China upgrades missile force, adds space and cyber war forces – #China Military Online

People’s Republic of China upgrades missile force, adds space and cyber war forces

Source: Global TimesEditor: Dong Zhaohui

Chinese President Xi Jinping (L F), confers the military flag to Li Zuocheng (C F), commander of the Army of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), and Liu Lei, political commissar of the Army, in Beijing, capital of China, Dec. 31, 2015. The general commands of the PLA Army, Rocket Force and Strategic Support Force were founded on Thursday.

The People’s Republic of China, Friday unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars.

Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing.

This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

Rocket force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert.

The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said.

The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy.

Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security.

“We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Cyber and space forces

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces.

But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security.

Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

Army command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department.

The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song.

At Thursday’s conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics.

It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting.

According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development.

The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

Xinhua contributed to this story


The General Command of Army Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.


The PLA Rocket Force Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.
 

The PLA Strategic Support ForceBadge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.
 

http://english.chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/photo-reports/2016-01/01/content_6840094.htm

China’s World Internet Conference and the Future of Chinese Cyberspace

William Hagestad II

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December 2015, the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) invited me to attend the World Internet Conference (WIC) in Wuzhen, People’s Republic of China (PRC).

It is important to understand that the Chinese Government had created a 20 kilometer security exclusion zone around the epicenter of the WIC. The Chinese residents of Wuzhen were replaced with a regiment of soldiers from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and plainclothes policemen and women of China’s Ministry of State Security.

Opening day of the WIC China’s President, Xi Jinping gave his opening comments, a heavenly mandate for the largely handpicked Communist Party of China (CPC) member and international audience “Cyberspace is not a place [that is] beyond the rule of law”. President Xi’s opening address was focused on delegates including Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Pakistani president Mamnoon Hussain; conspicuously absent were officials from the United States, England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Chinese President Xi provided direction which included a proposed the “four principles and five propositions”, systematically expounding China’s concept of a “China Network View” in the New Period. His focus included a statement that China is willing countries to strengthen dialogue and exchanges, effective management and control differences, and promote the development of the parties to the generally accepted international rules of cyberspace, cyberspace develop international conventions on terrorism, the fight against cybercrime and improve mutual legal assistance mechanisms, and jointly safeguard peace and security in cyberspace .

China’s 21st Century Boxer Rebellion

Short history lesson lest we forget how the Western failed to read between the Chinese tea leaves of China’s 21st Century network sovereignty initiative. During the early 1900’s an eight nation coalition of Eight Powers had invaded and occupied North Eastern China. The Qing Dynasty Chinese rebels known as the Boxer’s called this foreign invasion the “八國聯軍”, or Eight-Nation Alliance. This eight nation alliance included the Empire of Japan, United Kingdom, French Third Republic, German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, the United States of America and the Russian Empire.[1] the capital of the Qing Empire, was captured eight countries & invading armies this day…”the darkest day in modern Chinese history.”[2] Save the attendance of Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the 2015 WIC, none of the other members of the 1900 “八國聯軍” were invited to officially attend China future discussion on the Internet at the WIC. It is prophetic then that the Chinese have not forgotten the foreign invasion and occupation of China’s homeland so long ago as backdrop for the WIC and the new future of China’s version of the Internet in the form of a Chinese Binary Rebellion…where delaying, denying and disrupting foreign incursions into China’s Internet are an echo and reminder of the 1900’s Boxer Rebellion.

 

You Are Either Part of the Party or You are Not

One of the important comments made by President Xi which underscores China’s current proposal for a secured and stable International Internet is that “Everyone should abide by the law, with the rights and obligations of parties concerned clearly defined. Cyberspace must be governed, operated and used in accordance with the law so that the internet can enjoy sound development under the rule of law.”[3]

Perhaps in the light of America’s National Security Agency failure to properly vet and control traitorous contractors, Chinese President Xi called for Chinese (sic) government action was needed to strengthen “civilised behaviour” on the internet, adding and calling for measures to “rehabilitate the cyber ecology”.[4]

China’s new cyber ecology will include, according to President Xi’s keynote speech will include building China into a global cyber power, speeding up Internet infrastructure development and imperative that China be regarded as a staunch defender of international cybersecurity.[5] Certainly the recent agreement with the United States on a high-level and mutual dialogue on cybercrime is evidence of China’s willingness to work with even the harshest critics of its organic Internet governance policies.[6]

International governments should make no mistake however, China’s leader emphasized that “cyber security is as important as national security.” And thus both Internet security and informatization are China’s major strategic issues concerning any country’s security and development.[7]

Curiously, however, President Xi’s keynote comments were live-tweeted by the state-run news portal, Xinhua, China’s official news agency, and broadcast on YouTube.[8] Both of these Western social media platforms are services which are blocked by Beijing.

Indeed as the WIC came to a conclusion, international cooperation was a main focus for China’s leadership as “President Xi Jinping urged all countries to respect Internet sovereignty, jointly safeguard cybersecurity, cooperate with an open mind, and improve Internet governance together.”[9]

 

Thus, given the international audience represented at the WIC, guidelines were given for adhering to the new Rule of Law on China’s version of an international Internet or be left behind and thus unable to participate in the world’s largest economy. Indeed Mr. Eugene Kaspersky signed a very lucrative contract at the WIC forging a unique cyber-security partnership with the China Cyber Security Company, thus demonstrating China’s willingness to embrace and recognize Internet technology such as those offered by Kaspersky.[10]

 

The Future of China’s Internet

 

Indicative of what the future holds for the Internet within the People’s Republic of China is the Xiaomi mobile phone I was provided on the first day of the WIC. While the number was Chinese, the SIM card was registered in Hong Kong allowing me to access typically blocked Western Internet websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google. China’s future Internet may include allowing limited access to the forbidden fruits of the Western Internet.

 

Similarly, the hotel the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) put me up in also came with a ‘special Internet account’ where access to usually blocked services was allowed, such as those enabled by my shiny new Xiaomi. However, as I switched off the ‘special account’, the familiar Chinese Internet presented itself and Gmail, Facebook, and Twitter were all blocked.

 

I expect that the future Internet we will all globally experience in the future will encompass an ability to access Chinese versions of Western Internet services, while denying or restricting our ability to use Western Internet technologies which may or may not be surveilled by Western intelligence services.

 

Quite frankly, my experience at China’s World Internet Conference was a positive one. Given the 20 kilometer security exclusion zone I felt very safe, no jihadist terrorists wielding legal semi-automatic weapons in Wuzhen. From a global cyber security researcher perspective, even though I could access both the Chinese and Western versions of the Internet, my experience was actually no different than any of the many other global locations I have visited in the past.

 

While the People’s Republic of China forges forward with a global secure definition of cyberspace which embodies both national security and sovereignty it will be up to other global governments to decide whether to be part of China’s secure Internet party or be left behind.

[1] “八国联军”.  八国联军侵华战争_八国联军为什么侵华_八国联军是哪八国 – 趣历史. Chinese History Topics. (December 2015). (Chinese Internet). Accessed: http://www.qulishi.com/huati/baguolianjun/

[2] Ibid.

[3] “2nd World Internet Conference”. CCTV.com. (December16-18, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/special/wic2015/

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Xi: China a staunch defender of cybersecurity”. CCTV.com. September 25, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/2015/09/25/VIDE1443125998021193.shtml

[7] “Xi: Efforts should be made to build China into cyber power”. CCTV.com. (February 28th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20140228/102815.shtml

[8]  “China is home to 670 million Internet users & over 4.13 million websites: President #XiJinping says at #WIC2015. Twitter. (December 15th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:  https://twitter.com/XHNews/status/676955445286801410

[9] “2nd World Internet Conference concludes”. Xinhua. December18th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://china.org.cn/china/2015-12/18/content_37351052.htm

[10] “Russia’s Kaspersky Labs signs deal with China Cyber Security Company as Beijing and Moscow call for end to US domination of internet”. (December17th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1892257/russias-kaspersky-labs-signs-deal-china-cyber-security

Chinese Military View: Strategy of American Cyberspace

Chinese Military View: Strategy of American Cyberspace

中國軍事的看法:美國網絡空間戰略

Author Info:  中校崔建树

 

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Summary: As “artificial space” Cyberspace is the second land, sea, air, space human’s fifth-dimensional space. Reports from the relevant strategy adopted by the United States in recent years, the United States developed a set of cyberspace strategy, including the right to compete for the system network strategy, enabling the network to improve the combat effectiveness of weapons “network-centric warfare” strategy, cyberspace security strategy and the strategic use of cyberspace for his country’s political and ideological penetration. Cyberspace has developed strategic US achieved remarkable results, for which seek a major political, security, economic and military interests. However, the openness of cyberspace also increased the vulnerability of the United States, such as the United States to maintain hegemony in cyberspace developed thousands of computer viruses, so-called “logic bomb”, once mastered by terrorists, the consequences would be disastrous.

Keywords: USA; cyberspace; strategy

Cyberspace (Cyberspace) or, more accurately known as the network of electromagnetic space, is a noun Canadian science fiction writer William Gibson (William Gibson) made in its 1984 publication of the novel “Neuromancer” (Neuromancer), the mean computer information systems and the human nervous system is connected to produce a virtual space. ① with the rapid development of computer technology, sensor technology and networks and grid technology breakthrough, cyberspace has become a new objective in the field of real. “The field of electromagnetic energy to use electronic equipment, grid, and networking hardware and software systems for the physical carrier, information and control information as the main content, by storing the data, modify, and exchange, to achieve the physical system manipulation. ” ② Thus, cyberspace is a new “control domain.” ③ Its various sectors and areas of operation control is as effective as the control of human behavior the human nervous system. As the world’s sole superpower, the United States to maintain its hegemony, naturally will not miss this new “control domain.” ④ to this end, the United States developed a comprehensive strategy for cyberspace. This strategy includes the right to compete for the system network strategy, enabling the network to improve the combat effectiveness of weapons “network-centric warfare” strategy, cyberspace security strategy and the use of cyberspace for his country’s political and ideological penetration strategy.

First, the United States made the right strategic network

The predecessor of the modern Internet is the United States Department of Defense to build the “ARPANET” (ARPA Net). In 1969, the US Department of Defense to ensure that the US critical computer systems in the event of nuclear war still normal operation, ordered their subordinates Advanced Research Projects Agency (Advanced Research Project Agency, ARPA) study computer networking problems. By the late 1970s, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has established a number of computers on the LAN and put into use. In order to solve communication problems between the LAN, Advanced Research Projects Agency to examine the different LAN WAN link up the formation of a new method, and built a wide area of the computer on the Internet. Since the advent of the Internet, it can be described as a breakthrough in technology by leaps and bounds, the network connection touches every corner of the world, “showing unprecedented strength.” ⑤ especially with the micro-electromechanical systems (micro-electro-mechanism system, MEMS) rapid development, there have been a number of communications and computing power of having micro-sensors. These sensors can always be accurately detected on the detection region by an ad hoc manner, and the detection result transmitted through a wired or wireless network to the implementers. Since the prospect of this technology is unlimited, the US National Science Foundation in 2003 to allocate huge amounts of money, research sensor network technology, the US Department of Defense has set up a series of military sensor network research projects.

Currently, connect the computer and mass sensor network is the nerve of the world has been integrated, and grasp the system network electromagnetic space right is tantamount to control of the world of the nervous system, it’s meaning even more dramatically than the seas of the 19th century, 20th century airpower. Therefore, all the major countries in the world attaches great importance to the network the right to compete for electromagnetic space. Such as Germany in recent years to develop a “German network security strategy,” Britain also issued a “National Cyber Security Strategy.” Although these reports entitled strengthen “cybersecurity”, in fact, prepared to compete for the right network electromagnetic space. In order to firmly grasp the system network electromagnetic space right, the American government can be described as a multi-pronged.

