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China’s Future Wars: Seize Control of Information with Big Data // 中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權

中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權

Source: 《中国科学报

Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war. From the conversion of the entire information flow point of view, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war. Seize control of information has become the air superiority prerequisites command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war.

■ reporter Hu Min Qi

With the continuous development of information technology, human society has entered a letter of “big data era.” Every day, in every corner of the world sensors, mobile devices, social networks and online trading platform to generate hundreds of gigabytes of data.Obama administration even large data called a “future of the new oil,” Who will come to control the flow of data will dominate the future of the world. As we all know, in the military field has been mankind’s most advanced technology laboratory, big data will no doubt shape the future of the war brought a huge change.

Big Data “big” Where

US Global Institutes define big data as: a large scale in the acquisition, storage, management, analysis far beyond the capabilities of traditional database software tool data set (datasets).

Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Wang Weiping told the computer “China Science News” reporter, big data, “big”, of course, first of all refers to the unprecedentedly large volume of data, far beyond the traditional level of computer processing data volume.

With the current popularity of high-speed computer network technology and the rapid development of the Internet, the information data by TB (1TB = 1024GB) level was raised to PB (1PB = 1024TB), EB (1EB = 1024PB), ZB (1ZB = 1024EB) level , and is still explosive growth. It is reported that, in 2010, officially entered the global era ZB 2012 global data reaches 5.2ZB, 2020, the world will have a total amount of data 35ZB. There is a vivid metaphor can help people understand the scale of the data. If 35ZB to burn all the data capacity of a 9GB disc superimposed height will reach 2.33 million km, equivalent to three round-trip between the Earth and the Moon.

Secondly, Wang Weiping said, “big” is also reflected in the type of data processing diversification, far beyond the traditional format and data analysis tools can handle.

Most of the conventional two-dimensional data structure presentation, but with the Internet, the rapid development of multimedia technology and the popularity of video, audio, images, e-mail, HTML, RFID, GPS and sensors to generate unstructured data, every year 60 % growth rate. We expected to account for over 80% of the amount of data in unstructured data.

In addition, he believes that big data also requires real-time data processing. Big data stream is often a high-speed real-time data streams, and often require rapid, continuous real-time processing, to seize the important events that occurred in the first time.

If you look from the military field, command and control systems, space-based support systems, information processing systems, various reconnaissance, surveillance, increasing the amount of information detection system, big data management in the command structure of the complex and also more important than ever . How massive battlefield data storage and in-depth analysis, how to determine the authenticity of the data, the reliability of data sources to ensure the security of data transmission is a key issue facing the warring parties.

Information warfare against large data requirements

Military theorists generally believe that, as early as the 90s of last century, the information war began to rise. It is a weapon of war by the use of information technology affect adversary information and information systems, to protect one’s own information and information systems, to obtain information superiority battlefield combat style. It is essentially by means of information operations, “information flow” control “energy flow” and “material flow”, depriving the enemy of information superiority, information superiority to maintain one’s own, thus seize control of information battlefield.

Military commentator 宋忠平 to “China Science News” reporter explained, the traditional network of information warfare include battle, conventional combat interference and anti-interference system under criminal investigation as well as detection and anti-detection and other content. “Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war from the point of view convert the entire flow of information, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war.” 宋忠平 he said, “to seize control of information air superiority has become a prerequisite for command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war. ”

But he also said that traditional information warfare in dealing with information and data encountered various challenges. The first is the limited traditional information channels, you can not get a lot of information. At the same time, not only a substantial increase in the amount of data, including various types of data in the form of situational awareness data, images, video intelligence, relying on existing information technology, can not be effectively analyze and process the data.

According to reports, the day of the outbreak of the war in Iraq, the US military forward command post in Qatar and Kuwait because the security agencies can not handle large amounts of data have to turn off the device, resulting in correspondence with some assault command post direction almost interrupted.

In addition, Song Zhongping pointed out, data sharing capabilities of traditional information system is relatively weak. “War is the traditional way of fighting off state, superior to subordinate assignments and perform offline, last victories to report a higher level. And only control one army general command of a division, because they tend to be as an independent combat units, which also led to the relevant departments are often their own business, the impact of coordinated operations efficiency. ”

In this context, information war on large data transfer, storage, analysis yielded specific requirements.

The first is the real-time requirements of data processing. Information warfare ultimately generated vast amounts of data collection and processing center to the command center at all levels, the steady stream of gathering data from a variety of sensors, intelligence agencies and the information transmitted to the center together, these data to be processed in real time. Song Zhongping believe that all the information even if it is a battlefield soldier needs to spread information command and control center through the large data to understand the situation frontline, under special circumstances even for a soldier’s equipment orders. Because he may be at the most favorable terrain, you can get maximum advantage.

Followed by data fusion. Song Zhongping proposed by datalink even pull a short road that used to take four to five orders of management skills, the future may only need to complete the three-level management, so as to contribute to the integration of operations, rather than individual branches of the military to fight alone anywhere, anytime to adjust operational command.

Moreover, in his view, the era of big data, in particular to increase the difficulty of defense information, for higher data security requirements. In general, the information war against information security requirements for data transmission is mainly reflected in addressing anti-eavesdropping, jamming and prevent the problem of false information to deceive. I am afraid the future needs a new defense mechanisms to ensure information security.

Thus, in the information war era of big data, the system of military confrontation countries will rely on a variety of military information systems, software and data to a greater extent, at the right time, the right place for the right decisions, directing control and provide the correct information. Leaving the information provided to achieve a reasonable distribution of fast, it is to have the data and unified management, so that the most immediate battlefield information to the department most urgently needed. With the increasing amount of data the battlefield, and efficient mass data storage and analysis, identify the enemy situation changes from the data, the most reasonable prediction of operational programs to better serve the massive data information war military service is a large data processing aims.

Military data mining challenge

However, Wang Weiping noted that a major challenge facing the era of big data is the low value of the density of information. Whether or intelligent systems analysts need to “needle in a haystack” to find useful information from massive data. “It also fully reflects the importance of data mining.” He stressed.

Data mining is a use in massive data analysis tools discovery process between model and data relationships that can help decision-makers to find a correlation between potential data, by discovering the hidden, overlooked factors, it is possible in data storage and management process, dig out important intelligence information, as a basis for decision-making and action.

According 宋忠平 revealed before the “September 11” incident, intelligence officers are judged to master a lot of data, but it ignores the valuable information.

Thus, after the “September 11” incident, the US Defense Advanced research projects in the following year’s annual technology conference, explains how to use the data in a unified and integrated database mining techniques.

The so-called new data sources is the “transaction space.” If the terrorists to plan and execute a terrorist activity, they will certainly leave some kind of “data footprint” in the information space. That is, they need to “deal.” Data records of such transactions, which can be communications, finance, education, health care, can also travel, transportation, immigration, housing and so on all other data records. It is the application data in the United States “transaction” space mining technology to detect and track terrorists.

It is understood that, in 2002, the big drug lords in Afghanistan preparing to provide funding for al-Qaeda and other terrorists, US military intelligence analysts is through data mining, data funds operational plan with the Al-Qaida Curry Curry’s case data in real time, independent association to guide the US military before the enemy further action.

So, how to enhance the ability of data mining technically. Wang Weiping told the “China Science News” reporter, at the entrance of the control of data quality is critical. That is, the data preparation is an important prerequisite for data mining, because it directly affects the accuracy and efficiency of data mining. “If all the data of varying quality into the channel, it is difficult and then the quality is not high, data processing, they will cause serious interference of useful information.”

In short, the data preparation phase, the need for data cleansing, and secondly, the need to analyze the selected data, reduction processing range. In data preprocessing stage, including the elimination of duplicate data, remove noise, missing data processing, data type conversion, etc. The purpose is to process the data into a form suitable for data mining, and on the basis of data selected on mining data for further reduction to reduce processing time and memory resources, making mining more efficient.

Future wars will change shape

The Obama administration on March 29, 2012 issued a “big data research and development initiatives” (Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative), will enhance the development of big data for national policy. The US Big Data project is an important part of the US national projects. It is understood that the United States Department of Defense and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the existing big data projects a total of 10, wherein the data to decision-making, internal network threats, video search and analysis, X- and other project data are representative.

The most important data to decision-making projects, mainly refers to a variety of new ways to take advantage of huge amounts of data, integrate perception, cognition and decision support systems to create a truly autonomous system, making it possible to customize the motorized operation and decision-making ; video search and analysis; network project aimed at internal threats through the use of new cyber threats judgment technology to improve the accuracy of Discovery network spying activities, frequency and speed, so early exposure and prevent sabotage opponents, and enhance network security level of one’s own Once the project is successful, analysts massive video library will be able to quickly and accurately retrieve specific video content, thereby enabling fully, efficiently mine the useful information hidden in the image; X- data project mainly through the development of large capacity scalable data analysis algorithms needed to handle distributed data repository irregular data. Through the development of efficient human-computer interaction devices and visual user interface technology, in order to better diversify tasks, perform operations more quickly.

With the implementation and realization of large data projects, future wars revolutionary change may occur.

Song Zhongping considered one of the most important large-value data is predicted that the data algorithm is applied to a mass of data to predict the likelihood happening up, therefore, the ability to command and decision-making future war can produce a great leap forward.

He told the “China Science News” reporters, for example, as early as in the first Gulf War, the US military before the war with improved civil war games, war process, outcomes and casualties were deduction, the deduction results and the actual results of the war are basically the same. And before the war in Iraq, the US military use of computer systems wargame exercises, deduction “against Iraq” war plan. Then the reality of the invasion of Iraq and the US military victory actions, and also the results of war games are almost exactly the same. At this point, combat simulations have changed from manual mode to computer mode.

“Relying on big data and cloud computing platform, pre-war simulation deduction, from the use of weapons, to play war command means, it can be clearly revealed, as a basis for decision-making during the war.” 宋忠平 said, “Once operational plan has question, can adjust to ensure a minimum combat casualties and win. ”

Secondly, the integration of data is expected to break the barriers between the military services. Big Data can solve troops across military services, cross-sectoral coordination problems, truly integrated operations.

In addition, Song Zhongping believe big data can change the future form of war. In particular, the pursuit of large US data have supported autonomy unmanned combat platform.For example, currently the world’s most advanced unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, “Global Hawk”, to continuously monitor the moving target, to accurately identify the various types of aircraft ground, missiles, and vehicles, and even can clearly distinguish gear car tires. Song Zhongping pointed out that UAVs the ability to do real-time image transmission is critical. Currently, the US is using a new generation of very high frequency communications satellite as a support big data platform.

Future, UAVs could even get rid of human control to achieve full autonomy of action. US unmanned experimental aircraft X-47B is the representative of that already in the case of fully human intervention, automatically take off and land on aircraft carriers and perform combat missions.

“Global Hawk” unmanned aerial vehicles

Further reading  From Data to Decisions

Speed ​​of information processing information systems, target acquisition time situation, the decision cycle and fast response time determines the success of military operations. In the background of big data, speed up the transfer of battlefield information, shortening “from sensor to shooter” cycle, and “discovery that is destroyed,” the operational objectives, the most important issue information system must address. Therefore, the “Data to Decisions project” has become a big data project in the US the most critical one.Currently, the US Army has increased its massive information fusion capability, combat is building intelligent decision support system has made some achievements.

US Army Distributed Common Ground System

The end of 2012, the US Army has begun to deploy combat-proven through intelligence systems in the world. December 14, “the Army Distributed Common Ground System” (D6A) approved the Defense Acquisition Executive Committee (DAE) is responsible for implementation by.

Previously, D6A just as a quick reaction capability, successfully used in Iraq and Afghanistan. Currently D6A been approved for all Army troops, and has been deployed to all brigade-level units. “Rapid reaction capability” refers to a rapid deployment to meet the most immediate and most urgent needs of the system, such as combat environment, but it does not get the approval of the full deployment.

D6A task for the entire federal army and its intelligence agencies and between the Allies, processing, development and dissemination of information, instead of nine different types of legacy systems, an important part of the Army’s modernization program. D6A can help users to share applications, text files, graphics, photographs, maps, etc. Compared with the old system, D6A in 2012 and 2017 savings of $ 300 million. In the whole life cycle (2012 – 2034), D6A savings of approximately $ 1.2 billion.

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology (Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN) functions similar to Web search engine application software, commanders for tactical operations center to monitor the received instruction information and publish updated. “Titan” to filter information according to specific mission requirements, clearing commander computer screen (desktop), providing topographic maps, pictures, and text links concise instruction template to form a common operational picture. “Titan” also provides a command post of the future (CPOF) and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below / Blue Force Tracking Support (FBCB2-BFT) systems can be integrated with data from other critical areas.

Intelligent network control software mobile command center

Intelligent network control software mobile command center (Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software) is a handheld mission command systems, can receive and publish one’s own and enemy forces location information, integrated from the tactical unattended ground sensors various types of sensors and radar detection system information to the enemy in order to achieve progress in real-time monitoring and protection of the weak areas.

Combatants companion artificial intelligence software

Warfighter partner (Warfighter Associate) artificial intelligence software that can automatically search for information about the dialogue between the various types of sensitive target text chat tool to detect soldiers advance will be reported to the command post of the future common operational picture, for example, when a troop of soldiers found minefields, usually manually enter the relevant information on the various information systems, the software can automatically extract the grid coordinates minefields will automatically enter the next command post system, 15 to 20 minutes in advance, in the common operating picture generate relevant information, otherwise the message will be delayed or submerged. Driving artificial intelligence technology, operational and tactical knowledge database theory, the “combatants partner” to complete the cleanup command post next screen, highlight important information, provide warnings and recommendations, and other auxiliary functions users perform the correct decision and action programs.

Original mandarin Chinese:

中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權

信息戰打的就是信息流的戰爭。從整個信息流的轉換來看,誰控制了最真實的信息流,誰就控制了這場戰爭的主導權。奪取制信息權已經成為奪取制空權、制海權的先決條件,是未來戰爭勝敗的決定性因素。

■本報記者 胡珉琦

隨著信息化不斷發展,人類社會已經進入了一個不折不扣的“大數據時代”。每天,遍布世界各個角落的傳感器、移動設備、社交網絡和在線交易平台生成上百萬兆字節的數據。美國奧巴馬政府甚至將大數據稱為“未來的新石油”,誰掌控了數據流誰就將主宰未來世界。眾所周知,軍事領域一直都是人類最先進科技的實驗室,大數據無疑將給未來戰爭形態帶來巨大的改變。

大數據“大”在哪兒

麥肯錫全球研究所對大數據的定義是:一種規模大到在獲取、存儲、管理、分析方面大大超出了傳統數據庫軟件工具能力範圍的數據集合(datasets)。

中科院計算機所研究員王偉平告訴《中國科學報》記者,大數據的“大”,理所當然,首先指的是數據體量空前巨大,遠遠超出傳統計算機處理數據量的級別。

當前伴隨著計算機網絡技術的迅速發展和互聯網的高速普及,信息數據量已由TB(1TB=1024GB)級升至PB(1PB=1024TB)、EB(1EB=1024PB)、ZB(1ZB=1024EB)級,並仍在呈爆炸式地增長。據悉,全球在2010 年正式進入ZB 時代,2012 年全球數據量達到5.2ZB,預計到2020年,全球將總共擁有35ZB 的數據量。有一個形象的比喻可以幫助人們理解這些數據的規模。如果把35ZB 的數據全部刻錄到容量為9GB 的光盤上,其疊加的高度將達到233 萬公里,相當於在地球與月球之間往返三次。

其次,王偉平表示,“大”也體現在處理的數據類型多樣化,遠遠超出傳統數據格式和分析工具能處理的範疇。

以往數據大都以二維結構呈現,但隨著互聯網、多媒體等技術的快速發展和普及,視頻、音頻、圖片、郵件、HTML、RFID、GPS 和傳感器等產生的非結構化數據,每年都以60 %的速度增長。預計,非結構化數據將佔數據總量的80%以上。

此外,他認為大數據還要求數據處理的實時性。大數據的數據流往往為高速實時數據流,而且往往需要快速、持續的實時處理,能在第一時間抓住重要事件發生的信息。

如果從軍事領域看,指揮控制系統、天基支持系統、信息處理系統,各種偵察、監視、探測系統的信息量越來越大,大數據在指揮機構中的管理也變得空前重要和復雜。如何對海量戰場數據進行存儲與深度分析,如何判別數據的真實性,數據來源的可靠性,確保數據傳輸的安全性,是未來戰爭雙方面臨的問題。

信息化戰爭對大數據的要求

軍事理論界普遍認為,早在上個世紀​​90年代,信息化戰爭開始崛起。它是一種通過使用信息化戰爭武器影響敵方信息與信息系統,保護己方信息與信息系統,從而取得戰場信息優勢的作戰樣式。它本質上是通過信息作戰手段,以“信息流”控制“能量流”和“物質流”,剝奪敵方的信息優勢、保持己方的信息優勢,從而奪取戰場製信息權。

軍事評論員宋忠平向《中國科學報》記者解釋,傳統的信息戰包括了網絡攻防戰,常規作戰中的干擾與反干擾,還有刑偵系統下的偵測與反偵測等內容。 “信息戰打的就是信息流的戰爭。從整個信息流的轉換來看,誰控制了最真實的信息流,誰就控制了這場戰爭的主導權。”宋忠平說,“奪取制信息權已經成為奪取制空權、制海權的先決條件,是未來戰爭勝敗的決定性因素。”

