美軍方憂慮中國信息戰 稱之為毛式網絡人民戰 //
US Military Anxious & Worried About China’s Information Warfare – Mao-Style Network War is the People’s Warfare
This article was originally published in the US Army “Military Intelligence” magazine July 7-9 months. The author Timothy Thomas is the US Army Lieutenant Colonel, now an analyst at the US Foreign Military Research Office (FMSO). The author graduated from the famous West Point military academy, served as the US military 82th Airborne Division unit commander, the information warfare, psychological warfare, low-intensity conflict in-depth study. This paper reflects the American military’s worries and alertness in the theory and construction of China’s information warfare. This article is specially translated for reference only.
In the past few years, the Chinese military and civil experts set off a wave of information warfare. After reading their works, it is not difficult to find that China’s theory of information warfare has several obvious characteristics: First, China is eager to develop its own theory of information warfare, which is related to its own security threats; secondly, China’s information War theory is influenced by its traditional military command art. Whether it is the ancient “Art of War” and “thirty-six”, or Mao Zedong’s people’s war thinking in the theory of information war laid a deep imprint; Third, China’s information warfare awareness and classification, obviously different In the beginning of the information warfare originator – the United States, although similar to the Russian information war theory, but only the shape and God is not.
Wai Wei save Zhao
The advent of the information age prompted people to rethink the way in which war was conducted. China is aware of its conventional armed forces and the superpower compared to the strength of disparity, in the near future, whether conventional or nuclear weapons, China can not constitute a strong deterrent to the United States. However, the ambitious Oriental dragon that: with the advent of the information age, the war form, the military structure, combat methods and command means will have a new change, the information will replace people full of future battlefield. As long as the focus of strategic research into the information warfare war form, grasp the trend of development of the times, it is not difficult to shorten the distance, and further lead.
Ancient China has a military order called “thirty-six dollars”, one of which “Wai Wei save Zhao” pointed out that if the enemy is too strong front power, should avoid the virtual, hit its weakness. For example, if you can not launch a direct attack (nuclear strike), then the information warfare, the weak financial, power, etc., to the West, and so on.
Network system to start. Although the conventional armed forces can not compete with the United States, however, China’s information warfare forces in theory is a real threat to the US political and economic security, the Americans can not afford the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq Stock Exchange in an instant collapse. The global accessibility of information warfare, the speed of light transmission is not a feature of nuclear war, the Chinese people want is the speed of information warfare, accuracy and continuity to beat the opponent.
Information warfare can make up for the lack of conventional armed forces. The establishment of various battlefield information networks can not only improve the management level of traditional warfare, enhance the overall combat effectiveness of the troops, but also to a certain extent make up for the lack of conventional forces. In the eyes of the Chinese people, information warfare is even more powerful, is the power of conventional armed forces multiplier.
In 1996, China’s earliest information warfare expert Shen Weiguang to the information war under the definition is: “warring parties through the control of information and intelligence resources to compete for battlefield initiative of the war.” With the United States “to protect friendly information system, attack enemy information System “compared to the definition of Shen Weiguang more emphasis on” control “the enemy.
In 1998, the Chinese military information warfare Wei Wang Wang save major general classification of information warfare: according to time is divided into normal, crisis, wartime; by nature is divided into attack, defense; by level into the country, strategy, theater, tactics ; Divided by the scale of the battlefield, theater, local war. The characteristics of information warfare include directive and control warfare, intelligence warfare, electronic warfare, psychological warfare, space control war, hacker warfare, virtual warfare, economic warfare and so on. Information warfare in principle to take cut, blinded, transparent, fast and improve the viability and other measures. General Wang’s understanding of the information war is closer to the West, with emphasis on the confrontation of advanced technology.
In 1999, Chinese experts discussed the information warfare. Shen Weiguang at this time to expand the scope of information warfare, he believes that “information war, broadly refers to the confrontation of the military (including political, economic, science and technology and all areas of society) to seize the information space and information resources for the war, narrowly refers to the war Which is one of the essential characteristics of modern warfare.The essence of information war lies in the fact that by acquiring the right to information to achieve ‘no war and subdue the soldiers’. ”
The military another information warfare expert general general Wang Pufeng information warfare have a very deep understanding, in 2000, he information warfare and information warfare distinction. According to his explanation, the information war refers to a form of war, which contains information warfare, and information warfare refers to a combat activity. He believes that “information warfare includes all combat activities, including a series of intrusion and computer virus attacks on the theft, tampering, deception, deception, disruption, obstruction, interference, paralysis of information and information systems, and finally the enemy computer Network does not work. “He advocated China’s information warfare theory in drawing on foreign advanced combat ideas at the same time, should have China’s own characteristics.