内容提要:作为“人造空间”的网络空间是继陆、海、空、天之后的人类第五维空间。从美国近几年通过的相关战略报告来看,美国制定了一整套网络空间战略,其中包括争夺制网权战略、通过网络赋能提高武器打击效果的“网络中心战”战略、网络空间安全战略以及利用网络空间对他国进行政治和思想渗透的战略。美国制定的网络空间战略已经取得明显效果,为其谋取了重大的政治、安全、经济和军事利益。但是,网络空间的开放性也同样增加了美国的脆弱性,如美国为维持网络空间霸权开发的数千种计算机病毒,即所谓的“逻辑炸弹”,一旦被恐怖分子所掌握,后果将不堪设想。

关 键 词:美国;网络空间;战略

网络空间(Cyberspace)或更准确地称为网络电磁空间,是加拿大科幻小说家威廉·吉布森(William Gibson)在其1984年出版的小说《神经漫游者》(Neuromancer)中提出的名词,意指计算机信息系统与人的神经系统相连接产生出的一种虚拟空间。①随着计算机技术、传感器技术的飞速发展及网络和网格技术的突破,网络空间已成为一个新兴的真实存在的客观领域。“该领域以使用电磁能量的电子设备、网格,以及网络化软硬件系统为物理载体,以信息和对信息的控制力为主要内容,通过对数据的存储、修改和交换,实现对物理系统的操控”。②由此可见,网络空间是一个新兴的“控制域”。③它对各个行业和领域运转的控制就如人的神经系统对人的行为的控制一样有效。作为世界上的唯一超级大国,美国要维护自己的霸权地位,自然不会放过这一新兴的“控制域”。④为此,美国制定了一套完备的网络空间战略。这一战略包括争夺制网权战略、通过网络赋能提高武器打击效果的“网络中心战”战略、网络空间安全战略以及利用网络空间对他国进行政治和思想渗透的战略。

一、美国的制网权战略

现代互联网的前身是美国国防部构建的“阿帕网”(ARPA Net)。1969年,美国国防部为确保美国重要的计算机系统在发生核大战时仍能正常运作,下令其下属的高级研究计划局(Advanced Research Project Agency,ARPA)研究计算机联网问题。到20世纪70年代末期,国防部高级研究计划局又建立了若干个计算机局域网并投入使用。为解决局域网之间的通信问题,高级研究计划局着手研究将不同局域网联结起来形成广域网的新方法,并建成了一个广域的计算机互联网。自互联网问世以来,它在技术方面的突破可谓一日千里,网络连接触及全球的每一个角落,“展现出史无前例的力量”。⑤特别是随着微机电系统(micro-electro-mechanism system,MEMS)的迅速发展,出现了众多具有通信和计算能力的微型传感器。这些传感器可以通过自组方式时时对探测区进行精确探测,并将探测结果通过有线或无线网络传输给实施者。由于这一技术的应用前景无限广阔,美国自然科学基金会于2003年拨出巨资,研究传感器网络技术,美国国防部也设立了一系列军事传感器网络研究项目。

当前,连接计算机和海量传感器的网络是已经融为一体的世界的神经,而掌握住制网络电磁空间权就等于控制了这个世界的神经系统,其意义甚至大大超过19世纪的制海权、20世纪的制空权。所以,世界主要国家无不高度重视对网络电磁空间权的争夺。如德国近几年制定了《德国网络安全战略》,英国也发布了《国家网络安全战略》。这些报告虽然名为加强“网络安全”,实为争夺制网络电磁空间权。为了牢牢把握制网络电磁空间权,美国政府可谓多管齐下。

First, the United States firmly gripping the global Internet DNS rights. Internet domain names corresponding numeric Internet address of the network hierarchy character flags, house number is the online world, has a unique and exclusive features. Since the domain name and corporate name, logo or trademark goods closely linked, the United States could reap significant economic and strategic interests. As in 2000, Shenzhen Kim Ji tower software company, Shanghai AIU Online, Shenzhen China Motion and other companies related to domain names registered by the United States against the company, the result lost both “referee” in the domain name dispute arbitration is “athlete” US companies and economic losses. To control DNS rights, the United States as early as September 1998 on the establishment of the “Internet domain name and address of the Management Company” (ICANN). ICANN board member from the United States, Brazil, Bulgaria, Germany, Japan and other countries, but the US Department of Commerce has the final veto. Conference USA to maintain its control over the domain name, in November 2005, held in Tunis on issues related to the Internet, when he was Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice specifically wrote to the then European Presidency, asking him to support ICANN management of the Internet. The US Congress also to the 423 votes to none passed a resolution demanding the US government to control the Internet. In December 2012, at the World Conference on International Telecommunications in Dubai, UAE, held on the United Arab Emirates submitted a host of Internet governance requires separation of the right to file, was firmly opposed to the United States on behalf of Kramer, claiming that the meeting “to discuss the telecommunications issues, with the Internet is not relevant. ” ⑥

Second, the Internet’s root server control in their own hands. Since the domain name system management mode was root-like distribution, so the root server management plays a decisive role in the domain name, which is state-controlled root server, this country will have enormous power in the Internet field. Presently there are a main root server and 12 deputy root servers. Placed in Dulles, Virginia, USA taproot server by the American company responsible for managing VeriSign. 12 deputy root servers, 9 placed in the United States, the US military to use two, NASA use a. In addition three deputy root server is placed in the hands of Britain, Sweden, Japan and other US allies. In other words, the United States has the root servers direct and indirect control. As long as the United States is willing, just the root servers and secondary domain name server is disconnected, the United States can paralyze a country with hostile Internet system. 2009, should the United States government requirements, Microsoft has cut off Cuba, Syria, Iran, Sudan and North Korea and other five countries of MSN services, resulting in five countries MSN users can not log in to the instant messaging system.

Third, the United States to use its absolute dominance in the network software, hardware manufacturing capacity and technology to reap political benefits. According to the statistics of relevant institutions, worldwide 18 Internet software companies, 10 are US companies, including Microsoft (Microsoft) is the world’s largest software company, the company’s operating system is widely used in personal computers and servers . Cisco (Cisco Systems) is a network hardware leader in the field of production, the company’s routers, switches, repeaters, etc. occupies an important position in the international market. Juniper (Juniper Networks) and Brocade Communications Systems (Brocade Communications Systems) is the world’s leading network equipment manufacturers, its router technology and storage switch technology leader worldwide. Advanced network software, hardware manufacturing technology and strong production capacity is one of the United States compete for hegemony trump network electromagnetic space can be necessary to stop the threat or actual termination of the provision of goods to the opponent, the other stuck in the woods. In addition, major US software companies are closely related with the US government. Under the government’s behest, the US software vendors often on their manufacturing software is embedded with the back door, so that, if necessary, to serve the US political, economic and national security purposes. In 1999, Microsoft’s blockbuster “NSA key” event the United States attempts to steal other countries’ secrets revealed to the world.

首先,美国坚决把持全球互联网的域名解析权。互联网的域名是对应互联网数字地址的层次结构式网络字符标志,是网络世界的门牌号,具有唯一性和排他性的特点。由于域名与企业名称、商品标识或商标紧密相联,美国可以从中谋取重大经济与战略利益。如2000年,深圳金智塔软件公司、上海美亚在线、深圳润迅等公司注册的域名遭到美国相关公司的反对,结果在域名争议仲裁中输给了既是“裁判员”又是“运动员”的美国企业,经济损失惨重。为控制域名解析权,美国早在1998年9月就成立“互联网域名与地址管理公司”(ICANN)。ICANN的董事会成员来自美国、巴西、保加利亚、德国、日本等国家,但美国商务部拥有最终否决权。美国为维持其域名控制权,2005年11月,在突尼斯召开有关互联网问题的会议上,时任国务卿的赖斯专门写信给当时的欧洲轮值主席,要求他支持ICANN管理互联网。美国国会还以423票对0票通过决议,要求美国政府控制互联网。2012年12月,在阿联酋迪拜召开的国际电信世界大会上,东道国阿联酋提交了一份要求分离互联网管理权的文件,遭到美国代表克雷默的坚决反对,声称这次会议“要讨论的是电信问题,跟互联网不相关”。⑥

其次,把互联网根服务器控制在自己手里。由于域名解析系统的管理模式呈根状分布,因此根服务器在域名管理中起着决定性作用,哪个国家控制根服务器,这个国家就会在互联网领域拥有巨大权力。目前全球共有1个主根服务器和12个副根服务器。放置在美国弗吉尼亚州杜勒斯市的主根服务器由美国的VeriSign公司负责管理。12个副根服务器中,有9个放置在美国,美国军方使用2个,美国国家航空航天局使用1个。另外3个副根服务器放置在英国、瑞典、日本等美国盟友手里。换句话说,美国拥有对根服务器的直接和间接控制权。只要美国愿意,只需将根服务器与二级域名服务器断开,美国便可瘫痪某个与之敌对的国家的互联网系统。2009年,应美国政府要求,微软公司曾切断古巴、叙利亚、伊朗、苏丹和朝鲜等五国的MSN服务,导致这五个国家的MSN用户无法登陆该即时通信系统。

第三,美国利用其在网络软件、硬件制造能力和技术方面的绝对优势地位谋取政治利益。据相关机构的统计数据,全世界18个互联网软件公司中,有10个是美国公司,其中微软公司(Microsoft)是世界最大的软件公司,该公司生产的操作系统广泛应用于个人电脑和服务器上。思科公司(Cisco Systems)是网络硬件生产领域的龙头老大,该公司生产的路由器、交换机、中继器等在国际市场上占有重要地位。瞻博网络(Juniper Networks)和博科通信系统(Brocade Communications Systems)是世界著名的网络设备制造商,其路由器技术和存储交换机技术领先全球。先进的网络软、硬件制造技术和强大的生产能力是美国争夺网络电磁空间霸权的王牌之一,必要时可以威胁停止或实际终止向对手提供商品,陷对方于困境。此外,美国的主要软件商与美国政府均有密切关系。在政府的授意下,美国软件商往往在它们制造的软件上嵌有后门,以便在必要时服务于美国的政治、经济和国家安全目的。1999年,轰动一时的微软“NSA密钥”事件让美国窃取别国机密的企图大白于天下。

Fourth, the United States holds the distribution rights worldwide IP addresses. In the online world, the amount of IP addresses in the real world is like the size of a country’s geographic territory. Because the United States controls the assignment of IP addresses, the vast majority of it will be left to its own IP address and its allies of the company and the public use, other countries can only share a little cold leftovers. For example, although China is a big country network, but IPV4 / IPV6 addresses and domain names are on loan from the United States, seriously controlled by others.