但他也表示,傳統信息戰在處理信息以及數據方面遭遇到了各種挑戰。首先是傳統信息通道有限,無法一次獲取大量信息。同時,不僅僅是數據量大幅增加,數據形式包括了戰場感知數據、影像、視頻情報等各種類型,僅僅依靠現有信息技術,不能及時高效地分析和處理這些數據。

據報導,伊拉克戰爭爆發當日,美軍駐卡塔爾和科威特前進指揮所由於無法處理保障機構提供的海量數據,不得不關閉設備,從而造成指揮所與部分突擊方向的通信聯繫幾乎中斷。

此外,宋忠平指出,傳統信息系統的數據分享能力比較弱。 “傳統戰爭是一種離線狀態下的作戰方式,上級給下級分配任務,並在離線狀態下執行,最後向上級匯報一個戰果。而且命令一般只能管一個軍一個師,因為他們往往是作為一個獨立的作戰單位。這也導致了相關部門往往各自為營,影響協同作戰的效率。”

在這樣的背景下,信息化戰爭對大數據傳輸、存儲、分析產生了特殊的要求。

首先是數據處理的實時性要求。信息化戰爭中產生的海量數據最終要匯集到各級指揮中心和處理中心,這些數據源源不斷地從各種傳感器、情報機構以及信息中心傳輸匯聚到一起,要對這些數據進行實時處理。宋忠平認為,戰場所有信息哪怕是一個單兵的信息都需要通過大數據傳到指揮控制中心,以了解前線情況,特殊狀況下甚至可以對某個單兵的裝備下達命令。因為,他可能正處在最有利的地形,可以獲取最大的優勢。

其次是數據融合。宋忠平提出,通過使數據鏈的連路拉短,以前需要四至五級的管理才能下達命令,未來可能只需要三級管理完成,這樣才能有助於一體化作戰,而不是各個軍兵種單獨作戰,隨時隨地調整作戰指揮。

此外,在他看來,大數據時代,信息防禦難度尤其加大,對於數據安全要求更高。一般而言,信息化戰爭對數據傳輸的信息安全要求主要體現在解決防竊聽、抗干擾和防止虛假信息欺騙的問題上。未來恐怕需要一套新的防禦機制,以確保信息安全。

由此可見,在大數據時代的信息化戰爭中,各國軍事體系的對抗將在更大程度上依靠各種軍事信息系統、軟件和數據,在正確的時間、正確的地點為正確的決策、指揮和控制提供正確的信息。而使信息實現快速合理分發的前提,是要有對數據的統一調度和管理,讓最即時的戰場信息傳遞到最迫切需要的部門。隨著戰場數據量的增大,高效存儲與分析海量數據,從數據中發掘敵我態勢的變化,預測出最合理的作戰方案,使海量數據更好地為信息化戰爭服務是軍事大數據處理的目標。

軍事數據挖掘面臨挑戰

不過,王偉平指出,大數據時代面臨的一大挑戰是信息的價值密度低。無論是分析人員還是智能係統都需要“大海撈針”,從海量數據中找到有用信息。 “這也充分體現了數據挖掘的重要性。”他強調。

數據挖掘是一個在海量數據中利用各種分析工具發現模型與數據間關係的過程,它可以幫助決策者尋找數據間潛在的某種關聯,通過發現被隱藏的、被忽略的因素,就能夠在數據存儲和管理過程中,挖掘出重要的情報信息,作為決策和行動的依據。

據宋忠平透露,在“9·11”事件發生前,情報研判人員是掌握了大量數據的,但卻忽視了其中有價值的情報。

因此,在“9·11”事件之後,美國國防部高級項目研究在次年的技術年會上,闡述瞭如何在統一集成的數據庫中應用數據挖掘技術。

所謂新的數據資源就是“交易空間”。如果恐怖分子要計劃、執行一次恐怖活動,他們必定會在信息空間留下某種“數據腳印”。也就是說,他們需要“交易”。這種交易的數據記錄,可以是通訊、財務、教育、醫療,也可以是旅行、交通、出入境、房屋等等其他一切數據記錄。美國正是在“交易”空間中應用數據挖掘技術,從而發現和追踪恐怖分子的。

據了解,2002年,阿富汗境內的大毒梟準備為基地組織等恐怖分子提供資金時,美軍的情報分析人員正是通過數據挖掘,把作戰方案庫裡的數據與有關基地組織情況庫裡的資金數據進行實時、自主關聯,從而指導美軍先敵一步採取行動。

那麼,如何從技術上提升數據挖掘的能力。王偉平告訴《中國科學報》記者,在入口處對數據質量進行把控是非常關鍵的。也就是說,數據準備是數據挖掘的重要前提,因為它直接影響到數據挖掘的效率和精準度。 “如果質量參差不齊的數據統統進入通道,便很難再對質量不高的數據進行處理,他們將對有用信息造成嚴重的干擾。”

簡言之,在數據準備階段,需要對數據進行清洗,其次,選出需要分析的數據,縮小處理範圍。而在數據預處理階段,包括了消除重複數據、消除噪聲、遺漏數據處理、數據類型轉換等,目的是把數據處理成適合於數據挖掘的形式,並在數據選擇的基礎上對挖掘數據作進一步的約簡減少內存資源和處理時間,使挖掘更有效。

未來戰爭形態將發生改變

奧巴馬政府於2012年3月29日發布了《大數據研發倡議》(Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative),將大數據研發提升為國家政策。而美軍大數據項目正是美國國家項目的重要組成部分。據了解,美國國防部及其下屬國防高級研究計劃局現有的大數據項目共有10個,其中,數據到決策、網絡內部威脅、影像檢索與分析、X-數據項目等是具有代表性的。

最重要的數據到決策項目,主要指的是通過各種新途徑充分利用海量數據,整合感知、認知和決策保障系統,以創造一種真正自主的系統,使之可以自主機動作業並作出決策;網絡內部威脅項目目的是通過採用新式網絡威脅判斷技術,提高探知網絡刺探活動的精度、頻度和速度,從而及早暴露和防範對手的破壞活動,並提升己方的網絡安全水平;影像檢索與分析項目一旦取得成功,分析人員將能從海量視頻庫中快速、精確地檢索特定的視頻內容,由此便能充分、高效地挖掘影像中隱藏的有用信息; X-數據項目主要是通過開發大容量數據分析所需的可擴展算法, 以便處理分佈式數據存儲庫中的不規則數據。通過開發高效的人機互動設備和可視用戶界面技術,以便在多樣化任務中更好、更快地執行操作。

有了大數據項目的實施和實現,未來戰爭可能發生革命性的變化。

宋忠平認為,大數據最重要的價值之一是預測,把數據算法運用到海量的數據上來預測事情發生的可能性,因此,未來戰爭的指揮決策能力可以產生很大的飛躍。

他向《中國科學報》記者舉例,早在第一次海灣戰爭中,美軍戰前利用改進的民間兵棋,對戰爭進程、結果及傷亡人數進行了推演,推演結果與戰爭的實際結果基本一致。而在伊拉克戰爭前,美軍利用計算機兵棋系統進行演習,推演“打擊伊拉克”作戰預案。隨後美軍現實中進攻伊拉克並取得勝利的行動,也和兵棋推演的結果幾乎完全一致。至此,作戰模擬已經從人工模式轉變為計算機模式。

“依託大數據和雲計算平台,戰前的模擬推演,從武器使用、戰爭打法到指揮手段,都可以清晰地顯現,作為戰時決策的依據。”宋忠平說,“一旦發現作戰計劃有問題,可以及時調整,以確保實戰傷亡最小並取得勝利。”

其次,數據的融合有望打破軍種之間的壁壘。大數據可以解決軍隊跨軍種、跨部門協作的問題,真正實現一體化作戰。

除此之外,宋忠平認為,大數據可以改變未來的戰爭形態。美軍尤其追求大數據支撐的擁有自主能力的無人作戰平台。例如,目前全世界最先進的無人偵查機“全球鷹”,能連續監視運動目標,準確識別地面的各種飛機、導彈和車輛的類型,甚至能清晰分辨出汽車輪胎的齒輪。宋忠平指出,無人機能否做到實時地對圖像進行傳輸非常關鍵。目前,美國正使用新一代極高頻的通訊衛星作為大數據平台的支撐。

未來,無人機甚至有可能擺脫人的控制實現完全的自主行動。美軍試驗型無人戰鬥機X-47B就是這一代表,它已經可以在完全無人干預的情況下,自動在航母上完成起降並執行作戰任務。

“全球鷹”無人機

 

延伸閱讀

從數據到決策

信息系統的信息處理速度、目標態勢獲取時間、決策週期以及快速響應時間決定著軍事行動的成敗。在大數據背景下,加快戰場信息流轉,縮短“從傳感器到射手”的周期,實現“發現即摧毀”的作戰目標,成為信息系統建設必須解決的首要問題。因此,“數據到決策項目”成為了美軍大數據項目中最為關鍵的一個。目前,美陸軍已經提高了對海量信息的融合處理能力,正在建設的智能化作戰決策支持系統也取得了一些成果。

美陸軍分佈式通用地面系統

2012年底,美國陸軍開始在全球全面部署經過作戰驗證的情報系統。 12月14日,“陸軍分佈式通用地面系統”(D6A)獲得批准,並由國防採辦執行委員會(DAE)負責實施。

此前,D6A只是作為一種快速反應能力,成功用於伊拉克和阿富汗。目前D6A已獲批用於陸軍所有部隊,並已部署到所有旅級單位。 “快速反應能力”是指一種可以快速部署,以滿足最直接、最迫切需要的系統,比如作戰環境,但它不一定獲得了全面部署的批准。

D6A用於整個陸軍以及它與聯邦情報機構和盟軍之間的任務、處理、開發和傳播情報,取代了9種不同類型的舊系統,成為陸軍現代化計劃的重要組成部分。 D6A可以幫助用戶共享應用程序、文本文件、圖表、照片、地圖等等。與舊系統相比,D6A在2012~2017年可節約3億美元。而在整個壽命週期中(2012~2034年),D6A可節約大約12億美元。

“泰坦”認證網絡戰術信息技術

“泰坦”認證網絡戰術信息技術(Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN)的功能類似於網絡搜索引擎應用軟件,指揮官用於在戰術作戰中心監控接收到的信息和發布更新後的指令。 “泰坦”可根據具體任務需求過濾信息,清理指揮官的計算機屏幕(桌面),提供與地形圖、圖片和文本鏈接的簡明指令模板,以形成通用作戰圖。 “泰坦”還提供了對未來指揮所(CPOF)和21世紀部隊旅及旅以下作戰指揮/藍軍跟踪(FBCB2-BFT)系統的支持,可融合來自其他領域的關鍵數據。

智能式網絡中心移動指揮控制軟件

智能式網絡中心移動指揮控制軟件(Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software)是一種手持式任務指揮系統,可接收和發布己方和敵軍部隊的位置信息,綜合來自戰術無人值守地面傳感器等各類傳感器和雷達探測系統的信息,從而實現對敵軍進展的實時監控和對薄弱區域的防護。

作戰人員伴侶人工智能軟件

作戰人員伴侶(Warfighter Associate)人工智能軟件,可自動搜尋各類文本交談工具,探測士兵之間有關敏感目標的對話信息,提前將其反饋給未來指揮所的通用作戰圖,例如當某部隊的士兵發現地雷場後,通常會在各類信息系統上人工輸入相關信息,該軟件能夠自動提取地雷場的網格坐標,將其自動輸入未來指揮所繫統,提前15~20分鐘,在通用作戰圖上生成相關信息,否則該信息會延遲或被淹沒。在人工智能技術、作戰理論與戰術知識數據庫的驅動下,“作戰人員伴侶”能完成清理未來指揮所顯示屏、突出重要信息、提供警告和建議等輔助用戶決策和執行正確的行動方案的功能。

Source: 《中国科学报

China Options and the New US Network Warfare Strategy // 中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略

中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略

来源: 中国电子报

中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略

April 23, the US Department of Defense released a new web strategy to replace in 2011 issued a “cyberspace operations strategy.” The new network strategy clearly reflects the “war to end war”, “pre-emptive” thinking explicit proposal to strengthen the construction of the network deterrence, and under what circumstances you can use cyber weapons against network attacks, and lists the greatest threat to countries China, Russia, Iran, North Korea thinks it. The US strategy is bound to intensify the arms race in cyberspace, increasing the likelihood of cyber war broke out, bring more unrest to cyberspace, our response should be prepared in advance, to prepare for contingencies.

The new network strategy “new” Where?

First, a clear network deterrence as a strategic objective. Prior to this, the US has been pursuing a strategy of active defense, the Department of Defense in 2011 issued a “cyberspace operations strategy” in spite of the new network to be deployed weapons, but still mainly focus on cyber defense. The new network strategy will focus on the network as a deterrent, will build the power of the Internet to deal with cyber war as a key objective, and clearly the network architecture includes 133 troops teams. As US Secretary of Defense Carter said, the new network strategy will show the determination of the American cyber attacks to retaliate, “We need to prove to the world that we will protect themselves.”

Second, a clear expansion of the coverage of the network of national defense. The United States has multiple departments, including the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security and the National Security Bureau in network security, while the United States a lot of critical information infrastructure by the private sector operators, in order to protect the network security of government departments closely between public and private institutions Cooperation.Although the 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” in the proposed public-private partnership to strengthen, also referred to strengthen cooperation between the Department of Homeland Security, but the new strategy will be directly “to protect local interests are not destructive and core network attack “the department of Defense and other written tasks, network infrastructure, private sector operators are also included in the scope of protection of the department of Defense, but also proposes strengthening cybersecurity information sharing among government departments and between public and private institutions.

The third is clearly cyber war adversary. Although the United States has been an enemy list, but its previous strategy documents are rarely directly named 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” in only a general reference to rival cyberspace. But the new network strategy was to dedicate China, Russia, Iran and North Korea and other countries put forward, which is the number of countries in recent years has repeatedly accused. In fact, the United States has been through a variety of ways to find a reasonable excuse for network monitoring, network armaments and other acts taken against cyber attacks accusing China, Russia and other countries are most common in the United States in April 2015 the company released a FireCam accused China and Russia were two reports of cyber attacks.

What impact will the world?

First, the network will be further intensified competition in armaments. According to the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research in 2013 statistics, there are 47 countries, announced the formation of a network warfare units, 67 countries set up a network of non-military security agencies. With further exacerbated cyberspace security threats, data still growing, new network strategy to attack the United States and deterrence as the core will further aggravate the situation. As the world network of the most powerful country, the United States continued to increase network armaments efforts, other countries will inevitably increase its own power into the network.

Second, large-scale networks will continue to increase the risk of war. In recent years, cyber conflict between nations has been emerging, but the conflict is still the main non-governmental forces, the conflict broke out between the network such as Malaysia and the Philippines, North Korea and South Korea, although part of the conflict emerge out of the shadow of national power, but there is no State publicly acknowledged. US network to the new network strategy war on its head, and set trigger conditions for cyber attacks, in the current absence of international standards related to cyberspace, cyber war risk between countries will continue to increase.

Third, the network will become the fuse of conflict in the real world war. In recent years, the United States has been trying to set a standard network warfare, from the 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” to 2013’s “Tallinn Manual”, to the new network strategy, the United States has been as a response to the reality of armed combat cyber attacks a means. However, due to technical limitations, network attacks traced still difficult to achieve, the US government and corporate network attacks blamed the lack of direct evidence, or even need to confirm whether the other attacks by cyber attacks, such as the media reported that the United States finds that a North Korean attack from Sony Sony Korea nearly 10 years of network attacks. In this case, it is the United States armed attacks as an excuse to invade his country may occur.

How should China respond?

First, the introduction of national cybersecurity strategy. Based on important principles and national positions to protect national security in cyberspace, the formation of a clear framework for strategic action in cyberspace, improve top-level design Cyberspace national strategic layout.Key areas and key elements for the development of integrated package of cyberspace action plan, including countries such as the protection of critical information infrastructure, the establishment of a sound network and information security system.

The second is to establish a network of space defense forces. Established under the Ministry of Defence into the establishment of the network unit, identify core functions and the main task of the network forces, formed a dedicated network security personnel training and selection of channels, rapid formation of cyberspace defense capability. Set up in the National Technology Plan network security technology projects, research network attack and defense technology and equipment, the establishment of Cyber ​​Range, conduct regular network attack and defense drills, form a network combat capability.

Third, actively participate in international cooperation in cyberspace. Participation in the intergovernmental process of network security cooperation, strengthen dialogue between Russia and the United States, European Union and other countries and regions, forming a major cyber security incident communication and coordination mechanisms. Actively promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation within the framework of the United Nations, the promotion of international conventions to resist the formation of cyber war, the establishment of a unified network of weapons found, network attacks and other recognized international standards.Actively participate in international exchanges and publicly announced our attitude to cyber war, emphasized that States have the responsibility and obligation to protect its cyberspace and critical infrastructure from threats, interference and sabotage attacks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

4月23日,美国国防部发布了新的网络战略,以替换于2011年发布的《网络空间行动战略》。新的网络战略明显体现了“以战止战”、“先发制人”的思想,明确提出要强化网络威慑力量的建设,以及在何种情况下可以使用网络武器来对付网络攻击者,并列出了中国、俄罗斯、伊朗、朝鲜等其自认为威胁最大的国家。美国这一战略势必加剧网络空间军备竞赛,增加网络战争爆发的可能性,给网络空间安全带来更多不安定因素,我国应提前做好应对措施,以备不时之需。

新版网络战略“新”在何处?

一是明确将网络威慑作为战略目标。在此之前,美国一直推行积极防御战略,2011年国防部发布的《网络空间行动战略》中虽然提出要部署一些新的网络武器,但仍主要以网络防御为重点。而新的网络战略中则将网络威慑作为重点,将建设应对网络战争的网络力量作为重点目标,并明确了包含133个小组的网络部队架构。正如美国国防部长卡特所说,新的网络战略展示了美国将对网络攻击进行报复的决心,“我们有必要向世界证明,我们将保护自己。”

二是明确扩大网络国防的覆盖范围。美国在网络安全方面有多个部门负责,包括美国国防部、国土安全部和国家安全局等,同时美国大量关键信息基础设施由私营机构运营,以保障网络安全有政府部门、公私机构间的紧密合作。虽然2011年的《网络空间行动战略》中就提出要加强公私合作,也提到了要加强与国土安全部之间的合作,但新的战略则直接将“保障本土和核心利益不受破坏性网络攻击”等写入了国防部的任务,私营机构运营的网络基础设施也纳入了国防部保护的范畴,同时也提出加强政府各部门间以及公私机构间的网络安全信息共享等。

三是明确提出网络战争假想敌。虽然美国一直有一个假想敌名单,但其之前的战略文件中很少直接点名,2011年的《网络空间行动战略》中也只是笼统地提到网络空间的对手。但新的网络战略却专门将中国、俄罗斯、伊朗和朝鲜等国提了出来,这也是其近年来不断指责的一些国家。实际上,美国一直通过多种途径为其采取的网络监控、网络军备等行为寻找合理借口,针对中国、俄罗斯等国的网络攻击指责则最为普遍,在2015年4月份美国火眼公司就发布了指责中国和俄罗斯进行网络攻击的两份报告。

将给世界带来什么影响?

一是网络军备竞争将进一步加剧。据联合国裁军研究所2013年的统计,有47个国家宣布组建了网络战部队,67个国家组建了非军方网络安全机构。随着网络空间安全威胁的进一步加剧,相关数据还在不断增加,美国以进攻和威慑为核心的新网络战略将进一步加剧这一情况。作为世界上网络力量最强大的国家,美国仍不断加大网络军备力度,其他国家也不可避免地加大自身网络力量投入。

二是大规模网络战争风险将不断加大。近年来,国家间的网络冲突已经不断出现,但冲突仍以民间力量为主,如马来西亚和菲律宾、朝鲜和韩国等之间爆发的网络冲突,虽然部分冲突浮现出国家力量的影子,但尚没有国家公开承认。美国新的网络战略把网络战争提到了台面上,并为网络攻击设定了触发条件,在当前缺乏国际网络空间相关标准的情况下,国家间的网络战争风险将不断加大。

三是网络冲突将成为现实世界战争的导火索。近年来,美国一直试图设定网络战的标准,从2011年的《网络空间行动战略》到2013年的《塔林手册》,再到新的网络战略,美国一直将现实武装打击作为应对网络攻击的一种手段。但由于技术所限,网络攻击追溯仍较难实现,美国政府及企业的网络攻击指责都缺乏直接证据,甚至需要通过网络攻击来确认对方是否攻击,如媒体报道称美国认定朝鲜攻击索尼公司源于索尼对朝鲜网络近10年的攻击。在这种情况下,很可能出现美国以网络攻击为借口武装入侵他国的现象。

中国应如何应对?

一是推出网络安全国家战略。基于保障国家网络空间安全的重要原则和国家立场,形成清晰的网络空间战略行动的框架,完善网络空间国家战略布局的顶层设计。针对网络空间关键领域和关键要素统筹制定一揽子行动计划,包括国家关键信息基础设施的保护工作等,建立完善的网络和信息安全保障体系。

二是建立网络空间防御力量。在国防部下设立成建制的网络部队,明确网络部队的核心职能和主要任务,形成专门的网络安全人才培养和选拔通道,快速形成网络空间防御能力。在国家科技计划中设立网络安全技术专项,研究网络攻防技术设备,建立网络靶场,开展定期网络攻防演习,形成网络实战能力。

三是积极参与国际网络空间合作。参与政府间网络安全合作进程,加强与俄罗斯、美国、欧盟等国家和地区间的对话,形成重大网络安全事故沟通和协调机制。积极推动联合国框架下的双边与多边合作,推动形成抵制网络战争的国际公约,建立统一的网络武器认定、网络攻击认定等国际标准。积极参与国际交流,公开宣布我国对网络战争的态度,强调各国有责任和义务保护本国网络空间和关键基础设施免受威胁、干扰和攻击破坏。

China’s Effort at network security has become a major trend of international cooperation

来源:中国信息安全

ChinaKeyboard

The present era, the rapid development of information society, a safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace, a country and world peace and development increasingly significant. It is considered after land, sea, air, space “fifth space” in cyberspace and Internet governance has become an important global issue for the international community unprecedented attention.

Currently, the world is not peaceful. Traditional threats and non-traditional threats intertwined. To benefit from the global network of development and also suffered network attack, and this behavior with the further development of information technology and the Internet more frequently. Currently, the traditional network boundaries become increasingly blurred, non-traditional security threats increase, distributed denial of service, advanced persistent threats and other new network attacks intensified. Network global information infrastructure frequent high-risk vulnerabilities intrusion, critical information infrastructure and critical information systems security is facing serious threats. Network attacks are gradually infiltrate the various types of network terminals. In addition, phishing, hackers, cyber-terrorism, and other issues of rampant Internet rumors, disturb and destroy the countries of normal production and life, and even threaten the stability of state power.

In recent years, the world has a profound understanding of the importance of joint response to network security threats, network security, international cooperation has become a major trend. October 2013, ICANN, IETF, W3C and other major international Internet governance institutions signed the “Montevideo was Asia,” the statement, all stakeholders equal participation as the future direction of development of Internet governance. April 2014, the Brazilian Internet Conference issued a “multi-stakeholder network in the world declared,” and proposed future “Global Principles” Internet governance and the “road map.” In the same month, Japan and the US conducted a second comprehensive network security dialogue between the two countries will further strengthen cooperation in the field of cyber defense. In October, Japan and South Korea signed the “on the strengthening of cooperation in the field of network security memorandum of understanding” to establish network security affairs consultation mechanism to discuss the fight against cyber crime and cyber terrorism, cooperation in the establishment of the Internet emergency response. In May, the new EU disclosed 2015-2020 to strengthen the fight against crime, cyber-terrorism plan. In the same month, Russia and China signed the “inter-governmental cooperation agreement in the field of international information security”, the two sides focus on the use of computer technology in particular undermine national sovereignty, security and the threat of interference in internal affairs area. In June, the global Internet Governance Council of the Global Alliance held in Brazil, a clear governance model of cooperation. In July, German Internet Industry Roundtable, deepen cooperation in the network security aspects. In August, the United Nations Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Information Security held a meeting to report to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for the first time a unified constraint own activities in cyberspace, including critical foundation can not use the Internet to attack his country’s nuclear power plants, banking, transportation, water supply systems, etc. facilities, and can not be implanted “backdoor” in IT products and so on. In September, the United States on outstanding issues in the field of law enforcement in combating cyber crime and other security-depth exchange of views and reached important consensus; the eighth “China-US Internet Forum” held in Seattle, talks between the two countries aimed at promoting exchanges Internet industry and cooperation, continue to promote the world of Internet and network information security. In October, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States authorities was successfully held in Xiamen City, Fujian Province, the “Xiamen -2015” Network counter-terrorism exercises; the sixth Sino-British Internet Roundtable opened in London, the two countries signed the first network security protocol; Chinese military sixth Xiangshan Science Society Forum and the China international strategic Association jointly sponsored the Beijing national Convention Center, which is an important issue around the “code of conduct in cyberspace” build mode, path, content and other discussions. December 1, State Councilor Guo Shengkun US Attorney Lynch, Johnson, Secretary of Homeland Security, co-chaired the first Sino-US cyber crime and related matters joint high-level dialogue.

