御战略,2011年国防部发布的《网络空间行动战略》中虽然提出要部署一些新的网络武器,但仍主要以网络防御为重点。而新的网络战略中则将网络威慑作为重点,将建设应对网络战争的网络力量作为重点目标,并明确了包含133个小组的网络部队架构。正如美国国防部长卡特所说,新的网络战略展示了美国将对网络攻击进行报复的决心,“我们有必要向世界证明,我们将保护自己。”

二是明确扩大网络国防的覆盖范围。美国在网络安全方面有多个部门负责,包括美国国防部、国土安全部和国家安全局等,同时美国大量关键信息基础设施由私营机构运营,以保障网络安全有政府部门、公私机构间的紧密合作。虽然2011年的《网络空间行动战略》中就提出要加强公私合作,也提到了要加强与国土安全部之间的合作,但新的战略则直接将“保障本土和核心利益不受破坏性网络攻击”等写入了国防部的任务,私营机构运营的网络基础设施也纳入了国防部保护的范畴,同时也提出加强政府各部门间以及公私机构间的网络安全信息共享等。

三是明确提出网络战争假想敌。虽然美国一直有一个假想敌名单,但其之前的战略文件中很少直接点名,2011年的《网络空间行动战略》中也只是笼统地提到网络空间的对手。但新的网络战略却专门将中国、俄罗斯、伊朗和朝鲜等国提了出来,这也是其近年来不断指责的一些国家。实际上,美国一直通过多种途径为其采取的网络监控、网络军备等行为寻找合理借口,针对中国、俄罗斯等国的网络攻击指责则最为普遍,在2015年4月份美国火眼公司就发布了指责中国和俄罗斯进行网络攻击的两份报告。

将给世界带来什么影响?

一是网络军备竞争将进一步加剧。据联合国裁军研究所2013年的统计,有47个国家宣布组建了网络战部队,67个国家组建了非军方网络安全机构。随着网络空间安全威胁的进一步加剧,相关数据还在不断增加,美国以进攻和威慑为核心的新网络战略将进一步加剧这一情况。作为世界上网络力量最强大的国家,美国仍不断加大网络军备力度,其他国家也不可避免地加大自身网络力量投入。

二是大规模网络战争风险将不断加大。近年来,国家间的网络冲突已经不断出现,但冲突仍以民间力量为主,如马来西亚和菲律宾、朝鲜和韩国等之间爆发的网络冲突,虽然部分冲突浮现出国家力量的影子,但尚没有国家公开承认。美国新的网络战略把网络战争提到了台面上,并为网络攻击设定了触发条件,在当前缺乏国际网络空间相关标准的情况下,国家间的网络战争风险将不断加大。

三是网络冲突将成为现实世界战争的导火索。近年来,美国一直试图设定网络战的标准,从2011年的《网络空间行动战略》到2013年的《塔林手册》,再到新的网络战略,美国一直将现实武装打击作为应对网络攻击的一种手段。但由于技术所限,网络攻击追溯仍较难实现,美国政府及企业的网络攻击指责都缺乏直接证据,甚至需要通过网络攻击来确认对方是否攻击,如媒体报道称美国认定朝鲜攻击索尼公司源于索尼对朝鲜网络近10年的攻击。在这种情况下,很可能出现美国以网络攻击为借口武装入侵他国的现象。

中国应如何应对?

一是推出网络安全国家战略。基于保障国家网络空间安全的重要原则和国家立场,形成清晰的网络空间战略行动的框架,完善网络空间国家战略布局的顶层设计。针对网络空间关键领域和关键要素统筹制定一揽子行动计划,包括国家关键信息基础设施的保护工作等,建立完善的网络和信息安全保障体系。

二是建立网络空间防御力量。在国防部下设立成建制的网络部队,明确网络部队的核心职能和主要任务,形成专门的网络安全人才培养和选拔通道,快速形成网络空间防御能力。在国家科技计划中设立网络安全技术专项,研究网络攻防技术设备,建立网络靶场,开展定期网络攻防演习,形成网络实战能力。