Through control of the domain name and address management of the network, along with its superior network software, hardware manufacturing capacity and advanced technology, the United States has firmly hold control over the Internet. Nevertheless, the US still has a strong sense of urgency. US Department of Defense in 2006 issued a report, “Although the United States is currently in the electromagnetic field of space to enjoy the advantages of the network, but these advantages are being eroded …… and other combat areas, the American network have equal shares of the electromagnetic field of space and opponents fear” . ⑦

In order to further strengthen the US hegemony in cyberspace, the US government multi-pronged approach. In the military field, the US Defense Department network and electromagnetic space regarded as land, sea, air, space similar fifth area, and that the control system network right to maintain its hegemony in the other four areas are of decisive significance. In the 2004 release of “National Military Strategy” report, the US Department of Defense that “the United States armed forces must have the whole sky, land, sea, space and electromagnetic space to expand the network capacity to act.” ⑧ 2006, the US military released the “National Network of electromagnetic space military strategy.” The purpose of the strategy is to ensure that the US “freedom of action in this highly competitive field, while depriving the freedom of movement of our competitors”, ⑨ namely “to ensure US military dominance in the network of electromagnetic space.” ⑨ The document proposes to strengthen in four areas: (1) obtain and maintain the initiative in the competition advantage in the decision-making cycle. US troops should use the Internet to shorten the decision cycle of electromagnetic space, while weakening the decision-making cycle competitors. It needs to maintain a strong network defense, while taking advantage of the weakness of competitors electromagnetic space network, find out competitors weaknesses and defense decision-making cycle. (2) use the Internet so that the whole field of electromagnetic space to further integrate the military capabilities of military operations. DoD various departments must be integrated network electromagnetic space even more delicate. Operational commanders must be closely coordinated with the various support units and defense agencies, and maximize combat, carry out military operations. Although the combat troops to be deployed in various war zones, but they must cooperate with existing military operations, and various government departments, the joint command departments, allied and industrial partners to achieve seamless. (3) construction of the network capacity for action. Including the continuous training of personnel, infrastructure and organization. By wealthy aggressive testing, exercises and continuous improvement, and create new network capacity to act. Risk (4) Management Network electromagnetic space operations. ⑩

第四,美国掌握着全球IP地址的分配权。在网络世界,IP地址的多寡犹如现实世界中一个国家地理版图的大小。由于美国控制了IP地址的分配,它将绝大多数的IP地址留给本国及其盟国的公司和民众使用,其他国家只能分得一点残羹冷炙。例如中国虽是网络大国,但IPV4/IPV6的地址和域名是从美国租借来的,严重受制于人。

通过掌控网络的域名与地址管理,再加上它超强的网络软、硬件制造能力与先进技术,美国已经牢牢掌握着国际互联网的控制权。尽管如此,美国仍然具有强烈的忧患意识。美国国防部2006年出台的报告中称,“尽管美国目前在网络电磁空间领域享有优势,但这些优势正在受到侵蚀……与其他作战领域不同,美国在网络电磁空间领域有与对手平分秋色之虞”。⑦

为进一步强化美国在网络空间领域的霸主地位,美国政府多管齐下。在军事领域,美国国防部将网络电磁空间视作与陆、海、空、天同类的第五个领域,并认为掌握制网权对维持其在其他四个领域内的霸权具有决定性意义。在2004年发布的《国家军事战略》报告中,美国国防部提出“美国武装部队必须拥有在整个天空、陆地、海洋、太空和网络电磁空间展开行动的能力”。⑧2006年,美军发布《国家网络电磁空间军事行动战略》。这项战略的宗旨是确保美军“在这个激烈竞争的领域行动自由,同时剥夺我们竞争对手的行动自由”,⑨即“确保美国在网络电磁空间的军事优势”。⑨该文件提出要在四个方面加强建设:(1)在竞争对手决策周期里获取和维持主动行动优势。美军官兵应利用网络电磁空间缩短决策周期,同时削弱竞争对手的决策周期。这需要维持一个强大的网络防御,同时利用竞争对手的网络电磁空间的弱点,搞清竞争对手的决策周期和防御弱点。(2)利用网络电磁空间使整个军事行动领域进一步整合军事能力。国防部的各个部门必须将网络电磁空间整合得更加精致。作战指挥人员必须与支援部队和国防部的各个机构紧密协同,最大程度地提高战斗力,遂行军事行动。尽管作战部队被部署在各个不同战区,但他们必须与现存的军事行动相配合,与不同政府部门、联合指挥部门、盟军及工业伙伴实现无缝对接。(3)建设网络行动能力。包括持续不断地培训人员、基础设施和组织机构。通过富有进攻性的测试、演习以及不断改良,创造新的网络行动能力。(4)管理网络电磁空间行动的风险。⑩

In fact, long before the promulgation of these documents, the United States had begun to train cyber warfare electromagnetic space warfare capability. According to reports, in June 1995, the US 16 “the first generation of cyberspace warfare warrior” graduated from the National Defense University. In the same year on October 1, the US military in South Carolina State Air Force Base set up the first network of electromagnetic space warfare units, namely the 9th Air Force 609 Squadron. October 1998, the US Defense Department official will be included in the information war fighting doctrine, also approved the establishment of “computer network defense joint special forces.” In early 2006, the US Air Force to establish research networks electromagnetic space problem “network special group”, the special assistant to the Air Force Chief of Staff Dr. Lani Kass headed. With the end, the Air Force officially announced the establishment of a temporary network electromagnetic Space Command 8,000 people, Robert · J. Elder will serve as commander of the post. (11) in 2007, the US Air Force to rely on the 8th Air Force, the Air Force set up a network of electromagnetic space Warfare Command, the Navy has set up a “Navy computer emergency response unit,” West Point established a network of electromagnetic Space Science Center. In 2009, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced the formal establishment of the “network of electromagnetic Space Warfare Command,” the US National Security director Keith Alexander will be nominated as commander. According to the US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter said in the Aspen Security Forum, held July 18, 2013, the US network forces to be deployed in place. (12) This indicates that the United States has sounded the clarion call to compete for hegemony in cyberspace.

Leading cyberspace requires more advanced than in other countries “in cyberspace arms.” “Cyberspace weapon” belongs to the new concept weapons category, the current world’s major countries are all invested heavily in research and development of such weapons. According to data disclosed by the United States Institute of Technology analysis, the current world investment in electromagnetic weapons in space network has more than 1.7 trillion US dollars. (13) The United States is a pioneer in the development of cyberspace arms and leader. As the Air Force is promoting “Cyber aircraft” (Cybercraft) project aims to develop a kind of reconnaissance for the first time able to rival the network of electromagnetic space combat weapons intent. (14) According to the report disclosed, the concept of cyberspace combat aircraft is very advanced, it can be installed in any electronic medium, you can take the initiative to all software and hardware devices Ping scanning, port scanning, OS identification, vulnerability scanning and enumeration ensure operational commanders to the entire network capable of electromagnetic space, small to any computer instantaneously perception and control. (15) in May 2008, the US government launched a more ambitious program – “Cyber Range” (NCR) program. This program is known as America’s “electronic Manhattan Project” in an attempt by developing “revolutionary” new technology, to win the network electromagnetic space this “space race.”

实际上,早在这些文件颁布之前,美国就已开始着手培养网络战电磁空间战能力。据报道,1995年6月,美军16名“第一代网络空间战战士”从美国国防大学毕业。同年10月1日,美军在南卡罗来纳州空军基地组建了第一支网络电磁空间战部队,即第9航空队第609中队。1998年10月,美国国防部正式将信息战列入作战条令,同时批准成立“计算机网络防御联合特种部队”。2006年初,美国空军建立研究网络电磁空间问题的“网络特别小组”,由空军参谋长特别助理拉尼·卡斯博士任组长。同年底,美国空军正式宣布成立一个8,000人的临时网络电磁空间司令部,罗伯特·J.埃尔德中将担任司令之职。(11)2007年,美国空军以第8航空队为依托,组建了空军网络电磁空间战司令部,海军也组建了“海军计算机应急反应分队”,西点军校成立了网络电磁空间科学中心。2009年,美国国防部部长盖茨宣布正式成立“网络电磁空间战司令部”,美国国家安全局长基思·亚历山大上将被提名担任司令。据美国国防部副部长阿什顿·卡特在2013年7月18日举行的阿斯彭安全论坛上称,美国网军即将部署到位。(12)这标志着美国已经吹响了争夺网络空间霸权的号角。

主导网络空间需要有比其他国家先进的“网络空间武器”。“网络空间武器”属于新概念武器范畴,当前世界主要国家无不投入巨资研究开发这种武器。据美国技术分析研究所披露的数据,目前世界各国在网络电磁空间武器方面的投入已超过1.7万亿美元。(13)美国是网络空间武器研制的先驱与引领者。如美国空军正在推进“赛博飞机”(Cybercraft)项目,旨在研制出一种能在第一时间侦察到对手在网络电磁空间里的作战意图的武器。(14)据有关报告披露,网络空间飞机的作战理念非常先进,它可以安装在任何电子介质中,能主动对所有软件和硬件设备进行Ping扫描、端口扫描、操作系统辨识、漏洞扫描和查点,保证作战指挥员能对大到整个网络电磁空间,小到任意一台计算机进行瞬间感知与控制。(15)2008年5月,美国政府启动了一项更加雄心勃勃的计划——“赛博靶场”(NCR)计划。这一计划号称美国的“电子曼哈顿工程”,企图通过研发“革命性”的新技术,来赢得网络电磁空间这一“太空竞赛”。

Second, the use of cyberspace technology based on the “network-centric warfare,” the Defense Transformation Strategy

Construction on the Internet beginning of the formation, the relevant departments and think tanks on the United States is keenly aware of the great military significance of the Internet, recognizing that future US military strategy must adapt to the development of information technology. August 1, 1995, US Army Training and Doctrine Command issued a report entitled “information warfare” concept “525-69 Handbook”, proposed to all dimensions (land, sea, air, space) space combat and battlefield systems (command and control systems, mobile systems, fire support system) with a data link connection together to establish shared situational awareness coupled with continuous operational capability “of the 21st century force” so that they can more quickly than the enemy, the more accurate reconnaissance, develop decisions into action. (16) in October 1998, the US military issued a “Joint Information Operations doctrine,” said information warfare is the impact of the enemy’s information and information systems, and to protect one’s own information and information systems …… information advantage is the use of information and prevent enemy use capability information. (17)

May 25, 2001, former US President George W. Bush delivered a speech at the US Naval Academy graduation ceremony, stressed that “we must take advantage of the revolutionary advances in warfare technology to build our army, so that we can define our way of war to the maintenance of peace. We are committed to build a mainly mobility and quickness rather than size and number to measure the strength of the future army, build an easier to deploy and security forces, and build a greater reliance on precision-guided weapons and stealth and IT forces. ” (18) about George W. Bush proposed the construction of digital force requirements, the US Congress and the Defense Department put forward a defense to rely on IT transformation program.

US Defense Transformation’s goal is to use the network forming, so that the physical limits of technology has now reached the weaponry to combat multiplier effect. Exercise USAF F-15C aircraft organizations perform aerial combat missions showed that the kill rate using data link F-15C aircraft, increased by more than 1 times. The reason is that “the use of tactical data link enables pilots greatly improved the perception of the battle space, resulting in enhanced combat effectiveness.” (19) forming the premise can use the Internet is to strengthen national defense information infrastructure. As well-developed highway transportation extending in all directions, like inseparable, to obtain information superiority, is also inseparable from nothing is to the broadband network. In January 1993, the Clinton administration issued the “National Information Infrastructure: Action Plan” document, proposed the establishment of high-speed fiber-optic communications network in the United States, namely the “information superhighway”, to every office and home network connections are used to form easily accessible information superhighway. After starting the “information superhighway” Soon, the US military has begun to design national defense information infrastructure (DII) construction. 1995, the US military C4I concept proposed to start the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII-COE) construction, is intended to provide timely and accurate safety information for military action. In 1996, the US military further proposed various types of reconnaissance, surveillance, sensor integration, breaking the military services between the “chimney” lined situation, construction command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems (C4ISR), real “From sensor to shooter” combat capability.