“Mao-style network people’s war”
China’s knowledge of information warfare is very traditional. Many military theorists believe that the information age has given Mao Zedong a new connotation of the people’s war thinking, therefore, advocates rely on and mobilize the broad masses of people to carry out online war. It is conceivable that no matter which same family, with 1.3 billion people playing network warfare is daunting.
Mao Zedong’s network The most important feature of the people’s war theory is that it breaks the boundaries between the army and the people. Blurred the traditional boundaries of military installations and civilian facilities, military technology and civilian technology. The sharing of information technology in military and civilian use has created the conditions for the widespread use of civil technology for military purposes. For example, the use of civil electronic information equipment for information interception and transmission can use the civilian communication network for war mobilization; can use the private computer network attack and defense. Second, the difference between military personnel and non-military personnel is gradually disappearing. With the development of network technology and the expansion of application areas, a large number of network technology talent come to the fore. These have the special ability of the network elite will become the future network of people in the war of Gladiator. At the same time, communication, transportation, financial systems and other information networks and international networking, for China to carry out the people’s war provides the necessary conditions.
Nowadays, the idea of people’s war has been established as the fundamental guiding principle of China’s network information warfare. A Chinese military writer wrote: “The flexible tactical and tactical principle is still the soul of the network information warfare.The broad masses of people actively participate in the war, especially technical support and online warfare, is to win the network information war victory of the masses and strength Source. ”
The power of the people’s war is so terrible, perhaps, we can understand why the Chinese are willing to cut the size of their armed forces – imagine that once the war broke out, China could launch a large number of people involved in war, information engineers and civilians will be organized through the home Computer attack on the US network information system, then why should we maintain a large combat force?
Over the past few years, China has held several major information warfare military exercises to test the theory of information warfare. The first “special war” (information warfare) exercise took place in October 1997. A military army of a military army was designed to paralyze its system of virus attacks, the group of military anti-virus software for defense. The exercise is called “invasion and anti-intrusion exercise”. The exercise also used ground logistics, medical and air forces.
In October 1998, China held a high-tech comprehensive exercise jointly conducted by the three military regions. The first use of the “military information superhighway” was used in the joint defense operations. The information network system in the command automation system is composed of digital, dialing, command network and secret channel. The other parts of the command automation system are subsystems such as command warfare, audio and graphics processing, control and data encryption.
In October 1999, the People’s Liberation Army for the first time between the two groups of war-level computer online confrontation exercises. Conducted reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, interference and anti-interference, blockade and anti-blockade, air strikes and anti-air raid and other subjects. In the software environment, resource sharing, combat command, situation display, auxiliary evaluation, signal transmission and intelligence warfare and other six types of operations. The computer evaluation system conducts data and quality analysis of the performance of both parties.
In July 2000, a military area also conducted an online confrontation exercise. The three training tasks related to the exercise are: organizing and planning the campaign, seizing air power and making information, implementing breakthroughs and breaking down. There are more than 100 terminal networking involved in the exercise.
China’s people’s war has a complete system, its overall development direction is “elite standing army and powerful reserve forces combined”, this defense system is conducive to play the overall effectiveness of the people’s war and “network tactics” advantage.
China 1.5 million reserve forces are very keen to play the network of people’s war. In some areas, the PLA has prepared the reserve forces into small information warfare forces. For example, in Yichang City, Hubei Province, the military division organized 20 municipal departments (electricity, finance, television, medical, etc.) technical staff set up a reserve information warfare. The Department has a network of war camps, electronic war camps, intelligence war camps and 35 technical units. The department has also established the first training base in China to accommodate 500 people.
Yichang is not the only area where the organization’s reserve and militia are engaged in information warfare training. December 1999 in Xiamen, Fujian held a reserve and militia meeting. During the subsequent exercise, the militia units with high-tech equipment carried out electronic countermeasures, cyber attacks and protection, radar reconnaissance performances. The goal of the fake attack is an encircled island, so it is easy for outsiders to think about being against Taiwan. Xiamen is a special economic zone, bringing together a large number of high-tech talent, so there are advantages of the implementation of information warfare.