三是积极参与国际网络空间合作。参与政府间网络安全合作进程,加强与俄罗斯、美国、欧盟等国家和地区间的对话,形成重大网络安全事故沟通和协调机制。积极推动联合国框架下的双边与多边合作,推动形成抵制网络战争的国际公约,建立统一的网络武器认定、网络攻击认定等国际标准。积极参与国际交流,公开宣布我国对网络战争的态度,强调各国有责任和义务保护本国网络空间和关键基础设施免受威胁、干扰和攻击破坏。

China’s Effort at network security has become a major trend of international cooperation

来源:中国信息安全

ChinaKeyboard

The present era, the rapid development of information society, a safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace, a country and world peace and development increasingly significant. It is considered after land, sea, air, space “fifth space” in cyberspace and Internet governance has become an important global issue for the international community unprecedented attention.

Currently, the world is not peaceful. Traditional threats and non-traditional threats intertwined. To benefit from the global network of development and also suffered network attack, and this behavior with the further development of information technology and the Internet more frequently. Currently, the traditional network boundaries become increasingly blurred, non-traditional security threats increase, distributed denial of service, advanced persistent threats and other new network attacks intensified. Network global information infrastructure frequent high-risk vulnerabilities intrusion, critical information infrastructure and critical information systems security is facing serious threats. Network attacks are gradually infiltrate the various types of network terminals. In addition, phishing, hackers, cyber-terrorism, and other issues of rampant Internet rumors, disturb and destroy the countries of normal production and life, and even threaten the stability of state power.

In recent years, the world has a profound understanding of the importance of joint response to network security threats, network security, international cooperation has become a major trend. October 2013, ICANN, IETF, W3C and other major international Internet governance institutions signed the “Montevideo was Asia,” the statement, all stakeholders equal participation as the future direction of development of Internet governance. April 2014, the Brazilian Internet Conference issued a “multi-stakeholder network in the world declared,” and proposed future “Global Principles” Internet governance and the “road map.” In the same month, Japan and the US conducted a second comprehensive network security dialogue between the two countries will further strengthen cooperation in the field of cyber defense. In October, Japan and South Korea signed the “on the strengthening of cooperation in the field of network security memorandum of understanding” to establish network security affairs consultation mechanism to discuss the fight against cyber crime and cyber terrorism, cooperation in the establishment of the Internet emergency response. In May, the new EU disclosed 2015-2020 to strengthen the fight against crime, cyber-terrorism plan. In the same month, Russia and China signed the “inter-governmental cooperation agreement in the field of international information security”, the two sides focus on the use of computer technology in particular undermine national sovereignty, security and the threat of interference in internal affairs area. In June, the global Internet Governance Council of the Global Alliance held in Brazil, a clear governance model of cooperation. In July, German Internet Industry Roundtable, deepen cooperation in the network security aspects. In August, the United Nations Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Information Security held a meeting to report to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for the first time a unified constraint own activities in cyberspace, including critical foundation can not use the Internet to attack his country’s nuclear power plants, banking, transportation, water supply systems, etc. facilities, and can not be implanted “backdoor” in IT products and so on. In September, the United States on outstanding issues in the field of law enforcement in combating cyber crime and other security-depth exchange of views and reached important consensus; the eighth “China-US Internet Forum” held in Seattle, talks between the two countries aimed at promoting exchanges Internet industry and cooperation, continue to promote the world of Internet and network information security. In October, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States authorities was successfully held in Xiamen City, Fujian Province, the “Xiamen -2015” Network counter-terrorism exercises; the sixth Sino-British Internet Roundtable opened in London, the two countries signed the first network security protocol; Chinese military sixth Xiangshan Science Society Forum and the China international strategic Association jointly sponsored the Beijing national Convention Center, which is an important issue around the “code of conduct in cyberspace” build mode, path, content and other discussions. December 1, State Councilor Guo Shengkun US Attorney Lynch, Johnson, Secretary of Homeland Security, co-chaired the first Sino-US cyber crime and related matters joint high-level dialogue.