US Department of Defense in promoting the construction of a military network bandwidth while also developing Information Grid (Grid) (20) technology. In 1999, the US Department of Defense proposed the building of “Global Information Grid” (Global Information Grid, GIG). In 2003, the Ministry has announced a “Global Information Grid Architecture” (version 2.0), with the Defense Information Systems Network Planning (DISN) as the backbone to integrate the services of the US military information system, built in line with “Global Information Grid” requirement The “system of systems” formula common operating environment (GIG SOS-COE). At present, “Global Information Grid” bandwidth expansion plan (GIG-BE) has been completed, nearly 100 backbone nodes to achieve a seamless broadband high-speed Internet. 2008, the US Defense Information Infrastructure will extend from the narrow to the broad field of cognitive domain information, information from a network domain to electromagnetic fields (Cyber) across.

二、利用网络空间技术实现基于“网络中心战”的国防转型战略

在因特网构建形成之初,美国相关部门和智库就敏锐地意识到因特网的巨大军事意义,认识到美国未来的军事战略必须适应信息技术的发展。1995年8月1日,美国陆军训练与条令司令部颁发了题为《信息战概念》的《525-69手册》,提出将所有维度(海、陆、空、天)的作战空间和战场系统(指挥控制系统、机动系统、火力支援系统)用数据链连接起来,建立态势感知共享加上具有连续作战能力的“21世纪部队”,使之能够比敌人更迅速、更精准地实施侦察、制定决策、展开行动。(16)1998年10月,美军发布了《信息作战联合条令》,称信息战就是影响敌方的信息和信息系统,并保护己方的信息和信息系统……信息优势就是使用信息并阻止敌人使用信息的能力。(17)

2001年5月25日,美国前总统小布什在美国海军学院毕业典礼上发表讲话,强调“我们必须利用战争技术的革命性进步来建设我们的军队,使我们能用我们所定义的战争方式来维护和平。我们将致力于建设一支主要以机动性和快速性而非规模和人数来衡量实力的未来军队,建设一支更易于部署和保障的军队,建设一支更依赖于隐身精确制导武器和信息技术的军队”。(18)围绕小布什提出的建设数字化部队的要求,美国国会和国防部提出了以信息技术为依托的国防转型计划。

美国国防转型的目标是利用网络赋能,使目前已达到物理技术极限的武器装备打击效果倍增。美国空军组织的F-15C飞机执行空中对抗任务的演习表明,使用数据链的F-15C飞机的杀伤率提高了1倍以上。原因是“战术数据链的使用使飞行员极大地提高了对作战空间的感知,最终导致了战斗力的增强”。(19)利用网络赋能的前提是加强国防信息基础设施建设。就如发达的交通离不开四通八达的高速公路一样,要取得信息优势,也离不开无所不至的宽带网络。1993年1月,克林顿政府出台《国家信息基础设施:行动计划》文件,提出在美国建立高速光纤通信网,即“信息高速公路”,把每一个办公室和家庭都用网络连接起来,形成四通八达的信息高速公路。在启动“信息高速公路”后不久,美国军方也开始着手设计国防信息基础设施(DII)建设。1995年,美军提出C4I概念,启动国防信息基础设施公共操作环境(DII-COE)建设,意在为军事行动提供及时、准确的安全信息。1996年,美国军方进一步提出对各类侦察、监视传感器进行整合,打破军种之间“烟囱”林立的状况,建设指挥、控制、通信、计算机、情报、监视和侦察系统(C4ISR),真正实现“从传感器到射手”的作战能力。

美国国防部在推进军用网络带宽建设的同时,还在大力发展信息网格(Grid)(20)技术。1999年,美国防部提出建设“全球信息网格”(Global Information Grid,GIG)。2003年,该部又公布了《全球信息网格体系结构》(2.0版),规划以国防信息系统网(DISN)为骨干整合美军各军种的军事信息系统,建成符合“全球信息网格”要求的“系统之系统”式公共操作环境(GIG SOS-COE)。目前“全球信息网格”带宽扩展计划(GIG-BE)已完成,近100个骨干节点实现了无缝宽带高速互联。2008年,美军将国防信息基础设施从狭义信息域扩展到广义认知域,实现从信息域到网络电磁域(Cyber)的跨越。

IT as the US military will support the transformation of the armed forces, which means the network as the core of military transformation, from a “platform-centric” to “network-centric” transformation. Network-centric warfare concept first proposed by the American Arthur Cheb Petrovsky and John Garstka. (21) They “Network Centric Warfare: The Origins and Future” in an article that, in the 20th century, humanity has entered a new era of war, “society has changed, potential economic and technology has changed, American business has changed if the US military does not change, we should be surprised and shocked. ” (twenty two)

“Network Centric Warfare” concept put forward by the two authors was quickly adopted by the US official. In 2002, the US Department of Defense submitted to the “Network Centric Warfare” (Network-Centric Warfare) report to Congress, proposed Defense Transformation Network Centric Warfare as a guide. The report said, “network-centric forces are able to create and use an information advantage to dramatically improve the combat effectiveness of troops, it can improve the ability of the Department of Defense to maintain global peace and the need to restore stability to assume its tasks dominant position “in all types of military operations. (twenty three)

Core network-centric warfare is to war physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain “network.” (24) Compared with the platform-centric warfare, network centric warfare has incomparable advantages.

First, the network-centric warfare make the battlefield transparent. Outcome of the war does not depend on who put the most money, manpower and technology put on the battlefield, but rather who has the best information about the battlefield. Since (25) For centuries, there has been war uncertainty and resistance, making it difficult to predict war, Clausewitz called the “fog of war”, and now finally able to gradually uncover the layers of fog. (26)

Second, network-centric warfare can greatly improve the firepower effect. Platform-centric blow process, the ability to detect and combat together under one platform, and a platform for the ability to obtain information from the other platforms and then carry out combat missions based on very limited. And network-centric warfare, the fighting is fueled by increased capacity, improve the quality and timeliness of information flow between networks. Increase the flow of information is critical battle space perception can be shared and improving information accuracy. Network after partial image of each unit consisting of a complete summary of operational space diagram, and then transferred immediately to the decision scheme weapon against the system, greatly improving the efficiency of the weapon system.

Third, network-centric warfare has greatly enhanced the efficiency of command. Under normal circumstances, the operations process consists of the following elements: probe target, identify the target, hit the target to make decisions, the decision to transfer arms, weapons, aim and fire. This process, play a decisive role from target detection to fire the reaction time and firepower range. The reaction time depends on the role of distance sensors and weapons, time kill radius of weapons, communications and information processing needs, and make the decision to spend time. Platform-centric weapons systems, linkages between the various weapons systems by voice to achieve, not the direct command of weapons engagement; and in network-centric warfare, perception, command, control, and the ability of warring and so on through the “robustness” The digital data link connection to a network, the capacity of the flow of information between network nodes, the quality and timeliness greatly improve the combat effectiveness of the weapon system.

美军将信息技术作为军队转型的支撑,也就意味着将网络作为军队转型的核心,实现从“以平台为中心”向“以网络为中心”转型。网络中心战概念最早由美国人阿瑟·切布罗夫斯基和约翰·加斯特卡提出。(21)他们在《网络中心战:起源与未来》一文中认为,在20世纪末人类进入了一个新的战争时代,“社会业已变化,潜在的经济和技术业已改变,美国的商业也发生了变化,如果美国的军事不发生变化,我们就应该诧异和震惊了”。(22)

两位作者提出的“网络中心战”概念被美国官方迅速采纳。2002年,美国国防部向国会提交《网络中心战》(Network-Centric Warfare)报告,提出将网络中心战作为国防转型的指南。该报告称,“以网络为中心的部队是一支能够创造并利用信息优势,从而大幅度提高战斗力的部队,它能够提高国防部维护全球和平的能力,并在需要其担负恢复稳定的任务时在所有各种类型的军事行动中占据优势地位”。(23)

网络中心战的核心是将战争中的物理域、信息域和认知域“网络化”。(24)与平台中心战相比,网络中心战具有无可比拟的优点。

首先,网络中心战使战场透明化。战争的胜负并非取决于谁把最多的资金、人力和技术投放到战场上,而在于谁拥有有关战场的最佳信息。(25)几个世纪以来,战争中一直存在不确定性和阻力,使得战争难以预测,克劳塞维茨称之为“战争的迷雾”,而现在终于能逐步揭开这层迷雾了。(26)

第二,网络中心战能够极大地提高火力打击效果。以平台为中心的打击过程,探测和打击能力同归于一个平台,而一个平台基于从其他平台获得信息进而遂行打击任务的能力非常有限。而以网络为中心的作战中,战斗力提高的动力源自网络之间信息流的容量、质量和实时性的提高。信息流的增加是作战空间感知得以共享和提高信息精确性的关键。网络将各个单元的局部图像汇总后组成一幅完整的作战空间图,然后再将决策方案立即传送至武器打击系统,大大提高了武器系统的效率。

第三,网络中心战大大提高了指挥效率。通常情况下,作战过程由以下几个要素组成:探测目标、识别目标、作出打击目标的决策、把决策传送给武器、武器瞄准和开火。这一过程中,起决定作用的是从探测目标到开火的反应时间和火力打击范围。反应时间取决于传感器和武器的作用距离、武器的杀伤半径、通信和信息处理所需要的时间,以及做出决策花费的时间。以平台为中心的武器系统,各武器系统之间的联系靠话音来实现,不能直接指挥武器进行交战;而在网络中心战中,感知、指挥、控制以及交战等各项能力通过“鲁棒”的数字数据链路连接成网络,网络节点之间信息流的容量、质量和实时性极大地提高了武器系统的战斗力。

Fourth, to save resources. In the era of mechanized warfare, because the relatively low level of information sharing, the various branches of weapons and equipment are loosely organized together, the main operations center in each platform and expand, the lack of effective communication and coordination mechanism between them. Therefore, in the development of equipment development, mechanized warfare is more concerned about the construction of weapons platforms, emphasizing weaponry itself to each generation longer range detection broader, better mobility, protection stronger, rather than emphasizing weapons and equipment in various branches of information detection, firepower, protection and other aspects of the battlefield lateral complementary collaboration. In order to meet the various needs of battlefield environment, mechanized warfare requires a single platform should also have multiple complex combat system with air and sea, the potential early warning, surveillance, detection and far, short-range strike capability and protection capacity, and all of these functions due to lack of information and the main coordination mechanism for their own services, causing great waste. Meanwhile, the upgrading of platform-centric weapons systems, weapons platforms make increasingly large and more complex. Network Centric Warfare in the Information Age is completely different, it emphasizes the grid in the framework of the various branches of military hardware strike weapons, sensors, communications equipment and support equipment and other integration as a whole, combined into a super-scale precision weapons, implementation of the system and the system, against the system and the system as a whole.

Comprehensive US troops from the Cold War so far the introduction of the strategic planning report and the army, the US military is increasing access to network electromagnetic spatial information efforts. As in the late 1990s when the proposed C4ISR, the US network of electromagnetic space requirement is to provide four “arbitrary” for combat, that is, any time, any information, any place, any person. And when in 2003 started the construction of the Global Information Grid is designed to allow network electromagnetic space provides five “proper”, that the right time, the right place, the right information, the right form, the right people. By 2008, the US also proposed the establishment of a network through electromagnetic space environment, to achieve the “three global capacity”, that global warning capabilities, global reach capabilities and global operational capabilities, to achieve full spectrum advantage. Thus, the United States will make every effort to expand the use of the network enabling the US military’s combat strength, to maintain American military hegemony.

