Category Archives: Uncategorized

中國政府要求公開評論保護中國關鍵基礎設施 // Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure


Chinese Government Requests Public Comment on Securing China Critical Infrastructure

Notice of the National Internet Information Office on the Public Opinion on the Protection of Key Information Infrastructure Security Regulations (Draft for Soliciting Opinions)

    In order to ensure the security of key information infrastructure, according to the “Internet Security Law of the People’s Republic of China”, we will draft the “Key Information Infrastructure Safety Protection Regulations (draft)” with the relevant departments. The relevant units and people of all walks of life may submit their views by August 10, 2017 by:

First, by mail to the views sent to: Xicheng District, Beijing Chegongzhuang Street on the 11th National Internet Information Office Network Security Coordination Bureau, Zip code 100044, and in the envelope marked “comments”.

Second, by e-mail to:


Annex: Key information infrastructure security regulations (draft)


National Internet Information Office

 July 10, 2017

Key information infrastructure security regulations


Chapter 1 General Provisions

    Article 1 These Regulations are enacted in accordance with the Network Security Law of the People’s Republic of China in order to ensure the safety of key information infrastructures.

Article 2 These Regulations shall apply to the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and use of key information infrastructures within the territory of the People’s Republic of China and the protection of key information infrastructures.

Article 3 The key information infrastructure security protection adhere to the top design, overall protection, coordination, division of labor is responsible for the principle, give full play to the role of the main operation, the active participation of all parties to jointly protect the key information infrastructure security.

Article 4 The competent department of national industry or the supervisory department shall be responsible for guiding and supervising the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in the field in accordance with the division of responsibilities stipulated by the State Council.

State network letter department is responsible for coordinating the key information infrastructure security protection and related supervision and management work. The State Council public security, national security, state secrecy administration, national password management and other departments within their respective responsibilities are responsible for the relevant network security protection and supervision and management work.

The relevant departments of the local people’s governments at or above the county level shall carry out the key information infrastructure safety protection work in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State.

Article 5 The operator of the key information infrastructure (hereinafter referred to as the operator) shall bear the responsibility for the security of the key information infrastructure of the unit, perform the obligation of network security protection, accept the government and social supervision, and bear social responsibility.

The country encourages network operators outside key information infrastructures to participate voluntarily in critical information infrastructure protection systems.

Article 6 Key information infrastructure In the network security level protection system, based on the implementation of key protection.

Article 7 Any person or organization who discovers the safety of the infrastructure of the critical information infrastructure shall have the right to report to the department of the letter, telecommunications, public security and industry supervisors or supervisors.

The department that receives the report shall handle it in a timely manner and if it does not belong to the duties of the department, it shall promptly transfer the department to be handled.

The relevant departments shall keep the relevant information of the whistleblower and protect the legitimate rights and interests of the whistleblower.


Chapter II Support and Safeguard

    Article 8 The State shall take measures to monitor, defend and dispose of network security risks and threats arising from the territory of the People ‘s Republic of China, protect the critical information infrastructure from attack, intrusion, interference and destruction, and punish the criminal activities of the Internet according to law.

Article 9 The State shall formulate policies such as industry, finance, taxation, finance and personnel, support the innovation of key information infrastructure related technologies, products and services, promote safe and reliable network products and services, train and select network security personnel, and improve key information The level of safety of the infrastructure.

Article 10 The State shall establish and improve the network security standard system and use standard guidance to standardize the work of key information infrastructure security protection.

Article 11 The people ‘s governments at or above the municipal level shall incorporate the key information infrastructure security protection into the overall planning of the economic and social development of the district, increase the investment and carry out the evaluation and evaluation of the work performance.

Article 12 The State encourages government departments, operators, scientific research institutions, network security services, industry organizations, network products and service providers to carry out key information infrastructure security cooperation.

Article 13 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall set up or clarify the institutions and personnel who are responsible for the protection of key information infrastructure in the industry and in this field, and compile and organize the implementation of the industry, the network security planning in the field, and establish a sound work Funding protection mechanism and supervise the implementation.

Article 14 Energy, telecommunications, transportation and other industries shall provide key support and support for power supply, network communication, transportation and other aspects of emergency management and network function restoration of key information infrastructure network security incidents.

Article 15 Public security organs and other departments shall, according to law, investigate and punish illegal and criminal activities against and use key information infrastructures.

Article 16 Any individual or organization shall not engage in any of the following activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure:

(I) attacks, intrusion, interference, and destruction of critical information infrastructures;

(B) illegally obtaining, selling or unauthorized access to information such as technical information that may be used exclusively for the safety of critical information infrastructures;

(Iii) unauthorized penetration of critical information infrastructures, aggressive scanning detection;

(D) knowing that others are engaged in activities that endanger the security of key information infrastructure and still provide assistance such as Internet access, server hosting, network storage, communication transmission, advertising promotion, payment settlement and so on;

(E) other activities and actions that endanger the critical information infrastructure.

Article 17 The State shall safeguard the network security based on the open environment and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation in the field of key information infrastructure security.


Chapter 3 Key Information Infrastructure Scope

    Article 18 The network facilities and information systems operated and managed by the following units shall be included in the scope of protection of key information infrastructures in the event of damage, loss of function or data leakage, which may seriously endanger the national security, the people’s livelihood and the public interest.

(A) government agencies and energy, finance, transportation, water conservancy, health care, education, social security, environmental protection, public utilities and other sectors of the unit;

(B) telecommunications networks, radio and television networks, the Internet and other information networks, and provide cloud computing, large data and other large public information network services units;

(3) scientific research and production units in the fields of national defense science and technology, large-scale equipment, chemical industry, food and medicine industry;

(4) news units such as radio stations, television stations and news malls;

(5) other key units.

Article 19 The State Network Letter Department shall, in conjunction with the competent departments of telecommunications under the State Council and the public security departments, formulate guidelines for the identification of key information infrastructure.

National industry supervisors or regulators organize identification of the industry and key information infrastructures in the field in accordance with the key information infrastructure identification guidelines and submit the identification results according to the procedures.

Key information infrastructure identification process, should give full play to the role of experts, improve the identification of key information infrastructure identification accuracy, rationality and scientific.

Article 20 If a major change in the key information infrastructure or key information infrastructure has occurred, the operator shall promptly report the relevant situation to the national competent or supervisory department.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall promptly carry out the identification and adjustment according to the situation reported by the operator and submit the adjustment according to the procedure.


Chapter IV Operator Safety Protection

    Article 21 The construction of a key information infrastructure shall ensure that it has the performance of supporting the stable and continuous operation of the business and ensures that the safety and technical measures are synchronized, synchronized and synchronized.

Article 22 The principal responsible person of the operator is the first person responsible for the safety protection work of the key information infrastructure of the unit. It is responsible for establishing and perfecting the network security responsibility system and organizing the implementation, and is fully responsible for the security protection of the key information infrastructure of the unit.

Article 23 The operator shall, in accordance with the requirements of the network security level protection system, perform the following security protection obligations to protect the critical information infrastructure from interference, damage or unauthorized access to prevent the leakage or theft of the network data:

(1) to formulate internal safety management systems and operating procedures, strict identity authentication and rights management;

(B) to take technical measures to prevent computer viruses and network attacks, network intrusion and other hazards to network security behavior;

(3) to take technical measures to monitor and record the operation status of the network and the network security incident, and keep the relevant network log in accordance with the regulations for not less than six months;

(D) to take data classification, important data backup and encryption authentication and other measures.

Article 24 In addition to Article 23 of these Regulations, the operator shall perform the following safety and protection obligations in accordance with the requirements of national laws and regulations and the mandatory requirements of the relevant national standards:

(A) set up a dedicated network security management and network security management, and the person in charge and key positions for security background review;

(2) regularly carry out network security education, technical training and skills assessment for employees;

(C) of the important systems and databases for disaster recovery, in time for system vulnerabilities and other security risks to take remedial measures;

(D) the development of network security incident contingency plans and regular exercise;

(5) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations.

Article 25 The person in charge of network security management of the operator shall perform the following duties:

(1) to formulate network security rules and regulations, operational procedures and supervise the implementation;

(2) organizing the skills assessment of key positions;

(3) to formulate and implement the network safety education and training program of the unit;

(4) to organize network security checks and emergency drills to deal with the handling of network security incidents;

(5) to report to the relevant departments of the country on network security important matters, events.

Article twenty-sixth operators of network security key positions of professional and technical personnel to implement the system of certificates.

The specific provisions of the promulgation of posts by the State Council human resources and social security departments in conjunction with the State Network letter and other departments to develop.

Article 27 Operators shall organize the training of network safety education for employees. Each year, the training time shall not be less than one working day, and the number of professional and technical personnel in key positions shall not be less than 3 working days per year.

Article 28 The operator shall establish and improve the safety assessment and evaluation system for the key information infrastructure, and carry out the safety inspection and evaluation when the key information infrastructure is on or after the major changes.

The operator shall, at its own expense, entrust the network security service organization to carry out at least one annual inspection and evaluation of the safety and possible risk of the key information infrastructure, rectify the problems found in time and report the relevant situation to the national industry supervisor or the supervisory department The

Article 29 Personal information and important data collected and produced by the operator in the operation of the People’s Republic of China shall be stored in the territory. For business needs, it is necessary to provide overseas, should be in accordance with personal information and important data outbound security assessment methods to assess; laws, administrative regulations otherwise provided, in accordance with its provisions.


Chapter 5 Product and Service Security

    Article 30 The key equipment and network security special products purchased and used by the operators shall comply with the requirements of laws and administrative regulations and the mandatory requirements of relevant national standards.

Article 31 Where an operator purchases a network product and service that may affect the security of the State, it shall, through the network security review, sign a security confidentiality agreement with the provider in accordance with the requirements of the safety inspection method of the network product and service.

Article 32 Operators shall carry out safety testing on the system, software, and donated network products that have been developed for outsourcing.

Article 33 Where an operator finds that there is a risk of security defects or loopholes in the use of the network products and services, it shall promptly take measures to eliminate the risks and involve significant risks in reporting to the relevant departments.

Article 34 The operation and maintenance of key information infrastructures shall be implemented in the territory. Due to business needs, do need to remote maintenance, should be reported to the national industry executives or regulatory authorities and the State Council public security departments.

Article 35 Institutions that carry out safety assessment and evaluation, publish security threats such as system vulnerabilities, computer viruses, and network attacks for key information infrastructures, provide services such as cloud computing and information technology outsourcing, shall meet the relevant requirements.

The specific requirements by the State Network letter department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council to develop.


Chapter 6 Monitoring, Early Warning, Emergency Handling and Testing

    Article 36 The national network communication department shall co-ordinate the establishment of the key information infrastructure network security monitoring and early warning system and the information communication system, organize and guide the relevant agencies to carry out the network security information summary, analyze and judge the report, and publish the network security monitoring and early warning information according to the regulations The

Article 37 The competent department of industry or the supervisory department of the State shall establish and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and information reporting system of the key information infrastructure in this industry, and keep abreast of the industry, the operation status of the key information infrastructure in the field and the security risks, Inform the operator about safety risks and related work information.

The national industry supervisor or the supervisory department shall organize the judgment of the safety monitoring information, and if it is necessary to take immediate preventive measures, it shall promptly issue the early warning information and emergency preventive measures to the relevant operators and, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, Relevant departments report.

Article 38 The national network communication department shall coordinate the relevant departments, operators and relevant research institutions and network security service agencies to establish a network information sharing mechanism for key information infrastructure and promote the sharing of network security information.

Article 39 In accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan , the State Network shall, in accordance with the requirements of the national network security incident contingency plan, coordinate the relevant departments to establish and perfect the key information infrastructure network security emergency coordination mechanism, strengthen the network security emergency power construction, and coordinate the relevant departments to organize cross- Regional network security emergency drills.

National industry supervisors or regulators should organize the development of the industry, the field of network security incident contingency plans, and regularly organize exercises to enhance the network security incident response and disaster recovery capabilities. After major network security incidents or early warning information received by the network letter department, should immediately start the contingency plan to respond, and timely report on the situation.

Article 40 The competent department of national industry or the regulatory department shall regularly organize the inspection and inspection of the safety risks of the industry and the key information infrastructure in the field and the performance of the operators’ performance of safety protection, and propose measures to improve the supervision and supervision of the operators in time The problems found in the assessment.

State network letter department co-ordinate the relevant departments to carry out the spot checks to prevent cross-testing and evaluation.

Article 41 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment and evaluation of the key information infrastructure safety, and shall adhere to the principle of objectivity, impartiality, efficiency and transparency, adopt a scientific evaluation and evaluation method, standardize the inspection and evaluation process and control the risk of testing and evaluation.

Operators should be carried out by the relevant departments to implement the assessment and assessment to the assessment of the problems found in time for rectification.

Article 42 The relevant departments may organize the following measures to carry out the safety inspection and evaluation of key information infrastructure:

(1) requiring the relevant personnel of the operator to make a statement on the examination and evaluation;

(B) access to, retrieval, reproduction and safety protection related documents, records;

(C) to view the network security management system development, implementation and network security technical measures planning, construction, operation;

(4) to use the testing tools or commissioned by the network security services for technical testing;

(5) other necessary means agreed by the operator.

Article 43 The information obtained by the relevant departments and the network security service organizations in the assessment of key information infrastructure safety inspection and evaluation can only be used for the maintenance of network security and shall not be used for other purposes.

Article 44 The relevant departments shall organize the assessment of the security of the key information infrastructure, and shall not charge the units to be tested and tested, and shall not require the persons to be tested and appraised to purchase the designated brand or the products and services of the designated production and sales units.


Chapter VII Legal Liability

    Article 45 An operator shall fail to perform the provisions of Article 20, Paragraph 1, Article 21, Article 23, Article 24, Article 26, Article 27, and Article 2 Article 18, Article 30, Article 32, Article 33, Article 34 of the network security protection obligations, by the relevant authorities in accordance with their duties ordered to correct, give a warning; refused to correct or Resulting in damage to the network security and other consequences, at a fine of more than 100,000 yuan a million yuan, the person in charge directly responsible for more than 10,000 yuan more than 100,000 yuan fine.

Article 46 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 29 of these Regulations, he or she shall, in accordance with his / her duties, make corrections, give a warning, confiscate the illegal income, And shall be ordered to suspend the relevant business, suspend business for rectification, close the website, revoke the relevant business license; the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan The

Article 47 Where an operator violates the provisions of Article 31 of these Regulations and uses the network products or services that have not passed the security examination or security examination, the relevant competent department of the State shall order it to cease to use and double the purchase amount More than ten times the fine; the person in charge directly responsible and other directly responsible persons at a fine of not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 48 Where an individual violates the provisions of Article 16 of these Regulations and does not constitute a crime, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and shall be detained for less than five days and shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; Shall be imposed a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan; if the case constitutes a crime, the criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

If the unit has any of the acts mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the public security organ shall confiscate the illegal gains and impose a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan and impose penalties on the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Violation of the provisions of Article XVI of the Ordinance, the criminal punishment of personnel, life shall not be engaged in key information infrastructure security management and network operations key positions in the work.

Article 49 Where the operator of a key information infrastructure of a state organ fails to perform the obligations of the network security protection provided for in these Regulations, the superior organ or the relevant organ shall order it to make corrections; and the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law.

Article 50 Where any of the following departments and their staff members commits any of the following acts, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law; if a crime is constituted, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law:

(A) in the work of the use of authority to obtain, accept bribes;

(B) neglect of duty, abuse of authority;

(Iii) unauthorized disclosure of relevant information, information and data files of key information infrastructures;

(4) other acts that violate statutory duties.

 Article 51 Where a major cyber security incident occurs in a critical information infrastructure, the responsibility for the investigation shall be identified, and the responsibility for the relevant network security service and relevant departments shall be identified in addition to the investigation of the responsibility of the operating unit and the investigation , For dereliction of duty, dereliction of duty and other violations, shall be held accountable.

Article 52 If the organs, organizations and individuals engaged in attack, intrusion, interference, or damage to the key information infrastructure of the People’s Republic of China cause serious consequences, they shall be investigated for legal responsibility according to law; the public security department of the State Council and the State security organ And the relevant departments and may decide to impose a frozen property or other necessary sanctions on the institution, organization or individual.


Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions

    Article 53 The security protection of key information infrastructures involved in the storage and handling of information concerning state secrets shall also be subject to the provisions of confidentiality laws and administrative regulations.

Critical information infrastructure in the use and management of passwords, should also comply with the password laws and administrative regulations.

 Article 54 The security protection of military key information infrastructures shall be separately stipulated by the Central Military Commission.

Article 55 These Regulations shall enter into force on the date of ****.

Original Mandarin Chinese:


第一章 總則
第一條 為了保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,根據《中華人民共和國網絡安全法》,制定本條例。
第二條 在中華人民共和國境內規劃、建設、運營、維護、使用關鍵信息基礎設施,以及開展關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,適用本條例。
第三條 關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護堅持頂層設計、整體防護,統籌協調、分工負責的原則,充分發揮運營主體作用,社會各方積極參與,共同保護關鍵信息基礎設施安全。
第四條 國家行業主管或監管部門按照國務院規定的職責分工,負責指導和監督本行業、本領域的關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第五條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者(以下稱運營者)對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全負主體責任,履行網絡安全保護義務,接受政府和社會監督,承擔社會責任。
第六條 關鍵信息基礎設施在網絡安全等級保護製度基礎上,實行重點保護。
第七條 任何個人和組織發現危害關鍵信息基礎設施安全的行為,有權向網信、電信、公安等部門以及行業主管或監管部門舉報。

第二章 支持與保障
第八條 國家採取措施,監測、防禦、處置來源於中華人民共和國境內外的網絡安全風險和威脅,保護關鍵信息基礎設施免受攻擊、侵入、干擾和破壞,依法懲治網絡違法犯罪活動。
第十條 國家建立和完善網絡安全標準體系,利用標準指導、規範關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作。
第十一條 地市級以上人民政府應當將關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作納入地區經濟社會發展總體規劃,加大投入,開展工作績效考核評價。
第十二條 國家鼓勵政府部門、運營者、科研機構、網絡安全服務機構、行業組織、網絡產品和服務提供者開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全合作。
第十四條 能源、電信、交通等行業應當為關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全事件應急處置與網絡功能恢復提供電力供應、網絡通信、交通運輸等方面的重點保障和支持。
第十五條 公安機關等部門依法偵查打擊針對和利用關鍵信息基礎設施實施的違法犯罪活動。
第十六條 任何個人和組織不得從事下列危害關鍵信息基礎設施的活動和行為:
第十七條 國家立足開放環境維護網絡安全,積極開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全領域的國際交流與合作。

第三章 關鍵信息基礎設施範圍
第十八條 下列單位運行、管理的網絡設施和信息系統,一旦遭到破壞、喪失功能或者數據洩露,可能嚴重危害國家安全、國計民生、公共利益的,應當納入關鍵信息基礎設施保護範圍:
第十九條 國家網信部門會同國務院電信主管部門、公安部門等部門製定關鍵信息基礎設施識別指南。
第二十條 新建、停運關鍵信息基礎設施,或關鍵信息基礎設施發生重大變化的,運營者應當及時將相關情況報告國家行業主管或監管部門。

第四章 運營者安全保護
第二十一條 建設關鍵信息基礎設施應當確保其具有支持業務穩定、持續運行的性能,並保證安全技術措施同步規劃、同步建設、同步使用。
第二十二條 運營者主要負責人是本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作第一責任人,負責建立健全網絡安全責任制並組織落實,對本單位關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護工作全面負責。
第二十三條 運營者應當按照網絡安全等級保護製度的要求,履行下列安全保護義務,保障關鍵信息基礎設施免受干擾、破壞或者未經授權的訪問,防止網絡數據洩漏或者被竊取、篡改:
第二十四條 除本條例第二十三條外,運營者還應當按照國家法律法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求,履行下列安全保護義務:
第二十五條 運營者網絡安全管理負責人履行下列職責:
(一) 組織製定網絡安全規章制度、操作規程並監督執行;
第二十六條 運營者網絡安全關鍵崗位專業技術人員實行執證上崗制度。
第二十七條 運營者應當組織從業人員網絡安全教育培訓,每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於1個工作日,關鍵崗位專業技術人員每人每年教育培訓時長不得少於3個工作日。
第二十八條 運營者應當建立健全關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估制度,關鍵信息基礎設施上線運行前或者發生重大變化時應當進行安全檢測評估。
第二十九條 運營者在中華人民共和國境內運營中收集和產生的個人信息和重要數據應當在境內存儲。因業務需要,確需向境外提供的,應當按照個人信息和重要數據出境安全評估辦法進行評估;法律、行政法規另有規定的,依照其規定。

第五章 產品和服務安全
第三十條 運營者採購、使用的網絡關鍵設備、網絡安全專用產品,應當符合法律、行政法規的規定和相關國家標準的強制性要求。
第三十一條 運營者採購網絡產品和服務,可能影響國家安全的,應當按照網絡產品和服務安全審查辦法的要求,通過網絡安全審查,並與提供者簽訂安全保密協議。
第三十二條 運營者應當對外包開發的系統、軟件,接受捐贈的網絡產品,在其上線應用前進行安全檢測。
第三十三條 運營者發現使用的網絡產品、服務存在安全缺陷、漏洞等風險的,應當及時採取措施消除風險隱患,涉及重大風險的應當按規定向有關部門報告。
第三十四條 關鍵信息基礎設施的運行維護應當在境內實施。因業務需要,確需進行境外遠程維護的,應事先報國家行業主管或監管部門和國務院公安部門。
第三十五條 面向關鍵信息基礎設施開展安全檢測評估,發布系統漏洞、計算機病毒、網絡攻擊等安全威脅信息,提供雲計算、信息技術外包等服務的機構,應當符合有關要求。

第六章 監測預警、應急處置和檢測評估
第三十八條 國家網信部門統籌協調有關部門、運營者以及有關研究機構、網絡安全服務機構建立關鍵信息基礎設施網絡安全信息共享機制,促進網絡安全信息共享。
第四十一條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,應堅持客觀公正、高效透明的原則,採取科學的檢測評估方法,規範檢測評估流程,控制檢測評估風險。
第四十二條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,可採取下列措施:
第四十三條 有關部門以及網絡安全服務機構在關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估中獲取的信息,只能用於維護網絡安全的需要,不得用於其他用途。
第四十四條 有關部門組織開展關鍵信息基礎設施安全檢測評估,不得向被檢測評估單位收取費用,不得要求被檢測評估單位購買指定品牌或者指定生產、銷售單位的產品和服務。

第七章 法律責任
第四十九條 國家機關關鍵信息基礎設施的運營者不履行本條例規定的網絡安全保護義務的,由其上級機關或者有關機關責令改正;對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接負責人員依法給予處分。
第五十條 有關部門及其工作人員有下列行為之一的,對直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依法給予處分;構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任:

第八章 附則
第五十三條 存儲、處理涉及國家秘密信息的關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,還應當遵守保密法律、行政法規的規定。
第五十四條 軍事關鍵信息基礎設施的安全保護,由中央軍事委員會另行規定。
第五十五條 本條例自****年**月**日起施行。

Referring URL:

中國網絡安全防禦將是量子計算…未來將面臨這些網絡攻擊威脅 // China network security defense will be quantum computing… The future will face these cyber-attack threats


China network security defense will be quantum computing… The future will face these cyber-attack threats


Quantum computers can give attackers the ability to crack the current encryption standard overnight and steal personal data. Imagine, if you wake up and lose all the important information, what kind of helpless?