Mandarin Chinese:

當今時代,社會信息化迅速發展,一個安全、穩定、繁榮的網絡空間,對一國乃至世界和平與發展越來越具有重大意義。被視為繼陸、海、空、天之後的“第五空間”的網絡空間安全和互聯網治理已成為國際社會空前關注的一個重要全球性議題。

當前,世界並不太平。傳統威脅與非傳統威脅交織。全球在享受網絡發展之利的同時也深受網絡攻擊之苦,而且這種行為將隨著信息技術和互聯網的進一步發展更加頻繁。當前,傳統的網絡邊界越來越模糊,非傳統網絡安全威脅有增無減,分佈式拒絕服務、高級持續威脅等新型網絡攻擊愈演愈烈。網絡信息基礎設施屢受全球性高危漏洞侵擾,重要信息基礎設施和重要信息系統安全面臨嚴峻威脅。網絡攻擊正逐步向各類聯網終端滲透。除此之外,網絡詐騙、網絡黑客、網絡恐怖主義、網絡謠言等問題日益猖獗,干擾和破壞著各國正常的生產和生活,甚至威脅著國家政權的穩定。

近年來,世界各國已深刻認識到共同應對網絡安全威脅的重要性,網絡安全國際合作已成大趨勢。 2013年10月,ICANN、IETF、W3C等國際互聯網治理主要機構共同簽署了“蒙得維得亞”聲明,將所有的利益相關者平等參與視為未來互聯網治理的發展方向。 2014年4月,巴西互聯網大會發表《網絡世界多利益攸關方聲明》,提出未來互聯網治理的“全球原則”和“路線圖”。同月,日美進行了第二次網絡安全綜合對話,兩國將進一步強化在網絡防禦領域的合作。 10月,中日韓簽署《關於加強網絡安全領域合作的諒解備忘錄》,建立網絡安全事務磋商機制,探討共同打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義,在互聯網應急響應方面建立合作。 5月,歐盟新披露了2015年至2020年強化打擊網絡恐怖犯罪的計劃。同月,俄羅斯與中國簽署了《國際信息安全保障領域政府間合作協議》,雙方特別關注利用計算機技術破壞國家主權、安全以及乾涉內政方面的威脅。 6月,全球互聯網治理聯盟在巴西召開全球理事會,明確了合作的治理模式。 7月,中德互聯網產業圓桌會議召開,深化在網絡安全等方面的合作。 8月,聯合國信息安全問題政府專家組召開會議,並向聯合國秘書長提交報告,各國首次統一約束自身在網絡空間中的活動,包括不能利用網絡攻擊他國核電站、銀行、交通、供水系統等重要基礎設施,以及不能在IT產品中植入“後門程序”等。 9月,中美就共同打擊網絡犯罪等執法安全領域​​的突出問題深入交換意見,達成重要共識;第八屆“中美互聯網論壇”在西雅圖召開,會談旨在促進中美兩國互聯網業界的交流與合作,持續推動世界互聯網和網絡信息安全。 10月,上海合作組織成員國主管機關在福建省廈門市成功舉行了“廈門-2015”網絡反恐演習;第六屆中英互聯網圓桌會議​​在倫敦開幕,簽署兩國首個網絡安全協議;中國軍事科學學會和中國國際戰略協會聯合主辦的第六屆香山論壇在北京國家會議中心舉行,其中一個重要議題是圍繞“網絡空間行為準則”的構建模式、路徑、內涵等展開討論。 12月1日,國務委員郭聲琨與美國司法部部長林奇、國土安全部部長約翰遜共同主持首次中美打擊網絡犯罪及相關事項高級別聯合對話。

Source: China Information Security

China’s PLA & Toward Winning ‘informationized local wars’

對獲獎“信息化條件下的局部戰爭”

At the beginning of the 2016, President Xi Jinping gave his commander’s intent for reorganizing China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at this beginning of the week, China announced a series of major comprehensive reforms for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) that will defiinitely forge China’s military modernization emphasis for the immediate and long term.