第四,节省资源。在机械化战争时代,由于信息共享水平比较低,各军兵种武器装备都是松散地组织在一起,作战行动主要以各自平台为中心而展开,相互之间缺乏有效的信息沟通和协作机制。因此,在装备研制发展上,机械化战争更多的是关注武器平台的建设,强调武器装备本身要一代比一代射程更远、探测范围更广、机动性更好、防护能力更强,而不是强调各军兵种武器装备在信息探测、火力打击、战场防护等方面的横向互补、协同。为适应各种不同的战场环境需要,机械化战争要求单一平台要同时具备多个复杂的战斗系统,具有对空、对海、对潜在预警、侦察、探测和远、中、近程打击能力和防护能力等,而所有这些功能由于缺乏信息协作机制而主要为自己服务,造成极大浪费。同时,以平台为中心的武器系统的更新换代,使武器平台越来越庞大,越来越复杂。信息化时代的网络中心战完全不同,它强调在军事网格的框架下把各军兵种软硬件打击武器、传感器、通信设备和保障装备等融合为一个整体,组合成一台超级规模的精密武器,实施体系与体系、系统与系统的整体对抗。

综合美军从冷战结束到目前为止出台的战略报告和建军规划来看,美军正在不断加大获取网络电磁空间信息的力度。如在上世纪90年代末提出C4ISR时,美军的要求是网络电磁空间能为作战提供四个“任意”,即任意时间、任意信息、任意地点、任意人。而2003年启动全球信息网格时建设则旨在让网络电磁空间提供五个“恰当”,即恰当时间、恰当地点、恰当信息、恰当形式、恰当人。到2008年,美军又提出通过建立网络电磁空间环境,实现“三个全球能力”,即全球警戒能力、全球到达能力和全球作战能力,达成全谱优势。由此可见,美国将会竭尽全力利用网络赋能来拓展美军的作战实力,维护美国的军事霸权。

Third, the US cyberspace security strategy

Geographically, the United States is two foreign countries, the security environment is very favorable. However, the development of network technology is superior to the American tradition of the security environment and constitute a real challenge. Since computer networks after commercial operation, industrial manufacturing, utilities, banking and other areas of the US communications network to connect all computers and controlled by the United States and other areas of diplomacy and defense are highly confidential full realization of the network, resulting in American society computer network to form a highly dependencies. It can be said, “No country in the world like the United States is so dependent on the network.” (27)

The United States is highly dependent on the network provides an unprecedented opportunity for America’s opponents. Through network attacks caused unimaginable destruction. If the “cut off power and water through the network,” the entire United States would “paralyze”:.. “Then everything stopped, railway connections and traffic lights do not work without electricity, but also get information which will cause people’s life . This is not a great impact bomb, but the bomb is similar to the effect produced – everything is closed. ” (28)

First, cyber crime against the United States continues to rise. Since the commercialization of the Internet, cyber crime showed rapid growth trend, especially for network hacker attacks even more so. The original purpose of hackers to launch cyber attacks is the purpose of self-presentation, namely by identifying network vulnerabilities and the attacks to achieve self-sufficiency. However, as the economy becomes network, hacker attacks more in order to obtain illegal interests for the purpose. Hackers from the “play” to become a ‘big business’, it takes only $ 400, you can buy one on the Internet, “crime package”, to steal other people’s bank accounts and credit card numbers. According to the study, worldwide each year due to loss of network attack suffered about 5,000 billion US dollars, the cost of crime generated by the network up to 3,880 billion US dollars, more than the world’s heroin, cocaine and cannabis market all combined. (29) in 2005, the largest US credit card The company, one of MasterCard’s 40 million users of banking information is acquired by hackers, causing the largest US credit card user information leak case. 2005 to 2007, Albert Gonzalez and a man named “shadow team” Teamwork hacker penetrated include TJ Maxx, Barnes, Noble and BJ including retail giant database, obtaining 180 million payment account access, these companies resulted in more than 400 million US dollars in economic losses. (30) According to US industry estimates, the 2008 data theft and infringement of intellectual property rights to the United States caused by the loss of up to $ 1 trillion. (31)

Second, the network of terrorist activities against the United States poses a great threat in cyberspace. As the network has become the most important human information dissemination and communication tools, terrorist organizations will also spread its tentacles into the network, make full use of the network of privacy, anonymity and across time and space characteristics, to implement terrorist recruitment and training programs . For example, the world’s largest terrorist organization “base” organization in recent years to take advantage of the network to carry out terrorist activities. According to the US Institute of Peace in Washington researcher Gabriel Weinmann observed, “In the traditional site of discussions and forums area can be found al-Qaida elements. 7 years ago, they are about 12 Internet sites. Since the ‘base’ Organization members have been expelled from Afghanistan later, to some extent, they have found refuge on the Internet. They added one, two or even 50 sites “Every day. Statistics US Treasury Bureau of Information said, “base” organization has about 4,000 online sites. “(32) terrorist organizations use network behavior aroused the attention of the American government department. In early 2005, the FBI asked to be alert terrorist organizations to recruit engineers from the Internet. In July, the US government should request, Pakistani authorities arrested the “base” organization computer expert Naeem Noor Mohammad Khan.

三、美国网络空间安全战略

从地理上看,美国是两洋国家,安全环境相当优越。但是,网络技术的发展对美国传统的优越安全环境构成了现实挑战。自从计算机网络实现商业化运营以后,美国的工业制造、公用事业、银行和通讯等领域全部由计算机网络连接和控制,美国的外交与国防等高度机密的领域也全面实现了网络化,导致美国社会对计算机网络形成高度的依赖关系。可以说,“世界上还没有哪个国家像美国这样如此依赖网络”。(27)

美国对网络的高度依赖为美国的对手提供了前所未有的机会。通过网络发动袭击造成的破坏令人难以想象。如果“通过网络切断电源和水源”,整个美国就会“陷入瘫痪”:“届时一切停止运转,铁路连接和红绿灯都不起作用。没有电,也得不到信息。这将给民众的生活造成很大影响。这虽然不是核弹,但产生的效果与核弹相似——一切都被关闭”。(28)

首先,针对美国的网络犯罪持续攀升。自从互联网商业化以来,网络犯罪便呈快速增长之势,特别是黑客对网络发动的攻击更是如此。最初的黑客发动网络袭击的目的多是为了自我展示,即通过发现网络漏洞并对之发动攻击来实现自我满足。但是,随着经济生活越来越网络化,黑客攻击更多以获取非法利益为目的。黑客已从“玩玩”发展成为一个‘‘大行业”,只要花上400美元,就可以在网上买一个“犯罪包”,以窃取别人的银行账户和信用卡密码。据研究,全世界每年因网络攻击遭受的损失约有5,000亿美元,由网络犯罪产生的成本高达3,880亿美元,比全球海洛因、可卡因和大麻市场全部加起来还要多。(29)2005年,美国最大信用卡公司之一的万事达公司4,000万用户的银行资料被黑客获取,酿成美国最大规模信用卡用户信息泄密案。2005至2007年,阿尔伯特·冈萨雷斯和一个名叫“影子团队”的黑客团队合作,侵入包括TJ Maxx、Barnes、Noble和BJ在内的零售业巨头的数据库,获取1.8亿支付账户的访问权,给这些公司造成了4亿多美元的经济损失。(30)据美国业界估计,2008年的数据失窃和知识产权受到侵犯给美国造成的损失高达1万亿美元。(31)

其次,网络恐怖活动对美国的网络空间造成巨大威胁。随着网络成为人类最重要的信息传播方式和交流工具,恐怖组织也将触角伸向了网络,充分利用网络的隐密性、匿名性和跨时空的特点,来实施恐怖分子的招聘和培训计划。例如,全球最大的恐怖组织“基地”组织近年来就充分利用网络实施恐怖活动。据美国华盛顿和平研究所研究员加布里埃尔·魏曼的观察,“在传统网站的讨论和论坛区都能发现‘基地’组织分子。7年前他们在网上大约有12个站点。自从‘基地’组织成员被驱逐出阿富汗以后,从某种程度来说,他们在因特网上找到了避难所。他们每天增加1个、2个甚至50个网站”。美国信息报务局的统计数据称,“基地”组织在网上有大约4,000个站点”。(32)恐怖组织利用网络的行为引起美国政府部门的重视。2005年初,美国联邦调查局提出要警惕恐怖组织从网上招募工程师。同年7月,应美国政府要求,巴基斯坦当局逮捕了“基地”组织电脑专家穆罕默德·纳伊姆·努尔汗。

Third, the United States Government to collect foreign intelligence through the network, to pose a challenge to US national security. In 2007, the US Defense Department, State Department, Homeland Security, Ministry of Commerce, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Defense and other departments have been large-scale invasion. In the invasion, the US defense secretary e-mail or even cracks, the Ministry of Defence were stolen “millions of bytes” of information, launcher design NASA also been maliciously modified, the Commerce Department also was forced off its network belongs Bureau of Industry and Security connections for several months, causing serious compromised. (33)

Fourth, the US network competitors may launch cyber warfare. And several network security threats described earlier, this kind of threat is more serious. In launching cyber attacks, the United States is the instigator. Back in the 1980s, the United States against the Soviet Union had launched a similar “attack.” Then the lack of control of its long-range Soviet oil and natural gas pipeline network of automatic pump and valve control technology. Since the Soviet Union embargo by Western countries, the official was unable to purchase through normal channels to the relevant products. Thus, the Soviet government would purchase this task to the Soviet KGB intelligence service to complete. After US intelligence agencies informed the KGB procurement plan, secretly let a Canadian company to undertake business. KGB successful completion of the procurement task, but it absolutely did not think that the CIA has implanted malicious code in its procurement of goods and software. The pipeline system runs a few months after the installation is completed, the United States launched the malicious code, so that the pipeline at the same time, a pump running at full speed all the valves closed pipeline, resulting in pipeline explosion, the entire piping system is permanently damage. Although the United States temporarily networks dominate, but now it’s network vulnerability has not be overlooked. US software programming engineer John Martelli found that US “industrial control computer system, water and electricity networks of the class are automatically linked like …… This proves, in some cases, we are exposed to the sun , hackers can easily attack us. ” (34)

Given the extreme importance of the network to US national security, in order to prevent the “Network Pearl Harbor” occurred (Cyber Pearl Harbor) events, from the Clinton administration, the United States adopted a series of measures to ensure that the United States of network security.

First, the US government cybersecurity strategies into national security strategy areas, to enhance network security awareness of network security status and population strategy. 1998, Clinton issued “critical infrastructure protection” Presidential Decree (PDD-63), the first clear concept of network security strategy. The report notes that although the United States is the world’s most powerful countries, but more and more dependent on “the importance of those countries as well as the physical properties of computer-based systems and assets once they are damaged or destroyed, will the country security, national economic security and national public health and health care have a devastating impact. ” (35) in December 2000, Clinton signed the “National Security Strategy in the Age of Globalization” file, the network security as an important part of the national security strategy. (36) in January 2009, shortly after Obama became US president, will according to the US Strategic and International Studies Center, “to ensure that any new president within the network of electromagnetic space security” to submit a special report, proposed in October 1957 as the Soviet Union launched the first Sputnik as holding a similar referendum discussion, raise the American public network electromagnetic space security awareness. (37) After due deliberation, the US government in 2011 focused on the introduction of a number of reports on network electromagnetic space security, the more important the “network authentication electromagnetic space credible national strategy” (National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, March 2011), “Network electromagnetic space International Strategy” (International Strategy for Cyberspace, 2011, May 2007), “DoD networks electromagnetic space action strategy” (Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, 2011 July 2009) and “DoD networks electromagnetic space policy report” (Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report, 2011 November 2003). These reports are all involved in the network of electromagnetic space security strategy.

第三,外国政府通过网络收集美国情报,对美国的国家安全构成挑战。2007年,美国国防部、国务院、国土安全部、商务部、国家航空航天局和国防大学等部门均遭到大规模入侵。在入侵中,美国国防部长的电子信箱甚至被破解,国防部则被窃走“数百万字节”的信息,航空航天局的发射器设计也被恶意修改,商务部还被迫断开与其所属工业与安全局的网络连接达数月之久,造成严重失密。(33)

第四,竞争对手有可能对美国网络发动网络战。和前文所述的几种网络安全威胁相比,这种威胁更为严重。在发动网络袭击方面,美国是始作俑者。早在上世纪80年代,美国就曾对苏联发动过类似的“袭击”。那时苏联缺乏控制其远距离石油、天然气管道输送网的自动泵和阀门的控制技术。由于苏联受西方国家禁运,官方无法通过正规渠道采购到相关产品。于是,苏联政府将这项采购任务交给苏联的情报部门克格勃来完成。美国情报部门获知克格勃的采购计划后,暗中让一家加拿大公司承接业务。克格勃顺利完成了采购任务,但它绝没有想到的是,美国中央情报局已在其采购的产品软件中植入了恶意代码。这一管道系统在安装完成运行几个月后,美国启动了恶意代码,让管道中的某个泵在全速运行的同时关闭了管道的所有阀门,结果造成管道大爆炸,整个管道系统受到永久性破坏。别看美国一时网络称霸,但目前它的网络脆弱性已经不容小视。美国软件编程工程师约翰·马特利发现,美国的“工业控制电脑的系统,类似于水厂和电力网之类被自动连接在一起……这证明在某些情况下,我们是暴露在阳光下的,那些黑客很容易就能攻击我们”。(34)

鉴于网络对美国国家安全的极端重要性,为防止“网络珍珠港”(Cyber Pearl Harbor)事件的发生,从克林顿政府起,美国就采取一系列措施,确保美国的网络安全。

首先,美国政府把网络安全战略纳入国家安全战略范畴,提升网络安全战略的地位和民众的网络安全意识。1998年,克林顿签发《关键基础设施保护》总统令(PDD-63),首次明确网络安全战略的概念。报告指出,美国虽然是世界上最强大的国家,但越来越依赖“那些对国家十分重要的物理性的以及基于计算机的系统和资产,它们一旦受损或遭到破坏,将会对国家安全、国家经济安全和国家公众健康及保健产生破坏性的冲击”。(35)2000年12月,克林顿签署《全球化时代的国家安全战略》文件,将网络安全作为国家安全战略的重要组成部分。(36)2009年1月,奥巴马出任美国总统后不久,便根据美国战略与国际问题研究中心提交的《确保新总统任内网络电磁空间安全》专题报告,提出要像1957年10月苏联发射第一颗人造地球卫星那样,举行类似的全民大讨论,提高美国民众网络电磁空间安全意识。(37)经过充分酝酿后,美国政府于2011年集中出台了多项有关网络电磁空间安全的报告,其中比较重要的《网络电磁空间可信身份认证国家战略》(National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace,2011年3月)、《网络电磁空间国际战略》(International Strategy for Cyberspace,2011年5月)、《国防部网络电磁空间行动战略》(Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace,2011年7月)和《国防部网络电磁空间政策报告》(Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report,2011年11月)。这些报告无不涉及网络电磁空间安全战略问题。

Second, we continue to strengthen the legislative work network electromagnetic field of space. Soon after the United States in order to prevent electronic “September 11 incident” occurred, “9.11” incident (e-9/11 event), President George W. Bush issued Executive Order No. 13231 – “Critical Infrastructure Protection Information Age” , (38) in February 2003 and issued a “critical infrastructure and key assets of physical protection of the national strategy.” (39) documents the communications, information technology, defense industrial base, etc. 18 infrastructure sector as a critical infrastructure, the five major items of nuclear power plants, government facilities and other assets defined as important. In the same month, the United States enacted its first national strategy on network electromagnetic space security – “ensure that the network electromagnetic space security national strategy.” The document up to 76, for the United States to protect the network electromagnetic space security established the guiding framework and priorities. May 2009, the Obama administration issued a “network of electromagnetic space policy review.” The report says, to “the capacity of national security for the next generation network communication and emergency preparation, to develop a coordinated plan.” (40)

Third, focus on top-level design, streamline management network electromagnetic space security organizations. Early in the Clinton administration, the United States will set up an inter-departmental coordination mechanism – the president Critical Infrastructure Protection Board. From the implementation point of view, the role of this institution is limited. After the “9.11” incident, the Bush administration set up by the chairman of the committee for the first time as the “president of network security consultant”, but its mandate is relatively small. After the 2003 establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, the US government handed over responsibility for the US network electromagnetic space security to the ministry. Report of March 2009, US security committee electromagnetic space network to President Obama just appointed submitted a “ensure that any new president within the network of electromagnetic space security”, said the “network of electromagnetic space security issue is a serious national security challenge facing the United States of a network of electromagnetic space security is not just Chief Information Officer IT office tasks, it is not just homeland security and counter-terrorism strategy and …… it is to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the fight against global ‘jihad’ equally important event. The federal government should bear the main responsibility. ” (41) Under the repeated calls of experts and scholars, the White House also recognized “Without a central coordinating mechanism, no update national strategy, no plan of action for the development and coordination of the executive departments, and no congressional support, by partaking work is insufficient to meet this challenge. ” (40) 163 For this reason, the White House organized the “White House cybersecurity office”, and established close ties with the president can “White House cybersecurity coordinator.” After the integration of the Obama administration, the US federal government currently has six full-time network security agency: Department of Homeland Security under the “US Computer Emergency Response Team”, under the Ministry of Defence, “Joint Operations Force Global Network Operations Center” and “Defense Cybercrime Center “, under the FBI’s” national online survey Joint Task Force “, under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence” Intelligence Community Network Incident Response Center “, and is part of the National Security Agency’s” Cyberspace Security Threat Operations Center. ” Obama administration to adjust to network security management system is primarily intended to improve the efficiency of network security organization and leadership, the formation of a comprehensive national network of electromagnetic space security leadership and coordination system integration.

Fourth, to the outside world announced the implementation of a high-profile network deterrence. May 2009, the Obama administration announced the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment” is made, “From now on, our digital infrastructure will be considered national strategic assets to protect this infrastructure will be a priority of national security.” (42) for the protection of the United States of this strategic asset, in May 2011 the US government announced the “Cyberspace International Strategy” stressed: If potentially hostile country for the US-sponsored cyber attack threat to national security and interests, the United States will not hesitate to use military power. In June, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates in Singapore to attend the 10th Shangri-La Security Dialogue noted in confirming network attacks from his country, the United States regarded as “an act of war” and to give “force to fight back.” (43) This shows that the United States 已把 network security as a top priority, of means by those who seek to attack the national or organizational network infrastructure to benefit the United States resorts to war.

第二,不断强化网络电磁空间领域的立法工作。“9·11事件”发生后不久,美国为防止发生电子“9·11”事件(e-9/11 event),小布什总统发布了13231号行政命令——《保护信息时代的关键基础设施》,(38)2003年2月又颁发了《关键基础设施和重要资产物理保护的国家战略》。(39)这份文件把通讯、信息技术、国防工业基础等18个基础设施部门列为关键基础设施,把核电厂、政府设施等5大项界定为重要资产。同月,美国颁布了首份有关网络电磁空间安全的国家战略——《确保网络电磁空间安全国家战略》。该份文件长达76页,为美国保护网络电磁空间安全确立了指导性框架和优先目标。2009年5月,奥巴马政府出台了《网络电磁空间政策评估报告》。该报告称,要“针对下一代网络的国家安全与应急准备通信的能力,制定一个协调计划”。(40)

第三,着力顶层设计,理顺管理网络电磁空间安全的组织机构。早在克林顿政府时期,美国便设立了一个跨部门的协调机构——总统关键基础设施保护委员会。从实施效果来看,这个机构作用有限。“9·11”事件后,小布什政府首次设立由该委员会主席担任的“总统网络安全顾问”,但其职权比较小。2003年国土安全部成立后,美国政府把负责美国网络电磁空间安全的职责移交给该部。2009年3月,美国网络电磁空间安全委员会向刚上任的奥巴马总统提交了《确保新总统任内网络电磁空间安全》的报告,称“网络电磁空间安全问题是美国国家安全所面临的严重挑战之一。网络电磁空间安全工作不仅仅是信息技术办公室首席信息官的任务,它也不只是国土安全和反恐问题……它是与防止大规模杀伤性武器扩散以及打击全球‘圣战’同等重要的战略大事。联邦政府要担负主要职责”。(41)在专家学者的反复呼吁下,白宫也认识到“如果没有一个中央协调机制、没有更新国家战略、没有各行政部门制定和协调的行动计划,以及没有国会的支持,靠单打独斗的工作方式不足以应付这一挑战”。(40)163为此,白宫组建了“白宫网络安全办公室”,并设立了能与总统密切联系的“白宫网络安全协调员”。经过奥巴马政府的整合,美国联邦政府目前设有六大网络安全专职机构:隶属国土安全部的“美国计算机应急响应小组”,隶属国防部的“联合作战部队全球网络行动中心”和“国防网络犯罪中心”,隶属联邦调查局的“国家网络调查联合任务小组”,隶属国家情报总监办公室的“情报界网络事故响应中心”,以及隶属于国家安全局的“网络空间安全威胁行动中心”。奥巴马政府对网络安全管理体制的调整主要是为了提高网络安全组织领导效率,形成一体化的综合性国家网络电磁空间安全领导和协调体制。

第四,向外界高调宣布实施网络威慑。2009年5月,奥巴马政府在公布《网络空间政策评估》时提出,“从现在起,我们的数字基础设施将被视为国家战略资产。保护这一基础设施将成为国家安全的优先事项”。(42)为保护美国的这项战略资产,2011年5月美国政府公布的《网络空间国际战略》强调:如果潜在敌对国家对美国发起的网络攻击威胁到国家安全与利益,美国将不惜动用军事力量。同年6月,美国国防部长罗伯特·盖茨在新加坡出席第10届香格里拉安全对话时指出,在确认遭到来自他国的网络攻击时,美国视之为“战争行为”,并给予“武力还击”。(43)这表明,美国已把网络安全视为重中之重,对那些企图通过攻击美国网络基础设施获益的国家或组织不惜动用战争的手段。

Fifth, actively build network security defense system to protect the electromagnetic space. In response to the invasion of US network infrastructure behavior, the US government early in 2002 started the “Einstein Program.” Currently, the program has entered the third phase. The first phase of the plan is to achieve Einstein information collection and sharing of safety information. Einstein program is the second phase of intrusion detection systems to scan all Internet traffic and government computers (including private communication section) a copy of the data. When the scanning system will mark the communication data having the characteristics of malicious code, and automatically obtain and store the entire message. Then, the computer network defense department officials for information is identified and stored for review. The third stage is planned Einstein intrusion prevention systems. This system detects a malicious attack agents, and agents of the United States to prevent malicious network attacks. Former US Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff functional Einstein plan is it this way: If the second phase of Einstein’s plan is “a holding in a roadside police radar, they can advance by telephone warning was drunk or speeding, “then Einstein program is the third phase of a possible” to arrest suspects “and” stop attacks, “the police, it’s like an air defense weapon system, before it can attack the target to shoot down the missile. (44) in October 2009, the implementation of “Einstein Program” and “new national cyberspace security and Communications Integration Center” (New National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center, NCCIC) enabled in Arlington, Virginia. The center 24-hour surveillance involving basic network architecture and network threats to national security, the protection of the United States to become the central network security. In addition to the Einstein program, the US National Security Agency is still great efforts to build the so-called “network shield” (Cyber Shield) Project, for use against American competitors in the United States critical infrastructure attacks. This system can transmit packets on the network in real-time analysis, it can quickly filter out all kinds of illegal data packages and other attacks loads; if the system can not exclude a threat, it will start to apply physical isolation mechanism. (45) to create a secure network environment electromagnetic space, enormous amounts of money the United States. In 2008, the Bush administration launched the “National Cybersecurity Initiative comprehensive” budget of up to $ 30 billion. According to media reports, the draft defense budget for fiscal year 2014 to be a substantial increase in US Department of Defense budget network security, network security funds reached a total budget of $ 13 billion each department. (46)

The United States is highly dependent on the electromagnetic space of national network, the national network intrusion greatly. US Department of Defense’s unlawful invasion by a day tens of thousands of times. However, so far the US network infrastructure has not been large-scale cyber attacks, which US cybersecurity strategy proved to be effective from one side. However, the US alleged network electromagnetic space security is actually a network of electromagnetic space to seek hegemony, showing that “security” is based on other national networks electromagnetic space “unsafe” basis, and it will force the other The country also in the network invested heavily in research and development of electromagnetic field of space technology to deal with, resulting in “Network arms race.”

