Chinese Military Reshuffle Carries Deep Significance

02FEB2016 Beijing, People’s Republic of China


China on Monday inaugurated the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) five new theater commands. The northern, southern, eastern, western and central theater commands replace the seven previous military area commands. The change from “military area command” to “theater command” carries more weight than the change from “seven” to “five.”

The essence of the theater commands is clear. The commands are prepared for combat and winning wars, about which the military and the public share a deep understanding. With such a military system, China’s peaceful development will be more serious and gain more respect from the outside.

It has been decades since the PLA was involved in a war. The outside world focuses more on the Dongfeng ballistic missile and the construction of aircraft carriers than about the military itself. The Chinese army has not made much impression on the world.

Perhaps some would prefer the Chinese military to keep a low profile, and it is even better that they advocate peace. The establishment of the five theater commands heralds a revolutionary change, highlighting the fundamentals of the military and the troops.

From now on, the strength of the Chinese military not only exists in historical documents or rests upon newly developed weapons, but also in its determination for victory and in its preparations.

The more powerful the PLA grows and the more capable it is of engaging in a war, the country will embrace a peaceful rise all the more. This will contribute to the nation’s peaceful rise, otherwise the outside world will only consider that peace is only our compulsory choice. If this happens, the peace of China and the world will face a dangerous future.

A major power will attract all kinds of opportunities for the world’s development and can share in global wealth distribution. But without corresponding military might, instability may brew. The security of a big power relates to the security of the whole world. That a big power is capable of fighting in a war but not obsessed in launching wars fits the common interests of all mankind.

Frankly speaking, the strength of the Chinese military can ensure the country is not intruded on by foreign troops, but it is not enough to promote fair competition and the evolution of order in a globalized era. Some external forces do not accept China’s rise. If such sentiments spread with military aid without restraint, it will hurt China’s security and world peace. There needs to be a tipping point where China is more secure, but how to find the tipping point is a subtle issue.

The Chinese military will shoulder heavier responsibilities in the future. China is close to the historical mission of a national rejuvenation. We are facing an unprecedented landscape, hopes and risks. The PLA will play a key role in helping the Chinese people pass the transition period smoothly and helping the world release some external grievances due to the power shifts of major countries.

Original Source: HERE

China Military Focus of Main Effort in Information Warfare: Electromagnetic Spectrum

来源:解放军报作者:郝嘉 周宁 周任飞责任编辑:张硕

● electromagnetic spectrum owned by the state, is the core of strategic resources for national development, promote social progress

● direct support operations of the electromagnetic spectrum, is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war of the central nervous system

Soul of the information war: the electromagnetic spectrum


Electromagnetic spectrum resources for humanity, as indispensable as water and sun. Information age, the electromagnetic spectrum is changing the world, changing the way people live

Core Tip

Electromagnetic spectrum exists in war by land, sea, air, space the whole time and space, is the only ideal medium capable of supporting mobile operations, decentralized operations and high intensity warfare. Important support elements of the electromagnetic spectrum management as joint operations, throughout the operational readiness, operational planning, operational implementation of the entire process, the role of command and control, intelligence and reconnaissance, weapons guidance, early warning and detection, navigation and other operational elements of the whole, is to improve the combat Important basic capabilities directly related weapons and equipment play information Operational Effectiveness.

Electromagnetic spectrum Past and Present

The physical world there is such a strange phenomenon, alternating current generated in the surrounding space alternating magnetic field, electric field and magnetic field variations mutual contacts to form an alternating electromagnetic field, and can spread from the wave source which produces the distance, this planted in the space at a constant speed of alternating electromagnetic field propagation is electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum, it is by electromagnetic waves lined up according to wavelength or frequency, a formed structure from zero to infinity pedigree, which 0-3000 gigahertz frequency range of radio waves.

Back in October 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent. However, the future Queen of Spain, six months before he heard the news, unfortunately sudden and devastating. April 14, 1865, US President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 13 days after the news spread was known industry’s most advanced British government, coping strategies are overtaken by events. Electromagnetic time unknown, human nature can not enjoy its magic.