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The Chinese leadership intent for the overhaul is to redefine roles, missions and authorities of the PLA military services, consolidates Communist Party of China (CPC) control over the nearly autonomous military branches, and ultimately attain new levels of combat effectiveness drsigned under a new set of military guidelines of fighting and winning ‘local wars under informationized conditions.’

The first wave of official announcements included changes in the organisational force structure, starting at the highest echelons of command. Specifically, the creation of a new command structure; a joint staff under the Central Military Commission (CMC) that integrated the previous four general departments. The CMC will now manage the PLA through the Joint Staff Department comprised of 15 departments, commissions and offices.

The second significant measure is the inauguration of three new PLA services: PLA Ground Forces, PLA Rocket Forces and PLA Strategic Support Forces. The previous Second Artillery Corps, in charge of China’s nuclear and conventional ballistic missiles, has been upgraded to the PLA Rocket Force, a full service branch on par with the navy, air force, and, for the first time, the army.

The third major military reform measure, announced on 1 February 2016 @ 21:15 Local, is the restructuring of previous seven ‘military regions’ to five ‘major war zones’ or theater operations. While very similar to the US Military component commands the PLA re-oragnization reflects a move toward truly joint operations . The new major Chinese military commands now represent the Northern, Eastern, Southern, Western, and Middle or Central theaters, which are now mimicking the US Department of Defense (DoD) concept of Combatant Commands.

Changes in the PLA’s organization force structure complement its gradual technological advances. While since Novemeber 8th, 2012, the PLA under President Xi Jinping has seen many accomplishments: from the introduction of next generation of supercomputers such as the TianHe – 2,  aviation prototypes such as the J-16, J-20, J-31, new helicopters and UAVs, to the ongoing construction of a second aircraft carrier, as well as record number of commissioned People’s Liberarion Army Navy (PLAN) ships such as Type 054A, 056 frigates and 052C destroyers.

In the next five to ten years, China is expected to transfer many experimental models from R&D to the production stage (Plan 863), including a number of systems in what the PLA calls ‘domains of emerging military rivalry’: outer space, near space, cyber space, and under water.

These include next generation ballistic missiles, nuclear and conventional, long-range precision-strike assets such as hypersonic vehicles, offensive and defensive cyber capabilities and new classes of submarines, supported by a variety of high-tech directional rocket rising sea mines with accurate control and guidance capacity.

PLA Strategic Support Forces (SSF)

Of all the newly established units, the PLA Strategic Support Forces (SSF), 戰略支援部隊. represents perhaps the most significant development. While details remain hidden under a veil of secrecy, unofficial Chinese PLA sources and Chinese language press reports indicate that the SSF will consist of three independent branches: ‘cyber force’ with ‘hacker troops’ responsible for cyber offense and defense; ‘space force’ tasked with surveillance and satellites; and ‘electronic force’ responsible for denial, deception, disruption of enemy radars and communications systems. The overaarching focus of this reorganizartion is to create an effective and strategic support force” to strengthen the network and space attack.

The SSF integrates the previous PLA General Staff Headquarters Third and Fourth Departments, responsible for technical reconnaissance, electronic warfare, cyber intelligence and cyber warfare, as well as absorbing the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the former PLA General Political Department, tasked with information operations, propaganda and psychological warfare.

This corresponds to PLA writings on future conflicts such as Science of Military Strategy that emphasise a holistic perspective toward space, cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum that must be defended to achieve information dominance. This is the ability to gather, transmit, manage, analyse and exploit information, and prevent an opponent from doing the same as a key prerequisite for allowing the PLA to seize air and naval superiority.

To this end, the PLA recognises the importance of controlling space-based information assets as a means of achieving true information dominance, calling it the ‘new strategic high ground.’ Consequently, establishing space dominance is an essential component of achieving military ‘information dominance.’

Strategic Chinese Military Implications

Ultimately, the key question is this: will the reforms in the PLA’s organisational force structure will be reflected in its operational conduct, particularly in the PLA’s capabilities to exploit cyber-kinetic strategic interactions in its regional power projection, as well as responses in potential crises and security flashpoints in East Asia?

On one hand, China’s political and military elites believe that a new wave of the global Revolution in Military Affairsis gathering pace, led principally by the US, and China must therefore accelerate the pace of its military development. Internally, however, the reforms are designed primarily to close the PLA’s inter-service rivalries, interoperability gaps and the dominance of the ground forces.

In other words, significant capability gaps will continue to exist.

In the long-term the coordinated exploitation of space, cyber-space, electromagnetic spectrum and strategic information operations will likely enable four critical missions for the PLA:

  1. Force enhancement to support combat operations and improve the effectiveness of military forces such as ISR, integrated tactical warning and attack assessment, command, control and communications, navigation and positioning and environmental monitoring;
  2. Counter-space missions to protect PLA forces while denying space capabilities to the adversary;
  3. Information operations to direct influence on the process and outcome in areas of strategic competition, and;
  4. Computer network operations targeting adversaries data and networks.

Consequently, the PLA’s growing military-technological developments may significantly alter both the strategic thought and operational conduct of major powers in East Asia, including the US and its Five Eyes allies including the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, and Australia.

Original content published at this Australian Source

China’s Strategic Support Forces – Mission and Combat Power Intent

[责任编辑:冯玲玲]

来源:人民网  作者:邱越  时间:2016-01-06

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    December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units is quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main mission of strategic support task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and action will be the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army rocket integration, throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support units is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality, mainly the strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support units, help to optimize the structure of military forces, thus improving the overall capacity. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

Yin 卓介绍 said strategic support units main task of the mission is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support unit tasks include: return of target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation operations, and Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission .

During the war, Reconnaissance Force cyberspace can help master the movements of the enemy army to help troops develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory.In peacetime, with the increasing degree of national information technology, security, electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in civil applications in the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities that our country’s socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of many hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation of such important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to the implementation of network attacks, which requires that we must be equipped with appropriate defenses. Strategic support forces in protecting the country’s financial security and people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support units is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic support troops in reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, ocean digital, digital construction and other aspects of the Earth play an important role, and provide strong support for the joint battlefield operations, in order to achieve the goal of winning local wars under conditions of informatization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support units are not a separate fighting force, it will blend in with the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army and other branches of the military rocket actions form an integrated joint operations, strategic combat support units throughout the whole process, penetrated into every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。新成立的战略支援部队颇为神秘,这究竟是一支什么样的军事力量呢?军事专家尹卓在接受人民网采访时表示,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。它是联合作战的重要力量,将与陆军、海军、空军和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

国防部新闻发言人杨宇军指出,战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点,主要是将战略性、基础性、支撑性都很强的各类保障力量进行功能整合后组建而成的。成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。我们将坚持体系融合、军民融合,加强新型作战力量建设,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

尹卓介绍称,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。具体地说,战略支援部队的任务包括:对目标的探测、侦察和目标信息的回传;承担日常的导航行动,以及北斗卫星和太空侦察手段的管理工作;承担电磁空间和网络空间的防御任务。

在战争时期,电子空间的侦察力量可以帮助我军掌握敌人的动向,协助部队制定作战行动,确保取得战场胜利。在和平时期,随着国家信息化程度日益提高,电磁空间和网络空间的安全也日益重要。尹卓指出,随着卫星导航设施在民间的应用,今后高铁、轮船、飞机、汽车都会配备车载或机载的定位设施,这些设施对我国的社会主义建设将起到重要的作用。此外,面对诸多黑客在互联网上针对我国实施的非法行动,比如对重要政府设施、军队设施、重要民用设施实施的网络攻击,这要求我们必须配备相应的防御力量。战略支援部队在保障国家金融安全和人民日常生活安全等方面将起到重要作用。