Experts predict that by 2026, commercial quantum computers can crack the code we now rely on. “IEEE Spectrum” magazine reported last year that quantum computers were fast enough to crack the level of RSA encryption.

The nine years from 2026 are not long and the consequences of failing to update the security technology through quantum security solutions are not yet clear. In order to ensure that the arrival of quantum computers to protect data security, need to upgrade from now on to quantum security needs.

What is a quantum computer?

Quantum computer (quantum computer) is a class of quantum mechanics to follow the law of high-speed mathematical and logical operations, storage and processing of quantum information, physical devices. When a device processes and computes quantum information, it is a quantum computer when it runs a quantum algorithm.

It can be achieved for each superposition of the transformation of the equivalent of a classic calculation, all of these classic calculations at the same time, and according to a certain probability amplitude superimposed, given the output of quantum computers. This calculation is called quantum parallel computing, but also the most important advantages of quantum computers. (Source Baidu)

Quantum computer can invade daily network activities

If an attacker uses a quantum computer to successfully crack the encryption technology that we currently trust and rely on, then sensitive data may be vented, giving serious consequences to users and organizations. As a technical user, people may perform the following common activities on any day:

Send an e-mail: The user logs on to the laptop and sends several e-mails, whose information may be read by the attacker and published publicly for everyone to read.

Check the online banking account: the user login bank account and transfer, the financial data will be attacked by the attacker, and the account balance looted.

Update the social media account information: user login microblogging and other social media publishing dynamic, share family photos, etc., if the user only choose to share these dynamic friends, the attacker can all photos and personal information “everyone visible”, and in addition to The user himself, others can arbitrarily tamper with.

Updating software on the smartphone: If the user receives a software update notification and accepts the update, it is not aware that the verification process from a trusted source (such as Google or Apple’s official download) will also be compromised. Malware may enter the smartphone, disguised as a trusted update, so that the attacker gets the application’s login credentials and data.

Driving the network car: the network will automatically accept the software update. These updates may come from an attacker, the user without the knowledge of the circumstances, may allow third parties to control the car’s embedded system, undermine navigation, cut off the car power and so on.

In addition, many other day-to-day transactions may be vulnerable to attack.E.g:

Use the original security of the Internet equipment: thermostat, home security system or baby monitor;

Transfer funds to public transport as prepaid expenses;

Use VPN to log on to the corporate network.

Public transport, security systems, and physical access systems can also have many public safety risks.

As the networking equipment provides more attack surface, data leakage events are frequent. As companies and governments continue to prevent cyber security attacks through technological advances, quantum computing may make cybercriminals more arbitrary and unscrupulous.

The key to quantum secure encryption solutions will be to update the vulnerable quantum solution in a timely manner, which means that it is now necessary to understand which systems will be affected by quantum risk and plan to migrate to quantum security solutions (including appropriate testing and test).

This transition can be done from a hybrid solution, enabling flexible encryption, and the classic encryption technology used today.

Quantum computers or will change the pattern of artificial intelligence research

Source: Artificial Intelligenceologist

Summary: Chinese scientists have built quantum computers that are “natural photonics” by reviewers called “ENIAC in Quantum Computers”.

Chinese scientists have built quantum computers that are “natural photonics” by reviewers called “ENIAC in Quantum Computers.” Quantum computer of this achievement and the subsequent development, it is possible to change the current pattern of artificial intelligence research.

First, it may mean strong, weak artificial intelligence, and “quantum” approach of the three technical paradigm of confluence. Second, it is possible to open up the traditional Chinese culture “programming” approach, as well as more to explore the Chinese and Eastern traditions and pre-traditional culture of resources. Third, in the human cognitive structure can not keep up with the pace of technological development, the quantum computer may help the human hand, set up from the original understanding of the future of the world bridge.

Although all this can not change the fate of mankind will eventually be replaced by “singularity”, but may change in the singularity of the continuation of the “human” connotation.

Competition and confluence of three paradigms

Artificial intelligence The current research mainly exists strong artificial intelligence, weak artificial intelligence two kinds of technical paradigm.

The strong artificial intelligence paradigm follows the development of technology along the form of movement from low to high order, by the first industrial revolution in the basic physical movement (mechanical, thermal and electromagnetic motion), by the second industrial revolution of chemical movement (organic synthesis ), The end of the 20th century high-tech life movement (genetic engineering, gene editing), and then into the human brain and consciousness of the field; technology step by step, all the way to follow the natural to the human footprint. The human brain is the highest achievement of the evolution of nature, the nature of consciousness is far from being revealed.Artificial intelligence will continue to follow this trajectory, there is no reason to leave this path of success.

In this journey, “physical and mental” relationship is an insurmountable peak. Polanyi’s knowledge of congregation is well known, and IQ and EQ are inseparable. “Artificial intelligence is no more intelligent and only emotionally.”

Weak artificial intelligence paradigm is taking the “smart is intelligent” path. Science and technology may not follow the people as a whole, emotional intelligence and IQ, heart and brain synchronization of the path of evolution, but can take the path of heart and brain separation. Artificial intelligence is only “wisdom”, is the “cylinder in the brain” (“three body” as the envoy of the earth Cheng Tianming), rather than “love” non-human; because of this, artificial intelligence beyond the situation ( Including all kinds of ideological struggle) the trapped people’s intelligence, regardless of “emotional” when things do better, more absolutely. Through the repeated game and the evolution of the game, the development of in-depth learning, step by step, migration learning, learn by analogy, and even into the rules and boundaries across the “Texas poker” to achieve a major breakthrough in artificial intelligence.

The achievement of these results follows the pace of the West since Descartes. “Epistemological turn”, “brain” debut, “head to the ground.”Intelligence is intelligent, do not care about the heart; one to do, do not do all-around champion; step by step to do, do not think people are people. Why should artificial intelligence be based on human beings as a reference system?Get rid of anthropocentrism.

The development of artificial intelligence will eventually go beyond the basic weakness of human nature: people are self-interested, people are limited.The development of artificial intelligence has nothing to do with dignity, but to follow the law. Not to overcome, but to bypass the weakness of human nature.No self-consciousness, means that does not matter “self-interest”, for all the emotions “do not feel”; and in time and space endless large data and extraordinary computing power is beyond the “limited.”

Strong artificial intelligence and weak artificial intelligence combination model, perhaps “God’s return to God, Caesar’s return to Caesar”. Please take care of the soul of God, and I take care of the flesh of men. People, take care of their own souls, make decisions; machine, artificial intelligence in the calculation, to provide decision-making basis and options. “Mind machine brain”.

“Quantum paradigm” can be said to be strong, weak artificial intelligence outside the two paradigms of the third paradigm, related to the relationship between consciousness or free will and quantum entanglement, and quantum computer. “From this point of view, not to quantum up before, that is less than the era of quantum artificial intelligence, I was not worried about artificial intelligence will replace humans.” Pan Jianwei said. Ma Zhaoyuan holds the same view, before understanding by the nano-scale consciousness, “artificial intelligence at least three hundred years there is no chance to go beyond the human brain.”

From the perspective of quantum cut, there may be more than other ways to approach the nature of consciousness, which is “strong artificial intelligence” paradigm of the pursuit of the goal. At this point these two paradigms came together. However, even if this paradigm is a breakthrough, from the current trend, “quantum paradigm” hardware is not “complete life form”, may lead to “strong artificial intelligence” paradigm of dissatisfaction.

This breakthrough in the quantum computer highlights the strength of the artificial intelligence technology paradigm outside the third paradigm. On the one hand it is possible in a sense to set up a bridge between the two paradigms.If you can manipulate more than 1000 quantum, you may be able to study the generation of consciousness. Pan Jianwei predicted that quantum computers will eventually expand into the field of quantum artificial intelligence.

On the other hand, the purpose of studying quantum computers is not to replace existing computers. Quantum computing is suitable for discrete optimization, and high performance computing systems (HPC) perform better in large-scale numerical simulations. Need to determine what problems are suitable for quantum computing, the two complement each other. There are many examples of quantum computer assisting high performance computing systems. In a certain sense, the classic computer with universal, quantum computer may be “earmarked.”From the standard computing power, the D-Wave quantum computer is still much slower than the traditional computer, but in solving some specific engineering problems, the quantum computer is several thousand times faster than the existing supercomputer.

China ‘s Resources and Opportunities

With the development of the Internet, a virtual world has been generated and is continuing to develop and improve. Everything in the real world is constantly moving to the virtual world. From the center, intervene, embedding, blurring, conferencing, going to the center, non-embedding, precision and coding; real world in virtual world reconstruction. As the real world moves to the virtual world, the weight of the virtual world is growing, and non-participants will be marginalized.

From the real to the virtual link is the core of programming. Virtual world is not a real world simple mapping, projection, but selective reconstruction.Not everything in the real world can move to the virtual world. Any programming language written by the instructions on the current computer must be accurate without any ambiguity to ensure that under the same conditions, this code is executed in accordance with established procedures. This is what the so-called software defines everything. All kinds of software, defined the data, the model, the function, the machine, the definition of the process, the rules, the network, the definition can define everything [1].

“People are the sum of social relations.” When the social relations continue to move from the real world to the virtual world, and even the latter as the most important, the status of people in the real world will be affected. Stay in the real world is only a personal secret of the faith, can not be part of the software definition [2]. Can not be moved to the virtual world, can not be mapped, but can not operate the real world, there may be dismissed in the virtual world “ball”, and even come back to the real world can not interact with others. The rapid development of the block chain further highlights the importance of being virtual and real. Human beings continue to enter the orderly degree of machine and society [3]. In society, the order of the carrier is also more and more by the machine to complete. When the basic contract of mankind, such as education, economy and law, its normal operation is carried by the machine, the mission of human beings as an orderly transfer has been completed.The society of machines will replace the real society that can not be moved.

The so-called “programming”, in other words is the code, through programming, the real world projection to the virtual world.

In a sense it can be said that Western culture is “coding culture”. Science and technology, industrial revolution, market economy, universal value, contractual relationship, and so on, all without coding. It is important to note that the first day of computer birth, the development of computer language is infiltrated in the Western coding culture. Computer language is the most basic statement is if-else, as the switchcase statement can be replaced with if else statement, in the if-else behind that is either: 0, or 1, orthogonal. Thus, relatively speaking, the already “encoded” Western society easier to “programming” into the virtual world, and in turn accept the virtual world of the real world norms and constraints.

In contrast, Chinese culture is clearly “conception culture”. Road to Road, very Avenue. “Road”, how to encode? TOEFL IELTS, 20,000 words; Chinese, 5000 words is enough, the word polysemy. So the United Nations documents can not prevail in Chinese, even if the feelings of the Chinese people hurt. Words made up of words are more ambiguous. Winter, how much can wear to wear how much; summer, how much can wear to wear how much. Contextual correlation. In the face of such Chinese examinations, foreign candidates can only be “kneeling”. China’s various levels of documents must be “in principle” three words, the back is endless and not for example and case handling. The highest state is simply: “do not say”. Such a society and its operation process, not if-else, also far from the switchcase can be included, can be exhausted. Can not be programmed, does it mean that China’s traditional culture and social operation can not be mapped to the virtual world?

Quantum computer may be the traditional Chinese culture, the way for the operation of Chinese society programming.

The key to quantum computers is the essential nature of quantum mechanics, such as the superposition and coherence of quantum states. Superposition, coherence, entanglement, so that some concepts and the meaning of knowledge have the same place. The input and output states of the quantum computer are generally superimposed states of multiple states between 0 and 1, which are usually not orthogonal to each other. The quantum computer transforms each superimposed component, where each “component” can be considered to correspond to one of the “cases” in Chinese society.

But in real life these cases are difficult to compare with the same standard, and in the quantum computer, all of these transformations at the same time, and according to a certain probability of superposition, give the results.Quantum computers are probabilistic rather than deterministic, and return to the user may be multiple sets of values, not only to provide the system to find the best solution, but also provide other alternative alternatives. The user can specify the number of systems that the system sends to itself.

The classic way of solving a problem by a classic computer is similar to trying to escape a maze – try all possible aisle, on the way will encounter a dead end until the final find the exit. The magic of the superposition state is that it allows the quantum computer to try all the paths at the same time, that is, it will quickly find a shortcut. In a sense, it can be said that the quantum computer not only contains the highly complex and “conception” characteristics of Chinese traditional culture and real society, but also gives the possibility of coding and programming. The former retains the particularity of China to a certain extent , Which makes this particularity compatible with the universality of human society.

In turn, China has special resources, such as hieroglyphics, language, and traditional culture, which may be another way for the development of quantum computers.

Quantum computers operate in much the same way as classic computers, and now quantum computing is very early, and even specialized programming languages ​​are not [4]. Since non-orthogonal, or if-else? When the need to compare the more things, or a lot of other control process, with if else statement control will be very cumbersome, and poor readability, and the switch statement is more simple and intuitive, more readable and more. But if it is further fragmented, embedded in the infinite number of specific contexts? Quantum computer is completely different from today’s CPU mechanism, nor is the if-else mechanism, can not use the current computer language for its programming. Otherwise it may be as Sokal triggered the science war in the “post-modern text generator”, with a series of contradictory words superimposed together, so that the reader in the fog, no solution.

“The scientific revolution in the 21st century will show two main themes, one is” the convergence of physics and life sciences “; the second is” the confluence of modern science and Chinese philosophy ” The Quantum computer development, it is possible to let the latter “confluence” down the philosophy of the altar, to a certain extent, into the operational level. The advent of quantum computers suggests that it is possible to look at Chinese words and grammar from a new perspective. Perhaps, the ancient “Book of Changes”, River map book, there may be in the dialogue with the quantum computer complement each other.

3 Human reversion and continuation

In the Qiwen “decarburization into the silicon”, the author of the Czech Republic, there are four sets of human cognitive system: the original reptile cognitive system, 50,000 years ago when the language developed, 5000 years ago, after the development of the text, And 500 years ago after the rise of science and development. Each set is more than the previous set of “natural”, more energy consumption, slower. So people tend to use low-level cognitive systems.Every time the cognitive system is advanced, some people are thrown off. Here you can also add the fifth set of cognitive systems, 50 years ago the rise of programming + computing + learning +.

Everyone is a combination of multiple cognitive methods, the difference is the proportion of a variety of cognitive methods. The overall population, in 90% of the human brain “machine”, is that the original cognition at work. The majority of the population as a whole tends to “do not mind” in most of the time. Analysis, symbols and rationality are enemies of the brain, and must be used to fight them all the time.

In this sense, Bao Jie to “stupid” under a definition. Stupid is a human inertia of inertia, the individual is more inclined to use 50,000 years ago mature set of thinking system, rather than 5000 years ago, and five years ago after the development of science and development of these two sets of thinking system, more Not 50 years ago programming. This is the advertising and other means of marketing and election canvassing and so the effectiveness of the human nature of the foundation. Artificial intelligence goes beyond human intelligence and does not need to be smarter than people, just to avoid people’s stupid enough. The machine is just stupid and people are stupid. Stupid can rule, stupid from the human physiological basis, no medicine to save.

The advent of quantum computers, it is possible for humans to open the “sixth set of cognitive systems.” The new cognitive system may emerge within five years if the fifth set of 50-year rhythms are added in the “decarburization of silicon” in the range of 50,000 to 5,000 to 500, and by the experts, Five years, the computing power of quantum computers may catch up with the current supercomputer). The classical computer is linear, and all input states are orthogonal to each other. And thinking is often parallel, pluralistic, and even jumping. With quantum computers, it is possible to understand the human behavior based on the first and second sets of cognitive systems, changes in mind, and even emotional changes.

What is the “cognitive system” of the so-called “first and second sets of cognitive systems”? Levi’s “original thinking” and Levi-Strauss’s “wild thinking” made a profound study of this.

Levi – Boulei stressed that the original thinking of the “mutual infiltration”, both specific to trivial, natives can recognize the footprints of each acquaintance, after the rain, the pit of water retained the longest; and by mutual penetration and care of the whole The For example, call a name or name, also implicated it or he embedded everything. Embedded in every detail, all have the object of all the information. The original logical thinking is essentially a comprehensive thinking, different from the logical thinking of the synthesis, does not require pre-analysis. “The logical thinking of the original logic is broader than our thinking, if we do not say it’s better than our rich.” The idea of ​​D-Wave America’s president, BoEwald, is that “the traditional computer will always get the same answer, and the answer to the quantum computer Is a probability, just like the principles of the universe, “says David Mermin, a physicist at Cornell University, in a related argument:” Close your mouth and calculate your mind! ”

Levi-Strauss argues that [5] that the concrete thinking of uncivilized people and the enlightening thinking of the enlightened people are not different from those of “primitive” and “modern” or “primary” and “advanced” Thinking mode, but the history of mankind has always been the existence of two parallel development, the Secretary of different cultural functions, complement each other to infiltrate the way of thinking. As the plants have “wild” and “garden” two categories, the way of thinking can be divided into “wild” (or “wild”) and “civilized” two categories.

It seems that the human “stupid” may not be really stupid, but there is no corresponding means and means to understand the original and wild cognitive system, when not yet. The advent of quantum computers may indicate that time has arrived.

The knowledge of the traditional society is the starting point of human knowledge, both the object of non-embedded coding knowledge denial, and the goal of dialectical reversion of the 21st century. In the original state of knowledge, is the source of human knowledge inexhaustible, which contains the endless treasure to be excavated.

Primitive thinking or wild thinking, human first and second sets of cognitive systems, although the rise of words and technology, especially the “fifth set” of cognitive system after the rise of such as the clogs, but also may be 21 The Object of Dialectical Return of Human Cognitive System in the Century. Fundamentally, Bao Jie’s view of four sets of cognitive systems implied a certain linear implication. Similarly, Kevin Kelly thinks [6] that the most common misconception about artificial intelligence is that natural intelligence is a single dimension that does not have a smart ladder to say. The different parts of the mind, or the interdependence of the “five sets” of cognitive methods, are thus proposed.