Mandarin Chinese:

當今時代,社會信息化迅速發展,一個安全、穩定、繁榮的網絡空間,對一國乃至世界和平與發展越來越具有重大意義。被視為繼陸、海、空、天之後的“第五空間”的網絡空間安全和互聯網治理已成為國際社會空前關注的一個重要全球性議題。

當前,世界並不太平。傳統威脅與非傳統威脅交織。全球在享受網絡發展之利的同時也深受網絡攻擊之苦,而且這種行為將隨著信息技術和互聯網的進一步發展更加頻繁。當前,傳統的網絡邊界越來越模糊,非傳統網絡安全威脅有增無減,分佈式拒絕服務、高級持續威脅等新型網絡攻擊愈演愈烈。網絡信息基礎設施屢受全球性高危漏洞侵擾,重要信息基礎設施和重要信息系統安全面臨嚴峻威脅。網絡攻擊正逐步向各類聯網終端滲透。除此之外,網絡詐騙、網絡黑客、網絡恐怖主義、網絡謠言等問題日益猖獗,干擾和破壞著各國正常的生產和生活,甚至威脅著國家政權的穩定。

近年來,世界各國已深刻認識到共同應對網絡安全威脅的重要性,網絡安全國際合作已成大趨勢。 2013年10月,ICANN、IETF、W3C等國際互聯網治理主要機構共同簽署了“蒙得維得亞”聲明,將所有的利益相關者平等參與視為未來互聯網治理的發展方向。 2014年4月,巴西互聯網大會發表《網絡世界多利益攸關方聲明》,提出未來互聯網治理的“全球原則”和“路線圖”。同月,日美進行了第二次網絡安全綜合對話,兩國將進一步強化在網絡防禦領域的合作。 10月,中日韓簽署《關於加強網絡安全領域合作的諒解備忘錄》,建立網絡安全事務磋商機制,探討共同打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義,在互聯網應急響應方面建立合作。 5月,歐盟新披露了2015年至2020年強化打擊網絡恐怖犯罪的計劃。同月,俄羅斯與中國簽署了《國際信息安全保障領域政府間合作協議》,雙方特別關注利用計算機技術破壞國家主權、安全以及乾涉內政方面的威脅。 6月,全球互聯網治理聯盟在巴西召開全球理事會,明確了合作的治理模式。 7月,中德互聯網產業圓桌會議召開,深化在網絡安全等方面的合作。 8月,聯合國信息安全問題政府專家組召開會議,並向聯合國秘書長提交報告,各國首次統一約束自身在網絡空間中的活動,包括不能利用網絡攻擊他國核電站、銀行、交通、供水系統等重要基礎設施,以及不能在IT產品中植入“後門程序”等。 9月,中美就共同打擊網絡犯罪等執法安全領域​​的突出問題深入交換意見,達成重要共識;第八屆“中美互聯網論壇”在西雅圖召開,會談旨在促進中美兩國互聯網業界的交流與合作,持續推動世界互聯網和網絡信息安全。 10月,上海合作組織成員國主管機關在福建省廈門市成功舉行了“廈門-2015”網絡反恐演習;第六屆中英互聯網圓桌會議​​在倫敦開幕,簽署兩國首個網絡安全協議;中國軍事科學學會和中國國際戰略協會聯合主辦的第六屆香山論壇在北京國家會議中心舉行,其中一個重要議題是圍繞“網絡空間行為準則”的構建模式、路徑、內涵等展開討論。 12月1日,國務委員郭聲琨與美國司法部部長林奇、國土安全部部長約翰遜共同主持首次中美打擊網絡犯罪及相關事項高級別聯合對話。

Source: China Information Security

China’s PLA & Toward Winning ‘informationized local wars’

對獲獎“信息化條件下的局部戰爭”

At the beginning of the 2016, President Xi Jinping gave his commander’s intent for reorganizing China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at this beginning of the week, China announced a series of major comprehensive reforms for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) that will defiinitely forge China’s military modernization emphasis for the immediate and long term.

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The Chinese leadership intent for the overhaul is to redefine roles, missions and authorities of the PLA military services, consolidates Communist Party of China (CPC) control over the nearly autonomous military branches, and ultimately attain new levels of combat effectiveness drsigned under a new set of military guidelines of fighting and winning ‘local wars under informationized conditions.’

The first wave of official announcements included changes in the organisational force structure, starting at the highest echelons of command. Specifically, the creation of a new command structure; a joint staff under the Central Military Commission (CMC) that integrated the previous four general departments. The CMC will now manage the PLA through the Joint Staff Department comprised of 15 departments, commissions and offices.

The second significant measure is the inauguration of three new PLA services: PLA Ground Forces, PLA Rocket Forces and PLA Strategic Support Forces. The previous Second Artillery Corps, in charge of China’s nuclear and conventional ballistic missiles, has been upgraded to the PLA Rocket Force, a full service branch on par with the navy, air force, and, for the first time, the army.

The third major military reform measure, announced on 1 February 2016 @ 21:15 Local, is the restructuring of previous seven ‘military regions’ to five ‘major war zones’ or theater operations. While very similar to the US Military component commands the PLA re-oragnization reflects a move toward truly joint operations . The new major Chinese military commands now represent the Northern, Eastern, Southern, Western, and Middle or Central theaters, which are now mimicking the US Department of Defense (DoD) concept of Combatant Commands.

Changes in the PLA’s organization force structure complement its gradual technological advances. While since Novemeber 8th, 2012, the PLA under President Xi Jinping has seen many accomplishments: from the introduction of next generation of supercomputers such as the TianHe – 2,  aviation prototypes such as the J-16, J-20, J-31, new helicopters and UAVs, to the ongoing construction of a second aircraft carrier, as well as record number of commissioned People’s Liberarion Army Navy (PLAN) ships such as Type 054A, 056 frigates and 052C destroyers.

In the next five to ten years, China is expected to transfer many experimental models from R&D to the production stage (Plan 863), including a number of systems in what the PLA calls ‘domains of emerging military rivalry’: outer space, near space, cyber space, and under water.

These include next generation ballistic missiles, nuclear and conventional, long-range precision-strike assets such as hypersonic vehicles, offensive and defensive cyber capabilities and new classes of submarines, supported by a variety of high-tech directional rocket rising sea mines with accurate control and guidance capacity.

PLA Strategic Support Forces (SSF)

Of all the newly established units, the PLA Strategic Support Forces (SSF), 戰略支援部隊. represents perhaps the most significant development. While details remain hidden under a veil of secrecy, unofficial Chinese PLA sources and Chinese language press reports indicate that the SSF will consist of three independent branches: ‘cyber force’ with ‘hacker troops’ responsible for cyber offense and defense; ‘space force’ tasked with surveillance and satellites; and ‘electronic force’ responsible for denial, deception, disruption of enemy radars and communications systems. The overaarching focus of this reorganizartion is to create an effective and strategic support force” to strengthen the network and space attack.

The SSF integrates the previous PLA General Staff Headquarters Third and Fourth Departments, responsible for technical reconnaissance, electronic warfare, cyber intelligence and cyber warfare, as well as absorbing the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the former PLA General Political Department, tasked with information operations, propaganda and psychological warfare.

This corresponds to PLA writings on future conflicts such as Science of Military Strategy that emphasise a holistic perspective toward space, cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum that must be defended to achieve information dominance. This is the ability to gather, transmit, manage, analyse and exploit information, and prevent an opponent from doing the same as a key prerequisite for allowing the PLA to seize air and naval superiority.

To this end, the PLA recognises the importance of controlling space-based information assets as a means of achieving true information dominance, calling it the ‘new strategic high ground.’ Consequently, establishing space dominance is an essential component of achieving military ‘information dominance.’

Strategic Chinese Military Implications

Ultimately, the key question is this: will the reforms in the PLA’s organisational force structure will be reflected in its operational conduct, particularly in the PLA’s capabilities to exploit cyber-kinetic strategic interactions in its regional power projection, as well as responses in potential crises and security flashpoints in East Asia?

On one hand, China’s political and military elites believe that a new wave of the global Revolution in Military Affairsis gathering pace, led principally by the US, and China must therefore accelerate the pace of its military development. Internally, however, the reforms are designed primarily to close the PLA’s inter-service rivalries, interoperability gaps and the dominance of the ground forces.

In other words, significant capability gaps will continue to exist.

In the long-term the coordinated exploitation of space, cyber-space, electromagnetic spectrum and strategic information operations will likely enable four critical missions for the PLA:

  1. Force enhancement to support combat operations and improve the effectiveness of military forces such as ISR, integrated tactical warning and attack assessment, command, control and communications, navigation and positioning and environmental monitoring;
  2. Counter-space missions to protect PLA forces while denying space capabilities to the adversary;
  3. Information operations to direct influence on the process and outcome in areas of strategic competition, and;
  4. Computer network operations targeting adversaries data and networks.

Consequently, the PLA’s growing military-technological developments may significantly alter both the strategic thought and operational conduct of major powers in East Asia, including the US and its Five Eyes allies including the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, and Australia.

Original content published at this Australian Source

China’s Strategic Support Forces – Mission and Combat Power Intent

[责任编辑:冯玲玲]

来源:人民网  作者:邱越  时间:2016-01-06

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    December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units is quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main mission of strategic support task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and action will be the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army rocket integration, throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support units is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality, mainly the strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support units, help to optimize the structure of military forces, thus improving the overall capacity. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

Yin 卓介绍 said strategic support units main task of the mission is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support unit tasks include: return of target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation operations, and Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission .

During the war, Reconnaissance Force cyberspace can help master the movements of the enemy army to help troops develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory.In peacetime, with the increasing degree of national information technology, security, electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in civil applications in the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities that our country’s socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of many hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation of such important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to the implementation of network attacks, which requires that we must be equipped with appropriate defenses. Strategic support forces in protecting the country’s financial security and people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support units is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic support troops in reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, ocean digital, digital construction and other aspects of the Earth play an important role, and provide strong support for the joint battlefield operations, in order to achieve the goal of winning local wars under conditions of informatization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support units are not a separate fighting force, it will blend in with the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army and other branches of the military rocket actions form an integrated joint operations, strategic combat support units throughout the whole process, penetrated into every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。新成立的战略支援部队颇为神秘,这究竟是一支什么样的军事力量呢?军事专家尹卓在接受人民网采访时表示,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。它是联合作战的重要力量,将与陆军、海军、空军和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

国防部新闻发言人杨宇军指出,战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点,主要是将战略性、基础性、支撑性都很强的各类保障力量进行功能整合后组建而成的。成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。我们将坚持体系融合、军民融合,加强新型作战力量建设,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

尹卓介绍称,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。具体地说,战略支援部队的任务包括:对目标的探测、侦察和目标信息的回传;承担日常的导航行动,以及北斗卫星和太空侦察手段的管理工作;承担电磁空间和网络空间的防御任务。

在战争时期,电子空间的侦察力量可以帮助我军掌握敌人的动向,协助部队制定作战行动,确保取得战场胜利。在和平时期,随着国家信息化程度日益提高,电磁空间和网络空间的安全也日益重要。尹卓指出,随着卫星导航设施在民间的应用,今后高铁、轮船、飞机、汽车都会配备车载或机载的定位设施,这些设施对我国的社会主义建设将起到重要的作用。此外,面对诸多黑客在互联网上针对我国实施的非法行动,比如对重要政府设施、军队设施、重要民用设施实施的网络攻击,这要求我们必须配备相应的防御力量。战略支援部队在保障国家金融安全和人民日常生活安全等方面将起到重要作用。

“战略支援部队是联合作战行动的重要力量。”尹卓说,如今任何作战行动都离不开电子空间攻防,战略支援部队将在侦察、预警、通信、指挥、控制、导航、数字化海洋、数字化地球建设等方面发挥重要作用,并将为联合作战行动提供有力的战场支持,以实现打赢信息化条件下局部战争的目标。

尹卓指出,战略支援部队不是一支单独的作战力量,它将与陆军、海军、空军、火箭军等军兵种的行动融为一体,形成一体化的联合作战行动,战略支援部队贯穿于作战的全过程,渗透到每一个作战行动中,将成为战争制胜的关键力量。

http://news.mod.gov.cn/pla/2016-01/06/

 

China’s World Internet Conference and the Future of Chinese Cyberspace

William Hagestad II

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December 2015, the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) invited me to attend the World Internet Conference (WIC) in Wuzhen, People’s Republic of China (PRC).

It is important to understand that the Chinese Government had created a 20 kilometer security exclusion zone around the epicenter of the WIC. The Chinese residents of Wuzhen were replaced with a regiment of soldiers from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and plainclothes policemen and women of China’s Ministry of State Security.

Opening day of the WIC China’s President, Xi Jinping gave his opening comments, a heavenly mandate for the largely handpicked Communist Party of China (CPC) member and international audience “Cyberspace is not a place [that is] beyond the rule of law”. President Xi’s opening address was focused on delegates including Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Pakistani president Mamnoon Hussain; conspicuously absent were officials from the United States, England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Chinese President Xi provided direction which included a proposed the “four principles and five propositions”, systematically expounding China’s concept of a “China Network View” in the New Period. His focus included a statement that China is willing countries to strengthen dialogue and exchanges, effective management and control differences, and promote the development of the parties to the generally accepted international rules of cyberspace, cyberspace develop international conventions on terrorism, the fight against cybercrime and improve mutual legal assistance mechanisms, and jointly safeguard peace and security in cyberspace .

China’s 21st Century Boxer Rebellion

Short history lesson lest we forget how the Western failed to read between the Chinese tea leaves of China’s 21st Century network sovereignty initiative. During the early 1900’s an eight nation coalition of Eight Powers had invaded and occupied North Eastern China. The Qing Dynasty Chinese rebels known as the Boxer’s called this foreign invasion the “八國聯軍”, or Eight-Nation Alliance. This eight nation alliance included the Empire of Japan, United Kingdom, French Third Republic, German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, the United States of America and the Russian Empire.[1] the capital of the Qing Empire, was captured eight countries & invading armies this day…”the darkest day in modern Chinese history.”[2] Save the attendance of Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the 2015 WIC, none of the other members of the 1900 “八國聯軍” were invited to officially attend China future discussion on the Internet at the WIC. It is prophetic then that the Chinese have not forgotten the foreign invasion and occupation of China’s homeland so long ago as backdrop for the WIC and the new future of China’s version of the Internet in the form of a Chinese Binary Rebellion…where delaying, denying and disrupting foreign incursions into China’s Internet are an echo and reminder of the 1900’s Boxer Rebellion.

 

You Are Either Part of the Party or You are Not

One of the important comments made by President Xi which underscores China’s current proposal for a secured and stable International Internet is that “Everyone should abide by the law, with the rights and obligations of parties concerned clearly defined. Cyberspace must be governed, operated and used in accordance with the law so that the internet can enjoy sound development under the rule of law.”[3]

Perhaps in the light of America’s National Security Agency failure to properly vet and control traitorous contractors, Chinese President Xi called for Chinese (sic) government action was needed to strengthen “civilised behaviour” on the internet, adding and calling for measures to “rehabilitate the cyber ecology”.[4]

China’s new cyber ecology will include, according to President Xi’s keynote speech will include building China into a global cyber power, speeding up Internet infrastructure development and imperative that China be regarded as a staunch defender of international cybersecurity.[5] Certainly the recent agreement with the United States on a high-level and mutual dialogue on cybercrime is evidence of China’s willingness to work with even the harshest critics of its organic Internet governance policies.[6]

International governments should make no mistake however, China’s leader emphasized that “cyber security is as important as national security.” And thus both Internet security and informatization are China’s major strategic issues concerning any country’s security and development.[7]

Curiously, however, President Xi’s keynote comments were live-tweeted by the state-run news portal, Xinhua, China’s official news agency, and broadcast on YouTube.[8] Both of these Western social media platforms are services which are blocked by Beijing.

Indeed as the WIC came to a conclusion, international cooperation was a main focus for China’s leadership as “President Xi Jinping urged all countries to respect Internet sovereignty, jointly safeguard cybersecurity, cooperate with an open mind, and improve Internet governance together.”[9]

 

Thus, given the international audience represented at the WIC, guidelines were given for adhering to the new Rule of Law on China’s version of an international Internet or be left behind and thus unable to participate in the world’s largest economy. Indeed Mr. Eugene Kaspersky signed a very lucrative contract at the WIC forging a unique cyber-security partnership with the China Cyber Security Company, thus demonstrating China’s willingness to embrace and recognize Internet technology such as those offered by Kaspersky.[10]

 

The Future of China’s Internet

 

Indicative of what the future holds for the Internet within the People’s Republic of China is the Xiaomi mobile phone I was provided on the first day of the WIC. While the number was Chinese, the SIM card was registered in Hong Kong allowing me to access typically blocked Western Internet websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google. China’s future Internet may include allowing limited access to the forbidden fruits of the Western Internet.

 

Similarly, the hotel the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) put me up in also came with a ‘special Internet account’ where access to usually blocked services was allowed, such as those enabled by my shiny new Xiaomi. However, as I switched off the ‘special account’, the familiar Chinese Internet presented itself and Gmail, Facebook, and Twitter were all blocked.

 

I expect that the future Internet we will all globally experience in the future will encompass an ability to access Chinese versions of Western Internet services, while denying or restricting our ability to use Western Internet technologies which may or may not be surveilled by Western intelligence services.

 

Quite frankly, my experience at China’s World Internet Conference was a positive one. Given the 20 kilometer security exclusion zone I felt very safe, no jihadist terrorists wielding legal semi-automatic weapons in Wuzhen. From a global cyber security researcher perspective, even though I could access both the Chinese and Western versions of the Internet, my experience was actually no different than any of the many other global locations I have visited in the past.

 

While the People’s Republic of China forges forward with a global secure definition of cyberspace which embodies both national security and sovereignty it will be up to other global governments to decide whether to be part of China’s secure Internet party or be left behind.

[1] “八国联军”.  八国联军侵华战争_八国联军为什么侵华_八国联军是哪八国 – 趣历史. Chinese History Topics. (December 2015). (Chinese Internet). Accessed: http://www.qulishi.com/huati/baguolianjun/

[2] Ibid.

[3] “2nd World Internet Conference”. CCTV.com. (December16-18, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/special/wic2015/

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Xi: China a staunch defender of cybersecurity”. CCTV.com. September 25, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/2015/09/25/VIDE1443125998021193.shtml

[7] “Xi: Efforts should be made to build China into cyber power”. CCTV.com. (February 28th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20140228/102815.shtml

[8]  “China is home to 670 million Internet users & over 4.13 million websites: President #XiJinping says at #WIC2015. Twitter. (December 15th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:  https://twitter.com/XHNews/status/676955445286801410

[9] “2nd World Internet Conference concludes”. Xinhua. December18th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://china.org.cn/china/2015-12/18/content_37351052.htm

[10] “Russia’s Kaspersky Labs signs deal with China Cyber Security Company as Beijing and Moscow call for end to US domination of internet”. (December17th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1892257/russias-kaspersky-labs-signs-deal-china-cyber-security

China’s Military Hacking of US Business Subsides

US Officials: #chinese military has slashed corporate #Hacking | TheHill

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By Cory Bennett

The Chinese military significantly reduced its cyber theft of American corporate secrets following the Justice Department’s May 2014 indictment of five Chinese officers, U.S. officials told The Washington Post.

And the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has not returned to its previous level of commercial espionage since then, said several current and former U.S. officials.

“The big picture is that from 2014 on, the administration pursued a much more direct and coercive approach with China, and it has produced results over time,” Evan Medeiros, a former senior director for Asia affairs on the National Security Council, told The Post.

The report comes a day before top U.S. and Chinese officials begin several days of talks that aim to flesh out a September deal between the two countries to eradicate corporate hacking.

“For a period of time following the indictments, there was a very significant decrease” by the PLA, an unnamed U.S. official told The Post. “And today we are definitely not at the level that we were before the indictments.”

The narrative cuts against some recent reports that China’s civilian spy agency, the Ministry of State Security (MSS), has not reduced its commercial espionage efforts in the wake of the September agreement, which was struck during Chinese President Xi Jinping’s state visit to Washington, D.C. in September.

But it’s also possible that China has transitioned some of its digital theft from the PLA to the MSS, which can better hide its digital tracks.

The MSS is believed to be behind some of the more major U.S. breaches over the past year, including the intrusions at health insurer Anthem and the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), in which over 20 million federal workers had their sensitive data stolen.

But those hacks were likely part of China’s ongoing digital espionage campaign to gather detailed information on U.S. government workers, not an attempt to steal intellectual property.

Cyber espionage was not part of the September agreement between the two global powers.

A U.S. official told The Post that this week’s meetings will be a good opportunity to discuss China’s ongoing commitment to its September deal, but that it will take time to determine whether the Asian power is fully complying.

“As we move forward, we will continue to monitor China’s cyber activities closely and press China to abide by all of its commitments,” the senior administration official said. “We have been clear with the Chinese government that we are watching to ensure their words are matched by actions.”

Read Original article at: The Hill

 

Chinese Cyber Espionage – Infiltration of Target Networks Gets Sophisticated

Chinese hackers have expanded their attacks to parking malware on popular file-sharing services including Dropbox and Google Drive to lure unsuspecting  cyber-victims into downloading infected files and revealing compromising sensitive information. These Chinese hackers are also using more sophisticated cyber espionage tactics, focusing their cyber-spying on specific targets via targeted ‘white lists’ infect only specific visitors, named as high value targets, luring them unwittingly to compromised websites.

Chinese hackers are using the following sophisticated techniques, technology and protocols (TTPs) to successfully execute their cyber espionage campaigns:

  • Using noted Mandarin Chinese or Modern Russian hacking TTPs that are specifically charectreristic of both Chinese & Russian based hackers;
  • China’s Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is noting an increase in unauthorized access cases throughout Greater China;
  • Western media file sharing services such as Dropbox and Google Drive are being manipulated for launching successful hacker attack campaigns.

Surveillance and information extfiltration techniques are typically used only by sophisticated hackers from China and Russia who have been given specific cyber targeting packages for cyber-exploitation.

The level of hacking is a sign, they say, of how important China views Hong Kong, where 79 days of protests late last year brought parts of the territory, a major regional financial hub, to a standstill. The scale of the protests raised concerns in Beijing about political unrest on China’s periphery.

“We’re the most co-ordinated opposition group on Chinese soil, (and) have a reasonable assumption that Beijing is behind the hacking,” said Lam Cheuk-ting, chief executive of Hong Kong’s Democratic Party, which says it has been a victim of cyber attacks on its website and some members’ email accounts.

U.S.-based Internet security company FireEye said the attacks via Dropbox were aimed at “precisely those whose networks Beijing would seek to monitor”, and could provide China with advance warning of protests and information on pro-democracy leaders. The company said half its customers in Hong Kong and Taiwan were attacked by government and professional hackers in the first half of this year – two and a half times the global average.

China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Public Security Bureau and the Liaison Office of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region did not respond to requests for comment. The Defence Ministry said the issue was not part of its remit. China has previously denied accusations of hacking, calling them groundless, and saying it is a victim.

The Hong Kong police said its Cyber Security and Technology Crime Bureau works with other law enforcement agencies to combat cross-border crime, but did not respond to questions on how much information it shares with mainland Chinese authorities, the origin of the Hong Kong cyber attacks, or whether these might be a source of instability or concern.

Police data show a drop in reported “unauthorised access”, which includes Internet or email account abuse and hacking, over the past two years. Many of the victims Reuters spoke to said they hadn’t bothered to report being hacked.

SWITCHING TACTICS

Like other groups taking on the might of Beijing – from Uighurs and exiled Tibetans to some Taiwanese – Hong Kong activists, academics and journalists have become more savvy and adopted tactics that, in turn, force hackers to get savvier still.

When Tibetan exile groups stopped clicking on files attached to emails, to avoid falling victim to a common form of ‘spear phishing’ attack, hackers switched their malware to Google Drive, hoping victims would think these files were safer, said Citizen Lab, a Canada-based research organisation which works with Tibetans and other NGOs.

Hackers also recently used Dropbox to lure Chinese language journalists in Hong Kong into downloading infected files. FireEye, which discovered the attack, said it was the first time it had seen this approach.

“We don’t have any arrogance to think we can beat them,” said Mark Simon, senior executive at the parent company of Hong Kong’s Apple Daily, a media group on the front line of the attacks.

STRANGE WORDS

Trying to stay ahead of the hackers, activists and others use multiple mobile phones with different SIM chips, encrypted messaging apps, apps that automatically delete tweets, and code words to set up meetings. If someone thinks they may be arrested, they remove themselves from group chats.

Some things are kept offline.

“If we want to talk, we have some signal,” said Derek Lam, a member of student group Scholarism that helped organise the protests. “It’s a few words … if I say some words that are really strange it means we have to talk somewhere privately.”

Law professor and protest organizer Benny Tai stores personal data, such as names, email addresses and mobile numbers, on an external hard drive that he says he only accesses on a computer without an Internet connection.

The pro-democracy Apple Daily, which says it is hacked on an almost weekly basis, has tightened its email security software, and has its lawyers use couriers rather than email. FireEye last year connected denial of service (DDoS) attacks against Apple Daily with more professional cyber spying attacks, saying there may be a “common quartermaster”. It said China’s government would be the entity most interested in these “political objectives”.

SOPHISTICATED HACKS

Steven Adair, co-founder of U.S.-based security firm Volexity, said that code hidden on pro-democracy websites last year, including those of the Democratic Party and the Alliance for True Democracy, suggested a group he said “we strongly suspect to be Chinese… who is very well resourced.”

He said such tactics were more usually seen employed by Russian hackers, aimed at very specific targets and designed to be as unobtrusive as possible. “It’s a real evolution in targeting,” he said.

In the run-up to Hong Kong district council elections earlier this month, hackers used more basic techniques, breaking into at least 20 Gmail accounts at the Democratic Party, according to party officials and Google logs seen by Reuters.

Between April and June, many hacked accounts were forwarding emails to lovechina8964@gmail.com. An examination of the hackers’ IP addresses by the party’s IT experts found some appeared to originate in China, party officials said.

(Reporting by Clare Baldwin and James Pomfret in HONG KONG and Jeremy Wagstaff in SINGAPORE, with additional reporting by Teenie Ho in HONG KONG and Michael Martina and Ben Blanchard in BEIJING; Editing by Ian Geoghegan)
Read more at Reuters

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/11/29/cybersecurity-hongkong-insight-pix-tv-gr-idUSL3N13E35U20151129#lPgUKAm9SkpjG973.99