“战略支援部队是联合作战行动的重要力量。”尹卓说,如今任何作战行动都离不开电子空间攻防,战略支援部队将在侦察、预警、通信、指挥、控制、导航、数字化海洋、数字化地球建设等方面发挥重要作用,并将为联合作战行动提供有力的战场支持,以实现打赢信息化条件下局部战争的目标。

尹卓指出,战略支援部队不是一支单独的作战力量,它将与陆军、海军、空军、火箭军等军兵种的行动融为一体,形成一体化的联合作战行动,战略支援部队贯穿于作战的全过程,渗透到每一个作战行动中,将成为战争制胜的关键力量。

http://news.mod.gov.cn/pla/2016-01/06/

 

China’s World Internet Conference and the Future of Chinese Cyberspace

William Hagestad II

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December 2015, the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) invited me to attend the World Internet Conference (WIC) in Wuzhen, People’s Republic of China (PRC).

It is important to understand that the Chinese Government had created a 20 kilometer security exclusion zone around the epicenter of the WIC. The Chinese residents of Wuzhen were replaced with a regiment of soldiers from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and plainclothes policemen and women of China’s Ministry of State Security.

Opening day of the WIC China’s President, Xi Jinping gave his opening comments, a heavenly mandate for the largely handpicked Communist Party of China (CPC) member and international audience “Cyberspace is not a place [that is] beyond the rule of law”. President Xi’s opening address was focused on delegates including Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Pakistani president Mamnoon Hussain; conspicuously absent were officials from the United States, England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Chinese President Xi provided direction which included a proposed the “four principles and five propositions”, systematically expounding China’s concept of a “China Network View” in the New Period. His focus included a statement that China is willing countries to strengthen dialogue and exchanges, effective management and control differences, and promote the development of the parties to the generally accepted international rules of cyberspace, cyberspace develop international conventions on terrorism, the fight against cybercrime and improve mutual legal assistance mechanisms, and jointly safeguard peace and security in cyberspace .

China’s 21st Century Boxer Rebellion

Short history lesson lest we forget how the Western failed to read between the Chinese tea leaves of China’s 21st Century network sovereignty initiative. During the early 1900’s an eight nation coalition of Eight Powers had invaded and occupied North Eastern China. The Qing Dynasty Chinese rebels known as the Boxer’s called this foreign invasion the “八國聯軍”, or Eight-Nation Alliance. This eight nation alliance included the Empire of Japan, United Kingdom, French Third Republic, German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, the United States of America and the Russian Empire.[1] the capital of the Qing Empire, was captured eight countries & invading armies this day…”the darkest day in modern Chinese history.”[2] Save the attendance of Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the 2015 WIC, none of the other members of the 1900 “八國聯軍” were invited to officially attend China future discussion on the Internet at the WIC. It is prophetic then that the Chinese have not forgotten the foreign invasion and occupation of China’s homeland so long ago as backdrop for the WIC and the new future of China’s version of the Internet in the form of a Chinese Binary Rebellion…where delaying, denying and disrupting foreign incursions into China’s Internet are an echo and reminder of the 1900’s Boxer Rebellion.

 

You Are Either Part of the Party or You are Not

One of the important comments made by President Xi which underscores China’s current proposal for a secured and stable International Internet is that “Everyone should abide by the law, with the rights and obligations of parties concerned clearly defined. Cyberspace must be governed, operated and used in accordance with the law so that the internet can enjoy sound development under the rule of law.”[3]

Perhaps in the light of America’s National Security Agency failure to properly vet and control traitorous contractors, Chinese President Xi called for Chinese (sic) government action was needed to strengthen “civilised behaviour” on the internet, adding and calling for measures to “rehabilitate the cyber ecology”.[4]