In 1888, German physicist Hertz experiment is successful, humans finally touch the existence of electromagnetic waves. In 1901, as the “father of radio” Marconi trans-Atlantic radio communication test is successful, humanity has entered the era of electromagnetic radio communications sweeping the globe. In 1912, after the Titanic wreck, the United Kingdom, the United States and other maritime powers mandatory over a certain tonnage of the vessel must be installed radio stations, in order to protect the safety of life at sea. During World War I, the war all the major powers use radio communication to pass information and commands.

Since then, radio broadcasting, navigation, remote after another, to the development and progress of human society has brought great changes. Electromagnetic wave as an important carrier of information transmission, dash in land, sea, air, space four-dimensional space, accelerate the coming of the information age.













Electromagnetic spectrum is a national resource strategy

Electromagnetic spectrum is the only human transmission of information over wireless media, owned by the state, land, forest, mineral and other resources, as it is both a scarce natural resource in the areas of economic development, national defense and social life indispensable , irreplaceable core strategic resources.

At present, humans can use the radio spectrum in the 275 gigahertz or less, mainly concentrated in the range of 30 Hz to 40 gigahertz, but most are in the 3 gigahertz or less, high-quality resources is extremely limited.Therefore, the world has become intense competition for them.

Frequency satellite orbit resources, for example, known as the 80% share of the “golden navigation frequency”, the US GPS and Russian GLONASS navigation system first to seize the countries in the world have to compete for the remaining resources.

Electromagnetic spectrum is widely used in the economic, military and other fields, combined with the scarcity of resources prominent contradictions, it gradually from the back to the front, electromagnetic space and the game become the world compete for important battlefield.

Each year, the US President issued specifically concerning electromagnetic spectrum “presidential memorandum”, leading the electromagnetic spectrum policy and national army. The British government published its “21st Century Spectrum Management” white paper, clearly the introduction of spectrum pricing, spectrum auction, spectrum trading and other means to encourage the efficient use of spectrum resources development and new technologies.

The study reports that the electromagnetic spectrum can contribute each year to 3-5 percent of the total national economy. From 1995 to 2011, the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other countries for the development of the third and fourth generation mobile communication network, spectrum auction value of $ 130 billion. Russia, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and other countries competing to improve the relevant laws and regulations, maintain the electromagnetic spectrum space to maximize their national interests, strongly promote the electromagnetic spectrum resources market and internationalization.

Manage electromagnetic space “traffic light”

Although the electromagnetic spectrum is present in the natural space, invisible, but it does not mean that the State, organizations and individuals are free to use occupied.

With modern urban traffic management have great similarities, at the technical level, the electromagnetic frequency spectrum management major from, space, time three-dimensional expansion, which is vividly called electromagnetic space “traffic lights.”

Currently, the international scope of the electromagnetic spectrum management mainly through the establishment of an international organization, signed an international agreement to allocate spectrum to resolve unified. States also set up frequency spectrum management and monitoring of the site, and to divide the spectrum resource use.

According to statistics, a US infantry division of about 70 radar, radio station 2800, a Russian motorized infantry division of about 60 radar, radio station 2040 to ensure so much electronic equipment to work smoothly, you need a strong power and spectrum management mechanism. After the baptism of several local wars, the US military high command from the field to have a specialized division of spectrum management agencies from the Department of Defense, the Joint Staff to the armed services, has established a complete set of joint campaign spectrum management system, formed a mature management mechanism.

According to the US Army website reported, the United States developed a new Joint Tactical Radio System, which contains the spectrum defragmentation technology, is not a continuous spectrum of debris re-polymerization, to achieve the integration of resources to meet the needs of purpose. European development of the “Spectrum pool” technology, but also the integration of free spectrum resource collection, and dynamically allocated based on customer needs, improve efficiency in the use of the spectrum.

Now, the world’s major countries are seeking to develop spectrum sharing technology, without changing the existing spectrum allocation rules, through technical analysis tools simulate actual combination, so that different systems can share the same frequency band compatible. In addition, many countries and organizations through the use of advanced signal transmission technology, using a frequency equipment to improve the level of technology, and other means to control the transmission frequency, both to avoid the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment, but also to achieve efficient use of spectrum.

“The 21st century will be the era of the spectrum war”

Traditional air and sea superiority play, must be based on the electromagnetic advantage, losing electromagnetic power, will lose control of the air, sea control, electromagnetic space and space has become, ground and ocean coexistence fourth dimension battlefield. It can be said that the future of information warfare, who won the electromagnetic power, grasps the initiative on the battlefield. Former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Thomas Muller said: “If a third world war, the winner will be the most adept at controlling the use of the electromagnetic spectrum and the party.”

Faced with escalating competition in the world of the electromagnetic spectrum, the US military has issued a joint spectrum vision, strategic planning and the Department of Defense Spectrum “Spectrum war” and other top-level strategic guidance documents, and to take away from the crowded band, the development of high-end spectrum, etc., developed microwave , laser, electromagnetic pulse weapons, etc., to actively seize the spectrum.British forces widely promote the use of intelligent and efficient radio modulation techniques to improve spectrum utilization efficiency of a wireless communication system.

In order to obtain the advantages of the spectrum in the future information warfare, Europe and the United States armed forces through the establishment of specialized agencies electromagnetic compatibility, the use of advanced simulation techniques to develop quality indicators management system, develop joint spectrum management system, etc., to improve battlefield electromagnetic spectrum management capabilities.

In recent years, cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum sensing, frequency control simulation deduction, emerging electromagnetic environmental adaptability analysis of new technologies, to the military electromagnetic spectrum management development has brought great opportunities and challenges. Experts predict that the future will share a common electromagnetic spectrum management towards spectrum resources, spectrum efficiency analysis and refinement of embedded dynamic spectrum management, direction and progress.




















Classic examples of the electromagnetic spectrum

In 1914, the US Navy Atlantic Fleet in the first trial under the state of war radio communication equipment, results strongly spark near neighbor ship transmitters interference interrupt all radio communication, the participants had to make time allocation plan, assigned to the United States for two hours domestic radio transmitter, the other four countries 1 hour each. Thus, the Washington-based headquarters to an interval of 4 hours to its armed forces on the battlefield contact again.

In 1967, the US “Forrestal” aircraft carrier in the implementation of a particular military mission, carrier F-4 “Phantom” fighter ship radar beam is irradiated by the interference, the aircraft hanging space rocket was accidentally fired ignition, hit ship an a-4 “Skyhawk” attack aircraft fuel tank, causing a chain explosion, causing heavy casualties.

April 1980, the US Joint Task Force and local school Rangers joint implementation embassy hostage rescue mission in Iraq. In its way to evacuate due to a communication device and the Rangers are not compatible with the frequent collaboration errors, resulting in a helicopter and transport aircraft collided, eight commandos were burned to death and four serious burns.

May 4, 1982, the Falklands War, the British naval weapon known as a symbol and pride of the fleet, “Sheffield” cruiser by satellite communication and radar systems are not compatible, can only start work in turn, the result was Argentina “Super flag “aircraft launched the” flying fish “missile sunk.

June 9, 1982, the fifth Middle East war, Israel intercepted prior use of the Syrian army radar and “Sam” spectral parameters of the missile launch, just 6 minutes will be stationed in the Bekaa Valley which cost $ 2 billion in 19 “Sam” air defense missile sites completely destroyed. In the next two days of combat, Israeli fighter planes and electronic jamming aircraft with combat, created a miracle in the history of air combat.

After April 21, 1996, the Russian war in Chechnya, the hunting group through special electronic warfare, electronic signal war zone to collect, monitor, cell phone signal reconnaissance to Dudayev, was analyzed to confirm, and lock the phone signal coordinate system, cruise warplanes fired missiles on Dudayev was “targeted killings.”

May 2011, the US Navy Seals and Special Air Service regiment battle the implementation of “Neptune Spear” initiative. SEALs use of “Land Warrior” soldier system, and joint operations center for situation analysis and sharing of intelligence, special operations group UAV crew via satellite communication system commando operations return the White House and the Pentagon. Throughout its action, the US military weapons systems use spectrum resources covering all channels, in just 40 minutes, successfully kill Osama bin Laden.








China’s Strategic Support Forces – Mission and Combat Power Intent


来源:人民网  作者:邱越  时间:2016-01-06


    December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units is quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main mission of strategic support task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and action will be the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army rocket integration, throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support units is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality, mainly the strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support units, help to optimize the structure of military forces, thus improving the overall capacity. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

Yin 卓介绍 said strategic support units main task of the mission is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support unit tasks include: return of target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation operations, and Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission .

During the war, Reconnaissance Force cyberspace can help master the movements of the enemy army to help troops develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory.In peacetime, with the increasing degree of national information technology, security, electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in civil applications in the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities that our country’s socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of many hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation of such important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to the implementation of network attacks, which requires that we must be equipped with appropriate defenses. Strategic support forces in protecting the country’s financial security and people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support units is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic support troops in reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, ocean digital, digital construction and other aspects of the Earth play an important role, and provide strong support for the joint battlefield operations, in order to achieve the goal of winning local wars under conditions of informatization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support units are not a separate fighting force, it will blend in with the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army and other branches of the military rocket actions form an integrated joint operations, strategic combat support units throughout the whole process, penetrated into every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

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Chinese Military Focus on Future Innovation-driven Development & Competition Seize Strategic High Ground

By An Weiping

Source: 2015年12月29   来源:解放军报


The use of “Internet +” to create a new quality of thinking and fighting

Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi Reform Work Conference, to focus on the future military competition to seize the strategic high ground, give full play to the role of innovation-driven development, cultivate new growth point of fighting. At present, China is the depth of promoting the “Internet +” action plan, which is the development trend of the Internet era of profound insight and wisdom to cope. Its essence is to promote the Internet, cloud computing, big data, networking integration and innovation as the representative of information technology and traditional industries, create new productivity. And viewed from the military point of view, the “Internet +” concept of thinking is also important for military innovation, foster new growth point fighting. But the military use of “Internet +”, not simply on the Internet “+” on, but in the military field dedicated “cyberspace” a “+”, and the use of “Internet +” thinking and a new generation of information technology, the establishment of improve the database, by fast and efficient flow of accurate data to improve reconnaissance, command and control, battlefield mobility, firepower, integrated security and information protection, and combat capability, to achieve accurate and timely release of aggregation and the overall combat effectiveness, thus creating adaptation of information technology The new mass combat operations.

“Internet” + target characteristic data, real-time sensing reconnaissance intelligence. Real-time reconnaissance capability is perceived to reach the battlefield transparent, seize the basis and key information superiority.Internet biggest feature is the remote control into the remote “touch” to achieve a seamless link between the sensor and processor, unimpeded access to battlefield information, real-time sensing reconnaissance intelligence. But the actual combat operations, the target is characterized by continuous change, if the lack of accurate target feature “full-dimensional” data, it is difficult to analyze, contrast, identify mass, low-density value of battlefield data, dig out the real and effective information, to achieve timely and accurate perception reconnaissance intelligence. Therefore, we should fully learn the “Internet +” big data analysis model, relying on accurate battlefield information and intelligence center to build, multi-dimensional and dynamic characteristics of the target database to database for support, fast and accurate analysis judged the enemy goal. “Accurate”, refers to a database of all the characteristics of the target data must be true, valuable information and data, can accurately reflect the different characteristics of the target property. “Multi-dimensional” refers to the use of land, sea, air, space, power and other means to obtain the same objective, the different nature of intelligence data and get the target from different angles appearance characteristics, as well as electromagnetic, infrared, and other information; “Dynamic “it refers to adapt to changes in weaponry and other targets, timely reconnaissance target feature information, the first perfect time to update the database, ensure that you always maintain a high accuracy of the data. Relying on the target database should also be characterized by the establishment of operational data analysis model, through the “cloud” on the large amount of data collection operations analysis of intelligence information to accurately determine and predict the enhanced situational awareness and decision support capabilities.

“Internet” + information system integration, to achieve accurate and efficient command and control. Accurate and efficient command and control capability is based on the core information system operational capability.Cyberspace so that all branches of the military combat information systems to achieve remote, synchronous, interactive connection, the commander combat global real-time grasp and mastery of the battlefield situation, belongs to all levels of command elements, each combat unit dynamic and effective action to implement the regulation. Integration must take an integrated approach, different branches of the military, information from different professions, different levels of system integration and other construction. First, functional integration, an integrated command platform, based on the relevant member information systems transformation, embedded sharing member, according to a unified configuration and management strategies, ensemble having interoperability integrated command and control system to ensure that all military branches, interrelated levels of command, synchronous interaction, information exchange command job sharing. Second, the system hinges primarily by branches of engineering and technical specifications according to a unified organization and implementation, through changing, modified (making) the existing command and control system, improve the various branches of the military command and control systems, enhancements and weapons platforms “hinge” capability . Third, data fusion, through a unified data format or data format conversion, data integration between branches Information System.

“Internet” + geographical information, fast place battlefield maneuvers.The essence of battlefield mobility, capacity utilization is decisive and overwhelming operational tempo seize the target location advantage. This requires full-dimensional perception by battlefield battlefield information system geographical information such day or night, we are well aware of how to maneuver the entire road, what factors affect mobility, in order to select the best motor route, timing and fast way to place . The rapid development of Internet intelligent navigation system, real-time provides a convenient quick and precise maneuvering. Therefore, to refer to the “Internet +” geographic information system, the establishment of geographic information as soon as military combat support systems, building geographic information database, and continuously enrich and perfect meteorological, hydrological and other data and road information and data information via satellite data links, etc. Real-time application queries and automatically senses the change, so that regional operational commanders real-time control, the rapid set-motorized determination, commanding troops quickly arrived combat area, to seize the fleeting fighters fighting to win the initiative.

“Internet” + Detective play commentary system, the rapid reaction accurate firepower. The condition of information warfare biggest feature is the “information-led firepower battle,” Internet interconnection links are distributed to the effective integration of various weapons platforms, network-based firepower systems possible. But rapid reaction precision firepower and damage the effectiveness of the play, is an investigation, control, play, commentary closed circuit, the need to establish a body blow interconnected system, like “Internet” + taxi, a “Didi taxi” system software, can be the first to discover and pinpoint the user application, and then through the analysis of user needs, while according to the position information of the vehicle to determine who carried out the service, and the fastest way to push information to the user service vehicles, service vehicles last feedback, to complete the service process. Similarly, the rapid response fire precision strike, the urgent need to establish a “play Detective Comment on” one of the firepower system, surveillance systems, decision systems, control systems, sensor fusion interconnected, so that the data flow and operational processes and seamlessly links mutual drive, always monitor the target information and firepower cell information, a substantial increase in the ability to extract data from the mass targeted; the same time through real-time information exchange, sensor control, task allocation plan and fire damage assessment, greatly reducing identify the target, targeted, target and damage assessment time, effectively improve the dynamic ability to strike targets, found that the anti-forming ability of the best mode.

“Internet” + Things security system, to achieve timely and accurate comprehensive security. Accurate and timely comprehensive support, is adaptive, intelligent means to reach at the desired time and place to provide timely and accurate combat all kinds of resources needed. The adaptive, intelligent, must establish an integrated management and control, integrated transportation security system of things together, things like relying on the development of Internet technology, the Internet and radio frequency identification, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanning technology, achieve mutual connection between anything, and through the exchange of information and communication, positioning, tracking, monitoring and precise management. Therefore, we should actively learn things the idea, and establishing information under combat conditions was associated support systems, integrated use of two-dimensional bar code, electronic tags, automatic identification technology, real-time monitoring and access to supply battle group team strength, guarantee supplies storage and consumption of dynamic information, accurately grasp logistical needs and resources, timely and accurate to the command structure at all levels, to provide comprehensive support group team information security needs. By precise control of the security resources to achieve transparent visualization controllable security process and improve efficiency battlefield support, logistical support adaptive capacity.

“Internet” + preset encrypted information, information protection security control. Effective delivery system based on the combat capability of information systems, data security depends combat controllable. As a result of the “Internet +” and bring the system vulnerability and threats and attacks from internal, external, so that security issues in information systems is very prominent. Therefore for the ever-changing battlefield, the effective implementation of dynamic data encryption. For example, by installing a micro-channel information encryption software that can encrypt messages on demand, voice, video and other information; another example, the terminal end smartphone encryption, anti-eavesdropping technology and SMS encryption and other network information security technology has gradually applied.Therefore, we should make full use of information technology, Internet security, cyberspace whole process of the implementation of dynamic encryption to ensure the confidentiality of information transmission, to ensure the integrity and non-repudiation of the information, communication channel resistance may be active or passive attacks. On the one hand “hard encryption”, and vigorously develop the user terminal installation of secrecy or confidentiality card machine; on the other hand is “soft encryption”, the development of intelligent terminal encryption software, use dynamic encryption algorithm, encrypted instant messages.

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China PLA General An Weiping: Developing Asymetric & Cyber Forces A Requirement for Winning


By Major General An Weiping, Deputy Chinese Army Commander of the PLA 16th Group Army

China’s new-type combat forces have developed rapidly in the past five years with great achievements, but we still lag far behind world military powers in that regard.

Going forward, the construction of new-type combat forces is of critical importance. China should focus on fostering advanced forces and means that are essential for us to seize the high ground in military competition and win information-based battles, and improve our combat capacity through leapfrog development.

New-type combat forces are the important source that leads military reform

Considering the development of the form of warfare, we should have a clear idea of the position and role of new-type combat forces.

First, it is a sharp weapon to win future warfare. The world history of military development shows us that new-type combat forces always decide the outcome of wars with “intergenerational” advantages.

Today, the U.S. and Russia still insist on the path of high-end technological advantages and emphasize the possession of strategic advantages over rivals. This tells us that whoever takes a preemptive step in fostering new-type combat forces will establish winning advantages in the war.

Second, it is the supportive force that pushes tactical innovation. New-type combat forces are a relative term that carries the characteristics of the time. It not only refers to the latest military practices in each period, but also directly drives tactical innovation.

From the famous theories on air/sea supremacy in military history to theories on blitzkrieg and firefight and to today’s air-sea integrated operations, precise and fast operations, cyberspace warfare and long-distance coordinated operations, they have all experienced the same process from emergence to development. The appearance of every tactical theory is backed by corresponding new-type combat forces.

Third, it is an important source that leads the military reform. With special combat mechanism, unique fighting efficiency and brand new fighting approaches, new-type combat forces are the vanguards that push the military reform.

We shall establish advantages featuring “we have what the enemy has not, we excel in what the enemy has”.

The several recent local warfare has proven that “all-domain, long-distance, integrated and precise” have become the typical features of combats in information-based conditions. To adapt to the needs of future warfare, we shall accelerate the construction of a range of new-type combat forces and establish advantages featuring “we have what the enemy has not, we excel in what the enemy has”.

We shall reinforce the aerospace early warning forces. Seizing the room for aerospace combat is not only an effective means to ensure a transparent status on the battlefield, but also an important way of forming relative advantages.

Based on our military aerospace weapon and reconnaissance satellites operating in the space, we shall form the aerospace support forces. Meanwhile, we shall also develop space weapon and foster space strike capability to secure the space supremacy.

We shall strengthen the strategic delivery force. Given its long strategic depth, China urgently needs a long-distance delivery force commensurate with its position as a strong power to effectively deal with international situations and safeguard the nation’s strategic security.

We shall insist on the development direction of military-civilian integration, rely on a number of military and civilian departments to build strategic delivery platforms and transportation mechanisms integrating railway, road, water transport, aviation and spaceflight, so as to guarantee military-civilian coordination, fast combat readiness and deployments in case of any situation.

We shall expand the unmanned combat force. Boasting such advantages as strong adaptability, fast response, long working hours and high functional integration, unmanned combat force is an important means to reduce casualties in future manned combats.

At present, China’s military unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been developed and used at a fast rate, but the development of emerging unmanned forces such as unmanned vehicle, vessel and underwater vehicle is backward.

Therefore, we shall step up comprehensive construction and form a professional unmanned troop that can both fight independently and cooperate with manned troops, integrating reconnaissance, strike and evaluation.

Cyberspace combat is the strategic means to obtain asymmetrical advantages.

The cyberspace is an important battlefield to obtain the information supremacy and a strategic means to obtain asymmetrical advantages. As the U.S. has applied a string of cyber virus weapons such as Stuxnet, Flame and Suter, main countries around the world are all building their “cyber forces”.

Building a “cyber force” as soon as possible is a requirement raised by the time to safeguard national cyber security and sovereignty and win information-based war.

We shall foster a standard and professional new-type “cyber force” integrating cyber attack and defense as well as information security to obtain the cyber supremacy.

Moreover, cyber terrorism is a new form of terrorism arising from the information network, and fighting cyber terrorism has become a prominent topic in national security, international policies and relation.

Therefore, it is imperative to carry out international cooperation and form an “international peacekeeping” force to fight against cyber terrorism.

China’s New Cyber & Strategic Support Troops ‘Building Strong Armed Forces’




Author: Zou Weirong

It was a solemn moment. December 31, 2015, the Chairman personally awarded as a strategic learning support units and caused precepts flag, army declared a new combat force was formally established as a strategic support troops embark on a new journey to fulfill the new mission issued a mobilization order.

To thoroughly study and implement learning Chairman precepts, enhance strategic support troops to join the construction of civic pride mission responsibility, established at the beginning, troops immediately deployed to carry out continuous seven days of “Remember the President of precepts, build strong armed forces’ special learning education.

Takatsu strategic support troops commander, political commissar Liu Fu, etc. Standing Committee were around even as lectures on different topics tutoring, group party committees to take over the party committee, will branch, group discussions and other forms of in-depth study precepts, and effectively use learning important speech Ningxinjuli Chairman, led a branch has created a collection of glorious history of heroic troops under the banner of reform and strengthening the military, embarked on building a strong support force modernization strategy the great journey.

A newly formed troops first to cast the soul, what the soul is? Soul is the party’s absolute leadership over the army is the absolute loyalty, absolute purity, absolute reliability

The history of the people’s army grow, with the party’s theory is that a condensed history of the military strength of will.

“The President precepts is that we start this newly formed unit started mobilization, total program of construction and development of strategic support units, is to carry out current and future work always follow.” Inaugural meeting was held the same day, members of party committees strategic support troops in the night study and discussion Organization said excitedly, recalling deepening the reform process, the decision-making practice president himself, personally promote, reflecting strong military power Vast logistics and ambition, is a celebration of rock-solid anyone, and to tackle tough reform courage boldness, showing the control global leadership and coping with complicated situations superb wisdom.

“Core with the party,” the phrase after the smoke of war passed down through generations, and today remains a strategic support troops soldiers loudest oath. Strategic support troops in a base exchange statement spoke of the Party, must put ideological and political construction in the first place, always tighten the string of ideological struggle, soldiers lay a solid hold high the banner of the party’s command of the ideological foundation, as soon as forging forming a iron-clad belief, ironclad belief, ironclad discipline, play a strong iron-clad troops.

A base a theme of “the kind of attitude to heritage red gene” study and discussions were being enthusiastic, strategic support troops in passionate leadership in teaching about the base of the predecessor to heed the call of the Party of the stories of hard work, so that the officers and men deeply moved and incentives. Many comrades spoke, we are pioneering the founding generation, but also the need to sacrifice a generation, but with the older generation of entrepreneurs, “township forget to go out, forget appearances body” than ideological level, we still have gaps.

“Reform is a final exam, the exam is the loyalty of the party’s leading cadres, official servants heart, a man of purity”, “loyal to the Party, the party’s command, we must conscientiously obey the overall situation, the correct treatment adjustment of interests” … … In recent days, reporters walking in the strategic support units into every barracks, officers and soldiers to join the reform can be heard everywhere, determined and strong army sonorous oath.

The more in-depth study and understand the strong belief that the Army-strong army, to join the reform of the conscious action. Many soldiers spoke, history tells us that if the party is to win the call, with the party that is brilliant!











Chairman learning new combat force building depicts the grand blueprint to make the blueprint into reality, we also need the relay to draw specific “construction plans”, the strategic project to improve the fighting capacity building to implement

Construction of new combat forces require specific blueprint “construction plans” to implement, can not put “construction plans” painted well, painted solid, painted in place, step by step to the blueprint into reality, is this newly formed army faces severe test.

Special study of education, many comrades spoke, strategic support units unique strategic properties, requirements must be based on the overall focus on the overall development of thinking planning and construction, the establishment of innovative thinking, new ideas, forward-looking vision. Construction and development of new combat forces, the use of “new ideas, new materials, new technology,” can not cover bungalow drawings to build skyscrapers new combat forces.

More recently, the strategic support troops cadres in a new atmosphere: sit down and study the war more and more meditation, study of the wind malpractice, some departments also provided with one hour a day of World classic examples, organ office buildings at night often brightly lit.