Original Mandarin Chinese:


專家預計,到2026年,商用量子計算機能破解我們如今依賴的密碼。 《IEEE Spectrum》雜誌去年報告稱,量子計算機快達到可以破解RSA加密的水平。
量子計算機(quantum computer)是一類遵循量子力學規律進行高速數學和邏輯運算、存儲及處理量子信息的物理裝置。當某個裝置處理和計算的是量子信息,運行的是量子算法時,它就是量子計算機。
它能對每一個疊加分量實現的變換相當於一種經典計算,所有這些經典計算同時完成,並按一定的概率振幅疊加起來,給出量子計算機的輸出結果。這種計算稱為量子並行計算,也是量子計算機最重要的優越性。 (來源百度)

來源: 人工智能學家

在這一征途上,“身心”關係是難以逾越的高峰。波蘭尼關於意會知識的研究廣為人知,智商與情商不可分割。 “人工智能再聰明也沒有情感,只是機器而已。”
這些成果的取得沿襲了西方自笛卡爾以來的步點。 “認識論轉向”,“腦”登場,“以頭立地”。智能就是智能,不在乎心;一項一項去做,不做全能冠軍;一步一步去做,不去想人之為人。人工智能為什麼一定要以人類為參照系,為追趕的目標?擺脫人類中心主義的思路。
強人工智能與弱人工智能結合的模式,或許是“上帝的歸上帝,凱撒的歸凱撒”。請上帝照看人的靈魂,我來照看人的肉體。人,照看自己的靈魂,做出決策;機,人工智能從事計算,提供決策的依據和選項。 “人心機腦”。
“量子範式”可以說是強、弱人工智能這兩種範式之外的第三種範式,關係到意識或自由意志與量子糾纏的關係,以及量子計算機。 “從這個角度上來講,沒有到量子用上去之前,即不到量子人工智能的時代,我是一點兒不擔心人工智能會取代人類。”潘建偉說道。馬兆遠持同樣的觀點,在由納米尺度理解意識之前,“人工智能至少在三百年內還沒什麼機會超越人腦”。
另一方面,研究量子計算機的目的不是要取代現有的計算機。量子計算適合離散優化,高性能計算系統(HPC) 則在大規模數值模擬中表現更好。需要判斷哪些問題適合量子計算,二者相互補充。有很多量子計算機協助高性能計算系統的例子。在一定意義上,經典計算機具有普適性,量子計算機可能是“專款專用”。從標準的計算能力來看,D-Wave量子計算機還是會比傳統計算機慢得多,但在解決某些特定的工程問題方面,量子計算機要比現有超級計算機快幾千倍。
在某種意義上可以說,西方文化就是“編碼文化”。科學技術、工業革命、市場經濟、普適價值、契約關係等等,無一不編碼。有必要指出,從計算機誕生的第一天起,計算機語言的發展就浸潤在西方的編碼文化之中。計算機語言最基本的語句是if-else,至於switchcase語句完全可以用if else語句來替換掉,在if-else的背後即非此即彼:0,或1,正交。由此可見,相對而言,本已“編碼”的西方社會較容易“編程”而進入虛擬世界,以及反過來接受虛擬世界對現實世界的規範與製約。
相比之下,中國文化顯然是“意會文化”。道可道非常道。 “道”,如何編碼?考托福雅思,2萬單詞;漢語,5000單詞足矣,一詞多義。所以聯合國文件不能以中文為準,即使傷害了中國人民的感情。由單詞組成的語句更多歧義。冬天,能穿多少就穿多少;夏天,能穿多少就穿多少。語境相關。面對這樣的中文考題,外國考生也只能是“跪了”。中國的各級文件中必有“原則上”三個字,其背後是無窮無盡的下不為例和個案處理。最高境界乾脆是:“盡在不言中”。這樣的社會及其運作過程,絕非if-else,亦遠非switchcase可以囊括,可以窮盡。不能編程,是否意味著中國的傳統文化與社會運行不能映射到虛擬世界?
量子計算機的運行方式與經典計算機大為不同,現在的量子計算還非常早期,甚至連專門的編程語言都沒有[4]。既然非正交,還是if-else嗎?當需要比較的事項較多,或者很多其他控制流程的時候,用if else語句控制起來就會很麻煩,且可讀性太差,而用switcase可以囊括,可以窮盡。不能編程,是否意味著中國的傳統文化與社會運行不能映射到虛擬世界?
量子計算機的運行方式與經典計算機大為不同,現在的量子計算還非常早期,甚至連專門的編程語言都沒有[4]。既然非正交,還是if-else嗎?當需要比較的事項較多,或者很多其他控制流程的時候,用if else語句控制起來就會很麻煩,且可讀性太差,而用switch語句就更加簡潔直觀,可讀性也更強。但要是進一步碎片化,嵌入於不可勝數的特定語境之中呢?量子計算機完全不同於今天的CPU機理,也不是if-else機理,沒法用現在的計算機語言為其編程。否則很可能如索卡爾引發的科學大戰中的“後現代文本發生器”,用一連串互相矛盾的詞彙疊加在一起,讓讀者云裡霧裡,不得其解。
中國科學院大學已故數學教授牛實為先生認為,21世紀的科學革命將呈現出兩個主旋律,其一是“物理學與生命科​​學的合流”;其二是“現代科學與中國哲學的合流” 。量子計算機的發展,有可能讓後一個“合流”走下哲學的聖壇,在一定程度上步入操作的層面。量子計算機的問世提示,或許可以從一個新的視角審視中文的單詞和語法。或許,古老的《易經》,河圖洛書,有可能在與量子計算機的對話中相得益彰。
列維-布留爾強調了原始思維的“互滲”,既具體到瑣碎,土人能認出每個熟人的足跡,雨後,那個坑里的水留存最久;又經由互滲而關照整體。譬如呼喚一個名稱或名字,也就牽連它或他所嵌入的一切。嵌入的每一個細節,都擁有對象的全部信息。原邏輯思維本質上是綜合的思維,不同於邏輯思維的綜合,不要求預先的分析。原邏輯思維“比我們的思維廣闊,如果不說比我們的豐富。”D-Wave美國區總裁BoEwald的觀點是:“傳統計算機求解相同問題總會得到相同的答案,而量子計算機得到的答案卻是一種概率,就像宇宙的運行原理。”康奈爾大學物理學家David Mermin在一次相關的爭論中說:“閉上你的嘴,用心作計算吧!”

Original URL:

China Military Interpretation of information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber – centric warfare 中國軍隊解读信息战、网络战、网络中心战


China Military Interpretation of information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber – centric warfare

With the rapid development of information technology and its extensive application in the military field, some new operational concepts and operational styles came into being. Such as information warfare, cyber warfare, cyber-centric warfare, in recent days local war has demonstrated a powerful power, has become the topic of the current officers and men to explore. Then this new “war” in the end what is the difference and contact? How do you understand it? I have the following views.

The so-called information warfare, refers to the hostile parties in the field of information struggle and confrontation activities. Specifically, it is based on the digital forces as the basic strength to compete, control and use of information as the main content of a variety of information weapons and equipment as the main means of confrontation and struggle, with a transparent battlefield, real-time action, The overall coordination and the higher degree of intelligence. From the point of view of combat, information warfare is to control the “energy flow” and “material flow” with “information flow”, gain the advantage of decision-making and the advantage of action, and then end confrontation or reduce confrontation and realize ” Soldiers “. From the content and form of combat, information warfare is different from information warfare and information warfare. Information operations are specific actions of information warfare, can be divided into electronic warfare, intelligence warfare and network warfare. The information war is relative to the mechanized war, refers to a form of war. Information warfare is the main battlefield and core of information war.

The so-called network warfare refers to the information and network environment which the enemy and the enemy can use for the war, and surrounds the “system of information right” to compete, through the computer network to ensure that their own information and network system security at the same time, disrupt, destroy and threaten each other’s information and Network Systems. In essence, cyber warfare is a special form of information warfare, a kind of combat action carried out in cyberspace. Compared with the traditional war, the network war has a sudden, hidden, asymmetric and low cost, strong participation and so on. Network-centric warfare, whose English name is “NetworkCentricWarfare”, is a new concept of warfare relative to the traditional platform-centric warfare. The so-called platform center warfare, refers to the platform mainly rely on their own detectors and weapons to combat, its main feature is the platform between the information sharing is very limited. The network center war is through the network of the combat unit, the information advantage into the combat action advantage, so that the scattered configuration of the common sense of the battlefield situation, so as to coordinate their own actions to play the largest overall combat effectiveness of the combat style, it So that the focus of combat from the past platform to the network. It goes without saying that cyber-centric warfare can help combat forces create and exploit information superiority and dramatically improve combat effectiveness. It has the battlefield situation full-dimensional perception ability, the combat power integration, the combat action real-time, the army coordination synchronism and so on the characteristic.

In short, information warfare is the core of information war. Network warfare is a special form of information warfare, belonging to the category of information warfare. Network-centric warfare is the product of the transition from mechanized war form to informational warfare because the development of the network is the regeneration of the operational form of the mechanized forces of the industrial age. Therefore, whether it is information warfare or network warfare and network-centric warfare, are inseparable from the rapid development of information technology, but also inseparable from the application and popularization of network technology.


所謂網絡戰,是指敵對雙方針對戰爭可利用的信息和網絡環境,圍繞“制信息權”的爭奪,通過計算機網絡在保證己方信息和網絡系統安全的同時,擾亂、破壞與威脅對方的信息和網絡系統。從本質上講,網絡戰是信息戰的一種特殊形式,是在網絡空間上進行的一種作戰行動。與傳統戰爭相比,網絡戰具有突然性、隱蔽性、不對稱性和代價低、參與性強等特點。網絡中心戰,其英文名稱為“ NetworkCentricWarfare”,是相對於傳統的平台中心戰而提出的一種新作戰概念。所謂平台中心戰,是指各平台主要依靠自身探測器和武器進行作戰,其主要特點是平台之間的信息共享非常有限。而網絡中心戰是通過各作戰單元的網絡化,把信息優勢變為作戰行動優勢,使各分散配置的部隊共同感知戰場態勢,從而自主地協調行動,發揮出最大整體作戰效能的作戰樣式,它使作戰重心由過去的平台轉向網絡。不言而喻,網絡中心戰能夠幫助作戰部隊創造和利用信息優勢並大幅度提高戰鬥力。它具有戰場態勢全維感知能力,作戰力量一體化,作戰行動實時性,部隊協調同步性等特點。

Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage ~ 信息戰爭中使用心理戰爭中國的軍事優勢


Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage

Since the eighties of the 20th century, with the development of science and technology and the evolution of war forms, so that the psychological war plug in the high-tech wings. In the information war, the psychological warfare fully demonstrated a series of distinctive features, its status, domain objects and methods of means have undergone major changes, the impact of the war far more than any period in history.

Status is strategic

Psychological warfare has been incorporated into the national strategic areas, to achieve the national strategic objectives of the important form of struggle. At the end of the twentieth century, the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union showed the success of the “peaceful evolution” strategy pursued by the Western capitalist countries headed by the United States. “Peaceful evolution” can be said to be synonymous with “psychological warfare.” Its success has made it more strongly aware that psychological warfare is no longer an adjunct to military struggle, but an important battlefield of strategic importance in international struggle The In view of this, the world in the strategic thinking, all the psychological warfare into the overall strategic structure. In the information war, the psychological war has become the country’s strategic behavior and basic tactics, not only troops and horses did not move, heart war first, and psychological attack and psychological defense throughout the whole, as all-round, all time and space, Level of strategic action, so that the psychological battle to become an important factor leading the war situation.

Psychological warfare of the macro-level has risen to the highest strategic decision-making level of the state and the army, and the psychological attack of the primary target directly to each other’s top strategic decision-makers. After the September 11 incident, under the instigation of the National Security Council, Bush decided to make a public opinion in the international community, the Iraqi as “evil axis”, for its military strike for political pave the way. In this overall decision-making traction, the United States Department of Psychology and Strategy and the control of the “Voice of America”, newspapers, publications, film, television, the International Exchange Department, are their responsibilities, from the strategic psychological war straight Refers to the Saddam regime, with a view to leading international public opinion, for the military action to create a suitable environment.

Psychological warfare has become an important factor in leading the war situation, the outcome of the war has a pivotal role. The most representative of the recent information war mainly four: 1991 Gulf War, the 1999 war in Kosovo, the 2001-2002 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 war in Iraq. The four wars are exactly the same in the strategic use of the psychological warfare. The United States is an important part of the military’s high-intensity psychological warfare as an indispensable part of the military strategy. The intensity, scope and time of the military strike are as limited as possible within the limits of politics, and even every military action Not only to consider the military value, but also to consider the political and psychological values, every stage of the war, to assess the psychological effects of the enemy, and then decide the next stage of military strike to achieve the military goals and political and psychological goals coincide. These four wars, not only to show people the psychological war is “war before the war, after the war of war”, but also to fully demonstrate the great power of psychological warfare and to play a major role in the war.

The field is broad

The psychological warfare in the information war has transcended the boundaries of military struggle and has become a well-planned and comprehensive strategic action in various fields such as politics, economy, military affairs, diplomacy, culture and religion.

Looking at the information war in recent years, we can clearly see that the United States is not political, economic, diplomatic, military, cultural and religious and other areas of the psychological war as a whole, so that the psychological battle became a veritable “psychological encirclement and suppression ”

The object of the war of information warfare has also completely broken through the scope of the traditional warfare against the military. “The whole purpose of mental warfare is to encourage emotions in foreign groups and people to influence their attitudes or behavior in order to support the goals of the United States.” That is to say, the psychological warfare of information war Object range, has been extended to both the enemy combat forces, but also against the enemy of the people, and even the psychological warfare to the war with the object of friendly countries and regions, pointing to neutral countries and neighboring countries and neighboring countries and the entire international community. Information war in the psychological war also bear the education of their own military and civilian, to maintain the heart to the same and psychological stability of the task.

Methods show diversity

From the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the war in Afghanistan to the war in Iraq, the United States not only attached great importance to “heart war” and “war” closely, but also in the psychological warfare will be used in a variety of ways to complement each other, complement each other , Thus greatly enhancing the effectiveness of psychological warfare. 9.11 after the incident, the United States to fight the psychological war, for the war on terror to lay the foundation of public opinion. The United States on the day of making a decision to send troops in Afghanistan, the State Council set up a “propaganda group”, the use of domestic major media, repeated rendering of the United States in the “9.11” loss, widely for the people to form a terrorist The On the eve of the military strike, the US Department of State has set up a “public relations team”, responsible for the full implementation of national propaganda strategy. After the war began, for the support of international public opinion, the United States in Washington, London and Islamabad established three “wartime press room”, the timely release of the so-called “real and reliable” battlefield information, and the Taliban propaganda to compete. The US Department of Defense has also set up a “strategic information office”, specifically concocted false information, through a variety of ways to pass abroad. In the implementation of military strikes, strengthen the deterrence of the enemy. First to deploy troops to push to change. In a short period of 20 days, within 500 km of Afghanistan, the assembly of five aircraft carrier formation, 18 million combat troops, 550 combat aircraft, from the air, the ground basically blocked the whole territory of Afghanistan, its intention is to Strong military pressure to force the Taliban unconditionally to meet the demands of the United States. Then, continuous blow to fried change. The US military every day out of hundreds of fighters on the Taliban strategy and tactical goals for continuous bombing. In the air raid, the US military intends to use a variety of powerful psychological deterrent effect of new weapons, such as AC-130 laser attack aircraft, this aircraft carrying a new laser weapons, it can be said that the light flash, that is, ashes, The Afghan army is called “the light of death”. US Department of Defense officials have made no secret that the main intention is not to completely eliminate the Taliban military forces, but to strive to defeat its morale, weaken its psychological affordability, triggering “internal chaos and fission.”

Means to show high technology

High-tech makes the psychological warfare endless. In the recent wars, the United States has made use of satellite positioning and direction finding, television broadcasting technology, computer information processing technology, network technology, signal simulation and distortion technology, audio and video technology and other high-tech means to improve the psychological warfare comprehensive combat effect The According to incomplete statistics, in the Iraq war, the United States used military and civilian satellites up to 160, compared with the Gulf War increased by 23. The US news media is through these communications satellites to the domestic and the world launched a large number of favorable to the enemy is not conducive to the enemy’s war information and images. Now, people can use computer graphics synthesis technology, easy to create such as “a country army in the enemy capital square lined up”, “a country leader and the enemy leaders secret talks, shake hands” and other fictional photos or television pictures, to Suddenly these “information bomb” fired at each other’s military and civilian, to destroy the other side of the military and civilian defense line. People can use the audio and video technology to simulate the voice of the head of the enemy and battlefield commander, issued a wrong command of the war, so that the enemy decision-making mistakes, command into chaos, and can use these high-tech means to adjust their military and civilian psychology, inspire morale. In 1993, the United States in the Somali Marine Corps in the implementation of peacekeeping missions, suffered some setbacks. Once, the wind, the dust storm suddenly, the troops suddenly chaos up. At this critical moment, the American Army forces suddenly appeared on a head of up to 150 meters of Jesus image, the US soldiers saw after kneeling, and some frightened, and some burst into tears, that God is really with them, they Somali warfare is “the will of God” and is “fighting for God”. Later, this image exists for a full five minutes to disperse. It is said that this is the United States psychological warfare forces with laser holographic imaging system projection to the air image, to improve the morale of the troops. The United States also attaches great importance to the use of network technology, network infiltration, information and psychological attacks. Network transmission speed, in a very short period of time, heart war information up to front-line officers and men, up to the warrior family, can affect the highest decision-making body, under the ordinary people, its influence is self-evident. In the Iraq war, the United States even organized “hackers” experts to crack the Iraqi military high-level characters e-mail password, send a large number of e-mail, but also directly call the Iraqi high-level mobile phone, the implementation of psychological deterrence and inducement. There is a recent report that the US military engaged in a “666” computer virus, the virus into the computer, you can make the screen repeated an image, people repeatedly see this image, will produce some inexplicable potential awareness, leading to nerve Disorder, hallucinations and even death.

Power show professional

In contemporary times, the developed countries in the world not only attach great importance to the use of psychological warfare, but also pay special attention to strengthening the psychological warfare from all levels.

First, the establishment of a scientific and effective organization and leadership institutions. Now, many countries in order to effectively carry out psychological defense and external implementation of psychological operations, have established a corresponding psychological warfare organizational system. The United States is the most complete system of psychological warfare, the commander of the body by the President of the psychological warfare counsel, chief of staff of the joint meeting of the psychological warfare, the Ministry of Defense of the General Office of the Department of psychological operations; middle institutions by the Joint Command and the theater headquarters of the psychological war department; The lower body consists of psychological war camps and psychological warfare groups. The state and the armed forces have unified their organization and coordinated mental warfare work from top to bottom, serving not only for military struggle but also for international and domestic political struggle.

Second, the establishment of psychological warfare research and think tank institutions. The United States and some Western countries and military personnel attach great importance to the study of psychological warfare, and the establishment of research institutions, specializing in psychological warfare theory and technology research. But also pay attention to play the role of civil “think tank”, the use of universities, research institutions and a variety of senior specialized personnel for the psychological warfare service.