China’s new cyber ecology will include, according to President Xi’s keynote speech will include building China into a global cyber power, speeding up Internet infrastructure development and imperative that China be regarded as a staunch defender of international cybersecurity.[5] Certainly the recent agreement with the United States on a high-level and mutual dialogue on cybercrime is evidence of China’s willingness to work with even the harshest critics of its organic Internet governance policies.[6]

International governments should make no mistake however, China’s leader emphasized that “cyber security is as important as national security.” And thus both Internet security and informatization are China’s major strategic issues concerning any country’s security and development.[7]

Curiously, however, President Xi’s keynote comments were live-tweeted by the state-run news portal, Xinhua, China’s official news agency, and broadcast on YouTube.[8] Both of these Western social media platforms are services which are blocked by Beijing.

Indeed as the WIC came to a conclusion, international cooperation was a main focus for China’s leadership as “President Xi Jinping urged all countries to respect Internet sovereignty, jointly safeguard cybersecurity, cooperate with an open mind, and improve Internet governance together.”[9]

 

Thus, given the international audience represented at the WIC, guidelines were given for adhering to the new Rule of Law on China’s version of an international Internet or be left behind and thus unable to participate in the world’s largest economy. Indeed Mr. Eugene Kaspersky signed a very lucrative contract at the WIC forging a unique cyber-security partnership with the China Cyber Security Company, thus demonstrating China’s willingness to embrace and recognize Internet technology such as those offered by Kaspersky.[10]

 

The Future of China’s Internet

 

Indicative of what the future holds for the Internet within the People’s Republic of China is the Xiaomi mobile phone I was provided on the first day of the WIC. While the number was Chinese, the SIM card was registered in Hong Kong allowing me to access typically blocked Western Internet websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google. China’s future Internet may include allowing limited access to the forbidden fruits of the Western Internet.

 

Similarly, the hotel the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) put me up in also came with a ‘special Internet account’ where access to usually blocked services was allowed, such as those enabled by my shiny new Xiaomi. However, as I switched off the ‘special account’, the familiar Chinese Internet presented itself and Gmail, Facebook, and Twitter were all blocked.

 

I expect that the future Internet we will all globally experience in the future will encompass an ability to access Chinese versions of Western Internet services, while denying or restricting our ability to use Western Internet technologies which may or may not be surveilled by Western intelligence services.

 

Quite frankly, my experience at China’s World Internet Conference was a positive one. Given the 20 kilometer security exclusion zone I felt very safe, no jihadist terrorists wielding legal semi-automatic weapons in Wuzhen. From a global cyber security researcher perspective, even though I could access both the Chinese and Western versions of the Internet, my experience was actually no different than any of the many other global locations I have visited in the past.

 

While the People’s Republic of China forges forward with a global secure definition of cyberspace which embodies both national security and sovereignty it will be up to other global governments to decide whether to be part of China’s secure Internet party or be left behind.

[1] “八国联军”.  八国联军侵华战争_八国联军为什么侵华_八国联军是哪八国 – 趣历史. Chinese History Topics. (December 2015). (Chinese Internet). Accessed: http://www.qulishi.com/huati/baguolianjun/

[2] Ibid.

[3] “2nd World Internet Conference”. CCTV.com. (December16-18, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/special/wic2015/

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Xi: China a staunch defender of cybersecurity”. CCTV.com. September 25, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/2015/09/25/VIDE1443125998021193.shtml

[7] “Xi: Efforts should be made to build China into cyber power”. CCTV.com. (February 28th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20140228/102815.shtml

[8]  “China is home to 670 million Internet users & over 4.13 million websites: President #XiJinping says at #WIC2015. Twitter. (December 15th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:  https://twitter.com/XHNews/status/676955445286801410

[9] “2nd World Internet Conference concludes”. Xinhua. December18th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://china.org.cn/china/2015-12/18/content_37351052.htm

[10] “Russia’s Kaspersky Labs signs deal with China Cyber Security Company as Beijing and Moscow call for end to US domination of internet”. (December17th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1892257/russias-kaspersky-labs-signs-deal-china-cyber-security