第五,积极构建保障网络电磁空间的安全防御体系。为应对入侵美国网络设施的行为,美国政府早在2002年就启动了“爱因斯坦计划”。目前,该计划已进入第三阶段。爱因斯坦计划的第一阶段主要是实现信息采集和安全信息共享。爱因斯坦计划的第二阶段是检测入侵系统,用以扫描所有互联网流量以及政府电脑(包括私人通信部分)的副本数据。系统扫描时会标记出具有恶意代码特征的通信数据,同时自动获取并存储整个信息。然后,计算机网络防御部门政府官员对被识别出来和存储的信息进行审查。爱因斯坦计划第三阶段是入侵防御系统。该系统对恶意攻击代理进行检测,并阻止恶意代理对美国网络的攻击。美国前国土安全部长切尔托夫对爱因斯坦计划的功能是这样表述的:如果第二阶段爱因斯坦计划是“一个在路边拿着测速雷达的警察,他们可以提前用电话警告有人醉酒或超速驾驶”,那么第三阶段爱因斯坦计划则是一位可以“逮捕疑犯”和“阻止攻击”的警察,这就像一个防空武器系统,它可以在导弹攻击到目标之前将其击落。(44)2009年10月,执行“爱因斯坦计划”的“新国家网络空间安全和通信集成中心”(New National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center,NCCIC)在弗吉尼亚州的阿林顿启用。该中心24小时全天候监控涉及基础网络架构和国家安全的网络威胁,成为保护美国网络安全的中枢。除爱因斯坦计划外,美国国家安全局还在大力建设所谓的“网络盾牌”(Cyber Shield)项目,用于抵御美国的竞争对手对美国关键基础设施发动的攻击。这一系统可以对网络传输的信息包进行实时分析,能迅速过滤掉各种非法数据包和其他攻击载荷;如果系统无法排除威胁,会申请启动物理隔离机制。(45)为打造安全的网络电磁空间环境,美国不惜巨资。2008年,小布什政府推出的《国家网络安全全面倡议计划》预算高达300亿美元。据媒体报道,美国2014财年国防预算草案拟大幅增加国防部网络安全经费预算,各部门网络安全经费预算总额达到130亿美元。(46)

美国是高度依赖网络电磁空间的国家,也是大受网络侵扰的国家。美国国防部每天受到的非法入侵达数万次。但是,到目前为止美国的网络基础设施还没有受到大规模的网络攻击,这从一个侧面证明美国的网络安全战略是有效的。不过,美国所称的网络电磁空间安全实际上是要寻求网络电磁空间霸权,可见这一“安全”是建立在别的国家网络电磁空间“不安全”的基础之上的,它必将迫使别的国家也要在网络电磁空间领域投入巨资研发应对技术,从而导致“网络军备竞赛”。

Fourth, through the advocacy of “network freedom” implementation of network penetration strategy

Due to the popularity of the network, the global number of Internet users increased dramatically. According to statistics Internetworldstats.com, and as of December 31, 2012, the global number of Internet users reached 2.405 billion, accounting for 34.3 percent of global population. (47) where the number of Chinese Internet users more development trend showing a blowout. According to the China Internet Network Information Center released data, as of the end of December 2012, China’s netizens reached 564 million, the year of new users 5,090 million and Internet penetration rate of 42.1%, an increase of 3.8 percentage points over the end of the year; slightly Bo 309 million registered users, more than the end of 2011 increased 5,873 million.

Seen from the above statistics, human society has entered a “fiber age.” Spread nature of the network is not just the flow of information, but also the sharing of information network participants, negotiation, compromise and confrontation, including deep-level activities behind the concept of action, will, emotions. (48) In particular, especially Web2.0 era. Development and application of this technology to make a breakthrough in the field of Internet is essentially a computer communication era, ushered in a revolution in ideas and thoughts. (49) in the Web 2.0 environment, participation in interactive is a more obvious characteristics of user demand. Most online content is to create a user, different users can easily share wisdom, namely the use of collective wisdom to make the Internet into a sense of global brain. Web2.0 individual-centered, users not only information the reader, but also the publisher of information, communicators, modified by. In other words, by a few leading resource control by centralized control of the Internet system began to change for the bottom-up by the majority of users of the collective wisdom and strength to dominate the Internet system, opening the era of the Internet’s roots.

Popularity of the network of traditional print media and television revolution. Government and the consortium can easily control a newspaper or a television station. A country may also be issued in other countries refuse to newspapers in the country, do not let other countries landed a television program in the country, thereby more effectively prevent other countries to the ideological penetration. However, the Internet real-time dissemination of information and without Borders greatly weakened the ability of countries to withstand external ideological penetration. After the Cold War, the United States launched the Iraq war and by the war in Afghanistan to extend “American-style democracy”, that is by way of regime change “top-down” to promote democracy, but frustrated, in trouble. (50), however, began in the “Arab Spring” in Tunisia saw the US has “point” and “interactive” features of the Internet, to help the United States “bottom-up” to pursue its expansion strategy democracy. So the United States began to increasingly rely on international hegemony it has in the technical aspects of the Internet, began to fully exploit the great advantages of foreign ideological penetration of their enjoyment of the Internet as an important tool for ideological penetration of his country.

First, the US government set up a network penetration leadership. In 2002, the US government established the “Internet diplomatic team,” the team after being incorporated into the “Internet diplomatic office,” the US State Department. In February 2006, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice established the “Working Group on Global Internet Freedom”, the main research on the Internet and free foreign policy. In 2008, the Rand Corporation report to the US Department of Defense, suggested that the US should help reformers obtain and use information program, which provides a number of measures to encourage US companies to invest in communications infrastructure and information technology in the region. Obama called the US the “Internet president.” When he ran for the presidency in 2008, through superior rabbit network (Youtube), Facebook (Facebook), Twitter network (Twitter) and MySpace (Myspace), etc. send a message, users win support. After the White House, Obama actively using Web 2.0 technology to promote US public diplomacy to promote the American spirit to the world and to promote American-style democracy. Under the White House’s push, the United States set up the relevant institutions, leadership network penetration work. Under the leadership of these organizations, the US State Department after the launch of Twitter in French, Spanish, Arabic and Persian launched version, also plans to launch Chinese, Russian and Hindi version.

四、通过倡导“网络自由”实施网络渗透战略

由于网络的普及,全球网民数量急剧增加。据Internetworldstats.com的数据统计,截止到2012年12月31日,全球互联网用户数达24.05亿,占全球人口总数的34.3%。(47)其中,中国网民人数更呈现出井喷式发展态势。据中国互联网络信息中心发布的数据,截止到2012年12月底,中国网民规模达5.64亿,全年新增网民5,090万,互联网普及率为42.1%,比上年底提升3.8个百分点;微博注册用户3.09亿,比2011年底增加5,873万。

从上述统计数据可见,人类社会已经进入了“光纤时代”。网络传播本质上不仅仅是信息的流动,而且是网络参与者对信息的共享、协商、妥协和对抗,其中包括行动背后的观念、意志、情绪等深层次的活动。(48)特别是Web2.0时代的到来更是如此。这项技术的开发与应用使互联网领域突破了实质上是计算机交流的时代,迎来了一次理念和思想的革命。(49)在Web 2.0环境下,参与互动性是用户需求的一个比较明显的特点。网上的内容大多是由用户来创造,不同用户可以非常方便地共享智慧,即利用集体智慧使互联网变成某种意义上的全球大脑。Web2.0以个人为中心,网民既是信息的阅读者,同时也是信息的发布者、传播者、修改者。换句话说,由少数资源控制者集中控制主导的互联网体系开始转变为自下而上的由广大用户集体智慧和力量主导的互联网体系,开启了互联网的草根化时代。

网络的普及是对传统平面媒体和电视的一次革命。政府和财团可以轻而易举地控制某份报纸或某家电视台。一个国家也可以拒绝其他国家的报纸在该国发行,不让其他国家的电视节目在该国落地,从而较为有效地防止别国对之进行思想渗透。但是,互联网信息传播的即时性和无国界性大大削弱了国家抵御外部思想渗透的能力。冷战结束之后,美国通过发动伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争来扩展“美国式民主”,即通过以政权更迭的方式“自上而下”地推进民主,但屡屡受挫,陷入困境。(50)不过,始于突尼斯的“阿拉伯之春”使美国看到了具有“点对点”和“互动”特点的互联网,有助于美国“自下而上”地推行其民主扩展战略。所以美国开始日益倚重它在互联网技术方面拥有的国际霸权地位,开始充分发掘其享有的对外国进行思想渗透的巨大优势,将互联网当作对他国进行意识形态渗透的重要工具。

首先,美国政府组建了进行网络渗透的领导机构。2002年,美国政府组建了“互联网外交研究小组”,该小组后被并入美国国务院的“互联网外交办公室”。2006年2月,国务卿赖斯成立了“全球互联网自由工作组”,主要研究有关互联网自由的对外政策。2008年,兰德公司向美国国防部提交报告,建议美国应该帮助变革者获取和使用信息计划,即提供一些措施鼓励美国公司投资这一地区的通信基础设施和信息技术。奥巴马号称美国“互联网总统”。他在2008年竞选总统职位时,通过优兔网(Youtube)、脸谱网(Facebook)、推特网(Twitter)和聚友网(Myspace)等发送信息,赢得网民支持。入主白宫后,奥巴马积极利用Web 2.0技术推动美国的公共外交,向全世界宣扬美国精神和推广美国式民主政治。在白宫的推动之下,美国设立了相关机构,领导网络渗透工作。在这些机构的领导下,美国国务院在推出推特的法语、西班牙语版之后,又推出了阿拉伯语和波斯语版,还计划推出中文、俄语和印地语版。

其次,高举所谓“互联网自由”的大旗,从法理上否定其他国家的网络主权。针对一些国家出于国家安全考虑,实施网络监管的做法,美国打出了“互联网自由”的大旗。2010年1月21日,美国国务卿希拉里·克林顿提出互联网“连接自由”,并声称将之作为“21世纪外交方略的一部分”。(51)次年2月15日,希拉里发表演说称,互联网自由为“普世权利”,是“加速政治、社会和经济变革的巨大力量”,由于“互联网继续在许多国家受到多种限制”,因此美国要在全球范围内大力推动互联网自由。用她的话说,就是“我们对互联网自由的承诺是对人民权利的承诺,我们也会相应地采取行动。关注和应对互联网自由受到的威胁已经成为我国外交人员和发展专家日常工作的一部分”。(52)2011年5月,白宫出台的《网络电磁空间国际战略》将确保“互联网自由”纳入国家战略范畴。报告称“国家不能也不应该在信息自由流动和保护他们的网络安全方面作出选择”,“确保系统安全的工具不能妨碍创新,压制表达或联系自由……美国致力于发起国际倡议和制定促进网络安全的标准,同时保障自由贸易和拓宽信息的自由流动”。(53)为了实现所谓“网络自由”,美国政府一方面向有关国家施加政治压力,另一方面在财政上支持开发“翻墙”软件。奥巴马在其任期内投入数千万美元,“支持正在利用尖端技术手段对抗互联网压制行为的新涌现的技术人员和活动人士”。当前美国力倡“互联网自由”是上世纪40年代美国力推“贸易自由化”的翻版,是对其他国家网络主权的宣战。

第三,拉拢网络公司高管,延揽网络渗透人才。2009年,美国国务院组织推特网的创始人杰克·多尔西及其他多名美国网络公司高管到伊拉克考察,意在让他们在伊拉克建设社交信息网,以引导伊拉克的民意和影响伊拉克国内政治发展。2010年,美国国务卿希拉里·克林顿还特意宴请杰克·多尔西和谷歌公司首席执行官埃里克·施密特,要他们利用新媒体输出美国的价值观。这些新媒体的领军人物在2011年爆发的阿拉伯世界“茉莉花革命”中扮演了重要角色。为了更有效地影响阿拉伯世界的网民,美国国务院积极延揽阿拉伯语、波斯语和乌尔都语人才,将他们组成“数字外联小组”,参与伊斯兰世界的网络聊天室的讨论。对于网络在推动北非变局中发挥的作用,美国国务院政策设计顾问杰拉德·科恩(Jerad Cohen)予以高度评价,他将“脸谱”网称为有史以最有效的促进民主工具之一,称赞互联网是一个在全球范围内促进自由、平等和人权价值观的有效工具。(54)

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④美国高边疆战略的提出者丹尼尔·格雷厄姆提出,在整个人类历史上,凡是能够最有效地从人类活动的一个领域迈向另一个领域的国家,都会取得巨大的战略优势。参见[美]丹尼尔·奥·格雷厄姆:《高边疆——新的国家战略》,张健志、马俊才、傅家祯译,北京:军事科学出版社,1988年版,第5页.

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(20) 在网络带宽迅速增加的同时,网上的IP地址和资源更呈几何级数增加,再加上传感器网络提供的图像或数据,使网上资源或信息极其丰富。第三代互联网技术开发出来之前,人们使用网上资源要么是通过直接访问网站,要么是通过搜索引擎来查找资源。对于前者来说,就如用户打开电灯开关时需要指定一个发电厂一样;而对于后者来说,输入一下查询关键词可能有数万乃至数千万个结果,查找不便,效率低下。网格(Grid,也译成信息栅格)技术,彻底改变了这种效率低下的状况,真正实现了网络用户之间的互连、互通和互操作。这一技术将散布在网络上的资源虚拟为一个极其强大的信息系统,实现了计算、存储、数据、信息、软件、通信等各种资源的全面共享。参见刘鹏、王立华主编.走向军事网格时代[M].北京:解放军出版社2004年版,第7页.

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(25)约翰·阿奎拉等.决战信息时代[M].长春:吉林人民出版社2001年版,第25页.

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(32)网络恐怖活动日趋普遍,“网络反恐”成当务之急[EB/OL].http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2005-08/10/content_3334114.htm.

(33)中国国际战略学会军控与裁军研究中心.美国网络空间安全战略文件汇编[M].北京:军事谊文出版社2009年版,第96页.

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(49)Web2.0应用功能包括:博客(Blog)、简易聚合(RSS)、开放式应用程序接口(API)、维基(Wiki)、分类分众标签(Tag)、社会性书签(Socialbookmark)、社交网络(SNS)、异步传输(Ajax)等,底层是XML和接口协议.

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Original Article HERE

 

China’s Military Hacking of US Business Subsides

US Officials: #chinese military has slashed corporate #Hacking | TheHill

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By Cory Bennett

The Chinese military significantly reduced its cyber theft of American corporate secrets following the Justice Department’s May 2014 indictment of five Chinese officers, U.S. officials told The Washington Post.

And the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has not returned to its previous level of commercial espionage since then, said several current and former U.S. officials.

“The big picture is that from 2014 on, the administration pursued a much more direct and coercive approach with China, and it has produced results over time,” Evan Medeiros, a former senior director for Asia affairs on the National Security Council, told The Post.

The report comes a day before top U.S. and Chinese officials begin several days of talks that aim to flesh out a September deal between the two countries to eradicate corporate hacking.

“For a period of time following the indictments, there was a very significant decrease” by the PLA, an unnamed U.S. official told The Post. “And today we are definitely not at the level that we were before the indictments.”

The narrative cuts against some recent reports that China’s civilian spy agency, the Ministry of State Security (MSS), has not reduced its commercial espionage efforts in the wake of the September agreement, which was struck during Chinese President Xi Jinping’s state visit to Washington, D.C. in September.

But it’s also possible that China has transitioned some of its digital theft from the PLA to the MSS, which can better hide its digital tracks.

The MSS is believed to be behind some of the more major U.S. breaches over the past year, including the intrusions at health insurer Anthem and the Office of Personnel Management (OPM), in which over 20 million federal workers had their sensitive data stolen.

But those hacks were likely part of China’s ongoing digital espionage campaign to gather detailed information on U.S. government workers, not an attempt to steal intellectual property.

Cyber espionage was not part of the September agreement between the two global powers.

A U.S. official told The Post that this week’s meetings will be a good opportunity to discuss China’s ongoing commitment to its September deal, but that it will take time to determine whether the Asian power is fully complying.

“As we move forward, we will continue to monitor China’s cyber activities closely and press China to abide by all of its commitments,” the senior administration official said. “We have been clear with the Chinese government that we are watching to ensure their words are matched by actions.”

Read Original article at: The Hill

 

Chinese Cyber Espionage – Infiltration of Target Networks Gets Sophisticated

Chinese hackers have expanded their attacks to parking malware on popular file-sharing services including Dropbox and Google Drive to lure unsuspecting  cyber-victims into downloading infected files and revealing compromising sensitive information. These Chinese hackers are also using more sophisticated cyber espionage tactics, focusing their cyber-spying on specific targets via targeted ‘white lists’ infect only specific visitors, named as high value targets, luring them unwittingly to compromised websites.

Chinese hackers are using the following sophisticated techniques, technology and protocols (TTPs) to successfully execute their cyber espionage campaigns:

  • Using noted Mandarin Chinese or Modern Russian hacking TTPs that are specifically charectreristic of both Chinese & Russian based hackers;
  • China’s Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is noting an increase in unauthorized access cases throughout Greater China;
  • Western media file sharing services such as Dropbox and Google Drive are being manipulated for launching successful hacker attack campaigns.

Surveillance and information extfiltration techniques are typically used only by sophisticated hackers from China and Russia who have been given specific cyber targeting packages for cyber-exploitation.

The level of hacking is a sign, they say, of how important China views Hong Kong, where 79 days of protests late last year brought parts of the territory, a major regional financial hub, to a standstill. The scale of the protests raised concerns in Beijing about political unrest on China’s periphery.

“We’re the most co-ordinated opposition group on Chinese soil, (and) have a reasonable assumption that Beijing is behind the hacking,” said Lam Cheuk-ting, chief executive of Hong Kong’s Democratic Party, which says it has been a victim of cyber attacks on its website and some members’ email accounts.

U.S.-based Internet security company FireEye said the attacks via Dropbox were aimed at “precisely those whose networks Beijing would seek to monitor”, and could provide China with advance warning of protests and information on pro-democracy leaders. The company said half its customers in Hong Kong and Taiwan were attacked by government and professional hackers in the first half of this year – two and a half times the global average.

China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Public Security Bureau and the Liaison Office of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region did not respond to requests for comment. The Defence Ministry said the issue was not part of its remit. China has previously denied accusations of hacking, calling them groundless, and saying it is a victim.

The Hong Kong police said its Cyber Security and Technology Crime Bureau works with other law enforcement agencies to combat cross-border crime, but did not respond to questions on how much information it shares with mainland Chinese authorities, the origin of the Hong Kong cyber attacks, or whether these might be a source of instability or concern.

Police data show a drop in reported “unauthorised access”, which includes Internet or email account abuse and hacking, over the past two years. Many of the victims Reuters spoke to said they hadn’t bothered to report being hacked.

SWITCHING TACTICS

Like other groups taking on the might of Beijing – from Uighurs and exiled Tibetans to some Taiwanese – Hong Kong activists, academics and journalists have become more savvy and adopted tactics that, in turn, force hackers to get savvier still.

When Tibetan exile groups stopped clicking on files attached to emails, to avoid falling victim to a common form of ‘spear phishing’ attack, hackers switched their malware to Google Drive, hoping victims would think these files were safer, said Citizen Lab, a Canada-based research organisation which works with Tibetans and other NGOs.

Hackers also recently used Dropbox to lure Chinese language journalists in Hong Kong into downloading infected files. FireEye, which discovered the attack, said it was the first time it had seen this approach.

“We don’t have any arrogance to think we can beat them,” said Mark Simon, senior executive at the parent company of Hong Kong’s Apple Daily, a media group on the front line of the attacks.

STRANGE WORDS

Trying to stay ahead of the hackers, activists and others use multiple mobile phones with different SIM chips, encrypted messaging apps, apps that automatically delete tweets, and code words to set up meetings. If someone thinks they may be arrested, they remove themselves from group chats.

Some things are kept offline.

“If we want to talk, we have some signal,” said Derek Lam, a member of student group Scholarism that helped organise the protests. “It’s a few words … if I say some words that are really strange it means we have to talk somewhere privately.”

Law professor and protest organizer Benny Tai stores personal data, such as names, email addresses and mobile numbers, on an external hard drive that he says he only accesses on a computer without an Internet connection.

The pro-democracy Apple Daily, which says it is hacked on an almost weekly basis, has tightened its email security software, and has its lawyers use couriers rather than email. FireEye last year connected denial of service (DDoS) attacks against Apple Daily with more professional cyber spying attacks, saying there may be a “common quartermaster”. It said China’s government would be the entity most interested in these “political objectives”.

SOPHISTICATED HACKS

Steven Adair, co-founder of U.S.-based security firm Volexity, said that code hidden on pro-democracy websites last year, including those of the Democratic Party and the Alliance for True Democracy, suggested a group he said “we strongly suspect to be Chinese… who is very well resourced.”

He said such tactics were more usually seen employed by Russian hackers, aimed at very specific targets and designed to be as unobtrusive as possible. “It’s a real evolution in targeting,” he said.

In the run-up to Hong Kong district council elections earlier this month, hackers used more basic techniques, breaking into at least 20 Gmail accounts at the Democratic Party, according to party officials and Google logs seen by Reuters.

Between April and June, many hacked accounts were forwarding emails to lovechina8964@gmail.com. An examination of the hackers’ IP addresses by the party’s IT experts found some appeared to originate in China, party officials said.

(Reporting by Clare Baldwin and James Pomfret in HONG KONG and Jeremy Wagstaff in SINGAPORE, with additional reporting by Teenie Ho in HONG KONG and Michael Martina and Ben Blanchard in BEIJING; Editing by Ian Geoghegan)
Read more at Reuters

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/11/29/cybersecurity-hongkong-insight-pix-tv-gr-idUSL3N13E35U20151129#lPgUKAm9SkpjG973.99

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