In an exercise conducted by the Jinan Military Region, the Xi’an People’s Armed Forces Information Warfare team played the blue side of the attack, and they developed 10 kinds of information warfare measures, including information mine, information reconnaissance, change of network information, release of information bombs, dumping Network spam, distribute web leaflets, information spoofing, spread false information, organize information defense, and establish web spy stations. From these network information warfare can be seen that their research on the network information war has been quite specific and in-depth.
China’s military experts also suggested that all levels of militia organizations should set up network technology professional units, in order to facilitate the coordination of command, militia network technology professional units should be provincial or regional units for the implementation of the group, vertical management. Reserve forces to participate in the future war in the “network attack and defense” and “network technology security”, its actions should be organized by the military organization and unified coordination.
The Chinese People’s Liberation Army has developed its own set of information warfare education methods, the steps are: first to teach the basic knowledge of network information warfare; secondly through the military’s advanced military thinking to improve the level of information warfare knowledge; and then improve the use of information technology skills, Electronic technology, psychological warfare technology and information attack and defense technology; Finally, through the exercise of knowledge into practical ability. In China, mainly by the People’s Liberation Army institutions to foster information warfare high-tech talent responsibility:
People ‘s Liberation Army Communications Command College, located in Wuhan. In 1998, the hospital published two books, namely, “information combat command and control” and “information combat technology”, these two books is China’s information warfare education the most important teaching materials. The college has a high reputation for its excellent information warfare tutorials, which analyze the information, operational requirements of strategic, operational, and tactical levels.
People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering University, located in Zhengzhou, by the original PLA Information Engineering Institute, Institute of Electronic Technology and Surveying Institute merged. The main research areas of the school are information security, modern communication technology and space technology, and in some cutting-edge disciplines to explore, such as remote sensing information technology, satellite navigation and positioning technology, geographic information database technology.
People’s Liberation Army Polytechnic University, located in Nanjing, by the former People’s Liberation Army Communications Engineering College, Engineering Engineering College, Air Force Meteorological Institute and the General Association of 63 Institute merged. The school is responsible for training information warfare, commanding automation and other new disciplines of military talent. There are nearly 400 experts and professors in the university engaged in information war theory and technology research.
People’s Liberation Army National Defense Science and Technology University, located in Changsha, the school directly under the Central Military Commission. Has developed the famous “Galaxy” series of supercomputers. During the Kosovo war in April-June 1999, nearly 60 senior officers gathered in this study of high-tech wars.
People’s Liberation Army Naval Engineering University, located in Wuhan, is the only naval study of information warfare institutions. The purpose of the school’s information warfare is to apply information technology to naval equipment so that the Chinese navy can adapt to the information war.
What conclusions can we get from the study of information warfare in China? What can the American army get from it?
First of all, China’s military theorists have found a cheap and effective information warfare method, which makes China in the strategic military and international status to obtain the same position with the West, so that China in Asia to play a more important strategic role.
Secondly, China’s attention to the new information warfare forces is extraordinary. It may be possible to develop various forms of information warfare forces, such as: network forces (independent arms), “cyber warriors” raid units, information protection forces, information corps, electronic police and joint networks of people’s war institutions. It is interesting to note that Western countries, not China, have the ability to put these ideas into practice at this stage.
Thirdly, China’s information warfare theory reflects the combination of Western and Chinese ideas, and the influence of the former is getting weaker. Due to some common origins of military command art (Marxist dialectical thinking), China’s information warfare thought is more similar to that of Russia. However, in terms of its essence, China’s information war theory and Russia and the West are different. China’s information war theory emphasizes control, computerized warfare, cyber warfare, intellectual warfare and system of information rights.
Fourth, in the field of information warfare, China has spanned a number of technological developments and has used the Quartet’s technology to save time and save money. However, China does not fully follow the foreign, but the use of creative information war strategy. But no matter what, China is worthy of attention is different from other countries, the power of information.
For the US military, the study of China’s information war theory is not just to give the military a few opinions. “Art of War” called “know that know, victorious”. From the perspective of foreign information warfare theory to analyze the ability of the US information warfare in order to find the fatal flaws of the US information warfare system.
As the Chinese say, the losers of the information warfare are not necessarily behind the technology, and those who lack the art of command and strategic ability are the most likely to be losers. The United States to the reflection of their own information war thinking, and to study the information war strategy and tactical time. (Fan Shengqiu compilation) (“International Outlook”)
China and the latitude and longitude network February 11, 2004
Original Mandarin Chinese: