China’s Strategic Support Forces – Mission and Combat Power Intent

[责任编辑:冯玲玲]

来源:人民网  作者:邱越  时间:2016-01-06

20160104131249755

    December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units is quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main mission of strategic support task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and action will be the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army rocket integration, throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support units is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality, mainly the strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support units, help to optimize the structure of military forces, thus improving the overall capacity. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

Yin 卓介绍 said strategic support units main task of the mission is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support unit tasks include: return of target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation operations, and Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission .

During the war, Reconnaissance Force cyberspace can help master the movements of the enemy army to help troops develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory.In peacetime, with the increasing degree of national information technology, security, electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in civil applications in the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities that our country’s socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of many hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation of such important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to the implementation of network attacks, which requires that we must be equipped with appropriate defenses. Strategic support forces in protecting the country’s financial security and people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support units is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic support troops in reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, ocean digital, digital construction and other aspects of the Earth play an important role, and provide strong support for the joint battlefield operations, in order to achieve the goal of winning local wars under conditions of informatization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support units are not a separate fighting force, it will blend in with the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army and other branches of the military rocket actions form an integrated joint operations, strategic combat support units throughout the whole process, penetrated into every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。新成立的战略支援部队颇为神秘,这究竟是一支什么样的军事力量呢?军事专家尹卓在接受人民网采访时表示,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。它是联合作战的重要力量,将与陆军、海军、空军和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

国防部新闻发言人杨宇军指出,战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点,主要是将战略性、基础性、支撑性都很强的各类保障力量进行功能整合后组建而成的。成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。我们将坚持体系融合、军民融合,加强新型作战力量建设,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

尹卓介绍称,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。具体地说,战略支援部队的任务包括:对目标的探测、侦察和目标信息的回传;承担日常的导航行动,以及北斗卫星和太空侦察手段的管理工作;承担电磁空间和网络空间的防御任务。

在战争时期,电子空间的侦察力量可以帮助我军掌握敌人的动向,协助部队制定作战行动,确保取得战场胜利。在和平时期,随着国家信息化程度日益提高,电磁空间和网络空间的安全也日益重要。尹卓指出,随着卫星导航设施在民间的应用,今后高铁、轮船、飞机、汽车都会配备车载或机载的定位设施,这些设施对我国的社会主义建设将起到重要的作用。此外,面对诸多黑客在互联网上针对我国实施的非法行动,比如对重要政府设施、军队设施、重要民用设施实施的网络攻击,这要求我们必须配备相应的防御力量。战略支援部队在保障国家金融安全和人民日常生活安全等方面将起到重要作用。

“战略支援部队是联合作战行动的重要力量。”尹卓说,如今任何作战行动都离不开电子空间攻防,战略支援部队将在侦察、预警、通信、指挥、控制、导航、数字化海洋、数字化地球建设等方面发挥重要作用,并将为联合作战行动提供有力的战场支持,以实现打赢信息化条件下局部战争的目标。

尹卓指出,战略支援部队不是一支单独的作战力量,它将与陆军、海军、空军、火箭军等军兵种的行动融为一体,形成一体化的联合作战行动,战略支援部队贯穿于作战的全过程,渗透到每一个作战行动中,将成为战争制胜的关键力量。

http://news.mod.gov.cn/pla/2016-01/06/

 

Chinese Military Focus on Future Innovation-driven Development & Competition Seize Strategic High Ground

By An Weiping

Source: 2015年12月29   来源:解放军报

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The use of “Internet +” to create a new quality of thinking and fighting

Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi Reform Work Conference, to focus on the future military competition to seize the strategic high ground, give full play to the role of innovation-driven development, cultivate new growth point of fighting. At present, China is the depth of promoting the “Internet +” action plan, which is the development trend of the Internet era of profound insight and wisdom to cope. Its essence is to promote the Internet, cloud computing, big data, networking integration and innovation as the representative of information technology and traditional industries, create new productivity. And viewed from the military point of view, the “Internet +” concept of thinking is also important for military innovation, foster new growth point fighting. But the military use of “Internet +”, not simply on the Internet “+” on, but in the military field dedicated “cyberspace” a “+”, and the use of “Internet +” thinking and a new generation of information technology, the establishment of improve the database, by fast and efficient flow of accurate data to improve reconnaissance, command and control, battlefield mobility, firepower, integrated security and information protection, and combat capability, to achieve accurate and timely release of aggregation and the overall combat effectiveness, thus creating adaptation of information technology The new mass combat operations.

“Internet” + target characteristic data, real-time sensing reconnaissance intelligence. Real-time reconnaissance capability is perceived to reach the battlefield transparent, seize the basis and key information superiority.Internet biggest feature is the remote control into the remote “touch” to achieve a seamless link between the sensor and processor, unimpeded access to battlefield information, real-time sensing reconnaissance intelligence. But the actual combat operations, the target is characterized by continuous change, if the lack of accurate target feature “full-dimensional” data, it is difficult to analyze, contrast, identify mass, low-density value of battlefield data, dig out the real and effective information, to achieve timely and accurate perception reconnaissance intelligence. Therefore, we should fully learn the “Internet +” big data analysis model, relying on accurate battlefield information and intelligence center to build, multi-dimensional and dynamic characteristics of the target database to database for support, fast and accurate analysis judged the enemy goal. “Accurate”, refers to a database of all the characteristics of the target data must be true, valuable information and data, can accurately reflect the different characteristics of the target property. “Multi-dimensional” refers to the use of land, sea, air, space, power and other means to obtain the same objective, the different nature of intelligence data and get the target from different angles appearance characteristics, as well as electromagnetic, infrared, and other information; “Dynamic “it refers to adapt to changes in weaponry and other targets, timely reconnaissance target feature information, the first perfect time to update the database, ensure that you always maintain a high accuracy of the data. Relying on the target database should also be characterized by the establishment of operational data analysis model, through the “cloud” on the large amount of data collection operations analysis of intelligence information to accurately determine and predict the enhanced situational awareness and decision support capabilities.

“Internet” + information system integration, to achieve accurate and efficient command and control. Accurate and efficient command and control capability is based on the core information system operational capability.Cyberspace so that all branches of the military combat information systems to achieve remote, synchronous, interactive connection, the commander combat global real-time grasp and mastery of the battlefield situation, belongs to all levels of command elements, each combat unit dynamic and effective action to implement the regulation. Integration must take an integrated approach, different branches of the military, information from different professions, different levels of system integration and other construction. First, functional integration, an integrated command platform, based on the relevant member information systems transformation, embedded sharing member, according to a unified configuration and management strategies, ensemble having interoperability integrated command and control system to ensure that all military branches, interrelated levels of command, synchronous interaction, information exchange command job sharing. Second, the system hinges primarily by branches of engineering and technical specifications according to a unified organization and implementation, through changing, modified (making) the existing command and control system, improve the various branches of the military command and control systems, enhancements and weapons platforms “hinge” capability . Third, data fusion, through a unified data format or data format conversion, data integration between branches Information System.

“Internet” + geographical information, fast place battlefield maneuvers.The essence of battlefield mobility, capacity utilization is decisive and overwhelming operational tempo seize the target location advantage. This requires full-dimensional perception by battlefield battlefield information system geographical information such day or night, we are well aware of how to maneuver the entire road, what factors affect mobility, in order to select the best motor route, timing and fast way to place . The rapid development of Internet intelligent navigation system, real-time provides a convenient quick and precise maneuvering. Therefore, to refer to the “Internet +” geographic information system, the establishment of geographic information as soon as military combat support systems, building geographic information database, and continuously enrich and perfect meteorological, hydrological and other data and road information and data information via satellite data links, etc. Real-time application queries and automatically senses the change, so that regional operational commanders real-time control, the rapid set-motorized determination, commanding troops quickly arrived combat area, to seize the fleeting fighters fighting to win the initiative.

“Internet” + Detective play commentary system, the rapid reaction accurate firepower. The condition of information warfare biggest feature is the “information-led firepower battle,” Internet interconnection links are distributed to the effective integration of various weapons platforms, network-based firepower systems possible. But rapid reaction precision firepower and damage the effectiveness of the play, is an investigation, control, play, commentary closed circuit, the need to establish a body blow interconnected system, like “Internet” + taxi, a “Didi taxi” system software, can be the first to discover and pinpoint the user application, and then through the analysis of user needs, while according to the position information of the vehicle to determine who carried out the service, and the fastest way to push information to the user service vehicles, service vehicles last feedback, to complete the service process. Similarly, the rapid response fire precision strike, the urgent need to establish a “play Detective Comment on” one of the firepower system, surveillance systems, decision systems, control systems, sensor fusion interconnected, so that the data flow and operational processes and seamlessly links mutual drive, always monitor the target information and firepower cell information, a substantial increase in the ability to extract data from the mass targeted; the same time through real-time information exchange, sensor control, task allocation plan and fire damage assessment, greatly reducing identify the target, targeted, target and damage assessment time, effectively improve the dynamic ability to strike targets, found that the anti-forming ability of the best mode.

“Internet” + Things security system, to achieve timely and accurate comprehensive security. Accurate and timely comprehensive support, is adaptive, intelligent means to reach at the desired time and place to provide timely and accurate combat all kinds of resources needed. The adaptive, intelligent, must establish an integrated management and control, integrated transportation security system of things together, things like relying on the development of Internet technology, the Internet and radio frequency identification, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanning technology, achieve mutual connection between anything, and through the exchange of information and communication, positioning, tracking, monitoring and precise management. Therefore, we should actively learn things the idea, and establishing information under combat conditions was associated support systems, integrated use of two-dimensional bar code, electronic tags, automatic identification technology, real-time monitoring and access to supply battle group team strength, guarantee supplies storage and consumption of dynamic information, accurately grasp logistical needs and resources, timely and accurate to the command structure at all levels, to provide comprehensive support group team information security needs. By precise control of the security resources to achieve transparent visualization controllable security process and improve efficiency battlefield support, logistical support adaptive capacity.

“Internet” + preset encrypted information, information protection security control. Effective delivery system based on the combat capability of information systems, data security depends combat controllable. As a result of the “Internet +” and bring the system vulnerability and threats and attacks from internal, external, so that security issues in information systems is very prominent. Therefore for the ever-changing battlefield, the effective implementation of dynamic data encryption. For example, by installing a micro-channel information encryption software that can encrypt messages on demand, voice, video and other information; another example, the terminal end smartphone encryption, anti-eavesdropping technology and SMS encryption and other network information security technology has gradually applied.Therefore, we should make full use of information technology, Internet security, cyberspace whole process of the implementation of dynamic encryption to ensure the confidentiality of information transmission, to ensure the integrity and non-repudiation of the information, communication channel resistance may be active or passive attacks. On the one hand “hard encryption”, and vigorously develop the user terminal installation of secrecy or confidentiality card machine; on the other hand is “soft encryption”, the development of intelligent terminal encryption software, use dynamic encryption algorithm, encrypted instant messages.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

习主席在中央军委改革工作会议上提出,要着眼于抢占未来军事竞争战略制高点,充分发挥创新驱动发展作用,培育战斗力新的增长点。当前,我国正在深度推进“互联网+”行动计划,这是对互联网时代发展潮流的深刻洞察和智慧因应。其实质就是促进以互联网、云计算、大数据、物联网为代表的信息技术与传统产业的融合创新,打造新的生产力。而从军事角度观察,“互联网+”思维理念对于军事创新,培育新的战斗力增长点同样重要。但军事领域运用“互联网+”,不是简单地在互联网上“+”,而是在军事领域专用的“网络空间”上进行“+”,并运用“互联网+”思维和新一代信息技术,建立完善的数据库,通过精准数据的快速高效流动,提高侦察情报、指挥控制、战场机动、火力打击、综合保障和信息防护等作战能力,达成整体作战效能的聚集和准确及时释放,进而打造适应信息化作战的新质战斗力。

“互联网”+目标特征数据,实现侦察情报的实时感知。实时感知的侦察能力是达成战场透明,夺取信息优势的基础和关键。互联网最大的特点就是将远程控制变为远程“触觉”,实现传感器与处理器间无缝链接,畅通战场信息获取渠道,实现侦察情报的实时感知。但实际作战行动中,目标特征是连续不断变化的,如果缺少目标特征准确的“全维”数据,就难以在海量的、价值密度低的战场数据中进行分析、对比、识别,挖掘出真实有效的信息,实现侦察情报的及时准确感知。为此,应充分借鉴“互联网+”大数据分析模式,依托战场信息情报中心构建准确、多维、动态的目标特征数据库,以数据库作支撑,快速准确分析研判敌情目标。“准确”,是指数据库中的所有目标特征数据必须是真实、有价值的信息数据,能够准确反映目标的不同属性特征。“多维”,是指运用陆、海、空、天、电等多种手段获取同类目标、不同性质的情报数据信息,并从不同角度获得目标的外观特征,以及电磁、红外等信息;“动态”,是指适应武器装备等目标的发展变化,及时侦搜目标特征信息,第一时间更新完善数据库,确保始终保持较高的数据精确度。同时应依托目标特征数据库建立作战数据分析模型,通过“云技术”对大量数据集合进行作战分析,对情报信息进行准确判断和预测,增强战场感知和辅助决策能力。

“互联网”+信息系统融合,实现指挥控制的精准高效。精准高效的指挥控制能力是基于信息系统作战能力的核心。网络空间使各个军兵种作战信息系统实现异地、同步、交互连接,指挥员可实时把握作战全局和掌握战场情况,对所属各级指挥要素、各个作战单元行动实施动态有效调控。必须采取综合集成的方式,进行不同军兵种、不同专业、不同层次等系统的信息融合建设。一是功能整合,以一体化指挥平台为基础,对相关信息系统进行构件化改造,嵌入共用功能构件,按照统一的配置和管理策略,组合集成为具有互操作能力的一体化指控系统,确保各军兵种、各级指挥相互衔接、同步互动,指挥作业信息互通共享。二是系统铰链,主要由各军兵种按照统一的工程技术规范组织实施,通过换装、改装(造)现有指挥控制系统,完善各军兵种指挥控制系统,增强与武器平台的“铰链”能力。三是数据融合,通过统一的数据格式或数据格式转换,实现军兵种间信息系统的数据融合。

“互联网”+地理环境信息,实现战场机动的快速到位。战场机动的实质,是利用决定性和压倒性作战节奏夺占目标位置优势的能力。这就需要通过全维战场信息系统感知战场地理环境信息,使得无论白天还是黑夜,都清楚知道机动全程路况怎么样、影响机动的因素有哪些,从而选择最佳的机动路线、时机、方式快速到位。互联网智能导航系统的迅速发展,为实时快速精确机动提供了便利。因此,要借鉴“互联网+”地理信息系统方式,尽快建立军事地理信息作战保障系统,构建地理信息基础数据库,不断充实完善气象、水文以及道路等数据信息,并通过卫星、数据链等实现数据信息的实时申请查询和变化自动感知,使指挥员实时掌握作战地域情况、快速定下机动决心,指挥部队快速抵达作战地域,抓住稍纵即逝的战机,赢得作战主动权。

“互联网”+侦控打评系统,实现火力打击的快反精确。信息化条件作战最大的特征就是“信息主导、火力主战”,互联网的互联互通为有效融合链接分散配置的各个武器平台,实现火力打击系统的网络化提供了可能。但火力打击的快反精确以及毁伤效能的发挥,是一个侦、控、打、评的闭合回路,需要建立互联一体的打击系统,就像“互联网”+出租车,出现“滴滴打车”系统软件一样,能够第一时间发现和准确锁定用户申请,然后通过分析用户需求,同时根据车辆的位置信息,确定由谁进行服务,并以最快的方式将用户信息推送至服务车辆,最后服务车辆进行反馈,完成整个服务过程。同样,实现火力精确打击的快速反应,亟须建立“侦控打评”一体的火力打击系统,将侦察系统、决策系统、控制系统、传感器进行互联融合,使数据流程与作战流程无缝链接并相互驱动,随时监控目标信息和火力单元信息,大幅提高从海量数据中提取锁定目标的能力;同时通过实时的信息交互、传感器控制、任务计划分配以及火力毁伤评估,大大缩短识别目标、锁定目标、攻击目标和毁伤评估时间,有效提高对动态目标的打击能力,形成发现即打击的最佳能力模式。

“互联网”+物联保障系统,实现综合保障的及时准确。准确及时的综合保障,就是以自适应、智能化的手段,达成在需要的时间、地点及时准确提供作战所需的各类资源。而实现自适应、智能化,必须建立综合管控、综合调运的物联保障系统,就像依托互联网技术发展的物联网,通过互联网以及射频识别、红外感应器、全球定位系统、激光扫描等技术,实现了任何物品间的相互连接,并通过信息交换和通信、定位、跟踪,实现精确的监控和管理。为此,应积极借鉴物联网的理念,建立适应信息化条件下作战的物联保障系统,综合运用二维条码、电子标签、自动识别等技术,实时监测和获取作战群队供应实力、保障物资的存储量及消耗等动态信息,准确掌握后勤保障需求和资源,及时准确向各级指挥机构、综合保障群队提供保障需求信息。通过对保障资源的精确控制,实现保障过程的透明可视可控,提高战场保障效益,实现自适应的后勤保障能力。

“互联网”+信息预置加密,实现信息防护的安全可控。基于信息系统的体系作战能力的有效释放,有赖于作战数据信息的安全可控。由于采用“互联网+”而带来的系统脆弱性和来自内、外部的各种威胁和攻击,使得安全问题在信息系统中十分突出。因此要针对瞬息万变的战场,对数据实施动态有效的信息加密。比如,微信通过安装一种信息加密软件,可以实现对短信、语音、视频等信息的按需加密;再比如,智能手机终端的端到端加密、防窃听技术和短信加密等网络信息安全技术已逐渐得到应用。为此,应充分借助互联网安全信息技术,对网络空间实施全过程的动态加密,保证信息传输的保密性,确保信息的完整性和不可抵赖性,抵抗对通信通道可能的主动或被动攻击。一方面要“硬加密”,大力开发用户终端加装保密卡或保密机;另一方面是“软加密”,开发智能终端加密软件,使用动态加密算法,实现信息的即时加密。

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2015/1229/

China PLA General An Weiping: Developing Asymetric & Cyber Forces A Requirement for Winning

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By Major General An Weiping, Deputy Chinese Army Commander of the PLA 16th Group Army

China’s new-type combat forces have developed rapidly in the past five years with great achievements, but we still lag far behind world military powers in that regard.

Going forward, the construction of new-type combat forces is of critical importance. China should focus on fostering advanced forces and means that are essential for us to seize the high ground in military competition and win information-based battles, and improve our combat capacity through leapfrog development.

New-type combat forces are the important source that leads military reform

Considering the development of the form of warfare, we should have a clear idea of the position and role of new-type combat forces.

First, it is a sharp weapon to win future warfare. The world history of military development shows us that new-type combat forces always decide the outcome of wars with “intergenerational” advantages.

Today, the U.S. and Russia still insist on the path of high-end technological advantages and emphasize the possession of strategic advantages over rivals. This tells us that whoever takes a preemptive step in fostering new-type combat forces will establish winning advantages in the war.

Second, it is the supportive force that pushes tactical innovation. New-type combat forces are a relative term that carries the characteristics of the time. It not only refers to the latest military practices in each period, but also directly drives tactical innovation.

From the famous theories on air/sea supremacy in military history to theories on blitzkrieg and firefight and to today’s air-sea integrated operations, precise and fast operations, cyberspace warfare and long-distance coordinated operations, they have all experienced the same process from emergence to development. The appearance of every tactical theory is backed by corresponding new-type combat forces.

Third, it is an important source that leads the military reform. With special combat mechanism, unique fighting efficiency and brand new fighting approaches, new-type combat forces are the vanguards that push the military reform.

We shall establish advantages featuring “we have what the enemy has not, we excel in what the enemy has”.

The several recent local warfare has proven that “all-domain, long-distance, integrated and precise” have become the typical features of combats in information-based conditions. To adapt to the needs of future warfare, we shall accelerate the construction of a range of new-type combat forces and establish advantages featuring “we have what the enemy has not, we excel in what the enemy has”.

We shall reinforce the aerospace early warning forces. Seizing the room for aerospace combat is not only an effective means to ensure a transparent status on the battlefield, but also an important way of forming relative advantages.

Based on our military aerospace weapon and reconnaissance satellites operating in the space, we shall form the aerospace support forces. Meanwhile, we shall also develop space weapon and foster space strike capability to secure the space supremacy.

We shall strengthen the strategic delivery force. Given its long strategic depth, China urgently needs a long-distance delivery force commensurate with its position as a strong power to effectively deal with international situations and safeguard the nation’s strategic security.

We shall insist on the development direction of military-civilian integration, rely on a number of military and civilian departments to build strategic delivery platforms and transportation mechanisms integrating railway, road, water transport, aviation and spaceflight, so as to guarantee military-civilian coordination, fast combat readiness and deployments in case of any situation.

We shall expand the unmanned combat force. Boasting such advantages as strong adaptability, fast response, long working hours and high functional integration, unmanned combat force is an important means to reduce casualties in future manned combats.

At present, China’s military unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been developed and used at a fast rate, but the development of emerging unmanned forces such as unmanned vehicle, vessel and underwater vehicle is backward.

Therefore, we shall step up comprehensive construction and form a professional unmanned troop that can both fight independently and cooperate with manned troops, integrating reconnaissance, strike and evaluation.

Cyberspace combat is the strategic means to obtain asymmetrical advantages.

The cyberspace is an important battlefield to obtain the information supremacy and a strategic means to obtain asymmetrical advantages. As the U.S. has applied a string of cyber virus weapons such as Stuxnet, Flame and Suter, main countries around the world are all building their “cyber forces”.

Building a “cyber force” as soon as possible is a requirement raised by the time to safeguard national cyber security and sovereignty and win information-based war.

We shall foster a standard and professional new-type “cyber force” integrating cyber attack and defense as well as information security to obtain the cyber supremacy.

Moreover, cyber terrorism is a new form of terrorism arising from the information network, and fighting cyber terrorism has become a prominent topic in national security, international policies and relation.

Therefore, it is imperative to carry out international cooperation and form an “international peacekeeping” force to fight against cyber terrorism.

http://english.chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/2016-01/

China’s New Cyber & Strategic Support Troops ‘Building Strong Armed Forces’

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战略支援部队“牢记主席训词,建设过硬部队”专题学习教育侧记

宗兆盾来源:解放军报发布时间:2016-01-27

Author: Zou Weirong

It was a solemn moment. December 31, 2015, the Chairman personally awarded as a strategic learning support units and caused precepts flag, army declared a new combat force was formally established as a strategic support troops embark on a new journey to fulfill the new mission issued a mobilization order.

To thoroughly study and implement learning Chairman precepts, enhance strategic support troops to join the construction of civic pride mission responsibility, established at the beginning, troops immediately deployed to carry out continuous seven days of “Remember the President of precepts, build strong armed forces’ special learning education.

Takatsu strategic support troops commander, political commissar Liu Fu, etc. Standing Committee were around even as lectures on different topics tutoring, group party committees to take over the party committee, will branch, group discussions and other forms of in-depth study precepts, and effectively use learning important speech Ningxinjuli Chairman, led a branch has created a collection of glorious history of heroic troops under the banner of reform and strengthening the military, embarked on building a strong support force modernization strategy the great journey.

A newly formed troops first to cast the soul, what the soul is? Soul is the party’s absolute leadership over the army is the absolute loyalty, absolute purity, absolute reliability

The history of the people’s army grow, with the party’s theory is that a condensed history of the military strength of will.

“The President precepts is that we start this newly formed unit started mobilization, total program of construction and development of strategic support units, is to carry out current and future work always follow.” Inaugural meeting was held the same day, members of party committees strategic support troops in the night study and discussion Organization said excitedly, recalling deepening the reform process, the decision-making practice president himself, personally promote, reflecting strong military power Vast logistics and ambition, is a celebration of rock-solid anyone, and to tackle tough reform courage boldness, showing the control global leadership and coping with complicated situations superb wisdom.

“Core with the party,” the phrase after the smoke of war passed down through generations, and today remains a strategic support troops soldiers loudest oath. Strategic support troops in a base exchange statement spoke of the Party, must put ideological and political construction in the first place, always tighten the string of ideological struggle, soldiers lay a solid hold high the banner of the party’s command of the ideological foundation, as soon as forging forming a iron-clad belief, ironclad belief, ironclad discipline, play a strong iron-clad troops.

A base a theme of “the kind of attitude to heritage red gene” study and discussions were being enthusiastic, strategic support troops in passionate leadership in teaching about the base of the predecessor to heed the call of the Party of the stories of hard work, so that the officers and men deeply moved and incentives. Many comrades spoke, we are pioneering the founding generation, but also the need to sacrifice a generation, but with the older generation of entrepreneurs, “township forget to go out, forget appearances body” than ideological level, we still have gaps.

“Reform is a final exam, the exam is the loyalty of the party’s leading cadres, official servants heart, a man of purity”, “loyal to the Party, the party’s command, we must conscientiously obey the overall situation, the correct treatment adjustment of interests” … … In recent days, reporters walking in the strategic support units into every barracks, officers and soldiers to join the reform can be heard everywhere, determined and strong army sonorous oath.

The more in-depth study and understand the strong belief that the Army-strong army, to join the reform of the conscious action. Many soldiers spoke, history tells us that if the party is to win the call, with the party that is brilliant!

这是个庄严的时刻。2015年12月31日,习主席亲自为战略支援部队授予军旗并致训词,宣告我军一支新型作战力量正式成立,为战略支援部队踏上新征程、履行新使命发出了动员令。

为深入学习贯彻习主席训词,增强投身战略支援部队建设的光荣感使命感责任感,组建伊始,部队就迅即部署开展持续7天的“牢记主席训词,建设过硬部队”专题学习教育。

战略支援部队司令员高津、政委刘福连等常委分别围绕不同专题作授课辅导,团以上党委机关采取党委会、支部会、分组讨论会等形式深入学习训词,切实用习主席重要讲话凝心聚力,带领一支支曾经创造辉煌历史的英雄部队集合在改革强军旗帜下,踏上建设强大的现代化战略支援部队伟大征程。

一支新组建的部队首先要铸魂,魂是什么?魂就是党对军队的绝对领导,就是绝对忠诚、绝对纯洁、绝对可靠

人民军队成长史,就是一部用党的理论凝聚全军意志力量的历史。

“主席训词是我们这支新组建部队开局起步的总动员,是战略支援部队建设发展的总纲领,是做好当前和今后工作的总遵循。”成立大会召开当天,战略支援部队党委班子成员在连夜组织的学习讨论中激动地说,回顾深化改革进程,习主席亲自决策、亲自推动,体现的是强国强军的宏阔运筹和雄心壮志,彰显的是坚如磐石的改革定力和攻坚克难的胆识气魄,展示的是驾驭全局的领导艺术和应对复杂局面的高超智慧。

“铁心跟党走”,这句话历经战火硝烟代代流传,今天在战略支援部队依然是官兵最响亮的誓言。战略支援部队某基地党委在交流发言中谈到,必须把思想政治建设摆在首位,时刻绷紧意识形态斗争这根弦,扎实打牢官兵高举旗帜、听党指挥的思想根基,尽快锻造形成具有铁一般信仰、铁一般信念、铁一般纪律、铁一般担当的过硬部队。

某基地一场主题为“该以怎样的姿态传承红色基因”学习讨论正热烈进行,战略支援部队领导在授课中饱含深情地讲述该基地前身听从党的召唤艰苦创业的故事,让官兵深受感动与激励。许多同志谈到,我们是开拓奠基的一代,也是需要牺牲奉献的一代,但是跟老一辈创业者“出门忘乡、出阵忘身”的思想境界比,我们还有差距。

“改革是一场大考,考的是领导干部对党的忠诚度、为官的公仆心、做人的纯洁性”“对党忠诚、听党指挥,就要自觉服从大局,正确对待利益调整”……连日来,记者行走在战略支援部队座座军营,处处都能听到官兵投身改革、矢志强军的铿锵誓言。

学习领会越深入,强军兴军的信念越坚定,投身改革的行动越自觉。许多官兵谈到,历史告诉我们,党的话就是胜利的召唤,跟党走就是走向辉煌!

Chairman learning new combat force building depicts the grand blueprint to make the blueprint into reality, we also need the relay to draw specific “construction plans”, the strategic project to improve the fighting capacity building to implement

Construction of new combat forces require specific blueprint “construction plans” to implement, can not put “construction plans” painted well, painted solid, painted in place, step by step to the blueprint into reality, is this newly formed army faces severe test.

Special study of education, many comrades spoke, strategic support units unique strategic properties, requirements must be based on the overall focus on the overall development of thinking planning and construction, the establishment of innovative thinking, new ideas, forward-looking vision. Construction and development of new combat forces, the use of “new ideas, new materials, new technology,” can not cover bungalow drawings to build skyscrapers new combat forces.

More recently, the strategic support troops cadres in a new atmosphere: sit down and study the war more and more meditation, study of the wind malpractice, some departments also provided with one hour a day of World classic examples, organ office buildings at night often brightly lit.

Cadres say, by learning the Chairman precepts of the newly formed task force new understanding of the new requirements more in place; by studying the opponent, to research their own research operations, research building, so the opportunities we face challenges, lack their own advantage has been more clear understanding. We must foster a strong sense of crisis, war consciousness, preparing conscious efforts to study the expectations of the Central Military Commission Chairman and exhortations into action implement to improve the combat effectiveness.

Strategic support troops political work cadres talked about persist problem-oriented, is to be like war, like selecting the right main directions unite tackling the will to move away the obstacle bars and fasten buttons integration, and strive to one combined unit , a contradiction becomes one breakthrough point, one combat growth.

The new troops, new responsibilities, new system, how to make a good beginning, a good step? Language preparation for military struggle a frontline commander told reporters, to stabilize thought “fixed disk stars,” trained to win the “real effort” to lay the crucial “active war” to defeat the enemy’s courage when the vanguard and pioneer.

 习主席为新型作战力量建设描绘了宏伟蓝图,要把蓝图变为现实,还需要接力绘制具体的“施工图”,把战略工程建设落实到提高战斗力上

建设新型作战力量的宏伟蓝图需要具体的“施工图”来落实,能不能把“施工图”绘好、绘实、绘到位,一步步把蓝图变成现实,是这支新组建部队面临的严峻考验。

专题学习教育中,许多同志谈到,战略支援部队独特的战略属性,要求必须立足全局、着眼全局进行思考谋划和建设发展,确立创新的思维、崭新的理念、前瞻的眼光。建设发展新型作战力量,运用的是“新理念、新材料、新工艺”,不能用盖平房的图纸来建新型作战力量的高楼大厦。

最近,在战略支援部队机关干部中出现一个新气象:坐下来静心研究战争的越来越多,学习之风日盛,有的部门还规定每天用1小时研究世界经典战例,机关办公大楼夜里常常灯火通明。

机关干部们表示,通过学习主席训词,对新组建部队新任务新要求认识更加到位;通过研究对手、研究自己、研究作战、研究建设,使我们对面临的机遇挑战、自身的优势不足有了更加清晰的认识。我们一定要树立强烈的忧患意识、打仗意识、备战意识,自觉把习主席和军委的期望嘱托落实到行动上,落实到提高战斗力上。

战略支援部队政治工作部机关干部谈到,坚持问题导向,就是要像打仗一样,选准主要方向,凝聚攻坚的意志,搬开条块的障碍,系好融合的扣子,努力把一个个结合部、一个个矛盾点变成一个个突破口、一个个战斗力增长点。

新的部队、新的职责、新的体制,如何开好局、起好步?一位身处军事斗争准备一线的指挥员告诉记者,要稳住思想的“定盘星”,练就打赢“真功夫”,打好攻坚“主动仗”,勇当克敌制胜的先锋和尖兵。

That initial Yan, a Yan in the end, the more newly formed troops, highly dispersed troops, the more strict management, strict requirements, from the outset, standing rules, strict Lured to develop a good style

Shortly after New Year’s Day, a telegram sent to the strategic support units subordinate units, the content is on duty on New Year’s fighting random situation briefing.Bulletin giving names, and pull out the rectification of the list there is readiness consciousness aspect duty order problems, fix a corrective time node.

Strategic support troops party committee had a consensus: the construction of new combat forces, we must attach great importance to establish a new system that infrastructure projects. Bungalows and high-rise buildings to be laying the foundation, but the foundation is not the same standard requirements. As a powerful strategy for modernization support troops this tower foundation, we must adhere to high standards, so that the initial namely Yan, a Yan in the end.

Many researchers talked about, “Initial namely Yan, a strict in the end,” has caused a strong resonance in the army from top to bottom, is the new “Family Style” strategic support troops party committee established. That initial Yan, Yan emphasized that the reference, at the beginning of Yan Yan sight on the ruler. Good to develop good regulations + = good style, which is the reference regulations, to develop by execution.

Execution is the ability, it is style. Strategic support troops Discipline cadres talked about a united collective fight like a Mercedes EMU, allowing each section have power, but not each section each direction. Xi Chairman reform idea is to strengthen the military strategic direction, Party committees at all levels is to take this off, set this to, at all levels must do listen to greet, talk about the rules, discipline, must not be selectively performed conditionally executed, superficial implementation, without effective implementation.

Took that side sacred flag, he took over the mission and responsibility. Strategic support troops party committee made it clear that the way to fight in the morning, but step by step to stabilize; to strive more officers, but realistically element pieces; we will strive to more good results, but to stand the test of practice and history.

Examination such as the battlefield, and the Central Military Commission Chairman learning how to surrender qualified respondents, is a strategic support units every entrepreneur’s practice test. From mountain forests to the north and south, from the Gobi desert to the border of the motherland, the majority of officers and soldiers to keep in mind the strategic support troops Chairman precepts, and actively adapt to changing combat troops, to join the army building strategic support, embarked on a new journey strong army Hing army.

初始即严、一严到底,越是新组建部队、高度分散部队,越要从严管理、从严要求,从一开始就立起规矩、严字当头,养成好作风

元旦刚过,一份电报发至战略支援部队所属单位,内容是对元旦作战值班抽查情况的通报。通报点名道姓,并就战备意识、值班秩序方面存在的问题拉出整改清单,定出整改时间节点。

战略支援部队党委有个共识:建设新型作战力量,必须高度重视建章立制这个基础工程。平房和高楼大厦都要打基础,但基础的标准要求不一样。为强大的现代化战略支援部队这座高楼打基础,必须坚持高标准,做到初始即严、一严到底。

许多科研人员谈到,“初始即严、一严到底”已在部队上下引起强烈共鸣,是战略支援部队党委确立的新“家风”。初始即严,强调的是严在基准、严在起点、严在标尺准星上。好的规章+好的养成=好的作风,其中规章是基准、养成靠执行。

执行力是能力,更是作风。战略支援部队纪委机关干部谈到,一个团结战斗的集体就像一列奔驰的动车组,允许每一节有动力,但不允许每一节各有方向。习主席改革强军战略思想就是方向,各级党委就是要把这个关、定这个向,各级必须做到听招呼、讲规矩、守纪律,决不能有选择地执行、有条件地执行、表面化地执行、无成效地执行。

接过那面神圣的军旗,就接过了使命和责任。战略支援部队党委明确提出,要争取早上路,但要步步走稳;要努力多干事,但要件件抓实;要力争多出成效,但要经得起实践和历史检验。

考场如战场,如何向习主席和中央军委交出合格答卷,是对战略支援部队每一名创业者的实践检验。从深山密林到大江南北,从沙漠戈壁到祖国边陲,战略支援部队广大官兵牢记主席训词,主动适应向作战部队的转变,投身战略支援部队建设,踏上强军兴军新征程。

Source: 来源:解放军报

China’s PLA Secret Military Information Troop Strategy //中國軍隊揭秘我军首支战略支援部队

《 人民日报 》( 2016年01月24日 )

中国解放军事科学院_lit

China’s People’s Liberation Army in 2016, a new combat force joins the PLA combat organization, it will become an important growth point of China’s  military combat capability and key strength leading to decisive nature of future wars…Secret military first team strategy support troops

December 31, 2015, and the Army leadership organization, listed with rocket forces, strategic support troops officially unveiled the PLA’s “family”!

“Strategic Support Unit is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces, is an important qualitative growth of our military combat capability.” Chairman Xi Jinping stressed that the establishment of strategic support troops, military help to optimize the structure, improve the comprehensive support capabilities.Strategic support troops to adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, and strive to achieve leapfrog development in key areas, starting point to promote high standards of combat forces to accelerate the development of new, integrated development, strive to build a strong, modern strategic support units.

This is exactly what the troops support? Where highlights? Inception, the soldiers doing? Recently, this reporter approached the strategic support units, truly feel this nascent boom strong army troops.

“Without a high degree of integration, there will be no joint operations”

What is the strategic support? Case before us:

May 2011, the US military killed Osama bin Laden’s operations for the armed forces around the world a vivid lesson. On the surface, is the two “Black Hawk” helicopters and 24 “seal” commando on a mission, but behind it has a huge support system: Several pieces of reconnaissance and communications satellites, one responsible for real-time transmission and radio listening stealth unmanned reconnaissance missions, more aerial cover for the war to be F / A-18 fighter, an aircraft carrier battle groups responsible for strategic support, two of the five Central Asian bases and command centers, as well as various support guarantee ten thousand personnel……

This small-scale operations, major systems supporting combat style, demonstrating the winning mechanism of modern warfare. Information leading, system support, elite combat, joint victory, has become the basic characteristics of modern warfare.

“Strategic Support Unit is to support the battlefield, to ensure smooth operations, it is an important force in joint operations.” Military experts briefed reporters, figuratively speaking, strategic support troops for the army to provide accurate and reliable information to support efficient and strategies support guarantee, propped army system “information umbrella” that will blend action and armed with rocket forces, and throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

“Without a high degree of integration, there will be no joint operations.” Strategic support units formed at the beginning, tightly pegged to the bottleneck restricting military joint operations in order to organize the work of planning military research started around how to understand the task, how construction and development, and how a good beginning in a higher starting point, different organizations Category troops, military leaders and experts in related fields, extensive research and discussion exchange, on major issues troop positioning functions, organization and structure, leadership and command system and other ongoing research and feasibility studies.Recently, the main leaders also dispatched military forces to the relevant units, mass fighting around the new generation to carry out special investigations.

Civil-military integration is the information war “nature.” According to statistics, the First World War, the number of industries involved in the development of weapons and equipment technology categories to ten dollars; World War II, extended to hundreds; to the Gulf War, it is in the thousands. In recent years, the proportion of military special technology United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other developed countries, more and more low, while military and civilian technology for more than 80%, the construction of military information technology for more than 80% are from the civil information systems.

Around the realization of civil-military integration, strategic support units proposed aspects from planning, mechanisms, resources, projects, and talent continue to promote the use of the depth of integration. New Year’s a start, force planning construction of a number of strategies, many military enterprises, scientific research institutions, experts figure has emerged, based on a unit, for the country, strong army service, “says think-tank” on the horizon.

“Accelerate the cultivation of new mass combat capability, create new combat forces.”

In the 21st century, the new military revolution shock avalanche. Especially with the continuous breakthroughs in information, intelligence, invisible, nanotechnology and other emerging technologies strategy, the new combat forces into a military capability leapfrog development “growth pole”, a new military power to compete, “darling.”

Public information, the United States set up space combat troops, built a Cyber ​​Command under the jurisdiction of 100,000 troops, to create the world’s largest network warfare forces. Russia’s integration with the Air Force Space combat forces to establish air and space forces, formed a network warfare command structure and the forces. British promoter cutting-edge network warfare units “77th Brigade”, specializing in “unconventional information warfare” by Facebook website platform. Japan through the “Basic Universe” speed up the process of militarization of space, and actively organize a “cyberspace defense team.”

Faced with surging wave of this new revolution in military affairs, who insight into the initiative, who will win in the future. Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi and decisive decision-making, the formation of strategic support units, to create a new type of war to safeguard national security forces, and the quality of our military combat capability as an important growth point.

Around accelerate the cultivation of new mass combat troops established a technology weaponization of power systems, the ability to combat the direction of development, to enter the combat readiness as an index, advancing step by step actual combat capacity building.

Military construction focus to the war, the work to fight hard. Reporters in an interview that the strategic support units, at all levels of urgency in order to focus on reform, promote transformation, many feel accustomed to the keyboard and mouse of science and technology experts put training uniform, embarked on a parade ground. He has been shelved, parked in the research paper, was taken to the test site and the development of weapons and equipment training ground troop maneuvers, become a new quality to enhance the operational capability of the “multiplier.”

It is understood that a unit of strategic support troops adhere to seek a breakthrough in the prospective, pilot, exploration, disruptive technology, research and development of a new type of combat equipment has passed the preliminary assessment, damage the effectiveness of the equipment reached the international advanced level.

“Only innovation, to seize the strategic high ground military competition”

This year New Year period, strategic support military leaders by telephone, video and checking to your combat troops on duty. From the deep ocean to mountain forests, from the Gobi desert to the border of the motherland, the troops together full member, combat readiness, to meet the troops in combat roles established.

As a safeguard national security, new combat forces, strategic support troops to innovation as a source of power to seize the strategic high ground of military competition, cohesion innovative new combat forces in combat theory, organizational form and mode of development.

On the organizational form of innovation, focusing on a new command structure, strengthen research and exploration of new combat forces woven patterns and leadership and command relationships. Focus to achieve leapfrog development, troops raised to operational requirements for traction, with technological breakthroughs driven, problem-oriented Forced to compete for the development of model approaches beyond, out to chase style, imitative development of passive situation.

“The best way to maintain peace, in accordance with their own terms to redefine the war.” Focus on accelerating the transformation of troops functions, and actively adapt to the mission mandate expansion, strategic support troops keep up with world trends of new military revolution, advance planning the layout of the new combat forces, to establish their own led “war rules” to achieve asymmetric competitive advantage.

Reporters in an interview that the strategic support units, to the troops from the authorities, from the laboratory to the training ground, a “brainstorming” is being rolled rushes –

A unit organized the workshop, big data, cloud computing, 3D printing, a new term nanotechnology often blurted out in the discussion. Graduated from a prestigious university, Dr. Young told reporters a firm voice, “the military planning and preparation is always tomorrow’s war, and even the day after the war.”

In this interview, the reporter for the officers and soldiers often high-spirited spirit, sharp shock of forward thinking on the future of this nascent force confidence.

Orriginal Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,与陆军领导机构、火箭军一同挂牌,战略支援部队正式亮相中国人民解放军的“大家庭”!

“战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。”习近平主席强调,成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。战略支援部队要坚持体系融合、军民融合,努力在关键领域实现跨越发展,高标准高起点推进新型作战力量加速发展、一体发展,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

这究竟是支什么样的部队?亮点在哪里?成立之初,官兵们在做些什么?近日,本报记者走近战略支援部队,真切感受这支新生部队的强军热潮。

“没有高度融合,就没有联合作战”

什么是战略支援?案例摆在眼前:

2011年5月,美军击毙本·拉登的作战行动,为世界各国军队上了生动一课。表面看来,是两架“黑鹰”直升机和24名“海豹”突击队员在执行任务,但其背后却有着一个庞大系统在支撑:若干颗侦察和通信卫星、一架担负实时传输和无线监听任务的隐形无人侦察机、多架空中待战掩护的F/A—18战斗机、一支担负战略支援的航母编队、两个中亚基地和五个指挥中心,以及近万名各类支援保障人员……

这种小规模行动、大体系支撑的作战样式,充分展示了现代作战的制胜机理。信息主导、体系支撑、精兵作战、联合制胜,已成为现代战争的基本特点。

“战略支援部队就是支援战场作战,保证作战的顺利进行,它是联合作战的重要力量。”有军事专家向记者介绍,形象地说,战略支援部队为全军提供准确高效可靠的信息支撑和战略支援保障,撑起全军体系的“信息伞”,它将与陆海空和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

“没有高度融合,就没有联合作战”。战略支援部队组建之初,就紧紧盯住制约我军联合作战的瓶颈,以组织开展军事工作筹划研究起步,围绕如何理解任务、如何建设发展、如何在更高起点上开好局,组织不同类别部队、军地相关领域的领导和专家,广泛开展调查研究和座谈交流,对部队职能定位、编成结构、领导指挥体制等重大问题进行持续研究论证。近日,部队主要领导还分赴军地相关单位,围绕新质战斗力生成开展专题调研。

军民融合是信息化战争的“天性”。据统计,一战时期,武器装备研制涉及的工业行业技术门类数以十计;二战时期,扩展到数以百计;到海湾战争时期,则是数以千计。近些年来,美、英、法、德、日等发达国家军事专用技术比重越来越低,而军民通用技术已超过80%,军队信息化建设80%以上的技术均来自民用信息系统。

围绕实现军民融合,战略支援部队提出,要从规划、机制、资源、项目、运用和人才等方面持续推动深度融合。新年一开局,部队谋划建设的多项战略工程中,已出现不少军工企业、科研院校专家的身影,一座立足部队、面向全国、服务强军的“云智库”初露端倪。

“加速培育新质作战能力,打造新型作战力量”

进入21世纪,新军事革命的冲击波汹涌而来。特别是随着信息、智能、隐形、纳米等战略新兴技术的持续突破,新型作战力量成为军事能力跨越式发展的“增长极”,成为军事强国竞争的新“宠儿”。

公开资料显示,美国组建太空作战部队,建成了下辖10万部队的网络司令部,打造了世界上规模最大的网络战力量。俄罗斯整合空军与航天作战力量建立空天军,组建了网络战指挥机构和部队。英国启动新锐网络战部队“第77旅”,通过脸书网站平台专攻“非常规信息战”。日本则通过《宇宙基本法》加快太空军事化进程,积极组建“网络空间防卫队”。

面对这场新军事革命的汹涌浪潮,谁洞察先机,谁就能赢得未来。习主席和中央军委果断决策,组建战略支援部队,打造维护国家安全的新型作战力量,并将其作为我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。

围绕加速培育新质作战能力,部队确立了技术武器化、力量体系化、能力实战化的发展方向,以进入战备为指标,分阶段推进实战化能力建设。

部队建设向打仗聚焦,各项工作向打仗用力。记者在战略支援部队采访时看到,各级都在以时不我待的紧迫感抓改革、促转型,许多摸惯了键盘鼠标的科技专家穿上了作训服、走上了练兵场。曾经束之高阁、停在纸上的科研成果,被带到了武器装备研制试验现场和部队演习训练场,成为提升新质作战能力的“倍增器”。

据了解,战略支援部队某部坚持在前瞻性、先导性、探索性、颠覆性技术手段上求突破,研发的某新型作战装备已通过初步评估,毁伤效能达到国际同类装备先进水平。

“只有锐意创新,才能抢占军事竞争战略制高点”

今年元旦期间,战略支援部队领导通过电话、视频抽查所属部队作战值班情况。从深山密林到深海远洋,从大漠戈壁到祖国边陲,部队官兵齐装满员、枕戈待旦,在战斗岗位上迎接部队组建。

作为一支维护国家安全的新型作战力量,战略支援部队把创新视为抢占军事竞争战略制高点的动力之源,聚力创新新型作战力量的作战理论、组织形态和发展模式。

在组织形态创新上,着眼新的领导指挥体制,加强对新型作战力量编成模式和领导指挥关系的研究探索。着眼实现跨越发展,部队提出了以作战需求为牵引、以技术突破为驱动、以问题倒逼为导向、以竞争超越为途径的发展模式,摆脱尾追式、模仿式发展的被动局面。

“维护和平的最好方法,就是根据自己的条件来重新定义战争”。围绕加快部队职能转型、积极适应使命任务拓展,战略支援部队紧跟世界新军事革命发展趋势,超前谋划新型作战力量布局,确立自己主导的“战争规则”,实现非对称竞争优势。

记者在战略支援部队采访时看到,从机关到部队,从实验室到演兵场,一场“头脑风暴”正在翻卷奔涌——

某部组织的研讨会上,大数据、云计算、3D打印、纳米技术等新名词不时在讨论中脱口而出。一位毕业自名牌大学的青年博士语气坚定地告诉记者,“军人谋划和准备的,永远是明天的战争,甚至后天的战争。”

在这里采访,记者每每为官兵昂扬的精神面貌、敏锐的前瞻思考所震撼,对这支新生部队的未来充满信心。

 

Source: 《 人民日报 》( 2016年01月24日 )

Chinese Military Cyberspace Deterrence Characteristics // 中國軍隊的浅析网络空间威慑的特征

2016年01月04日

中国人民解放军军事科学院 袁艺

Editor’s Note: When the opposing sides have the ability to ensure the destruction invade other networks, you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with the network and do not attack the other rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even internationally will form a network and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, they began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.

As human society’s dependence on cyberspace deepening human production and life in cyberspace has become “second class living space” and military confrontation “fifth-dimensional battle space.” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.

First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions in cyberspace, showing the enemy paralyzed control cyberspace and physical space cross-border control of enemy’s determination and strength through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop An enemy form of strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

Advantages (a) deterrence in cyberspace

Advantages of deterrence in cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value.Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, re-use, and highly flexible.

(B) lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Inadequate deterrence in cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, until now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing. Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect of greatly reduced . For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you can not control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, control, prevent, control and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main type of deterrence in cyberspace

Deterrence in cyberspace there are cyberspace technology test deterrence, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence deterrence four types of operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) equipment display deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace equipment display deterrence in cyber warfare equipment development plan formulation, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, according to the need for appropriate disclosure of network warfare equipment models, performance, features, parameters, and the development schedule, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaking equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence.Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, it played a very good deterrent.

(C) combat exercise deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

(D) operations in cyberspace deterrence

Cyberspace operations deterrence, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter an actual combat the opponent’s deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program; and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace

The overall use of cyberspace deterrence requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to show, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purposes. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations

“Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially analysis to find out the enemy all kinds of soft Vulnerability hardware system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

(B) careful decision-making, control the intensity

Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, otherwise the effect may be counterproductive . Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, even nuclear states might use nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) unity of command, well-organized

Organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, can not appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. It should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You can not select innocuous, the impact was small, the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you can not select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) the actual situation, focusing on strategy

Sun Tzu said, “it can and can not be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, But there is no evidence, can not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, it is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

编者按:当敌对双方都具有确保侵入破坏对方网络的能力时,就可以带来双向网络遏制,使得双方不得不在一定条件下,遵守互不攻击对方网络的游戏规则,形成一个无形的安全阀,甚至国际上也会形成互不攻击对方网络的惯例协议或公约,网络空间由此成为可以产生巨大威慑效应的战略领域。网络空间威慑继核威慑之后,开始进入大国政治家和军事家的战略视野。研究网络空间威慑的特征、类型和运用要点,成为网络强国、网络强军的必须考量和必要行动。

随着人类社会对网络空间依赖程度的不断加深,网络空间成为人类生产生活的“第二类生存空间”和军事对抗的“第五维作战空间”。世界各国围绕网络空间的主导权、控制权、话语权展开了激烈的争夺,网络空间的竞争已达到与人类生存、国家命运和军事斗争成败休戚相关的程度。思考网络空间威慑能力建设,具有重大现实和理论价值。

一、网络空间威慑的优劣分析

网络空间威慑,是指在网络空间采取各种行动,展示瘫痪控制敌方网络空间,并通过网络空间跨域控制敌方实体空间的决心和实力,从而达到慑敌、止敌、阻敌、遏敌目的的一种战略威慑形式。网络空间与实体空间相比所具有的“虚实二相性”,网络战与传统作战样式相比所具有的独特性,决定了网络空间威慑的优缺点都非常明显。

(一)网络空间威慑的优点

网络空间威慑的优点,主要体现在:一是威慑方式更趋文明和人道。与基于物理、生物、化学杀伤机理的核生化武器相比,网络战武器的直接杀伤和破坏效应要远小于前者,通常不会对自然环境造成永久性破坏和污染,也不会造成大量的人员伤亡,并引发人道主义灾难。二是威慑成本低效费比高。网络战武器以病毒、木马等软件为主,成本相对低廉,技术门槛较低,而造成的破坏效果却相当惊人。网络防御点多面广,防不胜防,要网络安全程度每提高一个等级,投入成本会呈指数级增加。网络进攻的低成本与网络防御的高成本对比鲜明,使得网络攻防呈现“矛尖盾薄”的特点,网络战武器因而被称为“穷国的原子弹”。三是威慑手段多样实用性强。网络战武器多种多样,网络攻击目标多元,决定了有多样化的网络空间威慑手段可供选择。网络攻击效果在一定程度上是可恢复的,只要运用实施得当,引发战争和促使战争升级的风险相对较小。从某种意义上讲,核武器的威慑价值远大于实战价值,而网络战武器则是实战价值与威慑价值兼具。四是威慑运用可重复灵活性强。“核门槛”一旦跨过就会爆发全面核战争,处于核均势的双方将陷入相互摧毁状态,轻易实施核威慑特别是对无核国家进行核威慑,还会招致国际舆论的谴责,这些因素都极大地限制了核威慑手段的使用。而网络空间威慑软硬结合、威力可控的特点,决定了其可根据军事斗争形势的变化和需要,适时调控威慑强度,先期使用、全程使用、反复使用,具有很强的灵活性。

(二)网络空间威慑的不足

网络空间威慑的不足,主要体现在:一是威慑效果的可信性未得到充分验证。核威慑的可信度已在实战中得到了验证。然而,截止目前,真正意义上的网络大战还没有真正爆发过。人们对网络战惊人的破坏力,更多的只是一种猜测和担忧,网络战的真实威力只有经过实战检验后,才能真正令人信服。二是威慑手段的可靠性不太高。网络战是敌我双方网络攻防持续互动的动态过程,网络对抗复杂、技术性强的特点,决定了网络战攻击效果具有较大的不确定性,有可能达不到预期作战目的,使威慑效果大打折扣。例如,对敌实施网络空间实战威慑时,敌方若及时采取各种有效防御手段,就会增加己方网络攻击的难度和降低破坏效果,甚至导致攻击行动的失败。三是威慑范围的可控性需进一步改善。病毒武器作为网络战的重要武器之一,其传播性强、可控性较差、影响范围比较广,很难针对敌国计算机和网络发动专门性、针对性极强的攻击。如果不能控制其有效作用范围,就会波及第三方中立国家,甚至使自身也成为受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威慑对象的可选择性受限。核威慑对任何国家都是明确而有效的,而网络空间威慑的效果与敌国的信息化程度有很大关系。网络空间威慑对信息化程度高的国家极为有效,而对那些信息基础设施薄弱,网络依赖性不强的不发达国家,则很难发挥效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威慑实施的组织相对复杂。世界各个核国家无不对战略核力量实施集中统管,指挥控制权高度集中,组织实施核威慑行动时可以准确控制到每一个作战单元,组织实施十分周密。而网络空间威慑的组织实施,要涉及侦、控、防、控等多支力量,人员多、规模大,且分散在军地不同部门和单位,组织起来非常复杂,形成合力不易。

二、网络空间威慑的主要类型

网络空间威慑主要有网络空间技术试验威慑、网络空间装备展示威慑、网络空间作战演习威慑和网络空间作战行动威慑四种类型。其中,前三种是示形威慑,后一种是实战威慑。

(一)网络空间技术试验威慑

网络空间技术试验威慑,是在网络战领域,经常性地进行新作战概念的先期探索性试验、新攻击机理和战术的效果印证性试验、新技术的实用化武器化试验等,并通过媒体向外界披露,以展现本国雄厚的信息技术基础研究实力,以及转化为网络战能力的巨大潜力,以达到威慑对手的目的。当前,网络攻防技术仍在快速发展,一项关键性技术的突破,往往会对网络空间安全和作战产生重大影响,甚至引发革命性变化。谁抢先占领了网络攻防技术的战略制高点,谁就能在未来网络战中取得明显优势。

(二)网络空间装备展示威慑

网络空间装备展示威慑,是在网络战装备发展规划制定、技术开发、打靶试验、定型生产等各个发展阶段,根据需要适当披露网络战装备的型号、性能、特点、参数以及研制进度等情况,以达到威慑对手的目的。其方式主要有两种:一种是通过在国防白皮书、外交公报以及报纸、期刊、大型网站等权威媒体从官方渠道公开披露,实施显性威慑;另一种是通过网络社交媒体或其他非官方渠道,刻意泄露装备相关情况,实施隐性威慑。网络空间装备展示威慑,一方面可以虚构新机理、新概念的新型网络战装备,并渲染其独特的作战能力;另一方面可以刻意夸大已有网络战装备的作战效能。虚中有实、实中有虚,实施模糊政策,使对方摸不清己方真实情况和实力,产生恐惧和忌惮心理。例如,美军的“舒特”机载网电一体攻击系统已多次投入实战使用,对其敌对国家的防空体系构成了严重威胁,但其基本原理、工作机制、战技指标既没有公开披露,也没有被他国完全掌握破解,一直处于保密状态,令人虚实难辨,起到了很好的威慑作用。

(三)网络空间作战演习威慑

网络空间作战演习威慑,是以实兵或虚拟的方式在网络空间展开演习活动,并借助各种媒体渠道,向潜在作战对手展现本国网络战能力、实力与决心,以达到威慑对手的目的。网络空间作战演习可分为实兵演习和虚拟演习两种。前者通常在全国范围内或与盟国联合进行,一般以演练军地联合网络空间防御行动为主。近几年来,美国及盟国多次举行“网络风暴”系列网络战演习,以及“施里弗”系列太空-网络空间演习,很好展现了网络战的动员实力、整体防御水平,以及实施网络战的决心。后者通常在国家大型网络综合靶场举行,一般以演练军队专业网络战力量的进攻行动为主。

(四)网络空间作战行动威慑

网络空间作战行动威慑,是指对特定的网络目标实施攻击,以确信的攻击效果来威慑作战对手的一种实战性威慑。其运用的时机有两个:一是当己方觉察敌方即将对己方发动战争时,己方选择敌方重点防御的关键性网络目标进行针对性打击,进行预防性、遏制性威慑;二是当敌方通过对己方发起试探性网络攻击,实施网络空间威慑时,己方应立即进行有效的报复性、惩戒性威慑。具有威慑效果的网络战行动有多种。例如,对敌电信网渗透破坏,向敌国民众手机大量发送宣传反战短信;对敌电力网进行攻击,造成敌重要城市短时间的大面积停电;对敌广播电视网进行攻击,在黄金时段插播己方特制的视频节目;等等。

三、网络空间威慑的运用要点

网络空间威慑总的运用要求是:慑战结合,以实力、实战展示能力和决心,力求以小战体现威慑、以精打确保威慑,以较小的代价实现威慑目的。具体说来,应做到以下几点。

(一)平战结合,长期准备

“冰冻三尺,非一日之寒”。成功实施网络空间威慑,需要平战结合,在平时就要进行充分细致的准备。一是要进行全面周密的网络侦察。要求谍报侦察与技术侦察、无线侦察与有线侦察相结合,对敌网络目标进行长期持续的网络侦察,逐步摸清敌网络基本情况,绘制其网络拓扑结构图,尤其是分析查找出敌各种软硬件系统的漏洞。二是要进行大量有效的战略预置。采用黑客手段,通过利用系统漏洞或口令破译等办法,秘密渗透进入敌各类网络,留下后门,设置跳板机,埋设逻辑炸弹和木马,为未来发动网络攻击预留突破口。三是进行预有准备的网络防御。在对敌实施网络空间威慑时,己方应提前调整网络防御部署,使敌预先设计的攻击路径,预期利用的系统漏洞,预定执行的攻击方案难以实施,或实施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敌网络报复造成的损失。

(二)慎重决策,控制强度

孙子曰:“主不可以怒而兴师,将不可以愠而致战”。网络空间威慑是国家之间的战略博弈行为,尤其是实战威慑,敏感性强,必须做到有理、有利、有节,决不能因为威慑“门槛”较低而滥用乱用,否则其效果可能会适得其反。网络空间实战威慑对作战强度控制的要求很高。一方面,若强度太小,敌国政府和民众不会产生畏惧心理,起不到应有的威慑效果,对方还可能采取同样的手段实施反威慑,最终导致对抗升级,使己方威慑失效。另一方面,若强度过大,给敌国造成巨大的经济损失和人员伤亡,引起国际社会的谴责和敌国政府、民众的仇恨心理,就可能引发敌国运用常规力量进行大规模报复,有核国家甚至可能会动用核力量,这样不但不能慑止战争,反而会起到战争导火索的作用。

(三)统一指挥,周密组织

网络空间威慑的组织实施,要集中指挥,统一筹划,搞好协同。一是精心组织力量。统一组织军队侦、攻、防、控四支力量,积极协调军地各方网络战力量形成合力。尤其是要组织和协调好民间非专业网络战力量特别是爱国黑客,不能出现“盲动”现象,以免引发磨擦,擦枪走火,引起网络战的升级,或过早暴露攻击意图,授人以柄,导致局势不可控或行动失败。二是精当选择目标。应选择影响面广,易产生明显威慑效果的目标。例如,收视率排名靠前的广播电视频道、访问量巨大的门户网站、用户众多的无线通信网络等。不能选择无关痛痒、影响面小、民众漠不关心的目标进行攻击,易被误认为是普通黑客制造的网络安全事件,起不到应有的威慑效果。此外,还要考虑国际法和战争法约束,不能选择易造成人道主义灾难的目标,尽量不选取铁路、航空、金融、医疗等部门的网络目标,以免激起国际社会和对方民众的谴责和反感。三是精确控制进程。实施网络空间威慑性打击之前,要通过广泛的舆论宣传造势,向敌国发出打击警告,并向全世界宣告己方行动的正义性,以争取国际舆论的理解和支持。为突出威慑效果,己方可以高调宣布要攻击的敌国网络目标,再突破敌方层层网络防御,实施坚决有效的网络攻击,必要时最后还可对网络攻击效果进行定时恢复,以展现己方高超的网络攻击技术和手段,让敌方决策者和民众产生防不胜防、难以招架的心理挫折感,从而形成强烈的震慑效果。

(四)虚实结合,注重谋略

孙子所说的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,运用到网络空间威慑,其要点概括起来就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。“示而不宣”,就是利用网络攻击难以追踪定位这一点,对特定目标实施网络攻击,但不对外宣布是己方所为,既展示了己方能力,又使得敌方虽然怀疑是己方所为,但没有证据,无法追究。“宣而不示”,就是公开宣传或不经意透露己方研制或虚构的先进网络战装备的型号、性能、特点,刻意夸大其作战效能,虚虚实实,虚实结合,使敌摸不清己方真实实力,从而产生威慑效果。网络战行动具有追踪溯源困难、取证复杂的特点,发起方既可以承认,也可以矢口否认,或把责任推给民间黑客组织。

Source: 来源:中国信息安全

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0104/

China’s PLA & Future Unconventional Warfare // 中國軍隊的未來非常規戰爭

2012年10月26日作者:知遠

Over the past decade, the United States has coped with a large number of unconventional warfare challenges. In Afghanistan, for example, at the beginning of 2012, a total of nearly 432,000 in Afghanistan, anti-riot troops, including US soldiers nearly 90,000 people, nearly 30,000 NATO soldiers, the Afghan national security forces of nearly 300,000 people, near the Afghan local police forces 12,000 people. In addition, the United States to this end spends more than 100 billion US dollars, the deployment of a large variety of advanced platforms and systems. On the other hand, “the Taliban” organization to deploy troops in between 20,000 to 40,000 people (the ratio of anti-riot troops to 1:11), the annual cost amounted to between 100 million to 200 million (with a consumption of anti-insurgency operations funds ratio of 1: 500). In addition, the Afghan insurgent groups from the main use of improvised explosive devices to the Internet using asymmetric warfare strategy and tactics. The ability to “Taliban” organization with limited resources to maintain a longer period of insurgency, highlighting the unconventional warfare challenges facing the United States. Accordingly, this report focuses on the following three questions:

• What is the United States may face challenges in the future unconventional warfare?

• What strategies best suited to address future challenges?

• Which existing cases or model can support these strategies effectively deal with unconventional warfare challenges?

And “terrorism”, “insurgency” is very similar to that, “unconventional warfare” has a variety of definitions. From the practical sense, unconventional warfare violent struggle for the national and NGO legitimacy and influence specific populations carried out.Unconventional threats include the use of guerrilla warfare, terrorism, sabotage, criminal activities and other activities rebel insurrection way countries and organizations. This article begins with a brief discussion of unconventional warfare threats, including threats from national and NGO’s. Then, the paper summarizes the United States in the fight against violence and support the insurrection could take unconventional warfare strategy. Finally, the “village stability operations,” US special forces in Afghanistan (Village Stability Operations, VSO) as an example to discuss.

 First, unconventional warfare challenges

What is the future of the United States could face unconventional warfare challenges?Period of the next decade, the United States will likely face a variety of unconventional warfare challenges, including terrorist groups (such as al-Qaeda and Hezbollah), drug trafficking organizations (such as the Mexican “cartels” drug cartels), global violence Activities Group (such as anarchist Group) NGO. In addition, the United States also faced for some countries (such as Iran) for their own purposes and the formation of unconventional warfare threats from some countries (such as Mexico) due to a result of weak dominance.These network threats, adaptability is gradually improving, and has leveraging cyberspace open up recruitment, intelligence gathering, training, spread propaganda, obtain funding and new ways to implement action.

To illustrate the future threat, it is necessary to highlight the al-Qaeda and its affiliated organizations, and now they have been a big hit because of some mysterious and gradually disappear. Future threat posed by al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations might cause depends on several factors: Some countries support the weak rule of force surviving leadership structure, North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia and other regional and local organizations. According to current trends, al-Qaeda is likely to save important leaders (with the possible exception of Pakistan), the ruling power in some countries will remain weak government, al-Qaeda will be local support in some countries. Al Qaeda may target as always: the overthrow of the monarchy more than one regime to establish pan-Islam (near enemy, or “throw into confusion the enemy within”), against the United States and its allies (the far enemy, or “anti-foreign enemies”). However, these trends are not yet clear how this will develop. For example, al-Qaeda as a global activity may be more dispersed bases in Pakistan to its core strength in Iran (Iran-Qaida), Yemen (AQAP), Somalia (Islamic Youth Corps), North Africa (Islamic Maghreb organizational relationships weaken organized base cloth) or other areas. This dispersion will enable the development of al-Qaida along the Syrian strategist Abu Arz • Lane (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri) envisaged way, more involved in the “individual jihad” and “small terror cells.”

Pan-Islamic movement al-Qaida means the United States will need to support the forces against them in many foreign areas. Al Qaeda affiliated organizations and global allies distribution shown in Figure 1. This figure highlights the future al-Qaida may support insurgent groups of countries. In some countries (such as Saudi Arabia), Al-insurgency operations have been launched to try and fail, but they might try again. In other countries (such as Yemen, Iraq), al-Qaeda has helped the insurgent groups. The figure in black-Qaida would support or continue to support the insurgency in the country. Of particular note is that for some African countries (such as Nigeria, Egypt) and Middle Eastern countries (such as Jordan, Iran), Al-Qaeda would seize every opportunity to support the insurgency.

2

In addition to these threats, the United States war effort unconventional future will be affected by a variety of other challenges. include:

• inter-agency cooperation. Inter-agency collaboration between some organizations seem to have improved, such as the United States Special Operations and CIA. But among a number of other organizations, such as the Department of Defense and the State Department, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies, inter-agency cooperation is still in a chaotic state. Whether it is still in Yemen, these challenges often result in the relationship between the military and government institutions in Afghanistan in the tensions of the strategic, operational and tactical levels.

• Vietnam syndrome. In Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as some of the challenges that may occur in Korea and Taiwan in the conventional military friction, may make some people ignore the importance of the US military future of unconventional warfare. As John • Nagel (John Nagl) In his counter-insurgency war in the study concluded, and on post-Vietnam era: “The US military believes the United States should not be again trapped in counter-insurgency operations, rather than face the US military counterinsurgency doctrine It was the fact that the failure in Vietnam. “unconventional warfare will not only extremely important for the foreseeable future, but there is a need to” should be how to stop the insurgency “and other topics for further research.

• The health of the US troops. More than a decade of fighting, it has made deep unconventional warfare quagmire of American forces extremely heavy. Officers have had to deal with their families are exposed to tremendous pressure, after the creation of stress disorder (PTSD), wars and countless other creative challenges.

• technical challenges. Future, insurgents and terrorist groups will make greater use of the Internet and social media field communication contact forum, spread propaganda, recruit personnel, to complete other tasks. Figure 2 indicates the 2015 global Internet traffic trends. Overall, Internet traffic will be 32% CAGR growth rate, that is until 2015 devices access to the Internet will be twice the total global population. By 2015, Internet traffic Wi-Fi technology and mobile devices will be 54% of the flow of Internet traffic and wired devices will total 46% of the total traffic. This growth will not happen in the West, but at a faster rate occurred in Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. These developments will likely insurgency operations and tactics have a significant impact, make it easier for the insurgents to recruit staff, spread propaganda and communications links.

Figure 2. 2010--2015 global Internet traffic

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Figure 2. 2010–2015 global Internet traffic [Save to album]

Second, the strategy

What strategies best suited to address future challenges? US Department of Defense “Quadrennial Defense Review Report 2010” and “2012 Strategic Assessment” are briefly mentioned in unconventional warfare. But if we insist on the “strategy” is defined as “the use of armed forces and other tools to achieve military and political objectives,” then reports those are not summed unconventional warfare strategy. US Department of Defense publication “unconventional war: against unconventional threats” against unconventional warfare was more substantial research, but still focused on the United States on how to implement the joint operations of the armed forces should a military campaign in the future, rather than questions about the strategy. Due to the lack of unconventional warfare strategy in these assessments, we must seek the answers to elsewhere. The following outlines a few examples I.

(A) counter-insurgency

There are two major counter-insurgency strategy for US unconventional war.

1. Population center strategy: The first strategy is the population center strategy in Field Manual 3-24, and other resources proposed. Field Manual 3-24 from the British in Malaya, France extracted a lot of cases the best practical significance of military operations in Algeria. In these and other cases, the counterinsurgency is governance.However, in the most recent cases, the external forces is difficult to force the local government to make the necessary political change. As the American experience in Vietnam and Afghanistan as external forces can not force local governments to become legal regime. In addition, the deployment of large numbers of foreign troops is not always successful.

2. Indirect strategy: In some cases, the best way might mainly focus on the proposal, indirect strategic equipment and support local conventional and unconventional forces and organizations above. Such assistance, including foreign internal defense (Foreign Internal Defense) and unconventional warfare, has historically become the US Special Operations task forces and intelligence agencies. In the 1950s, the United States and the Philippines since 2001, in the 1960s in Thailand, the early 1990s and the 21st century, Colombia’s aid work, weakening relative success or defeat insurgent groups. In each case, the approach adopted in the USA are indirect rather than a direct way. Indirect way means that the US personnel To combat forces in the host country provide advice and support. Although this support sometimes include tactical leadership issues, but its focus has always been to help the host country instead of the United States against the enemy elements.

(Ii) riot

In other years, the United States might need to support insurgent groups, you may have to select one of the following two strategies.

1. Maoist insurgency strategy: The first strategy is that the United States can choose Mao guerrilla strategy in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the United States had this strategy against the Soviet Union. Such a strategy, a considerable part of the national organization of the population, the government has brought enormous consumption. While Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy is to target against the armed forces and their support networks, but the goal is the collapse of the morale of the attacker, but not necessarily the other’s combat strength. Goal of the strategy is not to ensure the rapid defeat the government. As Mao Zedong pointed out, the objective of the strategy is to consume the enemy to make the final surrender, that “the enemy advances, we retreat to the enemy camps, we harass the enemy tires, we attack the enemy retreats, we pursue.”

Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy includes three sequential advance and overlapping phases. The first stage is to establish a political and military structures riots among the general public. As Mao summed up: “The main feature is to rely on the people’s guerrilla fronts and other organizations to establish their own.” One of the main objectives of the first phase is to mobilize as many people to participate in sports. When Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy implemented in the rural uprising also began for urban riots. If the riots can be gradually achieved support and access to initial victory, then enter the second phase, the main feature of this phase is the most long guerrilla war and the gradual expansion. For more victory, guerrilla warfare will enable the Government military morale, no fighting, and gradually betrayal. So, the war entered the third phase, namely the collapse of the enemy. Riots changed to government collapsed for the purpose of large-scale conventional attack maneuver.

2. Conventional insurrection strategy: the United States can choose the second strategy is routine riot strategy, the United States against “Taliban” in 2001 adopted this strategy in action. This strategy, skip the first two stages of Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy, mainly in conventional military action against each other. Elements of the strategy include the use of armed forces to capture or destroy the enemy’s armed forces, so as to control its population, territory, city or important industrial center and communications center.Objective of the strategy is a decisive action or series of actions, by defeating the enemy on which to resist the physical strength to win the war. For example, the riot troops could move forward, seizing strategic facilities the defense side, such as the capital, the communication center or base, while the defender will also take action to confront. Thus the two sides will launch a campaign or a series of battles, until the formation of a party or a political agreement to admit defeat.

Three, efficient sample

Development “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police force is one of the recent anti-insurgency operations in the most efficient mode. After three years, the United States Special Operations Forces have been in the majority of rural development in this model. Their goal is to help the Afghan people conscious action, reconstruction of traditional security institutions, economic development and consistent with Afghan history, culture and informal management. In essence, the “village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces will have joint and inter-institutional features. Since 2009, “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan and US troops deployed in Afghanistan into the rural Afghanistan to help the local community of security, management and development, and enable them to better coupled to the central government. “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces according to the point quickly flourish throughout the country, the ultimate success of the “Taliban” to recapture the territory.

CONCLUSIONS

According to recent US experience in unconventional warfare and future threats, following several issues should be considered:

(A) Organization: According to current threats and challenges, the United States Special Operations Forces Command (SOCOM) should be in the fight against the terrorists, insurgents and other unconventional threats of war to play a front-line “defense” role. Although the US economy is more serious, we should continue (if not increase) investment in the future projects, such as the “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan project.

(B) the health of the US troops: As unconventional warfare deployed US soldiers and their families have been treated countless pressures. The possibility of these threats continue to evolve, and the deployment of troops, means that the US Defense Department needs to continue to strengthen the soldiers and their families for the physical and mental health programs. March 2012 occurred in Kandahar, Afghanistan, US soldiers shot and killed civilians, had a negative impact on the US unconventional warfare operations, but also from the broader sense, is not conducive to US foreign policy.

(C) Training and education: especially for US conventional forces, the unconventional warfare military training of a temporary ad hoc in nature. In some core US military agencies, such as the US Army War College, unconventional warfare military training is relatively good. However, the current unconventional warfare military training and investment in danger of being weakened, so some departments and agencies might consider unconventional warfare military training obsolete. After the Vietnam War, and things like that happen, it would be a very serious mistake.

(D) Inter-agency cooperation: Congress may consider supporting one pair of unconventional warfare campaign experience of cooperation across agencies work assessment efforts as they perform operations against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq for cross-agency team made same. Inter-agency cooperation and did not complete the play should have the performance, we should consider an objective, analytical assessments.

Unconventional warfare struggle is a long-term activity, which will continue to be a global battlefield, will extend from the United States, Britain long coastline to Yemen, Pakistan deserted hilltop. This struggle will continue for decades, rather than months or years, this is a concept for most Westerners can not easily handle.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

過去十年內,美國應對了大量非常規戰爭挑戰。以阿富汗戰爭為例,至2012年初期,阿富汗境內共有近432000名反暴亂部隊官兵,其中包括美國官兵近90000人、北約組織官兵近30000人、阿富汗國家安全部隊近300000人、阿富汗地方警察部隊近12000人。另外,美國為此每年花費超過1000億美元,部署了大量各種先進的平台和系統。另一方面,“塔利班”組織部署部隊在20000人至40000人之間(與反暴亂兵力之比為1:11),每年花費額為1億至2億之間(與反暴亂行動資金消耗之比為1:500)。另外,阿富汗暴亂組織主要運用從使用簡易爆炸裝置到因特網作戰的不對稱戰略和戰術。 “塔利班”組織利用有限資源維持較長時間的暴亂活動的能力,凸顯了美國所面臨的非常規戰爭挑戰。因此,本報告主要關注如下三個問題:
•美國未來可能會面臨何種非常規戰爭挑戰?
•何種戰略最適於解決未來挑戰?
•哪種現有案例或者模式能夠支持這些戰略、有效應對非常規戰爭挑戰?
和“恐怖主義”、“暴亂活動”極為相似的是,“非常規戰爭”擁有各種定義。從實踐意義上說,非常規戰爭是國家和非政府組織為特定人群的合法性和影響力而進行的暴力鬥爭。非常規威脅包括運用游擊戰、恐怖主義、陰謀破壞、犯罪活動和暴動叛亂等活動方式的國家和組織。本文首先簡要討論非常規戰爭威脅,包括來自國家和非政府組織的威脅。繼而,本文總結了美國在打擊暴亂和支持暴動時可以採取的非常規戰爭戰略。最後,本文以美軍特種部隊在阿富汗進行的“鄉村穩定行動”(Village Stability Operations,VSO)為範例進行探討。
一、非常規戰爭挑戰
美國未來可能面臨何種非常規戰爭挑戰?在下一個十年時間段內,美國將有可能面臨著各種非常規戰爭挑戰,包括恐怖主義集團(如基地組織和真主黨)、毒品走私組織(如墨西哥“卡特爾”販毒集團)、全球暴力活動集團(如無政府主義分子集團)等非政府組織。此外,美國還面臨著出於某些國家(如伊朗)出於自身目的而形成的、某些國家(如墨西哥)因統治力薄弱而造成的非常規戰爭威脅。這些威脅的網絡性、適應性正在逐步提高,而且已借力網絡空間開拓招募人員、收集情報、進行訓練、散佈宣傳、獲得資助和實施行動的新途徑。
為說明未來威脅,有必要突出強調基地組織及其附屬組織,目前他們因遭到巨大打擊而有些神秘的逐步消失。未來由基地組織及其附屬組織造成的威脅可能會取決於以下幾項因素:領導結構的倖存,北非、中東和南亞等地區國家薄弱的統治力,地方組織的某些支持。根據當前趨勢,基地組織很有可能將保存重要領導人(巴基斯坦可能例外),某些國家政府的統治力將依然薄弱,基地組織將在某些國家得到地方性支持。基地組織的目標也可能一如既往:推翻多個政權建立泛伊斯蘭教王權(近敵,或者說是“攘內敵”),對抗美國及其盟友(遠敵,或者說是“抗外敵”)。但是,這些趨勢將如何發展尚不明朗。例如,基地組織作為一種全球性活動可能更加分散,在巴基斯坦的基地核心力量與其在伊朗(伊朗基地組織)、也門​​(阿拉伯半島基地組織)、索馬里(伊斯蘭青年軍)、北非(伊斯蘭馬格里布基地組織)或者其他地區的基地組織關係弱化。這種分散,將使基地組織沿由敘利亞戰略家​​阿布•阿爾蘇里(Abu Mus’ab al-Suri)所設想的方式發展,更多地捲入“個人聖戰”和“小細胞恐怖行動”。
基地組織的泛伊斯蘭教運動意味著美國將需要對抗他們在多外地區的支持力量。基地組織的附屬組織及全球盟友分佈如圖1所示。此圖突出介紹了未來基地組織可能支持暴亂集團的國家。在部分國家(如沙特阿拉伯),基地已經嘗試發起暴亂行動,而且遭到失敗,但他們可能會再次嘗試。在另外一些國家(如也門、伊拉克),基地組織已經協助了暴亂集團。圖中以黑色顯示基地組織將支持或者繼續支持暴亂活動的國家。特別值得注意的是,對於一些非洲國家(如尼日利亞、埃及)和中東國家(如約旦、伊朗),基地組織將抓住一切機會支持暴亂活動。
2
除了這些威脅,美國未來非常規戰爭努力將會受到其他各種挑戰的影響。包括:
•跨機構合作。跨機構合作似乎在某些組織之間已經有所提升,如美國特種作戰和中央情報局。但在其他一些組織之間,如國防部和國務院、美國國際開發署(USAID)等政府機構,跨機構合作尚處於一種混沌狀態。不管是在阿富汗還是在也門,這些挑戰經常會在戰略、戰役和戰術層次上造成軍事機構和政府機構之間的關係緊張化。
•越戰綜合症。在伊拉克和阿富汗以及在可能發生於朝鮮和台灣的常規性軍事摩擦中的一些挑戰,可能會使美國軍界部分人忽視未來非常規戰爭的重要性。如約翰•納格爾(John Nagl)在他反暴亂戰爭研究中所總結到的,關於越戰後時代:“美國軍隊認為美國不應當再次自陷於反暴亂作戰,而不是直面美國軍隊反暴亂作戰原則在越戰中遭到失敗這一事實。”不但非常規戰爭對於可預見的未來仍將極為重要,而且還有必要對“應當如何制止暴亂活動”等議題進行更進一步的研究。
•美國部隊的健康度。超過十年時間的戰鬥,已經使深陷非常規戰爭泥淖的美國部隊異常沉重。官兵已經不得不處理其家庭所承受的巨大壓力、創作後應激障礙(PTSD)、戰爭創作和其他無數挑戰。
•技術性挑戰。未來,暴亂分子和恐怖主義集團將更多地利用田因特網和社會媒體論壇進行通信聯繫、散佈宣傳、招募人員、完成其他任務。圖2指出了至2015年全球互聯網流量趨勢。總體上說,互聯網流量將以年復合增長率32%的速度增長,也就是至2015年接入國際互聯網的設備將是全球總人口的兩倍。到2015年,Wi-Fi技術和移動設備的互聯網流量將佔總流量的54%,而有線設備的互聯網流量將佔總流量的46%。這一增長將不僅僅發生於西方,而是將以更快的速率發生於拉丁美洲、中東和非洲。這些發展,將有可能會暴亂行動及其戰術產生重大影響,使暴亂分子更輕易的招募人員、散佈宣傳和通信聯繫。
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量2
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量[保存到相冊]

二、戰略
何種戰略最適於解決未來挑戰?美國國防部《2010年四年防務評估報告》​​和《2012年戰略評估》都簡要提及了非常規戰爭。但是,如果我們堅持將“戰略”定義為“運用武裝力量和其他工具達到軍事和政治目標”的話,這些文件報告都沒有總結出非常規戰爭戰略。美國國防部出版物《非常規戰爭:對抗非常規威脅》對非常規戰爭進行了更多實質性研究,但仍然主要集中於美國武裝力量應當如何在未來一場軍事戰役中實施聯合作戰,而不是關於戰略的問題。由於在這些評估工作中缺乏非常規戰爭戰略,我們必須向別處尋求答案。以下我概要介紹幾個範例。
(一)反暴亂
有兩種主要的反暴亂戰略適用於美國的非常規戰爭。
1.人口中心戰略:第一種戰略是在戰地手冊3-24和其他資源中提出的人口中心戰略。戰地手冊3-24從英國在馬來亞、法國在阿爾及利亞的軍事行動中提取了很多具有最佳實踐意義的案例。在這些以及其他案例中,反暴亂也就是治理。但是,在大部分近期案例中,外部勢力很難迫使當地政府作出必要的政治性改變。正如美國在越南和阿富汗所經歷的那樣,外部勢力無法強迫當地政府成為合法政權。另外,部署大量外來兵力也不是總能取得成功。
2.間接戰略:在一些案例中,最好的途徑可能會將主要著力點放在建議、裝備和支援當地常規和非常規部隊和組織之上的間接戰略。這種援助,包括國外內部防禦(Foreign Internal Defense)和非常規戰爭,已經歷史性地成為美國特種作戰部隊和情報機構的任務。美國在20世紀50年代以及自2001年開始對菲律賓、20世紀60年代對泰國、20世紀90年代和21世紀初對哥倫比亞的援助工作,相對成功地削弱或者擊敗了暴亂集團。在每一案例中,美國所採用的都是間接途徑而不是直接途徑。間接途徑意味著美國人員要向作戰中的主辦國部隊提供建議和支持。雖然這一支持有時也會包括戰術領導力問題,但其焦點始終是幫助主辦國而不是美國元素對抗敵人。
(二)暴動
在另外一些時間裡,美國可能會需要支持暴亂集團,可能必須在以下兩種戰略選擇其一。
1.毛澤東主義者的暴動戰略:美國可以選擇的第一種戰略是毛澤東游擊戰略,在上世紀80年代的阿富汗戰場上,美國就曾以此戰略對抗蘇聯。這種戰略,組織相當一部分國家人口,為政府帶來巨大消耗。雖然毛澤東游擊戰略的目標是對抗武裝力量及其支持網絡,但其目標是瓦解攻擊者的鬥志,而不一定是對方的作戰實力。這種戰略的目標並不是確保迅速擊潰政府。正如毛澤東所指出的,戰略的目標是消耗敵人使之最終投降,即“要敵進我退,敵駐我擾,敵疲我打,敵退我追。”
毛澤東游擊戰略包括三個順序推進又相互重疊的階段。第一階段是在人民大眾中建立暴動政治和軍事結構。如毛澤東所總結的:“游擊戰的主要特徵就是依靠人民群眾自己建立戰線和其他組織。”第一階段的主要目標之一,是發動盡可能多的人民參加運動。當毛澤東游擊戰略貫徹於農村暴動,也就開始適用於城市暴動。如果暴動可以逐步取得支持並獲得初步勝利,則進入第二個階段,這一最為漫長的階段的主要特點是游擊戰爭和逐步擴張。獲得更多勝利後,游擊戰將使政府軍事力量士氣低落、毫無鬥志、逐漸背叛。如此,戰爭就進入第三階段,即瓦解敵人。暴亂轉變為以政府垮台為目的的大規模常規機動攻擊。
2.常規暴動戰略:美國可以選擇的第二種戰略是常規暴動戰略,美國在2001年打擊“塔利班”行動中採取了這一戰略。這一戰略,跳過毛澤東游擊戰略的前兩個階段,主要以常規軍事行動打擊對方。戰略的內容包括運用武裝力量俘獲或者破壞敵方武裝力量,從而控制其人口、領土、城市或者重要工業中心和通信中心。戰略的目標是以一次決定性行動或者一系列行動,通過擊敗敵人賴以抵抗的物理實力,贏得戰爭。例如,暴動部隊可能會向前推進,奪取防禦方的戰略設施,如首都、通信中心或者基地,而防禦方則也採取行動進行對抗。雙方因此將展開一場戰役或者一系列戰役,直到了一方承認失敗或者形成政治協定。
三、有效的範例
“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的發展是近期反暴亂行動的最有效模式之一。此前三年,美國特種作戰部隊一直在廣大農村發展這一模式。他們的目標是幫助阿富汗人民自覺行動起來,重建傳統性安全機構、經濟發展和與阿富汗歷史、文化相一致的非正式管理。在本質上,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊就具有聯合性和跨機構性的特點。自2009年開始,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊部署阿富汗和美國兵力進入阿富汗農村,幫助地方群落的安全、管理和發展,使他們更好地聯結於中央政府。 “鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的根據點很快在整個國家內蓬勃發展,最終成功從“塔利班”手中奪回了領土。
四、結論
根據美國近期在非常規戰爭和未來威脅的經驗,對以下幾項問題應當加以考慮:
(一)組織:根據當前威脅和挑戰,美國特種作戰部隊司令部(SOCOM)應當在打擊恐怖分子、暴亂分子和其他非常規戰爭威脅中發揮前線“國防部”的作用。儘管美國的經濟形勢較為嚴峻,我們還是應當繼續(如果不是增加)對未來各種項目的投資,如“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊項目。
(二)美國部隊的健康度:由於非常規戰爭部署,美國官兵及其家庭已經處理了無數壓力。這些威脅的可能性繼續發展以及兵力部署,意味著美國國防部需要繼續加強針對官兵及其家庭的身體和心理健康項目。 2012年3月發生於阿富汗坎大哈省的美國士兵槍殺平民事件,為美國非常規戰爭行動帶來了負面影響,而且從更廣泛的意義上說也不利於美國外交政策。
(三)訓練和教育:特別是對於美國常規部隊來說,非常規戰爭軍事訓練具有臨時特設的性質。在一些美國核心軍事機構,如美國陸軍戰爭學院,非常規戰爭軍事訓練相對較好。但是,目前非常規戰爭軍事訓練和投資面臨著被消弱的危險,因此某些部門和機構可能會認為非常規戰爭軍事訓練已經過時。和越南戰爭之後所發生的事一樣,這將是一個極為重大的錯誤。
(四)跨機構合作:國會可能會考慮支持一項對非常規戰爭戰役中的跨機構合作經驗進行評估的工作,正如他們對正在阿富汗和伊拉克執行打擊恐怖主義行動的跨機構團隊所做的努力一樣。跨機構合作並沒有完成發揮出應當具備的效能,我們應當考慮進行一項客觀性、解析性評估。
非常規戰爭鬥爭是一種長期的活動,其戰場仍將是全球性的,會從美國、英國漫長海岸線延伸到也門、巴基斯坦荒無人煙的山頂。這一斗爭將持續數十年,而不是幾個月或者幾年,這是一項對大部分西方人來說都無法輕易處理的概念。

Source:  http://mil.sohu.com/20121026

 

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare 中央军事委员会解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare

中央军事委员解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

2010年12月19日 07:04

解放军报

Winter season, a confrontation exercise started somewhere in the south.

Just started fighting, “blue” group on electronic jamming to capture a group of unidentified electromagnetic signals.

Due operator eager to interfere when the signal was a commander of an emergency stop. He concluded that this group of signals is issued by the “Red Army” senior command authority, premature interference might arouse his suspicions. Right on cue, when the “Red Army” attack battle, they suppress this band in real time, effectively disrupting the “Red Army” combat deployment.

The Commander, General Miaosuan, of the “Blue Army” commander, that army outstanding commanding officers, the head of the Guangzhou Military Region regiment Xie Jinbo.

More than 60 million units of information data, witnessed his dedication and hard

The different kind of exercise summary, attracted the attention of the organizers of a number of exercises: “a certain type of equipment, depending on the conditions under conditions of less than two kilometers through, the interference effect is reduced by 13% ……” opened this up to 14 million words of summary reports, data everywhere so to speak, has changed the traditional reporting “heavy qualitative description, quantitative analysis of light,” the chronic illness.

These years, with the information technology and new equipment to allot troops, Xie Jinbo keen to find, sometimes combat environment, the nuances of equipment performance data are likely to affect the outcome of the war. In one exercise, since some stations no good equipment to control the temperature, humidity, resulting in interference to fail.

Moreover, to improve combat capability-based information system, it is also inseparable from the construction of the battlefield database. In contrast to many of the training 谢金波 found in advance into a battlefield data information technology equipment, compared with no injection data of “bare metal”, the highest combat effectiveness actually thousand fold difference.

Xie Jinbo deeply felt, each data is a valuable resource, he began a long, hard data acquisition. On one occasion, in order to obtain a certain type of equipment interference in different terrain conditions data distance, Xie Jinbo has spent more than two years, after several training, practice exercises, and finally collect the relevant data together. In recent years, in order to gain valuable operational data, he often worked day and night, tirelessly, nearly 300 days a year to soak in the training field.

Today, more than 60 million units of information data added to the database in the regiment of information technology equipment for command and decision automation solidify a solid foundation. Meanwhile, dozens of main equipment in the operating parameters of a variety of conditions are constantly refreshed, the regiment as a basis for improvement and innovation in more than 50 kinds of tactics and training methods.

Let new equipment enter onto the “battlefield,” have courage to play

July 2009, the Central Plains some ancient battlefield. Army fielded some type information equipment unit of soldiers gathered here, in the invisible space heated game.

Military leader far away in Guangzhou was very worried: 谢金波 and his forces can accomplish the task drill? You know, the regiment fielded only 14 days this equipment, this exercise they cannot participate.

At first, the military solicit the views of the regiment, led by Xie Jinbo insisted on participating. Organs Staff Recommendation: Even through emergency training, the soldiers also only master the basic operating, while sister unit has also been fitted out in the shortest one and a half, we have accumulated a wealth of coaching experience, and if a hit on units and individuals are negative.

Getting remark, Xie Jinbo eyes stare: equipped with new equipment as is the future battlefield to defeat the enemy, if you cannot make new equipment onto the “battlefield”, this is our soldier’s dereliction of duty.

In this drill, Xie Jinbo day to lead the troops to engage in combat, in the evening, led cadres backbone fumble summary, truly a “fight a battle further.” Just a few more than 40 days, the soldiers not only mastered this new equipment, but also several times in the walkthrough cornered his opponent. Finally, the regiment was named “advanced unit in the exercise.”

In this exercise, he proposed an idea to give the headquarters of heads and experts highly recognized. He led troops prepared this type of equipment operation manuals and Tactics methods, training materials issued by the headquarters of the army as a similar force. Three years, under the leadership of 谢金波 team constantly explore new equipment group training method summary, prepared more than 30 sets of textbooks, teaching Van and user manual, which is the headquarters of promoting the use of five sets; research and development of the three sets of simulation training software The signal automatic identification software, which obtained two military scientific and technological progress prize.

Xie Jinbo familiar people call him “isolated situation.” This is because in training he always trying to force opponents to find out the problem, just a defeat.

Two years ago, Xie Jinbo that neighbor a unit fielded a new equipment, he immediately with a “gauntlet” to the unit. Thereafter, they are back to back through a field exercise, a powerful increase the combat effectiveness of the two forces.

In recent years, the group has several units and 10 Army, Air Force, Navy established a joint training relationship, master a set to adapt to new equipment, tactics and close combat in a variety of complex conditions emergency support experience.

Usually “seeking abortion” as is undefeated wartime. Because of the technical performance of the equipment war fraternal units more familiar with the training he often felt recruited opponents hard enough, he would for ourselves, “made” opponents.

In 2008, Xie Jinbo well-established group “Blue Army” units, and personally served as commander. Under his leadership, our in-depth study of each of a regional war since the Gulf War, from operational to tactical training principles guiding ideology, means of attack, an action an action before, one would like to set a scenario to pull, so that the “blue army” soon He entered the role as military training of “grindstone.”

In a time of “seeking lost” experience, the team’s fighting again and again to give rise. In recent years, various types of exercises held superiors, they times and successfully complete the task.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

初冬时节,一场对抗演练在南方某地打响。

战斗刚刚打响,“蓝军”电子干扰群就捕捉到一组来历不明的电磁信号。正当操作手急于对信号实施干扰时,被一名指挥员紧急叫停。他断定这组信号是由“红军”高级指挥机关发出的,过早干扰可能会打草惊蛇。果然不出所料,当“红军”发起进攻战斗时,他们实时压制这一频段,有效打乱了“红军”战斗部署。

这位神机妙算的“蓝军”指挥员,就是全军优秀指挥军官、广州军区某团团长谢金波。

60多万组信息数据,见证着他的执著与艰辛

这份别样的演习总结,吸引了多位演习组织者的眼球:“某型装备,在通视条件低于2公里的条件下,干扰效果下降13%……”翻开这份长达14万字的总结报告,处处都是这样用数据说话,改变了传统报告“重定性描述,轻定量分析”的痼疾。

后来,这份由谢金波亲自撰写的演习总结被当成范本下发参演部队传阅。

这些年,随着信息化新装备配发部队,谢金波敏锐地发现,有时作战环境、装备性能一个数据的细微差别都有可能影响战争的胜负。在一次演练中,由于某台站没有控制好装备的温度、湿度,结果导致干扰失败。

不仅如此,提高基于信息系统体系作战能力,也离不开战场数据库的建设。谢金波在多次的训练对比中发现,事先注入了战场数据的信息化装备,与没注入数据的“裸机”相比,作战效能最高时竟相差上千倍。

谢金波深深感到,每一个数据都是一笔宝贵的资源,他开始了漫长、艰辛的数据采集。有一次,为取得某型装备在不同地形条件下干扰距离的数据,谢金波先后花了2年多时间,经过多次训练、演习的实践,终于将相关数据收集齐。几年来,为了取得宝贵的作战数据,他常常夜以继日、不辞辛劳,一年有近300天泡在训练场。

如今,60多万组信息数据充实到该团信息化装备的数据库中,为指挥决策的自动化夯实了坚实的根基。同时,数十种主战装备在各种条件的工作参数被不断刷新,团里以此为依据完善和创新了50余种战法训法。

让新装备走上“战场”,他勇于担当

2009年7月,中原某古战场。全军列装某型信息化装备单位的官兵云集于此,在无形空间展开激烈博弈。

远在广州的军区领导很是担心:谢金波和他的部队能否完成好演练任务?要知道,该团列装这套装备仅14天,这次演练他们完全可以不参加。

当初,军区征求团里的意见,谢金波坚持要求带队参演。机关参谋建议:即便通过应急训练,官兵们也仅掌握基本的操作使用,而兄弟单位列装最短也已有一年半,积累了丰富的训练经验,要是演砸了对单位和个人都不利。

闻听此言,谢金波眼睛一瞪:配备新装备为的是未来战场克敌制胜,如果不能让新装备走上“战场”,这是我们军人的失职。

在这次演练中,谢金波白天带领部队搞对抗,晚上带领干部骨干摸索总结,真正做到了“打一仗进一步”。短短40多天,官兵们不仅熟练掌握了这套新装备,还多次在演练中把对手逼入绝境。最后,该团被评为“演练先进单位”。

在这次演练中,他提出一项构想,得到了总部首长和专家的高度认可。他带领官兵编写的该型装备操作使用手册和战术运用方法,被总部作为训练教材印发全军同类部队。3年来,在谢金波的带领下,团队不断摸索总结新装备组训方法,编写了30多套教材、教范和使用手册,其中5套被总部推广运用;研究开发了3套模拟训练系统软件、信号自动识别软件,其中2项获得军队科技进步三等奖。

在“求败”中砥砺战斗力,是他的制胜之道

熟悉谢金波的人,都叫他“独孤求败”。这是因为他在训练中总是想方设法给部队找对手、出难题,只求一败。

两年前,谢金波得知友邻某部列装了一套新装备,他立即带着“战书”到了该部。此后,他们通过一场场背靠背的演练,有力提高了两支部队的战斗力。

几年来,该团先后与陆军、空军、海军的10几个单位建立起了联训关系,掌握了一套适应新装备,贴近实战的战法和在各种复杂条件下应急保障的经验。

平时“求败”为的是战时不败。由于对兄弟单位装备战技术性能比较熟悉,训练中他常常感到找来的对手还不够硬,他就自己给自己“造”对手。

2008年,谢金波精心组建了团“蓝军”分队,并亲自担任指挥员。在他的带领下,大家深入研究海湾战争以来的每一场局部战争,从作战指导思想到战术训练原则、攻击手段,一个动作一个动作过,一个想定一个想定抠,使“蓝军”很快就进入了角色,成为部队训练的“磨刀石”。

在一次次的“求败”经历中,团队的战斗力一次次得到攀升。在近几年上级举行的各类演习中,他们次次圆满完成任务。

Original Source: 解放军报

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace – 威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace

威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

January 6th 2016

China’s National Defence University

 

Given the recent People’s Liberation Army (PLA) restructuring and renewed emphasis on strategic forces and cyberwarfare units it is no surprise that military experts in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are discussing how to use military force in cyberspace effectively.

when the opposing sides have the ability to ensure invade destroy the other network when you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with and do not attack the other network rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even will form international networks and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.   China Military Online publication Yuan Yi of PLA Military Academy of Sciences, said the article, along with human society’s dependence on cyberspace continues to deepen, cyberspace has become the “fifth dimension of human production and life of the” second class living space “and military confrontation battle space. ” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.   First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace   cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions taken in cyberspace, cyberspace display paralyze enemy control, and cross-domain control of the enemy’s determination and strength of the physical space through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop the enemy in the form of a strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

(A) Advantages of cyberspace deterrence.   Deterrence advantage of cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber-attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value. Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, repeated use, with strong flexibility.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

雙方都具有確保侵入破壞對方網絡的能力時,就可以帶來雙向網絡遏制,使得雙方不得不在一定條件下,遵守互不攻擊對方網絡的遊戲規則,形成一個無形的安全閥,甚至國際上也會形成互不攻擊對方網絡的慣例協議或公約,網絡空間由此成為可以產生巨大威懾效應的戰略領域。網絡空間威懾繼核威懾之後,開始進入大國政治家和軍事家的戰略視野。研究網絡空間威懾的特征、類型和運用要點,成為網絡強國、網絡強軍的必須考量和必要行動。

中國軍網發表中國人民解放軍軍事科學院袁藝的文章稱,隨著人類社會對網絡空間依賴程度的不斷加深,網絡空間成為人類生產生活的“第二類生存空間”和軍事對抗的“第五維作戰空間”。世界各國圍繞網絡空間的主導權、控制權、話語權展開了激烈的爭奪,網絡空間的競爭已達到與人類生存、國家命運和軍事鬥爭成敗休戚相關的程度。思考網絡空間威懾能力建設,具有重大現實和理論價值。

一、網絡空間威懾的優劣分析

網絡空間威懾,是指在網絡空間採取各種行動,展示癱瘓控制敵方網絡空間,並通過網絡空間跨域控制敵方實體空間的決心和實力,從而達到懾敵、止敵、阻敵、遏敵目的的一種戰略威懾形式。網絡空間與實體空間相比所具有的“虛實二相性”,網絡戰與傳統作戰樣式相比所具有的獨特性,決定了網絡空間威懾的優缺點都非常明顯。

(一)網絡空間威懾的優點

網絡空間威懾的優點,主要體現在:一是威懾方式更趨文明和人道。與基於物理、生物、化學殺傷機理的核生化武器相比,網絡戰武器的直接殺傷和破壞效應要遠小於前者,通常不會對自然環境造成永久性破壞和污染,也不會造成大量的人員傷亡,並引發人道主義災難。二是威懾成本低效費比高。網絡戰武器以病毒、木馬等軟件為主,成本相對低廉,技術門檻較低,而造成的破壞效果卻相當驚人。網絡防禦點多面廣,防不勝防,要網絡安全程度每提高一個等級,投入成本會呈指數級增加。網絡進攻的低成本與網絡防禦的高成本對比鮮明,使得網絡攻防呈現“矛尖盾薄”的特點,網絡戰武器因而被稱為“窮國的原子彈”。三是威懾手段多樣實用性強。網絡戰武器多種多樣,網絡攻擊目標多元,決定了有多樣化的網絡空間威懾手段可供選擇。網絡攻擊效果在一定程度上是可恢復的,只要運用實施得當,引發戰爭和促使戰爭升級的風險相對較小。從某種意義上講,核武器的威懾價值遠大於實戰價值,而網絡戰武器則是實戰價值與威懾價值兼具。四是威懾運用可重複靈活性強。“核門檻”一旦跨過就會爆發全面核戰爭,處於核均勢的雙方將陷入相互摧毀狀態,輕易實施核威懾特別是對無核國家進行核威懾,還會招致國際輿論的譴責,這些因素都極大地限制了核威懾手段的使用。而網絡空間威懾軟硬結合、威力可控的特點,決定了其可根據軍事鬥爭形勢的變化和需要,適時調控威懾強度,先期使用、全程使用、反覆使用,具有很強的靈活性。

(B) Lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace is insufficient when it comes to a deterrent effect, mainly reflected in the following:

First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, as of now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing.

Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, and there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect greatly reduced. For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber-attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.

Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you cannot control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, attack, control, prevention and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main types of cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace includes the following; there are cyberspace technology test deterrence measures, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence. There are four types of deterrence operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) Technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(二)網絡空間威懾的不足

網絡空間威懾的不足,主要體現在:一是威懾效果的可信性未得到充分驗證。核威懾的可信度已在實戰中得到了驗證。然而,截至目前,真正意義上的網絡大戰還沒有真正爆發過。人們對網絡戰驚人的破壞力,更多的只是一種猜測和擔憂,網絡戰的真實威力只有經過實戰檢驗後,才能真正令人信服。二是威懾手段的可靠性不太高。網絡戰是敵我雙方網絡攻防持續互動的動態過程,網絡對抗複雜、技術性強的特點,決定了網絡戰攻擊效果具有較大的不確定性,有可能達不到預期作戰目的,使威懾效果大打折扣。例如,對敵實施網絡空間實戰威懾時,敵方若及時採取各種有效防禦手段,就會增加己方網絡攻擊的難度和降低破壞效果,甚至導致攻擊行動的失敗。三是威懾範圍的可控性需進一步改善。病毒武器作為網絡戰的重要武器之一,其傳播性強、可控性較差、影響範圍比較廣,很難針對敵國計算機和網絡發動專門性、針對性極強的攻擊。如果不能控制其有效作用範圍,就會波及第三方中立國家,甚至使自身也成為受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威懾對象的可選擇性受限。核威懾對任何國家都是明確而有效的,而網絡空間威懾的效果與敵國的信息化程度有很大關係。網絡空間威懾對信息化程度高的國家極為有效,而對那些信息基礎設施薄弱,網絡依賴性不強的不發達國家,則很難發揮效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威懾實施的組織相對複雜。世界各個核國家無不對戰略核力量實施集中統管,指揮控制權高度集中,組織實施核威懾行動時可以準確控制到每一個作戰單元,組織實施十分周密。而網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要涉及偵、攻、控、防等多支力量,人員多、規模大,且分散在軍地不同部門和單位,組織起來非常複雜,形成合力不易。

二、網絡空間威懾的主要類型

網絡空間威懾主要有網絡空間技術試驗威懾、網絡空間裝備展示威懾、網絡空間作戰演習威懾和網絡空間作戰行動威懾四種類型。其中,前三種是示形威懾,後一種是實戰威懾。

(一)網絡空間技術試驗威懾

Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) Deterrence in cyberspace equipment display.

Equipment display deterrence in cyberspace, is planning to develop cyber warfare equipment development, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, appropriate disclosure network warfare equipment models, performance, features needed, parameters and development progress, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaked equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence. Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, played a very good deterrent.

(C) Cyberspace exercise deterrence.

In cyberspace combat exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡空間技術試驗威懾,是在網絡戰領域,經常性地進行新作戰概念的先期探索性試驗、新攻擊機理和戰術的效果印證性試驗、新技術的實用化武器化試驗等,並通過媒體向外界披露,以展現本國雄厚的信息技術基礎研究實力,以及轉化為網絡戰能力的巨大潛力,以達到威懾對手的目的。當前,網絡攻防技術仍在快速發展,一項關鍵性技術的突破,往往會對網絡空間安全和作戰產生重大影響,甚至引發革命性變化。誰搶先占領了網絡攻防技術的戰略制高點,誰就能在未來網絡戰中取得明顯優勢。

(二)網絡空間裝備展示威懾

網絡空間裝備展示威懾,是在網絡戰裝備發展規劃制定、技術開發、打靶試驗、定型生產等各個發展階段,根據需要適當披露網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點、參數以及研製進度等情況,以達到威懾對手的目的。其方式主要有兩種:一種是通過在國防白皮書、外交公報以及報紙、期刊、大型網站等權威媒體從官方渠道公開披露,實施顯性威懾;另一種是通過網絡社交媒體或其他非官方渠道,刻意洩露裝備相關情況,實施隱性威懾。網絡空間裝備展示威懾,一方面可以虛構新機理、新概念的新型網絡戰裝備,並渲染其獨特的作戰能力;另一方面可以刻意誇大已有網絡戰裝備的作戰效能。虛中有實、實中有虛,實施模糊政策,使對方摸不清己方真實情況和實力,產生恐懼和忌憚心理。例如,美軍的“舒特”機載網電一體攻擊系統已多次投入實戰使用,對其敵對國家的防空體系構成了嚴重威脅,但其基本原理、工作機制、戰技指標既沒有公開披露,也沒有被他國完全掌握破解,一直處於保密狀態,令人虛實難辨,起到了很好的威懾作用。

(三)網絡空間作戰演習威懾

網絡空間作戰演習威懾,是以實兵或虛擬的方式在網絡空間展開演習活動,並借助各種媒體渠道,向潛在作戰對手展現本國網絡戰能力、實力與決心,以達到威懾對手的目的。網絡空間作戰演習可分為實兵演習和虛擬演習兩種。前者通常在全國範圍內或與盟國聯合進行,一般以演練軍地聯合網絡空間防禦行動為主。近幾年來,美國及盟國多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列網絡戰演習,以及“施裡弗”系列太空-網絡空間演習,很好展現了網絡戰的動員實力、整體防禦水平,以及實施網絡戰的決心。後者通常在國家大型網絡綜合靶場舉行,一般以演練軍隊專業網絡戰力量的進攻行動為主。

(D) Operations in cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace operations, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter fighting a real opponent deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program, and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace.

Cyberspace deterrence general use requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to demonstrate, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purpose. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) Both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations, “Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially soft and hard analysis to find out the enemy Vulnerability member system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber-attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(四)網絡空間作戰行動威懾

網絡空間作戰行動威懾,是指對特定的網絡目標實施攻擊,以確信的攻擊效果來威懾作戰對手的一種實戰性威懾。其運用的時機有兩個:一是當己方覺察敵方即將對己方發動戰爭時,己方選擇敵方重點防禦的關鍵性網絡目標進行針對性打擊,進行預防性、遏制性威懾;二是當敵方通過對己方發起試探性網絡攻擊,實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應立即進行有效的報復性、懲戒性威懾。具有威懾效果的網絡戰行動有多種。例如,對敵電信網滲透破壞,向敵國民眾手機大量發送宣傳反戰短信;對敵電力網進行攻擊,造成敵重要城市短時間的大面積停電;對敵廣播電視網進行攻擊,在黃金時段插播己方特製的視頻節目等等。

三、網絡空間威懾的運用要點

網絡空間威懾總的運用要求是:懾戰結合,以實力、實戰展示能力和決心,力求以小戰體現威懾、以精打確保威懾,以較小的代價實現威懾目的。具體說來,應做到以下幾點。

(一)平戰結合,長期準備

“冰凍三尺,非一日之寒”。成功實施網絡空間威懾,需要平戰結合,在平時就要進行充分細致的準備。一是要進行全面周密的網絡偵察。要求諜報偵察與技術偵察、無線偵察與有線偵察相結合,對敵網絡目標進行長期持續的網絡偵察,逐步摸清敵網絡基本情況,繪制其網絡拓撲結構圖,尤其是分析查找出敵各種軟硬件系統的漏洞。二是要進行大量有效的戰略預置。採用黑客手段,通過利用系統漏洞或口令破譯等辦法,秘密滲透進入敵各類網絡,留下後門,設置跳板機,埋設邏輯炸彈和木馬,為未來發動網絡攻擊預留突破口。三是進行預有準備的網絡防禦。在對敵實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應提前調整網絡防禦部署,使敵預先設計的攻擊路徑,預期利用的系統漏洞,預定執行的攻擊方案難以實施,或實施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敵網絡報復造成的損失。

(B) Careful decision-making.

Control the intensity of decision-making   Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, or their effect may be counterproductive. Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, possibly even nuclear states will be spent on nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) Unity of command, well-organized.

Military organizations implement deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, cannot appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. Should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You cannot select innocuous, the impact was small, and the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you cannot select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.

Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) Actual situation, focusing on strategy.

Sun Tzu said, “it can and cannot be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber-attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber-attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, but no evidence, not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(二)慎重決策,控制強度

孫子曰:“主不可以怒而興師,將不可以慍而致戰”。網絡空間威懾是國家之間的戰略博弈行為,尤其是實戰威懾,敏感性強,必須做到有理、有利、有節,決不能因為威懾“門檻”較低而濫用亂用,否則其效果可能會適得其反。網絡空間實戰威懾對作戰強度控制的要求很高。一方面,若強度太小,敵國政府和民眾不會產生畏懼心理,起不到應有的威懾效果,對方還可能採取同樣的手段實施反威懾,最終導致對抗升級,使己方威懾失效。另一方面,若強度過大,給敵國造成巨大的經濟損失和人員傷亡,引起國際社會的譴責和敵國政府、民眾的仇恨心理,就可能引發敵國運用常規力量進行大規模報復,有核國家甚至可能會動用核力量,這樣不但不能懾止戰爭,反而會起到戰爭導火索的作用。

(三)統一指揮,周密組織

網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要集中指揮,統一籌劃,搞好協同。一是精心組織力量。統一組織軍隊偵、攻、防、控四支力量,積極協調軍地各方網絡戰力量形成合力。尤其是要組織和協調好民間非專業網絡戰力量特別是愛國黑客,不能出現“盲動”現象,以免引發摩擦,擦槍走火,引起網絡戰的升級,或過早暴露攻擊意圖,授人以柄,導致局勢不可控或行動失敗。二是精當選擇目標。應選擇影響面廣,易產生明顯威懾效果的目標。例如,收視率排名靠前的廣播電視頻道、訪問量巨大的門戶網站、用戶眾多的無線通信網絡等。不能選擇無關痛癢、影響面小、民眾漠不關心的目標進行攻擊,易被誤認為是普通黑客製造的網絡安全事件,起不到應有的威懾效果。此外,還要考慮國際法和戰爭法約束,不能選擇易造成人道主義災難的目標,盡量不選取鐵路、航空、金融、醫療等部門的網絡目標,以免激起國際社會和對方民眾的譴責和反感。三是精確控制進程。實施網絡空間威懾性打擊之前,要通過廣泛的輿論宣傳造勢,向敵國發出打擊警告,並向全世界宣告己方行動的正義性,以爭取國際輿論的理解和支持。為突出威懾效果,己方可以高調宣布要攻擊的敵國網絡目標,再突破敵方層層網絡防禦,實施堅決有效的網絡攻擊,必要時最後還可對網絡攻擊效果進行定時恢復,以展現己方高超的網絡攻擊技術和手段,讓敵方決策者和民眾產生防不勝防、難以招架的心理挫折感,從而形成強烈的震懾效果。

(四)虛實結合,注重謀略

孫子所說的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,運用到網絡空間威懾,其要點概括起來就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。“示而不宣”,就是利用網絡攻擊難以追蹤定位這一點,對特定目標實施網絡攻擊,但不對外宣布是己方所為,既展示了己方能力,又使得敵方雖然懷疑是己方所為,但沒有證據,無法追究。“宣而不示”,就是公開宣傳或不經意透露己方研製或虛構的先進網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點,刻意誇大其作戰效能,虛虛實實,虛實結合,使敵摸不清己方真實實力,從而產生威懾效果。網絡戰行動具有追蹤溯源困難、取證複雜的特點,發起方既可以承認,也可以矢口否認,或把責任推給民間黑客組織。

Original Source: www.crntt.iw/888

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

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Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)

中国解放军事科学院_lit

People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces

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Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Source:

http://chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/photo-reports/2016-01/01/content_6840094.htm

Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Reasearch