Third, the establishment of professional psychological warfare forces and training of psychological warfare professionals. The US military has a large number of psychological warfare troops, allocated in the land and sea and air forces, including the army has four psychological battle groups, 12 psychological war camps, 22 psychological warfare, the Navy has a psychological warfare brigade, the Air Force has a special operations The wing is used to support the psychological warfare. At the same time, also set up a special psychological warfare institutions or professional, training professional psychological warfare talent. In the war in Afghanistan, the US military to the two most combat capability of the psychological warfare force – Air Force 193 Special Combat Wing and the Army 4th psychological war brigade, deployed in Uzbekistan and Pakistan, the use of various means to start the Taliban The battlefield psychological attack, such as flight radio, cast leaflets, block the Taliban news channel. Iraq war, the US military used almost all of the current psychological warfare forces, but also mobilized and organized a folk psychological strength. The Air Force Psychological Warfare Force is equipped with EC-130E psychological warfare aircraft, from time, space, audio-visual, electromagnetic and other dimensions of the release of psychological warfare information; the Army psychological warfare forces are mostly proficient in Arabic, by telephone, e-mail, And so on to lobby the Iranian specific figures, but also with the Iraqi people and soldiers in general face to face dialogue and exchange.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

心理戰已被納入國家戰略範疇,成為實現國家戰略目標的重要鬥爭形式。 20世紀末期,東歐劇變和蘇聯解體,顯現了以美國為首的西方資本主義國家推行的“和平演變”戰略取得成功。 “和平演變”可以說是“心理戰”的代名詞,它的成功,使人們更加強烈地認識到,心理戰已不再是軍事鬥爭的輔助性手段,而是國際鬥爭上具有戰略意義的重要戰場。有鑑於此,世界各國在戰略思維中,無不把心理戰納入整體戰略結構之中。在信息化戰爭中,心理戰已成為國家的戰略行為和基本戰法,不僅兵馬未動,心戰先行,而且把心理進攻和心理防禦貫穿全程,作為全方位、全時空、多領域、多層次的戰略行動,使心理戰成為主導戰局走向的重要因素。
心理戰的宏觀策動層次已上升為國家和軍隊的最高戰略決策層,並將心理戰的首要攻擊目標直接指向對方的最高戰略決策者。 9·11事件之後,布什在國家安全委員會的策動下,決定在國際進行輿論布勢,將伊拉克列為“邪惡軸心”,為其進行軍事打擊作政治鋪墊。在這一總的決策牽引下,美國務院心理戰略局和控制“美國之音”、報紙、出版物、電影、電視的國際交流署,都各司其責,從戰略上將心理戰的鋒芒直指薩達姆政權,以期主導國際輿論,為軍事行動營造適宜的環境。

從海灣戰爭、科索沃戰爭、阿富汗戰爭到伊拉克戰爭,美國不僅高度重視“心戰”與“兵戰”的緊密結合,而且在心理戰中還將各種方法綜合運用,使之互為補充,相得益彰,從而大大地增強了心理戰的功效。 9·11事件以後,美國大打宣傳心理戰,為反恐戰爭奠定輿論基礎。美國在做出對阿富汗出兵決策的當天,國務院即成立“宣傳小組”,利用國內各主要媒體,反复渲染美國在“9·11”中的損失,廣泛爭取民心,以形成對恐怖主義的輿論圍剿。軍事打擊前夕,美國務院又成立了“公關小組”,負責全面執行國家宣傳戰略。戰爭開始後,為爭取國際輿論的支持,美國在華盛頓、倫敦和伊斯蘭堡建立了三個“戰時新聞發布室”,及時發布所謂“真實可靠的”戰場信息,與塔利班的宣傳相抗衡。美國防部還成立了“戰略新聞辦公室”,專門砲制虛假信息,通過各種途徑向國外傳遞。在實施軍事打擊中,強化對敵心理威懾。先是調兵遣將,以壓促變。在短短的20天內,在阿富汗周邊500公里的範圍內,集結了5個航母編隊、18萬軍作戰部隊、550架作戰飛機,從空中、地面基本封鎖了阿富汗全境,其意圖是,以強大的軍事壓力威逼塔利班無條件滿足美國的要求。接著,連續打擊,以炸促變。美軍每天均出動上百架戰機對塔利班戰略與戰術目標進行連續轟炸。在空襲中,美國軍有意使用多種具有強大心理震懾作用的新式武器,如AC—130激光攻擊機,這種飛機載有新型激光武器,可以說是光閃之處,即化為灰燼,被阿富汗軍隊稱為“死亡之光”。美國防部官員曾毫不掩飾地說,主要意圖不在於完全消滅塔利班軍事力量,而是力求打垮其士氣,削弱其心理承受能力,引發“內部混亂與裂變”。
高新技術使心理戰手段層出不窮。在近期的幾場戰爭中,美國均利用了衛星定位測向、電視轉播技術、計算機信息處理技術、網絡技術、信號模擬和失真技術、聲像技術等高新技術手段,努力提高心理戰綜合作戰效果。據不完全統計,在伊拉克戰爭中,美國使用的軍用和民用衛星達160顆,比海灣戰爭時增加了23顆。美國的新聞媒體就是通過這些通信衛星向國內和世界發播了大量有利於己、不利於敵的戰爭信息和圖像。現在,人們可以利用計算機圖像合成技術,輕鬆地製造出諸如“某國軍隊在敵國首都廣場上列隊前進”、“某國領導人與敵國首腦秘密會談,握手言和”等虛構的照片或電視畫面,到時突然將這些“信息炸彈”射向對方軍民,以摧毀對方軍民的心理防線。人們可以利用聲像技術模擬敵方國家元首和戰場指揮員的聲音,下達錯誤的作戰命令,使敵方決策失誤、指揮陷入混亂,並可以利用這些高技術手段調節本國軍民心理,鼓舞己方士氣。 1993年,美國駐索馬里海軍陸戰隊在執行維和任務中,受到一些挫折。一次,狂風大作,沙塵暴驟起,部隊一下子混亂起來。在這個關鍵時刻,美軍部隊頭頂上突然出現了一個高達150米的耶穌圖像,美軍士兵見到後紛紛跪下,有的大驚失色,有的痛哭流涕,認為上帝確實與他們同在,他們來索馬里作戰更是“上帝的旨意”,是“為上帝而戰”。後來這個圖像存在了足足五分鐘才散去。有資料說,這是美國心理戰部隊用激光全息成像系統投影到空中的圖像,用以提高部隊的士氣。美國還十分重視利用網絡技術,進行網絡滲透、信息恐怖和心理攻擊。網絡傳播速度快,在極短的時間內,心戰信息前可達前線官兵,後可達參戰者家庭,上可影響最高決策機構,下可及普通民眾,其影響力不言而喻。伊拉克戰爭中,美國甚至組織“黑客”專家,破解伊軍方高層人物的電子郵箱密碼,發送大量電子郵件,還直接撥打伊拉克高層人物的手機,實施心理威懾和誘降。近期有一則報導,稱美軍搞了一個“666”計算機病毒,這種病毒進入電腦後,可以使屏幕反復出現一種圖像,人們反复看到這一圖像,會產生一些莫名其妙的潛在意識,導致神經錯亂、幻覺甚至死亡。

China’s “Network-centric warfare”: let the future battlefield dominate ~ 中國“網絡中心戰”:讓未來戰場占主導地位


China’s “Network-centric warfare”: let the future battlefield dominate

“Network-centric warfare” is an important symbol in the process of the evolution of the mechanized war form to the information war form. It is the advanced form of the joint operation of the information age. It is a new mode of warfare on the information warfare platform which is relatively “platform center war” At present, from the “network-centric warfare,” the real arrival, although there is a long distance, but with its gradual maturity and rise, will inevitably lead to revolutionary changes in the future battlefield.

Combat operations from “asynchronous” to “synchronization”

The operations of the mechanized era are the same as the production lines of the industrial age, and there is usually a clear sequence of stages, such as firepower preparation, assembly and entry, and the first echelon attack. In the sequence of operations, due to the lack of real-time information can not grasp the battlefield, let alone the information sharing between the various forces, so the process of combat, mutual action can only be pre-planned asynchronous collaboration. In the “network center war”, the entire battlefield is a “information grid”, “sensor network” and “war network” composed of interconnection, seamless connection, dynamic open integrated network, commanders at all levels through The network can continue to perceive the entire battlefield situation, the full access to the battlefield information, and the use of the network to obtain information on the rapid processing, the development of operational plans and the issuance of operational orders, combat operations at all levels of the network at the same time almost at the same time get the same information, The command and order of the superior commander, according to the “network” to act, thus a high degree of autonomy to implement operations, to achieve operational synergy with self-synchronization.

Power concentration from the “quantity” to “system”

Since ancient times, the principle of concentrated forces has been regarded as the combat power of the military forces of the golden rule. The history of large-scale naval warfare, air combat and land brigade combat, concentrated tens of thousands of troops to fight the battlefield battle case too numerous. However, in the information age, the use of combat forces will be a series of major changes. In the “network-centric warfare”, the army became a complex and large-scale integrated system consisting of a number of command and control systems, battlefield awareness systems and weapons systems, in order to manage such a system and make it most efficient And give full play to the power and potential of the system, it must be information network technology as a link to the battlefield operation of the various functional systems highly integrated, into an organic whole, the formation of a high-performance war power system. This is by the traditional number of concentration can not be achieved, we must rely on the highly integrated system. Highly integrated combat system can make the theater, battlefield, warriors at all levels through the digital network, linked into a string of closely related chain, so that a general through the screen to see the fighting scene, a soldier can also see from his monitor , And thus achieve different combat forces, different levels of command of the real joint.

Combat group from “hard link” to “soft connection”

The general joint operations, to achieve only the combat entities of the “hard” connection, and “network-centric” approach, through the computer network as the core of the wide-area distribution, seamless connection, dynamic open integrated network system, not only To achieve combat entities “hard” connection, but also to achieve “combat procedures”, “operating mechanism” of the soft connection. Therefore, the “network-centric warfare” is a high-level form of joint operations in the information age, in this battlefield, land, sea, air and other military (soldiers) kind of block-like division of the group has no practical significance, the battlefield all combat units Are integrated network system in an equivalent cell, while the perception of the various states of the battlefield. Therefore, in the “network-centric warfare” approach, the combat group structure will be more grouped by ability, according to the need for joint “useful” combination. The so-called grouping by ability, that is, to break the boundaries of military and civilian forces will have the same combat capability of the unified grouping, thus greatly reducing the arms and arms between the overlap and waste; the so-called joint need, is based on the actual needs of combat, to have different Combat capability of the troops together, the joint operations.

Logistics support from “build” to “focus”

“Network-centric warfare” under the battlefield, will show a typical multi-dimensional, non-linear and non-contact characteristics. Logistics forces to build a large number of traditional means of protection, in this battlefield environment, will appear extremely cumbersome and discomfort. And the information, materials and transportation technology into one, through the automated supply network system to track and master the flow of a variety of materials and the demand situation of the troops, the required logistical supplies in a timely manner to the strategy, campaign and tactical units of the ” Focus “logistics, will become” network-centric warfare “in the logistics of the inevitable choice.

“Network center war” mode, the entire battlefield is a computer network technology as the core of the intelligent integrated system, through a highly integrated and highly intelligent information network, can achieve information, materials and transportation technology integration; through the combat Troops on the various sites to access the computer system, the security sector can grasp the needs of combat forces in real time, the combat forces can also real-time understanding of combat materials consumption and supplement the situation, so that real-time as needed to the required direction Materials, and to keep track of the material throughout. To ensure that logistical support is more accurate, flexible and accurate in terms of time, location and quantity.

Combat mission from “stability” to “change”

On the traditional battlefield, due to the weak sense of the battlefield, from the discovery of the target to attack the target reaction is slow, combat mission allocation is mostly planned, the middle rarely change. In the “network-centric warfare” approach, due to the battlefield perception, command and control and fire strike has become a whole, from the discovery of the target to the implementation of the attack time difference is getting smaller, near real time, the commander can change the battlefield situation, at any time To carry out dynamic adjustment and redistribution of the tasks of the troops, so as to maximize the operational potential of combat troops. In the Iraq war, the US military used its advanced and powerful information and network technology to reduce the time from the discovery of the target to the completion of the attack from the Gulf War 3 days, 2 hours of the Kosovo war to tens of minutes. And the real realization of the “network-centric warfare”, the reaction time will be further reduced or even reached in seconds to calculate, which makes the commander of the battlefield can make a quick change, more sensitive response, timely and efficient command, Control and coordination, greatly improving the ability to temporarily change the operational response to the rapid response. (Liu Yushan)

“China Defense News” July 1, 2004

Original Mandarin Chinese:

一般的聯合作戰,實現的只是各作戰實體的“硬”連接,而“網絡中心戰” 方式下,通過以計算機網絡為核心的廣域分佈,無縫連接,動態開放的綜合網絡系統,不僅可實現作戰實體的“硬”連接,而且可實現“作戰程序”、“運行機制”的軟連接。因此,“網絡中心戰”是信息時代聯合作戰的高級形態,在這種戰場上,陸、海、空等各軍(兵)種條塊式的區分編組已無實際意義,戰場上所有作戰單元都是綜合網絡系統裡的一個等同的細胞,同時感知著戰場的各種狀態。因此,在“網絡中心戰”方式下,作戰編組結構更多的將是按能力編組、按需要聯合的“有用”組合。所謂按能力編組,就是打破軍兵種界限將具備同樣作戰能力的部隊統一進行編組,從而大大減少各軍兵種力量之間的重疊和浪費;所謂按需要聯合,就是根據作戰的實際需要,把具備不同作戰能力的部隊組合起來,進行聯合作戰。

傳統戰場上,由於戰場感知能力弱、從發現目標到攻擊目標反應慢,作戰任務分配多是預先計劃,中間很少有變。而在“網絡中心戰”方式下,由於戰場感知、指揮控制和火力打擊已成為一個整體,從發現目標到實施攻擊的時差越來越小,近乎實時,指揮員可以根據戰場態勢的變化,隨時對部隊的任務進行動態的調整和重新分配,從而最大限度地發揮作戰部隊的作戰潛能。伊拉克戰爭中,美軍運用其先進和強大的信息及網絡技術,使戰場上從發現目標到完成攻擊的時間從海灣戰爭時的3天,科索沃戰爭時的2小時縮短至幾十分鐘。而真正實現“網絡中心戰”後,這一反應時間還會進一步縮短甚至達到以秒來計算,這使得指揮員可對戰場的瞬息變化作出更快、更靈敏的反應,及時高效地進行指揮、控制與協調,大大提高臨時改變作戰計劃的快速反應能力。 (劉玉山)
《中國國防報》 2004年07月01日

互聯網”的混沌與網絡空間的迷茫 ~ China’s Internet – creating chaos and confusion in cyberspace


China’s Internet – creating chaos and confusion in cyberspace

One, chaotic “internet”

1 , from the Apache network to the “Internet”

“Internet” What is the network? China has no “Internet”? The world whether there is no “Internet”? This is not a problem, due to language and cultural expression and understanding of different interests due to the scope and purpose of the different Academic research conditions and the different atmosphere, and so on, these years more and more chaotic. “Internet”, “Internet”, “Internet”, “Mobile Internet”, “Internet Finance”, “Internet +” … … and so on, what are linked to a “Internet”, “Internet” has become a fashion term.

Today’s world has become the “Internet” encompasses the world of the world, in addition to what are “the Internet” that an “Internet”, many people do not know there is no other network, but also can not have other networks, why There are other networks. “Internet” in the end is a network or should be more than one network? Recognize the chaos, chaos awareness, are derived from this.

In 1969, Dr. Xu became the first member of the internetwork at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and later became the only senior vice president of Chinese lab in the history of Bell Labs, Institute of Engineers (IEEE) academician, has been known as the US network communications industry, “the first Chinese.” In 2004, Mr. Xu told me that people today are keen on the “Internet”, the predecessor of the ARPANET (ARPANET), the US government based on the defense considerations to the university to study the large computer mutual communication of an experimental network, 20 years of innovation and improvement from a network.

In 1970, the American Information Processing Association defined the computer network as “a collection of computer systems with separate functions that could be shared in a way that shared resources (hardware, software, data, etc.).” The definition of this computer network in the United States, perhaps regarded as the earliest from the United States “Internet” definition?

2 , two network architecture

In the 1950s, the United States established a semi-automatic ground air defense system (SAGE, Chinese translation “赛 Qi”), the computer technology and communication technology combined application attempt. In the early 1960s, the American Air Ticket Booking System (SABRE-1) consisted of a central computer and more than 2,000 terminals distributed across the United States to form a computer communication network, enabling the terminals to connect to the central computer via telephone lines on a larger scale Of the typical application. This is a single computer-centric, through the multi-line controller and remote terminal connected to the online system, known as the terminal-based remote online system, that is, early computer network.

At the end of the 20th century, the International Organization for Standardization ISO standardization of computer and information processing technology committee to study and develop network communication standards to achieve the international standardization of network architecture. In 1984, ISO formally promulgated the International Standard ISO 7498, referred to as the “Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model”, referred to as the OSI RM (Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model), the famous OSI seven-layer model. OSI RM and standard protocol development and improvement to promote a unified, open network architecture, greatly accelerating the development of computer networks.

However, the United States does not put ISO in the eyes, insist on arbitrary. In 1983, the United States in the Apache network officially launched TCP / IP protocol to replace the original NCP network control protocol, and then the formation of the Internet (Internet). For more than 30 years, the United States has used its technology, economy and military advantages to implement the Internet’s Internet-wide network strategy. The Internet Task Force (ICANN) is naked to put forward the slogan of “the same world, the same Internet”. The Obama administration is also praised “the Internet is unique in the international environment.” As a result, the Internet by the United States and its dormant countries in the iron powder are relish for the “Internet”.

In fact, the Internet is the United States to develop rules, control the exchange, monitoring information of a computer network architecture, does not fully comply with the International Organization for Standardization ISO officially issued OSI RM requirements. In other words, there are two dominant network architectures in the world: one is the OSI RM (open system interconnection reference model) proposed by the ISO, and the other is the use and pushing of the Internet. TCP / IP RM (TCP / IP reference model). The fundamental difference between the two models is that OSI RM to promote the global computer network open system interconnection, TCP / IP forced all the world’s computer terminals are connected to the Internet one network; ISO is committed to all countries, various types of computer network system The interconnection between the United States stressed that the computer between the end of the exchange of information between the end.

3 , “Internet” definition

So far, the scientific and technological circles, academia, education, industry and commerce, there is no uniform, clear, accurate and standardized Internet definition. Here the Chinese Internet, referring to the Internet as early as July 18, 1997 by the State Council authorized by the National Science and Technology Nomenclature Committee clear English internetwork, rather than the Internet.

Some people following the US Internet strategy insist that “the Internet is the Internet,” “China is the Internet translated into the Internet.” This is not a scientific, academic definition, nor is it from the academicians and “authority” of the mouth, more like an unidentified “Ah Q” said.

Or Obama frankly. “Through the Internet connection, the US company’s business can be extended to any place in the world to create countless jobs and opportunities for the American people,” he said in the preface to the International Strategy for cyberspace, published in the White House, “The Internet itself can not open a new era of international cooperation.”

Internet, Internet from English. As a proper noun, it refers to the use of TCP / IP communication protocol of a computer system, and the system provides information, services and users. The Internet requires that the user (the terminal) use the specified domain name and address for information exchange within the defined Internet framework in accordance with its specific rules, which is excluded and closed to the network using other communication protocols, or simply replace it.

Some people say that the definition of the Internet, English should be “a computer network forming of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP / IP network protocols to facilit data transmission and exchange.” Translated into Chinese, is “by a use of TCP / IP Network protocol to promote data transmission and exchange of computer networks composed of a global network. “Please note that this” definition “is very clear:

First, you must use the TCP / IP protocol;

Second, must be the same use of TCP / IP protocol composed of computer networks;

Third, must be in the TCP / IP protocol on the basis of a global network.

Around a long circle around the same circle, or “use TCP / IP protocol computer network”! Can only accept and use TCP / IP with a protocol, the same type of rules, in the same network space for transmission and exchange Of the network, which is not the Internet? How to become the “Internet” in the end is a dull chaos, or chaos led to a dull?

It is said that in the foreign literature, the Internet is described as “no leadership, no law, no political, no army … … incredible social organizational structure.” Dare to ask the US government to the global implementation of such a network structure is what is it? Is to ensure that to induce or force countries, regions, organizations and each use of computers around the world users have succumbed to the Internet, subject to, The United States?

It was argued that, from a general point of view, the definition of the Internet should include three aspects, namely:

– is a TCP / IP protocol based on the network;

– is a computer users of the network group, the user in the use of network resources at the same time, but also for the development and expansion of the network contribute;

– is a collection of all the information resources that can be accessed and used.

The question is whether or not the other computer networks that do not use or do not apply the TCP / IP protocol exist. Is it allowed to exist? Should it exist? Use different protocols The interconnection, convergence, exchange between networks is not the Internet, is it interconnected? Even if the same from the TCP / IP protocol network, IPV6 and IPV4 network is the relationship between the interconnection, or the upgrading of the relationship between China’s national intellectual property rights of IPV9 and the United States have intellectual property IPV6, IPV4 network, is the sovereign equality of network interconnection, or technology-compatible coverage of the alternative relationship? If the realization of IPV9, V6, V4 technology system network of mutual integration and sharing co-governance, which is the Internet? It is only the Internet To the future of the network of technological progress?

According to the above Internet, the definition and statement of the Internet, China only has a network within the Internet framework, there is no consistent with the national sovereignty, consistent with the public network, there is no interconnection with non-sovereign public Internet (internetwork).

The concept of “the Internet is the Internet” that the Americans themselves can not say clearly define, in recent years, have appeared in China’s strategic, planned, decision-making documents and media coverage. Some “authorities” who take the opportunity to hustle and dust, constantly extending, expanding, distorting, fabricating its connotation and extension, it is chilling. If only by the United States 忽悠, but also not detained our independent innovation thinking, and will not be able to reverse and adjust the decision-making mistakes and mistakes strategy. If we themselves fool yourself, self-deception, does not mean that we know the chaos has been deep mud, it is difficult to extricate themselves?

Second, the confusion and confusion of cyberspace

U = 590280692, 1668539107 & fm = 21 & gp = 0.jpg

1 , the Internet constitutes the network space

With the approval of the Central Network Security and Information Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office published the “National Network Space Security Strategy”, which was first published by “Internet, Communication Network, Computer System, Automated Control System, Digital Equipment and Its Bearer Which is “a new area of ​​human activity that is important to land, sea, sky and space. National sovereignty extension extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty becomes An important part of national sovereignty.

What is the “Internet” mentioned above? Refers to the network of Internet coverage of a global network of space or the world’s multiple sovereign network interconnection of the network space formed? This problem is not clear, people’s cyberspace awareness, Recognize and identify the ability to distinguish still deep chaos, confusion and confusion.

The Internet is the Internet, in order to achieve the exchange of information between the terminal and the terminal in a network within the framework of the formation of a joint network of space; the Internet is the Internet, is a number of different types of networks in order to share the purpose of mutual benefit Interconnected network space. The Internet and the Internet constitute the integration of the network space, inclusive of common, but also the existence of their own specific and specific rules, categories, ecological and other characteristics. Different cyberspace can not be generalized, confused. Our knowledge should not be disturbed more and more chaos.

Different network space is the most fundamental, the most typical characteristic difference is that countries in the Internet (internetwork) under the framework of sovereignty can not be changed, can not cover up, irreversible, can only be between the sovereignty of the handshake, shake hands, In contrast, bullying. The sovereignty of the Internet is only one, that is, the United States a unique sovereignty, or hegemony. Within the framework of the Internet, any country’s sovereignty has been unilaterally formulated and closely governed by the United States, the scope and the shackles and shackles of ecology, and have to let the United States and its allies (such as Japan) violate, penetrate, , To play, to play in the applause.

In particular, the need for deep and clear, highly important is the dissemination of information, economic development, prosperity, culture, governance, cooperation and exchanges, not the Internet patent, the national sovereign network can also be implemented and implemented, based on national sovereign cyberspace Internet interconnection may do better. The use of the Internet in the United States a network of technical systems and means to bypass the national network of sovereignty, governance and legal rights, is leading to the sovereign cyberspace security is the biggest source of security, is the sovereign state of the greatest threat to security, The most destabilizing factors that endanger the peace, stability and national unity of the sovereign states. In the Internet, there is no country with the country’s diplomacy, there is no equal and mutual respect for international cooperation, only the United States a dominance, a strong, one dominate, one of the words have the final say. In the framework of such a network, with the United States to talk about the rules, stresses the principle of governance, on the Pratt & Whitney, not with the tiger skin, dance with the wolf? How can the United States take their own national interests to share with other countries, to sell their own network sovereignty To allow other countries to rival the country’s cyberspace “sovereignty in me, not subject to people”, if subject to the people, will be subject to chaos, will suffer! The truth, Iran understand, Germany understand that Russia understands that many countries understand. Over the years, from Asia, the Americas, the Middle East to the EU lessons one by one, we have no reason not to understand, do not accept the lesson?

2 , cyber space sovereignty belongs to the United States

Some people say that cyberspace is cyberspace, that the English Cyberspace is internetwork. If the two English words is entirely a meaning, pointing to the same category of words, why have to be divided into how to see, how to read, how to write can not stand on the two words, speak English foreigners tired tired!

It is said that Cyberspace translated into Chinese cyberspace is more meaningful. Some people say that the US Presidential Decree on Cyberspace’s definition shows that “the Internet is an important infrastructure for cyberspace,” “Internet computers are the most basic elements of Cyberspace,” “Internet + is the Internet’s most important move to cyberspace ”

Here the “Internet”, obviously refers to the Internet that Internet, “Internet +” is the Internet +. There is also a dizzy chaos: the Internet or “Internet” does not constitute cyberspace, the Internet or “Internet” is only Cyberspace this cyberspace infrastructure? “Internet +” is only the Internet to Cyberspace this Network space expansion of an important action, but also does not belong to the network space?

English Cyberspace Chinese literal translation, is cyberspace. 2008 President of the United States President Bush issued the Presidential Decree No. 8 (NSPD) / 23 Homeland Security Presidential Decree, the Chinese translation of cyberspace definition is: “a global domain in the information environment, by independent and interdependent information Technology infrastructure network, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems and embedded processors and controllers, etc. “This seemingly rigorous definition defines cyberspace as a global information environment, encompassing all of the world’s” information technology Infrastructure network “. US Air Force Chief of Staff said the cyber space encompasses everything from “direct current to visible light”. To say that, or the Internet a network of the world that the concept of a replica, for a noun, changed the argument only, not the right.

This definition can be seen almost as an American imperial edict to declare war on all sovereignty over the world. The definition does not recognize the resources, conditions and foundations of countries to build and develop sovereign cyberspace, and first incorporate all kinds of network infrastructures into the category of cyber cyberspace. The definition is preemptively bundled with political, economic, military and cultural Hands and feet of the “certain rules”, thrown out of the national scientists, strategists in the future development of the field of network innovation voyage cable; the definition of only state officials set fire to the people not allowed to light, domineering, ambition, aggressive.

3 , Internet sovereignty and power confused

Although the OSI RM (Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model) proposed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is one of the two dominant network architectures in the world, these years have not resulted in large-scale market applications. Some people think that the model exists level and content is not the best, the session layer and presentation layer is almost empty, the corresponding service definition and protocol complexity and other technical shortcomings.

And the obvious and unsafe problems caused by the inherent lack of Internet technology have been widely concerned by countries and international organizations. Fundamentally change the Internet’s single control center framework, TCP / IP protocol, identity and security authentication mechanism, has become a major global key core technology innovation research topics.

Perhaps because of this, the current countries have not yet formed in the sovereign cyberspace based on the construction of the global Internet (internetwork) conditions, resources and support, not the ability and the Internet “zhongjiang governance”, “equally”, “shared peace” Can only “send people”, in access to the Internet, rent Internet services, to prevent excessive penetration of the Internet and so on, put huge costs and bargaining with the United States to try to minimize harm and loss. Countries are equally involved in Internet governance, equitable distribution of Internet infrastructure resources, common management of Internet root servers and other key information infrastructure, to strengthen the representation and voice of developing countries, like slogans, and like a mirage, shouting fills, and can not reach.

In the framework of the United States Internet within a network, in the United States cyberspace sovereignty and security under the serious deterrence, the peaceful development of the theme of cyberspace international cooperation strategy is likely to only wishful thinking, the premise and the foundation is wrong, direction and route Biased The United States and the rest of the world continue to lag behind the United States in the network space, subject to the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, Succumbed to the United States, and will actually lose cyberspace sovereignty, loss of development opportunities and strategic opportunities, more harm than good, regret not the beginning.

4 , cyberspace international cooperation trade-offs

Z (8) .jpg

Corresponding to the Chinese cyberspace English is Net Space, the scientific definition is: information infrastructure to connect, cover and carry information processing space-time domain.

This definition specifies the most common commonality of the Internet, the Internet, cyberspace, and any other cyberspace, not to the will of a particular country or interest, not limited to a particular network, Country to build the network space.

With this definition as a prerequisite to support countries to strengthen the construction and development of sovereign cyberspace, to promote the international community in a spirit of mutual respect for dialogue and cooperation, have the resources to protect the public in the cyberspace of the right to know, participation, expression, supervision Rights and conditions to build a multilateral, democratic and transparent global network space management system, it is possible to achieve scientific and rational, fair and orderly, equal and reciprocal, security checks and balances of international cooperation in cyberspace.

China in the supercomputer development, aerospace computer system applications, etc. has been rushed in the forefront of the world, can be compatible with IPV6 and IPV4 IPV9 technical system test run test is satisfactory. Russia in the domestic network information control and prevention of foreign network invasion and so has accumulated a good experience, the establishment of a good system. The EU has embarked on a potential threat to the Internet and is committed to building an autonomous cyberspace system. More and more countries put forward cyber space sovereignty demands, in favor of Xi Jinping President “jointly build cyberspace fate community” claims.

In the current limited conditions, the basis and the expected prospects, China’s international cooperation in cyberspace initiatives should be able to assess the situation, do what, careful operation, not rushed into the routines of other countries. Should be single-handedly with the United States and other countries to negotiate international Internet space governance diplomacy, a rainy day, one hand to build the power of the United States enough to balance the US Internet and cyberspace of China’s sovereign public network system. At the same time, take decisive and resolute measures to resolutely deal with domestic and foreign network security risks and threats, and resolutely punish the network of criminal activities, and resolutely crack down on China’s cyberspace sovereignty, betrayal of national and national interests, resolutely correct long passive Cyberspace following strategy and strategy.

Third, the world cyberspace security situation

U = 2873491118, 2968306817 & fm = 11 & gp = 0.jpg

The US Internet-dominated world cyberspace security situation is increasingly grim. Wearing the “Internet” caps of the Internet security problems riddled with more and more countries to become difficult to save the network of ills and long-lasting “heart disease.”

According to the “China cyberspace security report (2016)” Blue Book, since 2015, based on the Internet and cyber space network conflict and attack, become the main form of confrontation between countries. Russia Kaspersky accused the United States “Formula Group” through the implantation of spyware, infected Iran, Russia, China, more than 30 countries such as military, financial, energy and other key sectors of the tens of thousands of computers. Iran says it has thwarted the United States’ cyber attacks on its oil sector. Italy “Hacking Team” more than 400G of the company’s data was open and found that the United States, Morocco, Ethiopia and other institutions in more than 20 countries to buy a network of spy and vulnerability tools. The company blames Russia’s “APT28” organization for exploiting zero-day vulnerabilities to attack NATO and US defense agencies.

Blue Book Disclosure, the United States set up “Network Threat Intelligence Integration Center”, and expand the State Council “Anti-Terrorism Strategy Information Center” scale, the CIA set up “Digital Innovation Department” to strengthen the network intelligence gathering capacity. The US Department of Defense launched a network security incubator program, the British government to expand its network security research capabilities, the US Navy prepared offensive network action, NATO announced the preparation of mixed network warfare, countries focus on network attack and defense and hard and soft strength, and strive to security and attack Ability to enhance the two-way. Media disclosure, the world has more than 50 countries set up a network warfare forces, the global cyberspace “military race” escalating.

According to the disclosure, relying on the United States Internet technology, agreements and infrastructure development developed “China Internet”, government, banking, energy and other vital departments of the network information system generally can not achieve safe and controllable, the domestic industrial control system is ” Security loopholes. ” 2015 appears Alipay, Ctrip data loss, Netease e-mail leakage and other troubles, in recent years through SMS, WeChat implementation of financial fraud every day in a large number of occur. Minister of Industry and Trade Miao Wei told reporters that now an average of one month to search for 173 million telecommunications fraud information.

According to the “National Internet Information Center”, “Network Security Information and Dynamic Weekly”, February 13, 20-19, the number of domestic infected network virus host 400,000 units, up 6.6% over last week; territory was implanted back door Of the government website rose 47.1%; for the domestic website of the number of counterfeit pages increased by 165.2%; new information security high-risk loopholes rose 26.2%. Monitoring found that the source of network virus transmission to the site of the horse, involving 68 domain names in 30.9% for overseas registration, and the top domain for the .com about 83.8%, most of the horse site through the domain name to visit the implementation of the virus spread.

National Defense University professor Dai Xu pointed out that today’s world has been in a “network”. Changes in the military field have taken place. From the sensor as the core, to electromagnetic space as the boundary of the electronic information warfare (which can be called “telecommunications war”), to the network as the core, to the psychological space for the characteristics of the network, psychological warfare (can be called “network Heart war “),” network “into the basic characteristics of the seventh generation of war, is becoming the main battle of the big country game. China’s traditional strategic advantage is becoming the focus of opponents crack, China once again in a natural barrier can rely on the dangerous situation, the face of being blackmail the state of the network. The traditional cognitive system of war and anti-war requires urgent upgrading. In the new era of mixed warfare of the network, China must also have the ability to hold the “bull nose” of the times.

Fourth, the history of sovereign cyberspace

1 , “cyber space” alert the world

The United States carefully thrown out the “cyberspace” theory, self-righteous, and then without hesitation in its delineation of the “cyber space that cyberspace” large-scale global information monitoring, network war deployment and network information intelligence collection And plunder, etc., alert the world’s scientists, economists, military scientists, socialists and businessmen, politicians, people and so on. People suddenly realized that “the Internet is the Internet” and “cyber space is cyberspace” exactly the same. In the final analysis, the superpower capitalist hegemony of the United States regarded himself as the head of the “global village” and regarded “economic globalization” as “selfish”. “I am my, you or my, this earth on the land and sea sky all everything is my” – this is the real United States, which is all the interests of the United States. The United States, is so arrogant unreasonable.

However, reality and science have repeatedly verified that cyberspace is only a type of network that exists in a variety of independent runs, and is part of a space for different types of networks that are different in technology, different in purpose, and for different purposes. Cyberspace is not equal to cyberspace, cyberspace covers cyberspace, cyberspace is a subset of cyberspace.

Since the performance of the United States sovereignty and interests of cyber space, indicating that all constitute a subset of cyberspace, all countries and areas of the network space, have their sovereignty and interests of the demands. Iran, Russia, Germany, China and so on the EU and so on, should have, there must be, otherwise there is no construction of “cyberspace fate community,” the basic conditions and the necessary basis for peace, sharing, co-governance, win-win International cyberspace is out of the question.

In this way, to strengthen the national sovereignty network construction and development, build and maintain their own security and stability, national unity, and promote the prosperity of the domestic community of sovereign cyberspace, become a sovereign state important event. This is the common responsibility of the United Nations, the United States and the world’s sovereign States. “Cyber ​​space” deter the world, is the United States contempt for the world’s cyberspace strategy of the major errors; any follow the US Internet, cyber space strategy decisions and initiatives, will be lost in the direction of major mistakes.

2 , Internet space strategy has been put on the agenda

U = 2559533438,1219077096 & fm = 23 & gp = 0.jpg

Network space (Net Space), is the space-time system created by mankind, is the generic name of the concept, is the information processing and exchange of bearing space. It summarizes the three elements that make up the cyberspace: attributes, connection coverage, and the ability to carry processing information. Regardless of the financial network, enterprise network, government network, regardless of the Internet, Internet, Internet, regardless of land-based network, aviation network, space network, regardless of cable network, wireless network, quantum network, regardless of public or private network related services Providers and operators of private access networks, and so on, there are independent connections to cover the space-time domain and bearer processing exchange of different information on the network space.

The cyberspace has not been able to rigorously, regulate and accurately reflect and embrace all of its inherent characteristics, and extend the scope of the cyber space in the new network space. The conditions and the basis for the development of the law of change. This network and the network between the super network space, inspired the “Internet space” (Nets Space) doctrine. Internet space is an integrated domain of cyberspace.

Standing in the Internet space height, depth and breadth of the full dimension, full view of cyberspace, our vision will be wider and farther and clearer, our thinking will be easier to jump out yesterday and today, looking to tomorrow, we will from the Internet , “Internet”, cyber space caused by chaos in the liberation of ideas, out of a computer network era beyond the new path of the human information society.

A network space, wireless networks, quantum communication, space networks and other interconnected, interactive, interdependent constitute the era of Internet space, has come and is entering a more advanced stage. The rise of China’s cyberspace strategy will inevitably lead to the rise of revolutionary thought, the rise of science and technology, the rise of economy, the rise of the nation, the rise of the country, the benefit of future generations, the impact and drive the global human society by leaps and bounds.

Internet space strategy and technical preparation has been put on the agenda, the best time may be in front of and in the next few years. China can not seize the opportunity to seize the opportunity to go beyond the United States to lead the new super cyberspace – Internet space era, to seize the day and night, to now move from scratch, to the number of romantic figures, but also to see the current.

3 , the development of Internet space to be the power of the whole country

The United States to push the country to push the Internet, push IPV6, push the Bo space, leading to chaos in the country and confused at the same time, but also indeed created a remarkable network technology, network economy and network military glory.

China has become the world’s second largest economy. China is fully capable, conditional and confident to develop the international space strategy and technology with the power of the whole country.

Ideological emancipation, institutional reform is China’s reform and opening up since the two initiatives complement each other. From this start, it is recommended:

⑴ the establishment of the CPC Central Committee, the National People’s Congress, the State Council and the CPPCC under the leadership and under the constraints of a highly authoritative, rule of law and error correction mechanism and error correction mechanism, and resolutely put an end to the confusion and decision-making road.

A small number of follow the United States, “experts”, “authority” long-term impact and intervention in the national network of information authorities who also a number of “one speech” strange thing, no longer allow, exist and continue, and must be resolutely reversed and broken.

Should immediately resolutely correct the “comprehensive introduction, upgrading, the deployment of IPV6” major strategic decision-making and planning mistakes, abolished with the United States signed all the hazards and endanger China’s cyberspace sovereignty and security of the unequal agreement; cyberspace field investment projects one by one The implementation of the audit and post-evaluation, obviously “for others to marry clothes,” all shut down and turn.

(2) The State encourages and supports the construction, development and maintenance of a sovereign public network on the basis of the premise and national ownership of intellectual property rights.

Should be clearly in the United States based on the current “Internet”, the construction of independent development of the Chinese public network and other sovereign public network and provide services, the people have the right to use the sovereign public network and non-sovereign public network rights. The state should introduce the tendency of the incentive policies and measures to allow the sovereign public network using IPV9, Zheng code, Tao Chen code, CFL safety certification, MISC, and so on with national independent intellectual property rights technology. Actively build, develop and maintain the domestic independent operation of the multi-network constitute the Internet, can build a global network space fate community to explore the model, the accumulation of experience and create the conditions.

(3) to seize the opportunity to create a national-led, social participation, private operation of the “Internet Space Research Institute”, all-round, multi-dimensional, deep-level research and development of Internet space technology and development of development strategies and strategies to create a world-class training of Internet space talent base , Build the sovereign network / future network / Internet space experiment, test the system application environment, explore and solve the sovereign network, cyberspace and the development of Internet space in various problems, strides in the lead in the forefront of the development of Internet space.

(4) First of all, with Russia, Iran, Germany, the European Union and other countries committed to the development, development and maintenance of their own sovereign cyberspace and actively organize the construction of cyberspace destiny community communication, exchange, negotiation and cooperation, joint multi- The United States is the main negotiator.

Clear the chaos, swing confused, we will no longer be subject to the people, let the mercy, we will be firmly into the era of cyberspace, we will be far-sighted toward the future of Internet space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:



“互聯網”究竟是什麼網?中國究竟有沒有“互聯網”?世界究竟有沒有“互聯網”?這本不是問題的問題,由於語言文化表達和理解的不同,由於利益追求範圍和目的的不同,由於學術研究條件和氛圍的不同,等等,這些年越來越顯得混沌不清。 “互聯網”、“中國互聯網”,“國際互聯網”、“移動互聯網”、“互聯網金融”、“互聯網+”……等等,什麼都掛上個“互聯網”,“互聯網”竟成為時尚用語。

今天的世界儼然成了“互聯網”囊括天下的世界,除了什麼都是“the Internet”那一張“互聯網”,許多人都不知道還有沒有其它網,還能不能有其它網,為什麼還會有其它網?。 “互聯網”到底是一張網?還是應該不止一張網?認識的混沌,混沌的認識,皆源於此。

1969年,許浚博士成為在美國加州大學洛杉磯分校(UCLA)實驗室誕生的第一個互聯網絡(internetwork)的研究成員,他後來成為貝爾實驗室歷史上唯一的華裔高級副總裁,美國電子電氣工程師學會(IEEE)院士,曾被譽為美國網絡通信界“第一華人”。 2004年,許先生告訴我,人們今天熱衷的“互聯網”,前身是阿帕網(ARPANET),是美國政府基於國防上的考量出錢給高校研究的大型計算機互相通信的一個實驗網,又經過20多年的創新和改進而來的一張網。



20世紀50年代,美國建立了一個半自動的地面防空系統(SAGE,中文譯作“賽琪”),進行了計算機技術與通信技術相結合的應用嘗試。 60年代初,美國航空訂票系統(SABRE-1)由一台中心計算機和分佈在全美範圍內的2000多個終端組成計算機通信網絡,更大規模地實現了各終端通過電話線連接到中心計算機的典型應用。這種以單個計算機為中心、通過多重線路控制器與遠程終端相連接的聯機系統,被稱做面向終端的遠程聯機系統,即早期的計算機網絡。

20世紀70年代末,國際標準化組織ISO的計算機與信息處理標準化技術委員會著手研究和製定網絡通信標準,以實現網絡體系結構的國際標準化。 1984年,ISO正式頒布了稱為“開放系統互連基本參考模型”的國際標準ISO 7498,簡稱OSI RM(Open System Interconnection Basic Reference Model),即著名的OSI七層模型。 OSI RM及標準協議的製定和完善推動了統一、開放的網絡體系結構,大大加速了計算機網絡的發展。

但是,美國並不把ISO放在眼裡,堅持獨斷專行。 1983年,美國在阿帕網中正式推出TCP/IP協議取代原有的NCP網絡控制協議,進而形成因特網(Internet)。 30多年來,美國利用其科技、經濟和軍事優勢,以舉國之力推行因特網一張網連接覆蓋全球的戰略。美國因特網任務工作組(ICANN)赤裸裸地提出“同一個世界,同一個因特網”的蠱惑人心口號。奧巴馬政府更是讚譽“因特網在國際環境中獨樹一幟”。由此,因特網被美國及其蟄伏在各國的鐵粉們津津樂道為“互聯網”。

實際上,因特網就是美國製定規則、控制交換、監控信息的一種計算機網絡體系結構,並不完全符合國際標準組織ISO正式頒布的OSI RM的要求。也就是說,目前世界上存在著兩種占主導地位的網絡體系結構:一種是國際標準化組織ISO提出的OSI RM(開放式系統互連參考模型);另一種是因特網使用和力推的TCP/IP RM(TCP/IP參考模型)。兩種模型的根本區別在於,OSI RM推動全球計算機網絡開放式系統互連,TCP/IP迫使世界所有計算機終端都接入因特網一張網之中;ISO致力於各國、各種類型的計算機網絡系統之間的相互連接,美國強調的是計算機端對端之間的信息互通。




還是奧巴馬坦誠。他在白宮發表的《網絡空間國際戰略》的序言裡說,“通過因特網連接,美國公司的業務可以延伸至全球任何一個地方,為美國民眾創造無以計數的就業崗位和機會”,他承認, “因特網本身無法開啟國際合作的新紀元。”


有人說,因特網的定義,英文應該是“a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.”翻譯成中文,就是“一個由使用TCP / IP網絡協議促進數據傳輸和交換的計算機網絡組成的全球網絡。”請注意,這個“定義”說得很明確:










問題在於,不使用或者不適用TCP/IP協議的其它計算機網絡是否存在?是否允許存在?是否應該存在?使用不同協議網絡之間相互連接、融合、交換構成的是不是互聯網、是不是互連互通的網絡空間?即便同樣源於TCP/IP協議的網絡,IPV6與IPV4網絡之間是互連互通的關係,還是升級換代的關係?具有我國民族自主知識產權的IPV9與美國擁有知識產權的IPV6、 IPV4網絡之間,是主權平等的網絡互連關係,還是技術兼容的覆蓋替代關係?如果實現IPV9、V6、V4技術體系網絡的相互融通與共享共管共治,這是互聯網呢?還僅僅是因特網走向未來網絡的技術進步?













還是奧巴馬坦誠。他在白宮發表的《網絡空間國際戰略》的序言裡說,“通過因特網連接,美國公司的業務可以延伸至全球任何一個地方,為美國民眾創造無以計數的就業崗位和機會”,他承認, “因特網本身無法開啟國際合作的新紀元。”


有人說,因特網的定義,英文應該是“a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange.”翻譯成中文,就是“一個由使用TCP / IP網絡協議促進數據傳輸和交換的計算機網絡組成的全球網絡。”請注意,這個“定義”說得很明確:










問題在於,不使用或者不適用TCP/IP協議的其它計算機網絡是否存在?是否允許存在?是否應該存在?使用不同協議網絡之間相互連接、融合、交換構成的是不是互聯網、是不是互連互通的網絡空間?即便同樣源於TCP/IP協議的網絡,IPV6與IPV4網絡之間是互連互通的關係,還是升級換代的關係?具有我國民族自主知識產權的IPV9與美國擁有知識產權的IPV6、 IPV4網絡之間,是主權平等的網絡互連關係,還是技術兼容的覆蓋替代關係?如果實現IPV9、V6、V4技術體系網絡的相互融通與共享共管共治,這是互聯網呢?還僅僅是因特網走向未來網絡的技術進步?














英文Cyber​​space的中文直譯,就是賽博空間。 2008年美國總統布什發布的54號國家安全總統令(NSPD)/23號國土安全總統令,對賽博空間定義的中文翻譯是:“信息環境中的一個全球域,由獨立且相互依存的信息技術基礎設施網絡組成,包括因特網、電信網、計算機系統以及嵌入的處理器和控制器等。”這個看上去嚴謹的定義,將賽博空間圈定為全球信息環境域,囊括世界所有的“信息技術基礎設施網絡”。美國空軍參謀長說,賽博空間囊括了從“直流電到可見光波”的一切東西。說來說去,還是因特網一張網網羅天下的那一套概念的翻版,換了個名詞、換了個說法而已,不出其右。



儘管國際標準化組織ISO提出的OSI RM(開放式系統互連參考模型)是目前世界上兩種占主導地位的網絡體系結構之一,但這些年並沒有形成規模化的市場應用。有人認為,該模型存在層次數量與內容不是最佳、會話層和表示層幾乎為空、相應的服務定義和協議複雜等技術缺點。





與中文網絡空間對應的英文是Net Space,科學的定義是:信息基礎設施連接、覆蓋及承載信息處理的時空域。







據《中國網絡空間安全報告(2016)》藍皮書,2015年以來,基於因特網和賽博空間的網絡衝突和攻擊,成為國家間對抗的主要形式。俄羅斯卡巴斯基公司指責美國“方程式小組”通過植入間諜軟件,感染伊朗、俄羅斯、中國等30多個國家的軍事、金融、能源等關鍵部門的上萬台電腦。伊朗稱挫敗了美國對其石油部門的網絡攻擊。意大利“Hacking Team”公司逾400G的數據被公開後發現,美國、摩洛哥、埃塞俄比亞等20多個國家的機構向其購買了網絡間諜和漏洞工具。美國火眼公司指責俄羅斯“APT28”組織利用零日漏洞,攻擊北約和美國國防機構。


另據披露,依托美國因特網技術、協議和基礎設施建設發展起來的“中國互聯網”,政府、銀行、能源等機要要害部門的網絡信息系統普遍無法實現安全可控,國內工業控制系統更是“安全漏洞百出”。 2015年出現的支付寶、攜程網數據丟失,網易郵箱信息洩漏等鬧得沸沸揚揚,近年來通過短信、微信實施的金融詐騙每天都在大量發生。工信部長苗圩告訴記者,現在平均一個月能夠搜索到1.73億條電信詐騙的信息。




網絡空間(Net Space),是人類創造的時空體系,是泛指的名稱概念,是信息處理與交換的承載空間。它概括了構成網絡空間的三大要素:屬性、連接覆蓋範圍和承載處理信息的功能。無論金融網、企業網、政府網,無論因特網、互聯網、網間網,無論陸基網、航空網、太空網,無論有線網、無線網、量子網,無論公網或私網涉及的相關服務提供商和運營商的專用接入網絡,等等,都有自主連接覆蓋的時空域和承載處理交換不同信息的網絡空間。

地球各種網絡空間並存構成的集合體,已經大大超出了網絡空間泛指的概念和定義,“網絡空間”已不能嚴謹、規範、準確地反映和包容其全部的內在特徵、延伸範疇與在全新的條件和基礎上發展變化的規律。這種網絡與網絡之間構成的超級網絡空間,喚生了“網際空間”(Nets Space)的學說。網際空間是網絡空間的集成域。








⑴ 建立黨中央、全國人大、國務院和全國政協共同領導和約束下的具高度權威性、法治化的決策糾錯機構和糾錯機制,堅決杜絕借混淆視聽左右決策之路。



⑵ 國家鼓勵和支持在民族自主知識產權前提和基礎上建設、發展與維護主權公眾網絡。


⑶ 不失時機地創建國家主導、社會參與、民間操作的“網際空間研究院”,全方位、多維度、深層次研究開發網際空間技術並製訂發展戰略和策略,打造世界一流的培養鍛煉網際空間人才基地,構建主權網絡/未來網絡/網際空間實驗、測試架構系統應用環境,探索與解決主權網絡、網絡空間和網際空間發展中的各種問題,大踏步地走在引領網際空間發展的世界前列。

⑷ 首先與俄羅斯、伊朗、德國、歐盟等致力於建設、發展、維護各自主權網絡空間的國家和國際組織積極進行構建網絡空間命運共同體的溝通、交流、洽談與合作,聯合多國積蓄力量,不以美國為主要談判對手。


China Military Operational Use of Information Warfare Equipment //中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用





Information warfare is against C4ISR systems and C4ISR systems, information superiority is the competition, the main purpose is to ensure the normal operation of one’s own information systems, from the enemy’s use, paralysis and destruction; the same time, trying to use, paralysis and destruction of the enemy’s information systems, make paralyzed, confused state. Including strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield information warfare two parts.

Strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield

Strategic information warfare is the main features of a wide range of sectors covering all key political, economic, technological, military and special areas; special way, relates to psychological warfare, media warfare, deception warfare, media warfare and other special tools; special target, mainly through the decoy attack warfare, psychological warfare, information awareness enemy deterrence system and thinking system; great harm, make the whole country’s economic, political or military to a standstill, even regime change can make it happen; special person, not necessarily military combatants, computer experts, international crime syndicates, hacking or terrorist organizations with ulterior motives and so may become combatants.

Battlefield Information War battle took place in the space of information warfare, refers to the battle for the preparation and the integrated use of information technology tools and a variety of information weapons, information warfare platform and C4ISR systems, reconnaissance and early warning detection, information processing and transmission, arms control and guidance, operational command and control, deception and disguise interference and military strategy and other aspects of all-out confrontation and struggle. Battlefield Information War by interfering with or disrupting the enemy’s decision-making process, so that the enemy can not effectively coordinated action. Thus, the first enemy influence decisions, then the impact of their actions, which is to win air superiority electromagnetic, and then obtain air superiority, and finally the use of conventional forces to take combat operations. Seized control of information, seize the initiative on the battle space, and the competition for the right to make land, air, naval supremacy and control of space to lay a good foundation and a necessary condition.

Basic information warfare battlefield combat forces and means of information is digitized forces and weapons and equipment, the main contents include operational secrecy, military deception, electronic warfare, psychological warfare and firepower to destroy, core purpose is to fight for the right to access information battle space, control and use rights. Battlefield Information War is against information systems, which directly affects the entire battle space, processes, and success or failure of the entire war. The main battlefield information warfare style combat electronic warfare and cyber warfare. Electronic warfare is an important part of information warfare battlefield, mainly decoy for enemy communications, radar and other electromagnetic radiation sources of interference, sabotage and destruction activities. The Gulf War, not only the first large-scale use of electronic warfare, and formally adopted as a battle of the war and the particular stage of the battle action. Kosovo War, NATO used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the first use of electromagnetic pulse bombs and conducted the first network warfare. Cyber ​​warfare in cyberspace computer, using a network against the Internet activities, and for the first time in the Kosovo war. NATO cyber warfare measures include: network publicity; hacker attacks; attacks on financial networks. The main characteristics of the FRY cyberwarfare is people’s war mode, geek, geeks and computer enthusiasts spontaneously a lot of network operations, such as conduct online propaganda attack NATO website, use the Internet to pass intelligence.

War information warfare equipment, electronic warfare equipment.

Electronic warfare equipment, the development trend of increasing integration and universal, local wars under conditions of informatization, the electromagnetic environment on the battlefield increasingly complex, kind of separation from each other in the past, single-function electronic warfare equipment has been far can not meet the operational needs.Integration and generalization has become the focus of the development of electronic warfare equipment and electronic warfare equipment, the total future direction of development. In order to deal more effectively with the threat of information warfare electromagnetic complex, the next generation of electronic warfare equipment, the extensive use of advanced computer technology to significantly improve the automation of the entire system in order to have better real-time capabilities, since the adaptability and full power management capabilities. Working frequency electronic warfare equipment continuously expanding, increasing the transmission power, the development of millimeter-wave technology and photovoltaic technology, the modern electronic warfare equipment to keep the operating frequency band wider development.Overall, the future scope of work of electronic warfare equipment will be extended to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. GPS interference and anti-interference will be concerned about the practice of war has shown that, if they lose the support of GPS, information superiority will be greatly weakened, so that command and control, reconnaissance, combat, troop movement and other military links are facing a severe test, severely reduced combat effectiveness. Focus on the development of new anti-radiation and electronic warfare jamming aircraft, emphasis on the development of new, special electronic warfare technology and equipment, such as for anti-satellite laser weapons, high-energy particle beam weapons, and meteor burst communications, neutrino communication and the like.

Computer viruses as weapons

Within military information systems, battlefield information acquisition, transmission, processing and other functions required to complete computer and network, computer network is performed on the basis of information warfare and Pioneer. Use of software drivers and hardware magnetic induction sniffer sniffer network sniffer, etc. is an important way to attack networks. These sniffing tool was originally a test device, used to diagnose and repair assistance network, so it is a powerful tool for network administrators to monitor the network, but in the information war is a terrible computer virus weapons. It enables network “denial of service”, “information tampering” Information “halfway stealing” and so on. In addition, it will focus on design “trap door.” “Trap door” also known as “back door” is an agency computer system designers previously configured in the system, appear in the application or during the operating system, programmers insert some debugging mechanism. System Programmer For the purpose of attacking the system, deliberately left few trap door for a person familiar with the system to outdo each other to sneak into the normal system protection system. Network is an important infrastructure of information warfare, network centric warfare is mainly carried out based network, the network is reliable to determine the outcome of the war. Therefore, to strengthen the research network attack and defense operations for the win future information warfare is essential.

Electromagnetic pulse bomb

During the Iraq war, the US used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and use of electromagnetic pulse bombs fell on Iraq and the Iraqi army broadcast television systems of various types of electronic radiation. Electromagnetic pulse bomb, also known as microwave pulse bomb, by a microwave beam into electromagnetic energy, a new type of directed energy weapons damage other electronic facilities and personnel.Its working principle is: after high power microwave antenna gathered into a bunch of very narrow, very strong electromagnetic waves toward each other, heat, ionizing radiation, etc. relying on the combined effect of electromagnetic waves generated by this beam, lethal voltages in electronic circuits inside the target and current, breakdown or burn sensitive components which, damage data stored in the computer, so that each other’s arms and paralyzed the command system, the loss of combat effectiveness. According to tests, a briefcase-sized microwave bomb, can produce up to 300 million watts of power pulse. After its plurality of coupling, then become adjustable radiation source, generating more than 2 billion watts of pulse waves. This is somewhat similar to pulse electromagnetic pulse generated when nuclear explosions, can easily enter the underground bunker from power and communication channels, which rely on radio to make, radar, computer, power grids and telephone modern weapons systems, biological and chemical weapons and their production Libraries workshop in an instant paralysis.

GPS jamming devices

Also in the Iraq war, the Iraqi use of GPS jamming device for Tomahawk cruise missiles were effective interference, this is the first time in actual combat on the GPS guidance system interference. GPS signal is weak, it is easy to interference. A Russian company to provide a 4-watt power handheld GPS jammers, less than $ 4,000 can buy.If purchased from retail electronic component assembly shops, you can spend $ 400 to create a disturbance over a radius of 16 km of GPS jammers. Before the war in Iraq war, the United States had expected to interfere with the GPS signal the Iraqi side. In fact, the United States had already given their GPS bombs and missiles loaded with anti-jamming technology to make these GPS-guided weapons to continue to use the GPS signal in the case of interference; even if the GPS signal is lost, they can also use their own weapons guidance systems other inertial navigation, laser-guided, so that their own to reach the target. Nevertheless, early in the war in Iraq, the US military more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles due to interference or deviates from a predetermined route, fell Turkey, Syria and Iran. Small GPS jammers problem alerted the US government, Powell personally investigate the source of Iraq GPS jammers, Russia and other countries exerted considerable pressure.

During the first Gulf War, GPS navigator as a trial product for the first time issued to desert warfare personnel, the effect is obvious. At that time, all weapons, including cruise missiles, including not using the GPS navigation device. The war in Iraq, we see that almost all combat platforms, every man, almost all of missiles and bombs have adopted this navigation device, so that the tanks, planes, ships maneuver more accurate missiles and bombs original the probability of error reduced to 1-3 meters, maximum 10 meters range.   Everything there is a benefit must be a disadvantage. Disadvantages and drawbacks of GPS navigation information is the same weaponry, is the electronic interference.From the perspective of the development of weapons and equipment, the purchase of a cruise missile costs $ 100 million, while manufacturing a GPS jammer only a few hundred dollars, as a strategic defensive side, if a large number of development and the development of GPS jammers, not only for the US missile and the bomb is a threat to its tanks, planes, ships and navigation personnel will also have a huge impact. Of course, we should also see the US fight a battle, and further, after the end of the war in Iraq is bound according to the lessons of the war, improved GPS system. Is expected to be improved in three areas: First, the GPS satellites, satellite launch is mainly to enhance the signal and transmit as many GPS satellites; the second is to improve the guidance system, mainly to increase the combined guidance system, after interference in the GPS guidance, automatic recovery or transfer other inertial navigation mode to ensure the normal operation of the platform and weapons; the third is GPS anti-jamming, mainly to improve the GPS receiver anti-jamming capability, the development of new GPS receiver, in the theater of the local military and civilian GPS reception machines and electronic jammers and interference suppression.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

















China NPC Emphasis on Solving National Security System Issues//中國家安全體系「全國人大會議公布了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》


March 5, 2016 during the Chinese NPC and CPPCC, National People’s Congress announced the “Thirteen Five-Year Plan (draft)”, under the title “establishment of a national security system,” complete the chapter, first expounded on China’s implementation of “the country’s overall security View of concrete ideas “in. Prior to that, although related concepts to promote its fast, but in addition to the super-agency “National Security Council” has been officially running, as well as a small amount of the agency personnel arrangements, almost no more news.

The first place to prevent hostile forces subversive

From an international perspective, “Comprehensive security concept” for a class is not the first thought. After all, since the end of the Cold War, the security environment upheaval, insecurity diversification, already is a common phenomenon faced by countries. But domestic letters of “overall national security” still kill any world trend, because this piece can be described as all-encompassing grand – covering “political, land, military, economic, cultural, social, science and technology, information, ecology, resources …… and nuclear safety. ”

Although the “official stereotyped” perfect frame Description: “people-safe for the purpose, as the fundamental political security, economic security, based on the Social Security for the protection of military culture in order to promote international security as the basis”, but this piece is clearly ambitious where to start challenge.

When “KNB” first appeared in late 2013 eighteen Third Plenary Session of the resolution, only to see hastily put some “innovative social governance” at the end. Until five months later, the agency announced that it has officially running, trying to explain its official mouthpiece of great significance, it is still mainly externally or internally, vary.

During the two sessions, elaborate “Thirteen five Outline” published by the NPC session, so this kind of ambiguity resolved.

Although the outline, “national sovereignty security regime” concept beautifully, has made the world’s political circles unheard of, but more surprising is that in the fight against the three forces’ violent terror, ethnic separatism, religious extremism “previous activity, will also impressively “hostile forces infiltrate subversive activity” in the first place.

Obviously, to prevent subversion of urgency regime was as if beyond the anti-terrorism, anti-spyware and other traditional threats to national security.

Traditionally, law enforcement departments, the Ministry of Public Security and the famous “national security” system, and its huge cost “stability maintenance” system billions compared to only as a spy / Ministry of National Security Abwehr, more in line with narrowly “national security” concept. The system has also been set up at all levels of “national security leadership team,” leading narrow “national security” and its work force.

Jiang Zemin period, Beijing began to envy the role of the US National Security Council (NSC) at the highest decision-making. As president advisory body, NSC members including President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence and National Security Affairs Assistant to the President, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of highest operational commander and director of national intelligence, were appointed to act as the statutory military advisers and intelligence advisers, other government departments and competent officials, invited participants only when needed.

“The Central Leading Group for National Security,” in the year 2000, although the head of the pro-Jiang, but deputy head in charge of foreign affairs for the Central Committee, the Central Foreign Affairs Office director concurrently by the Office, in particular from the group and “Foreign Affairs Leading Group “under one roof, the main coordinating its national security and external affairs. Although not as good as NSC high level, because China and the US but the basic political structure fundamentally different, are also considered to meet the conditions of moderate learning.

Jiang later period, the Chinese domestic policy increasingly independent, and the West in the system of values ​​and rules of becoming the opposition, senior party growing emphasis on co-ordination “International and Domestic Situation.” After learning more individuals came to power centralization, theoretical innovation and the urgent need to safeguard stability of the regime. Thus, despite the increased legitimacy, the study of “KNB” is still brewing since Jiang Zemin claimed, but the design of the system may differ.

Thus, the Chinese Communist Party and the previous system separately, in order to avoid the party on behalf of the administration and other rare progress, is now being accused of “fragmentation, excessive power scattered.” By adding a permanent body, will the party, government, military, law, economics, culture and even social life, and where the “national security” detached power clean sweep, then became “the country to explore a new way of governance.”

Now, in “Baidu Encyclopedia” in terms of self-built, actually it was assumed added, “National Security Council People’s Republic of China” entry, content only involved “state security committee.”

Beijing whether through a constitutional amendment to set up a shadow-style “national KNB” hard to say. However, by the time the CPC Central Committee, the National Security Committee to get the full decision-making power for national security affairs, responsible only to the Politburo and its Standing Committee. As heads of the supreme legislative body of the People’s Congress, only its Vice-President, the National Security Committee of the degree of centralization, even beyond the Central Military Commission.In contrast, the United States NSC decisions, but also to exercise its statutory powers to rely on the President and subject to legislative, judicial checks and balances.

Further overhead Politburo and State Council

The current maximum suspense, or “KNB” materialized, decision-making and institutional settings large to what extent.

An analogy example, although in the network area, the original Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Industry, the Central Foreign Affairs Office / State Council Information Office, Press and Publication Administration and other agencies bull management, but also from 18 Third Plenary session of the decision, the CPC network security and information technology leadership team established in 2014 (referred to as the “net channel group”) / national Internet information office of People’s Republic of China ( “the State Council informatization office”), and set up a separate large business functions, took a lot of network management and monitoring powers.

At the top of its home page, the two names are alternately displayed, complete with party and government bodies.

Rationale for establishing this institution, because the State Department is also the system’s “National Informatization Leading Group” and their offices, “the State Council Information Office” (also referred to as the “State Council Informatization Office”) is difficult to coordinate the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, the NPC, etc. authority. However, the greater the motivation or senior party controls the Internet public exigencies, and the use of information warfare means to challenge the United States needs. To promote the domestic information technology process, the agency more than the promotion of hand shackles.

Regression KNB, although it has been interpreted as “national security and crisis handling the national level a permanent establishment,” but until March 2016, in the list of institutions directly under the CPC Central Committee and the Communist Party of China Xinhua News Network, the former are still ” central leading group for national security, “and not see” KNB. ”

Although “KNB” was praised as “reduce rules, enhance decision-making efficiency,” but in what things must be raised to this level resolved, which can be left in the original POLITICAL, military and diplomatic level processing is difficult to untangle.

It is with the Central Political and Law Commission as “directly under the central authorities,” the division of labor? It as “directly under the central coordinating body of procedure” in policing governance, anti-anti-cult operations, stability, maritime rights and interests, possession of Xinjiang, financial security, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao, net letter, confidentiality, the working group password (Note: the full name of each team name how to end the relationship) is? In the end how it Ministry of National Security and other government departments, as well as relations with the National Commission on cross-border and coastal defense ministries overseas Chinese citizens and institutions security work inter-ministerial joint conference and many other bureaucracies? I’m afraid that deep-rooted concerns about its effect, less effective, was not excessive.

From The National People’s Congress issued the “Outline”, the more difficult to find: as the basic starting point for the study of governance, the starting point and one of the ultimate value, political, land, economy, society, resources and networks, and other key areas are security policy and called for long-term goals, important areas, major reforms, major projects, programs and policies, require safety risk assessment.

This means that, even if only partially materialized, due to the requirement that all focus areas, all national security coordination mechanism established to maintain, “KNB” already with “deep change Team” (Note: Comprehensively Deepening the Reform Leading Group) as tantamount to a indeed affect the whole body, brought together a large number of power “small government.”

In addition to further overhead Politburo and State Council, set in one of the highest authority, through several sets of much needless repetition mechanism, calling the shots. However executor, it is still the same set of ministries and local, its efficiency, and can really ensure the complex demands of national security in a reasonable portion, not optimistic.

March 5, 2016, Beijing, China, in front of the Great Hall of People’s Liberation Army soldiers walked.Photo: Damir Sagolj / REUTERS

Endanger the interests of the former National Security Systems division, to stimulate the “spy” Country

It can be expected that with the proposed “Thirteen five Outline” “overall national security”, and in the rise of influence “KNB”, the original continent “national security”, “national security” systems are at risk.

“National security” has recently been rumored to be canceled. It is believed that its intelligence gathering in the field of domestic politics to defend the building (social monitoring) hidden forces, investigation of cases against dissent, control ethnic / religious positions against cults and other functions, will disperse to more legalization of criminal investigation and law and order department. Entered into force in 1993, “National Security Law” in 2014 was much more narrowly “anti-spyware law” instead.

And “Thirteen five Outline”, requires the integration of monitoring and early warning systems in different areas, intelligence gathering and analysis capabilities. From the work of national intelligence to see the movements of specific legislation, “national security” system will inevitably lose power “national security” monopoly.

This stimulus, 2014, 2015, Ministry of State Security systems, proactive disclosure reports uncovered espionage significantly increased, but in the end these cases leaked it?

March 2015, published by the National Security Henan province since the first espionage case, a taxi driver observed the airborne unit of foreign institutional Airport, the surrounding circumstances and models; July Sichuan national security nearly a decade for the first time publicly disclosed the spy case, a military unit 4 leakers, provided some military types, quantity, special materials, setting the test time and fault conditions, some provide aerospace internal publications; November, Jilin Baishan Jun captured the partitions a foreign spy shooting and hand-painted Chinese border troops distribution.

These cases certainly have leaked military secrets, but the scope and extent been greatly exaggerated. In recent years, Beijing strengthened its online publication and transmission of state secrets supervision, the biggest problem is still the “secret infinity.” Although Beijing has in recent years to speed up the clear “given secret” work “secret” and “non-secret” boundaries, but because the concept of paranoia, coupled with bureaucratic agencies should rely on “secret” to eat, they do not want to bear responsibility for the secret too wide, Fuzzy boundaries situation no better.

In fact, some experts mainland when rendering espionage threat, has admitted “we take the initiative to trafficking intelligence” indicating that “China also collect / buy foreign intelligence”; an expert in the Ministry of State Security emphasis on “cyber espionage nearly the year more and more active, “to actually” see them from the Internet’s remarks can be found in a number of valuable intelligence “as an example, but the latter is completely unlawful.

Henan above case, there is the Baidu from China “high One” satellite photographs taken by the airport, accurate to 20 meters, “Baidu Panorama” provides a neighboring street to the nearest airport each shop, military fans in China understanding Air transporter models thousands; Sichuan cases, internal publications fuzzy nature, contained a lot of technical discussion with the same military production. And unavoidably, everything is secret practice is nothing more than a cover closed, inefficient, and defects behind Beijing’s military, these are not exposed and supervision, the harm is far more than this information about the outside world.

At the same time, the Confidentiality Commission / Secrets systems have long been cured departmental interests, such as to secrecy, mandatory use map products “Nonlinear confidential treatment technology”, is formed on the map with the location of the actual existence of 100 to 600 meters random deviations. Such an approach, in addition to the official mapping agencies to create huge gains, related to the national industries and national tremendous trouble, there are no secret role – because the location does not become a military objective entity, foreign intelligence agencies and the military does not rely on Chinese map, which judged and attacks unaffected.

Of course, this by no means departmental interests to “spy” Country situation all causes.Overall, Beijing also needed on the mainland society, frequently rendering national security is facing a critical situation, hidden front struggle intense, so trees enemy awareness, inspire patriotic enthusiasm and even xenophobic, secretly strengthen social control.

Moreover, since the Beijing powers and budget oversight from society, the party and the national government itself parents, as long as the name of security, from the whole to the details, any information can be disclosed only to those who choose favorable, remaining airtight, so that with “espionage “Ruling tool if fabulous.

At the same time, Beijing legislative activity in recent years, national security and social stability and other interests in the name of full citizens with increased surveillance, public security mandatory intervention of civil liberties and privileges of the investigation.

November 2015, the National Security Office Jilin even announced espionage and accepted nationwide hotline to report clues, for reasons that remain unknown. The department asked citizens to report suspicious persons “spy, traitor, instigation personnel, intelligence agents, the external agents”, etc., but this is only a political rather than a legal concept concepts also include standard suspicious signs purely surface, many of which are only legal status or the performance of speech, may be entirely unrelated espionage, where “sensitive issues” and “reactionary remarks” but not operational on legal concepts.

Obviously, not called for such a system to report the current espionage, but a wide range of East German-style citizen informers and mutual monitoring, did not say infringe on civil liberties, even in the “dictatorship” discourse system, misunderstanding, framed and frame risks are high.

Criminal Law Amendment (IX), adopted in August 2015, the night the new information network security management refused to fulfill the obligations crime, the crime of illegal use of the information network, information network to help crime and criminal activities, to disrupt the order of state organs crime, the crime of illegal financing of the organization gathering fabricated deliberately spreading false information crime, the crime should be no public disclosure of information on cases of crime reporting and disclosure of information should not be disclosed in the cases, the other 20 counts, terrifying.

The case of Gao Yu, and bookstores case Causeway Bay, but are just beginning.

All this shows that in China, “national security” concept epitaxial greatly expanded, not only to adapt to contemporary national security multifactor interwoven trend, and it is a power struggle and the rule of magic weapon too superficial. In essence, it is the Beijing regime concentrated outpouring of anxiety. The “Thirteen Five Outline” in “protect country” a new action also marks the communist countries in times of crisis, to strengthen the “police state” color of nature, is rapidly recovering.

Note: Team organization full name:

The Central Committee for Comprehensive Management of Social Security, the Central Cult Prevention and Handling of the Leading Group, the Central Leading Group for the maintenance of stability, the central leading group for marine rights and interests, the Central Tibetan Coordination Leading Group, the Central Coordination Group Xinjiang, the Central Steering Committee on Financial Security, the CPC central / State Department double identity Taiwan Affairs leading group, Hong Kong and Macao work coordination group, a centralized network security and information technology leading group, the central Committee and the central password confidentiality work leading group.

Original Mandarin Chinese:


2016年3月5日,中國北京,解放軍士兵在人民大會堂前走過。攝:Damir Sagolj/REUTERS
2015年11月,吉林省國家安全廳竟然公佈了接受全國範圍間諜行為和線索舉報的專線電話,原因至今不明。該部門要求公民舉報可疑人員「間諜、內姦、策反人員、情報員、外圍代理人」 等,但這只是政治概念而非法律概念,列舉的可疑標準也純屬表面跡象,很多是合法身份或僅表現為言論,完全可能與間諜毫無關係,其中的「敏感問題」和「反動言論」更不是法律上可操作的概念。

China Military Strategic High Ground of Information Warfare: Spatial Information Confrontation //中國軍事空間信息對抗:信息化戰爭的戰略制高點


作者:穆志勇 李莉



Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely.

All things Internet era, we must rethink the current and future military struggle in the forefront of what? We are talking about local information technology local war where?Information War made the strategic high ground right where?

All things Internet era, control of information has become the battlefield to win the right to the core of an integrated system, “no network without fighting,” “no victorious day” has become iron law, made ​​winning the war of spatial information right to become a strategic safeguarding national sovereignty, security and development interests ground. It extends to the battlefield where, where the initiative will expand the competition. The main countries in the world attach great importance to and respond to threats and challenges from outer space, the space around the right to development, ownership and control, in a fierce competition.

Spatial information against a new means of strategic deterrence quality checks and balances

Spatial information can play against fighting the enemy afraid, Gongdi key is a new means of strategic deterrence quality of checks and balances. On the one hand, with a strong spatial information attack capability, can effectively curb space power, space to defend the sovereignty, enhance the right to speak and the initiative in the international arena; on the other hand, has enough spatial information defense, deterrence and containment can launch the Iraq war opponents button, effectively resist the threat and destruction in outer space, to prevent loss of control of the space.

The United States will “Space confrontation” as a strategic deterrent capability and the “Global Strike” and “nuclear strike” both, and since 2001 has performed seven times, “Schriever” space combat computer simulation exercises; vigorously the development, testing and deployment of space information weapon, launching the world’s first reusable aircraft able to detect, control, capture, destroy the spacecraft his country “orbital test vehicle” X-37B space fighter, space fighter plans to deploy 2025 troops in outer space; “global commons domain intervention and joint mobility “concept vowed to quickly weaken the enemy space facilities capacity through non-kinetic measures to destroy its anti-space capabilities in key elements.Russia to develop “military space recovery plan,” President Putin has restarted “crown” anti-satellite project, focusing on the development of anti-satellite weapons, the “strategic air and space battles” as the basic style of air and space operations, three satellite launch last year and aerospace It is regarded by the United States’ aerospace killer “and ready after 2016 to establish a modern space combat system. Japan’s new “cosmic basic plan” clearly states “actively enter the field of space”, was “modern security”, expanded and enhanced features for satellites to monitor vessels at sea and ground facilities, and trying to build a set of positioning, communication and intelligence gathering and other functions in one of the new satellite systems, the scope of application of force to achieve the SDF land, sea, air, space-round leap.

Spatial information into a military confrontation priority areas for capacity-building

From the world’s military development, the right to take on the overall system of spatial information system other rights, the right to seize control of the spatial information is action battle for dominance of the main action. Local Wars practice, there is no right to make spatial information, the Air Force is difficult to combat, navy naval difficult, with even the best of other weapons and equipment may also be vulnerable to attack. Spatial Information confrontation multidimensional space operations provide important support, “new quality” of the combat system is the ability to generate combat multiplier, it will be the focus of capacity-building in the military field. From the fight for control of space means, the spatial information against strong controllability, flexibility, use of low threshold, a wide scope, with less damage, be cost-effective, it should be current and future space supremacy capacity-building period key development areas.

Currently, the United States actively promote Asia “rebalancing” strategy, trying to fight the development of spatial information capabilities, not only to develop electronic interference and covert soft kill hard against damage and other spatial information means, actively develop their own approach, rendezvous and docking and other space-based technology against the core , also focused on the development of satellite communications electronic jamming, near real-time detection, interference signal feature recognition, sources of interference positioning technology, efforts to develop a variety of space-based anti-satellite weapons, and has begun to deploy automated attacks, identity systems. November 14, 2012 the United States and Australia announced that the US will place a powerful Air Force C-band radar and space telescope in Australia, and it is clear that the United States will shift the strategic part of Asia.This will enable the US forward-deployed every day to keep better track of up to 200 confirmed over the Asia-Pacific and orbital spacecraft and potential anomalies. According to US media reports, the US Air Force and Lockheed Martin in February this year to start construction work in the future, “Space Fence” The new radar system, which also marks the United States started the S-band ground-based radar system, the radar system will replace the United States in the 1960s developed space surveillance systems. Russia’s “Military News” May 18 reported that Air Force Secretary James declared that the US Air Force budget of $ 5 billion has been requested to establish a defense system for the military space to prepare for a possible conflict. Japan’s space development strategy headquarters set up monitoring force and space, and proposed the next 10 years will be launched 45 satellites ambitious goals in the positive development of the second generation of IGS reconnaissance satellite system, while seeking cooperation with ASEAN countries, to build a Japan center, a network of 68 satellite Earth observation satellites, in an attempt to obtain information from other countries and share with the United States at the same time, strengthen the surrounding sea routes to Japan, the Diaoyu Islands and the adjacent waters of the maritime surveillance capability. According to Japan’s Kyodo News reported, the new “US-Japan defense cooperation guidelines” emphasize the importance of space situational awareness, Japan’s “quasi-zenith” satellite system with US satellite positioning system to achieve docking, the US and Japan will strengthen ocean surveillance satellite, by sharing global marine intelligence, to ensure maritime security channel. Russia already has “reconnaissance, attack, defense” against the ability of spatial information integration, particularly in the fight against satellite communications, missile and space defense confrontation, GPS confrontation, antagonism and kinetic energy anti-satellite laser, etc., with strong technical reserves. Indian space reconnaissance and surveillance satellite system has taken shape, the satellite communication network has covered South Asia and the surrounding area, it has achieved near-real-time satellite communication between the services.

Spatial information warfare against the construction and development should focus grasp

Do a good job preparing military struggle, we must make efforts to grasp the initiative in the military struggle space and cyberspace, problem-oriented and adhere to asymmetric development, according to the lean, joint, multi-energy, high efficiency requirements, to ensure the good spatial information focus of fighting against the construction.

Set the right strategic direction. On the basis of the importance of space supremacy, attaches great importance to the construction and development of spatial information against the problem, deal with spatial information science strength confrontational relationship with other strategic force for development, to ensure priority development of spatial information countervailing force. Implement the military strategy for the new period, co-ordination within and outside Xinjiang Xinjiang, preparing for war with the stop, deter and combat, constantly important areas and key links to achieve new breakthroughs; spatial information against the building into the overall layout of the army information construction, improve space iNFORMATION wARFARE development strategy planning; constantly improve the system of operational doctrines, promote space information against the construction work and orderly conduct.

Adhere to military and civilian integration. Strengthening military and civilian integration concept, the basic role of market in resource allocation, according to civil-military integration path of development, through laws, and rich integration of forms and expand the scope of integration, improve the level of integration in the scientific research and technology, weaponry, personnel training, etc. aspects, all-round, multi-domain integration, spatial information against the construction of rich resources and development potential. Pay attention to the military think tank function, strengthen the theoretical study of spatial information confrontation and practical issues, exploration of space information confrontation theoretical system, a clear focus on the construction, development of specific plans, enrich and develop operational guidance to ensure that the substantive work forward.

Construction expertise system. According to aim at the forefront, major breakthroughs require leapfrog development, accelerate the building space information confrontation power system, the formation of spatial information ability to fight as soon as possible. Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely. Actively promote the use of force against spatial information, spatial information to support real-time navigation information reconnaissance operations exercises, testing and training, the formation of combat capability as soon as possible.

Focus on technological innovation. Strengthen technology research efforts, emphasis on spatial information against key technological innovation, stepping up confrontation frontier exploration of space information technology, focusing on the development of advanced satellite communications confrontation, confrontation reconnaissance and surveillance, target feature recognition, information processing technology, and make breakthroughs can promote space information confrontation key technology and equipment updates; attention, independent research and development may change combat style, disruptive technology group rules of engagement, to prevent enemies of my technical strategy formulation sudden, efforts to form the enemy I have, I have no enemy some non symmetrical technological superiority.

Original Mandarin Chinese:


目前,美積極推進亞太“再平衡”戰略,竭力發展空間信息對抗能力,不僅大力發展電子乾擾軟殺傷和隱性硬毀傷等空間信息對抗手段,積極發展自主逼近、交會對接等天基對抗核心技術,還重點研製衛星通信電子乾擾、近實時探測、干擾信號特徵識別、干擾源定位技術,努力發展各種天基反衛星武器,且已開始部署自動攻擊、識別系統。 2012年11月14日美國和澳大利亞聯合宣布,美軍將在澳大利亞安置功能強大的空軍C波段雷達和太空望遠鏡,並明確表示這是美國將戰略轉向亞洲的一部分。這一前沿部署將使美每天能夠更好地跟踪確認多達200個亞太上空航天器及其軌道和潛在的異常現象。據美國媒體披露,美國空軍與洛克希德馬丁公司在今年2月啟動了未來“太空籬笆”新型雷達系統的建設工作,這也標誌著美國開始啟動了S波段地基雷達系統,該雷達系統將取代美國20世紀60年代研發的太空監視系統。俄羅斯《軍工新聞網》5月18日報導,美國空軍部長詹姆斯宣稱,美空軍已要求50億美元的預算以建立一個防禦系統,為可能發生的太空軍事衝突做準備。日本成立宇宙開發戰略總部和太空監測部隊,並提出今後10年將發射45顆衛星的宏偉目標,在積極發展第二代IGS偵察衛星系統的同時,正在謀求與東盟國家合作,構建一個以日本為中心、由68顆衛星組成的地球觀測衛星網絡,企圖從他國獲得情報並與美國共享的同時,加強對日本周邊海上要道、釣魚島及其附近海域的海洋監視能力。據日本共同社報導,新版《美日防衛合作指針》強調太空態勢感知的重要性,日本“準天頂”衛星系統與美國衛星定位系統將實現對接,美日將利用衛星加強海洋監視,通過共享全球海洋情報,確保海上通道安全等。俄已具備“偵、攻、防”一體的空間信息對抗能力,特別是在衛星通信對抗、導彈和空間防禦對抗、GPS對抗、激光對抗和動能反衛等方面,擁有雄厚的技術儲備。印度空間偵察監視衛星系統已初具規模,衛星通信網已覆蓋南亞及周邊地區,各軍種之間已實現近實時衛星通信。

China’s Future Wars: Seize Control of Information with Big Data // 中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權


Source: 《中国科学报

Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war. From the conversion of the entire information flow point of view, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war. Seize control of information has become the air superiority prerequisites command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war.

■ reporter Hu Min Qi

With the continuous development of information technology, human society has entered a letter of “big data era.” Every day, in every corner of the world sensors, mobile devices, social networks and online trading platform to generate hundreds of gigabytes of data.Obama administration even large data called a “future of the new oil,” Who will come to control the flow of data will dominate the future of the world. As we all know, in the military field has been mankind’s most advanced technology laboratory, big data will no doubt shape the future of the war brought a huge change.

Big Data “big” Where

US Global Institutes define big data as: a large scale in the acquisition, storage, management, analysis far beyond the capabilities of traditional database software tool data set (datasets).

Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Wang Weiping told the computer “China Science News” reporter, big data, “big”, of course, first of all refers to the unprecedentedly large volume of data, far beyond the traditional level of computer processing data volume.

With the current popularity of high-speed computer network technology and the rapid development of the Internet, the information data by TB (1TB = 1024GB) level was raised to PB (1PB = 1024TB), EB (1EB = 1024PB), ZB (1ZB = 1024EB) level , and is still explosive growth. It is reported that, in 2010, officially entered the global era ZB 2012 global data reaches 5.2ZB, 2020, the world will have a total amount of data 35ZB. There is a vivid metaphor can help people understand the scale of the data. If 35ZB to burn all the data capacity of a 9GB disc superimposed height will reach 2.33 million km, equivalent to three round-trip between the Earth and the Moon.

Secondly, Wang Weiping said, “big” is also reflected in the type of data processing diversification, far beyond the traditional format and data analysis tools can handle.

Most of the conventional two-dimensional data structure presentation, but with the Internet, the rapid development of multimedia technology and the popularity of video, audio, images, e-mail, HTML, RFID, GPS and sensors to generate unstructured data, every year 60 % growth rate. We expected to account for over 80% of the amount of data in unstructured data.

In addition, he believes that big data also requires real-time data processing. Big data stream is often a high-speed real-time data streams, and often require rapid, continuous real-time processing, to seize the important events that occurred in the first time.

If you look from the military field, command and control systems, space-based support systems, information processing systems, various reconnaissance, surveillance, increasing the amount of information detection system, big data management in the command structure of the complex and also more important than ever . How massive battlefield data storage and in-depth analysis, how to determine the authenticity of the data, the reliability of data sources to ensure the security of data transmission is a key issue facing the warring parties.

Information warfare against large data requirements

Military theorists generally believe that, as early as the 90s of last century, the information war began to rise. It is a weapon of war by the use of information technology affect adversary information and information systems, to protect one’s own information and information systems, to obtain information superiority battlefield combat style. It is essentially by means of information operations, “information flow” control “energy flow” and “material flow”, depriving the enemy of information superiority, information superiority to maintain one’s own, thus seize control of information battlefield.

Military commentator 宋忠平 to “China Science News” reporter explained, the traditional network of information warfare include battle, conventional combat interference and anti-interference system under criminal investigation as well as detection and anti-detection and other content. “Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war from the point of view convert the entire flow of information, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war.” 宋忠平 he said, “to seize control of information air superiority has become a prerequisite for command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war. ”

But he also said that traditional information warfare in dealing with information and data encountered various challenges. The first is the limited traditional information channels, you can not get a lot of information. At the same time, not only a substantial increase in the amount of data, including various types of data in the form of situational awareness data, images, video intelligence, relying on existing information technology, can not be effectively analyze and process the data.

According to reports, the day of the outbreak of the war in Iraq, the US military forward command post in Qatar and Kuwait because the security agencies can not handle large amounts of data have to turn off the device, resulting in correspondence with some assault command post direction almost interrupted.

In addition, Song Zhongping pointed out, data sharing capabilities of traditional information system is relatively weak. “War is the traditional way of fighting off state, superior to subordinate assignments and perform offline, last victories to report a higher level. And only control one army general command of a division, because they tend to be as an independent combat units, which also led to the relevant departments are often their own business, the impact of coordinated operations efficiency. ”

In this context, information war on large data transfer, storage, analysis yielded specific requirements.

The first is the real-time requirements of data processing. Information warfare ultimately generated vast amounts of data collection and processing center to the command center at all levels, the steady stream of gathering data from a variety of sensors, intelligence agencies and the information transmitted to the center together, these data to be processed in real time. Song Zhongping believe that all the information even if it is a battlefield soldier needs to spread information command and control center through the large data to understand the situation frontline, under special circumstances even for a soldier’s equipment orders. Because he may be at the most favorable terrain, you can get maximum advantage.

Followed by data fusion. Song Zhongping proposed by datalink even pull a short road that used to take four to five orders of management skills, the future may only need to complete the three-level management, so as to contribute to the integration of operations, rather than individual branches of the military to fight alone anywhere, anytime to adjust operational command.

Moreover, in his view, the era of big data, in particular to increase the difficulty of defense information, for higher data security requirements. In general, the information war against information security requirements for data transmission is mainly reflected in addressing anti-eavesdropping, jamming and prevent the problem of false information to deceive. I am afraid the future needs a new defense mechanisms to ensure information security.

Thus, in the information war era of big data, the system of military confrontation countries will rely on a variety of military information systems, software and data to a greater extent, at the right time, the right place for the right decisions, directing control and provide the correct information. Leaving the information provided to achieve a reasonable distribution of fast, it is to have the data and unified management, so that the most immediate battlefield information to the department most urgently needed. With the increasing amount of data the battlefield, and efficient mass data storage and analysis, identify the enemy situation changes from the data, the most reasonable prediction of operational programs to better serve the massive data information war military service is a large data processing aims.

Military data mining challenge

However, Wang Weiping noted that a major challenge facing the era of big data is the low value of the density of information. Whether or intelligent systems analysts need to “needle in a haystack” to find useful information from massive data. “It also fully reflects the importance of data mining.” He stressed.

Data mining is a use in massive data analysis tools discovery process between model and data relationships that can help decision-makers to find a correlation between potential data, by discovering the hidden, overlooked factors, it is possible in data storage and management process, dig out important intelligence information, as a basis for decision-making and action.

According 宋忠平 revealed before the “September 11” incident, intelligence officers are judged to master a lot of data, but it ignores the valuable information.

Thus, after the “September 11” incident, the US Defense Advanced research projects in the following year’s annual technology conference, explains how to use the data in a unified and integrated database mining techniques.

The so-called new data sources is the “transaction space.” If the terrorists to plan and execute a terrorist activity, they will certainly leave some kind of “data footprint” in the information space. That is, they need to “deal.” Data records of such transactions, which can be communications, finance, education, health care, can also travel, transportation, immigration, housing and so on all other data records. It is the application data in the United States “transaction” space mining technology to detect and track terrorists.

It is understood that, in 2002, the big drug lords in Afghanistan preparing to provide funding for al-Qaeda and other terrorists, US military intelligence analysts is through data mining, data funds operational plan with the Al-Qaida Curry Curry’s case data in real time, independent association to guide the US military before the enemy further action.

So, how to enhance the ability of data mining technically. Wang Weiping told the “China Science News” reporter, at the entrance of the control of data quality is critical. That is, the data preparation is an important prerequisite for data mining, because it directly affects the accuracy and efficiency of data mining. “If all the data of varying quality into the channel, it is difficult and then the quality is not high, data processing, they will cause serious interference of useful information.”

In short, the data preparation phase, the need for data cleansing, and secondly, the need to analyze the selected data, reduction processing range. In data preprocessing stage, including the elimination of duplicate data, remove noise, missing data processing, data type conversion, etc. The purpose is to process the data into a form suitable for data mining, and on the basis of data selected on mining data for further reduction to reduce processing time and memory resources, making mining more efficient.

Future wars will change shape

The Obama administration on March 29, 2012 issued a “big data research and development initiatives” (Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative), will enhance the development of big data for national policy. The US Big Data project is an important part of the US national projects. It is understood that the United States Department of Defense and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the existing big data projects a total of 10, wherein the data to decision-making, internal network threats, video search and analysis, X- and other project data are representative.

The most important data to decision-making projects, mainly refers to a variety of new ways to take advantage of huge amounts of data, integrate perception, cognition and decision support systems to create a truly autonomous system, making it possible to customize the motorized operation and decision-making ; video search and analysis; network project aimed at internal threats through the use of new cyber threats judgment technology to improve the accuracy of Discovery network spying activities, frequency and speed, so early exposure and prevent sabotage opponents, and enhance network security level of one’s own Once the project is successful, analysts massive video library will be able to quickly and accurately retrieve specific video content, thereby enabling fully, efficiently mine the useful information hidden in the image; X- data project mainly through the development of large capacity scalable data analysis algorithms needed to handle distributed data repository irregular data. Through the development of efficient human-computer interaction devices and visual user interface technology, in order to better diversify tasks, perform operations more quickly.

With the implementation and realization of large data projects, future wars revolutionary change may occur.

Song Zhongping considered one of the most important large-value data is predicted that the data algorithm is applied to a mass of data to predict the likelihood happening up, therefore, the ability to command and decision-making future war can produce a great leap forward.

He told the “China Science News” reporters, for example, as early as in the first Gulf War, the US military before the war with improved civil war games, war process, outcomes and casualties were deduction, the deduction results and the actual results of the war are basically the same. And before the war in Iraq, the US military use of computer systems wargame exercises, deduction “against Iraq” war plan. Then the reality of the invasion of Iraq and the US military victory actions, and also the results of war games are almost exactly the same. At this point, combat simulations have changed from manual mode to computer mode.

“Relying on big data and cloud computing platform, pre-war simulation deduction, from the use of weapons, to play war command means, it can be clearly revealed, as a basis for decision-making during the war.” 宋忠平 said, “Once operational plan has question, can adjust to ensure a minimum combat casualties and win. ”

Secondly, the integration of data is expected to break the barriers between the military services. Big Data can solve troops across military services, cross-sectoral coordination problems, truly integrated operations.

In addition, Song Zhongping believe big data can change the future form of war. In particular, the pursuit of large US data have supported autonomy unmanned combat platform.For example, currently the world’s most advanced unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, “Global Hawk”, to continuously monitor the moving target, to accurately identify the various types of aircraft ground, missiles, and vehicles, and even can clearly distinguish gear car tires. Song Zhongping pointed out that UAVs the ability to do real-time image transmission is critical. Currently, the US is using a new generation of very high frequency communications satellite as a support big data platform.

Future, UAVs could even get rid of human control to achieve full autonomy of action. US unmanned experimental aircraft X-47B is the representative of that already in the case of fully human intervention, automatically take off and land on aircraft carriers and perform combat missions.

“Global Hawk” unmanned aerial vehicles

Further reading  From Data to Decisions

Speed ​​of information processing information systems, target acquisition time situation, the decision cycle and fast response time determines the success of military operations. In the background of big data, speed up the transfer of battlefield information, shortening “from sensor to shooter” cycle, and “discovery that is destroyed,” the operational objectives, the most important issue information system must address. Therefore, the “Data to Decisions project” has become a big data project in the US the most critical one.Currently, the US Army has increased its massive information fusion capability, combat is building intelligent decision support system has made some achievements.

US Army Distributed Common Ground System

The end of 2012, the US Army has begun to deploy combat-proven through intelligence systems in the world. December 14, “the Army Distributed Common Ground System” (D6A) approved the Defense Acquisition Executive Committee (DAE) is responsible for implementation by.

Previously, D6A just as a quick reaction capability, successfully used in Iraq and Afghanistan. Currently D6A been approved for all Army troops, and has been deployed to all brigade-level units. “Rapid reaction capability” refers to a rapid deployment to meet the most immediate and most urgent needs of the system, such as combat environment, but it does not get the approval of the full deployment.

D6A task for the entire federal army and its intelligence agencies and between the Allies, processing, development and dissemination of information, instead of nine different types of legacy systems, an important part of the Army’s modernization program. D6A can help users to share applications, text files, graphics, photographs, maps, etc. Compared with the old system, D6A in 2012 and 2017 savings of $ 300 million. In the whole life cycle (2012 – 2034), D6A savings of approximately $ 1.2 billion.

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology (Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN) functions similar to Web search engine application software, commanders for tactical operations center to monitor the received instruction information and publish updated. “Titan” to filter information according to specific mission requirements, clearing commander computer screen (desktop), providing topographic maps, pictures, and text links concise instruction template to form a common operational picture. “Titan” also provides a command post of the future (CPOF) and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below / Blue Force Tracking Support (FBCB2-BFT) systems can be integrated with data from other critical areas.

Intelligent network control software mobile command center

Intelligent network control software mobile command center (Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software) is a handheld mission command systems, can receive and publish one’s own and enemy forces location information, integrated from the tactical unattended ground sensors various types of sensors and radar detection system information to the enemy in order to achieve progress in real-time monitoring and protection of the weak areas.

Combatants companion artificial intelligence software

Warfighter partner (Warfighter Associate) artificial intelligence software that can automatically search for information about the dialogue between the various types of sensitive target text chat tool to detect soldiers advance will be reported to the command post of the future common operational picture, for example, when a troop of soldiers found minefields, usually manually enter the relevant information on the various information systems, the software can automatically extract the grid coordinates minefields will automatically enter the next command post system, 15 to 20 minutes in advance, in the common operating picture generate relevant information, otherwise the message will be delayed or submerged. Driving artificial intelligence technology, operational and tactical knowledge database theory, the “combatants partner” to complete the cleanup command post next screen, highlight important information, provide warnings and recommendations, and other auxiliary functions users perform the correct decision and action programs.

Original mandarin Chinese:



■本報記者 胡珉琦





當前伴隨著計算機網絡技術的迅速發展和互聯網的高速普及,信息數據量已由TB(1TB=1024GB)級升至PB(1PB=1024TB)、EB(1EB=1024PB)、ZB(1ZB=1024EB)級,並仍在呈爆炸式地增長。據悉,全球在2010 年正式進入ZB 時代,2012 年全球數據量達到5.2ZB,預計到2020年,全球將總共擁有35ZB 的數據量。有一個形象的比喻可以幫助人們理解這些數據的規模。如果把35ZB 的數據全部刻錄到容量為9GB 的光盤上,其疊加的高度將達到233 萬公里,相當於在地球與月球之間往返三次。


以往數據大都以二維結構呈現,但隨著互聯網、多媒體等技術的快速發展和普及,視頻、音頻、圖片、郵件、HTML、RFID、GPS 和傳感器等產生的非結構化數據,每年都以60 %的速度增長。預計,非結構化數據將佔數據總量的80%以上。





軍事評論員宋忠平向《中國科學報》記者解釋,傳統的信息戰包括了網絡攻防戰,常規作戰中的干擾與反干擾,還有刑偵系統下的偵測與反偵測等內容。 “信息戰打的就是信息流的戰爭。從整個信息流的轉換來看,誰控制了最真實的信息流,誰就控制了這場戰爭的主導權。”宋忠平說,“奪取制信息權已經成為奪取制空權、制海權的先決條件,是未來戰爭勝敗的決定性因素。”



此外,宋忠平指出,傳統信息系統的數據分享能力比較弱。 “傳統戰爭是一種離線狀態下的作戰方式,上級給下級分配任務,並在離線狀態下執行,最後向上級匯報一個戰果。而且命令一般只能管一個軍一個師,因為他們往往是作為一個獨立的作戰單位。這也導致了相關部門往往各自為營,影響協同作戰的效率。”







不過,王偉平指出,大數據時代面臨的一大挑戰是信息的價值密度低。無論是分析人員還是智能係統都需要“大海撈針”,從海量數據中找到有用信息。 “這也充分體現了數據挖掘的重要性。”他強調。






那麼,如何從技術上提升數據挖掘的能力。王偉平告訴《中國科學報》記者,在入口處對數據質量進行把控是非常關鍵的。也就是說,數據準備是數據挖掘的重要前提,因為它直接影響到數據挖掘的效率和精準度。 “如果質量參差不齊的數據統統進入通道,便很難再對質量不高的數據進行處理,他們將對有用信息造成嚴重的干擾。”



奧巴馬政府於2012年3月29日發布了《大數據研發倡議》(Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative),將大數據研發提升為國家政策。而美軍大數據項目正是美國國家項目的重要組成部分。據了解,美國國防部及其下屬國防高級研究計劃局現有的大數據項目共有10個,其中,數據到決策、網絡內部威脅、影像檢索與分析、X-數據項目等是具有代表性的。

最重要的數據到決策項目,主要指的是通過各種新途徑充分利用海量數據,整合感知、認知和決策保障系統,以創造一種真正自主的系統,使之可以自主機動作業並作出決策;網絡內部威脅項目目的是通過採用新式網絡威脅判斷技術,提高探知網絡刺探活動的精度、頻度和速度,從而及早暴露和防範對手的破壞活動,並提升己方的網絡安全水平;影像檢索與分析項目一旦取得成功,分析人員將能從海量視頻庫中快速、精確地檢索特定的視頻內容,由此便能充分、高效地挖掘影像中隱藏的有用信息; X-數據項目主要是通過開發大容量數據分析所需的可擴展算法, 以便處理分佈式數據存儲庫中的不規則數據。通過開發高效的人機互動設備和可視用戶界面技術,以便在多樣化任務中更好、更快地執行操作。














2012年底,美國陸軍開始在全球全面部署經過作戰驗證的情報系統。 12月14日,“陸軍分佈式通用地面系統”(D6A)獲得批准,並由國防採辦執行委員會(DAE)負責實施。

此前,D6A只是作為一種快速反應能力,成功用於伊拉克和阿富汗。目前D6A已獲批用於陸軍所有部隊,並已部署到所有旅級單位。 “快速反應能力”是指一種可以快速部署,以滿足最直接、最迫切需要的系統,比如作戰環境,但它不一定獲得了全面部署的批准。

D6A用於整個陸軍以及它與聯邦情報機構和盟軍之間的任務、處理、開發和傳播情報,取代了9種不同類型的舊系統,成為陸軍現代化計劃的重要組成部分。 D6A可以幫助用戶共享應用程序、文本文件、圖表、照片、地圖等等。與舊系統相比,D6A在2012~2017年可節約3億美元。而在整個壽命週期中(2012~2034年),D6A可節約大約12億美元。


“泰坦”認證網絡戰術信息技術(Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN)的功能類似於網絡搜索引擎應用軟件,指揮官用於在戰術作戰中心監控接收到的信息和發布更新後的指令。 “泰坦”可根據具體任務需求過濾信息,清理指揮官的計算機屏幕(桌面),提供與地形圖、圖片和文本鏈接的簡明指令模板,以形成通用作戰圖。 “泰坦”還提供了對未來指揮所(CPOF)和21世紀部隊旅及旅以下作戰指揮/藍軍跟踪(FBCB2-BFT)系統的支持,可融合來自其他領域的關鍵數據。


智能式網絡中心移動指揮控制軟件(Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software)是一種手持式任務指揮系統,可接收和發布己方和敵軍部隊的位置信息,綜合來自戰術無人值守地面傳感器等各類傳感器和雷達探測系統的信息,從而實現對敵軍進展的實時監控和對薄弱區域的防護。


作戰人員伴侶(Warfighter Associate)人工智能軟件,可自動搜尋各類文本交談工具,探測士兵之間有關敏感目標的對話信息,提前將其反饋給未來指揮所的通用作戰圖,例如當某部隊的士兵發現地雷場後,通常會在各類信息系統上人工輸入相關信息,該軟件能夠自動提取地雷場的網格坐標,將其自動輸入未來指揮所繫統,提前15~20分鐘,在通用作戰圖上生成相關信息,否則該信息會延遲或被淹沒。在人工智能技術、作戰理論與戰術知識數據庫的驅動下,“作戰人員伴侶”能完成清理未來指揮所顯示屏、突出重要信息、提供警告和建議等輔助用戶決策和執行正確的行動方案的功能。

Source: 《中国科学报