Cadres say, by learning the Chairman precepts of the newly formed task force new understanding of the new requirements more in place; by studying the opponent, to research their own research operations, research building, so the opportunities we face challenges, lack their own advantage has been more clear understanding. We must foster a strong sense of crisis, war consciousness, preparing conscious efforts to study the expectations of the Central Military Commission Chairman and exhortations into action implement to improve the combat effectiveness.

Strategic support troops political work cadres talked about persist problem-oriented, is to be like war, like selecting the right main directions unite tackling the will to move away the obstacle bars and fasten buttons integration, and strive to one combined unit , a contradiction becomes one breakthrough point, one combat growth.

The new troops, new responsibilities, new system, how to make a good beginning, a good step? Language preparation for military struggle a frontline commander told reporters, to stabilize thought “fixed disk stars,” trained to win the “real effort” to lay the crucial “active war” to defeat the enemy’s courage when the vanguard and pioneer.








That initial Yan, a Yan in the end, the more newly formed troops, highly dispersed troops, the more strict management, strict requirements, from the outset, standing rules, strict Lured to develop a good style

Shortly after New Year’s Day, a telegram sent to the strategic support units subordinate units, the content is on duty on New Year’s fighting random situation briefing.Bulletin giving names, and pull out the rectification of the list there is readiness consciousness aspect duty order problems, fix a corrective time node.

Strategic support troops party committee had a consensus: the construction of new combat forces, we must attach great importance to establish a new system that infrastructure projects. Bungalows and high-rise buildings to be laying the foundation, but the foundation is not the same standard requirements. As a powerful strategy for modernization support troops this tower foundation, we must adhere to high standards, so that the initial namely Yan, a Yan in the end.

Many researchers talked about, “Initial namely Yan, a strict in the end,” has caused a strong resonance in the army from top to bottom, is the new “Family Style” strategic support troops party committee established. That initial Yan, Yan emphasized that the reference, at the beginning of Yan Yan sight on the ruler. Good to develop good regulations + = good style, which is the reference regulations, to develop by execution.

Execution is the ability, it is style. Strategic support troops Discipline cadres talked about a united collective fight like a Mercedes EMU, allowing each section have power, but not each section each direction. Xi Chairman reform idea is to strengthen the military strategic direction, Party committees at all levels is to take this off, set this to, at all levels must do listen to greet, talk about the rules, discipline, must not be selectively performed conditionally executed, superficial implementation, without effective implementation.

Took that side sacred flag, he took over the mission and responsibility. Strategic support troops party committee made it clear that the way to fight in the morning, but step by step to stabilize; to strive more officers, but realistically element pieces; we will strive to more good results, but to stand the test of practice and history.

Examination such as the battlefield, and the Central Military Commission Chairman learning how to surrender qualified respondents, is a strategic support units every entrepreneur’s practice test. From mountain forests to the north and south, from the Gobi desert to the border of the motherland, the majority of officers and soldiers to keep in mind the strategic support troops Chairman precepts, and actively adapt to changing combat troops, to join the army building strategic support, embarked on a new journey strong army Hing army.








Source: 来源:解放军报

China’s PLA Secret Military Information Troop Strategy //中國軍隊揭秘我军首支战略支援部队

《 人民日报 》( 2016年01月24日 )


China’s People’s Liberation Army in 2016, a new combat force joins the PLA combat organization, it will become an important growth point of China’s  military combat capability and key strength leading to decisive nature of future wars…Secret military first team strategy support troops

December 31, 2015, and the Army leadership organization, listed with rocket forces, strategic support troops officially unveiled the PLA’s “family”!

“Strategic Support Unit is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces, is an important qualitative growth of our military combat capability.” Chairman Xi Jinping stressed that the establishment of strategic support troops, military help to optimize the structure, improve the comprehensive support capabilities.Strategic support troops to adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, and strive to achieve leapfrog development in key areas, starting point to promote high standards of combat forces to accelerate the development of new, integrated development, strive to build a strong, modern strategic support units.

This is exactly what the troops support? Where highlights? Inception, the soldiers doing? Recently, this reporter approached the strategic support units, truly feel this nascent boom strong army troops.

“Without a high degree of integration, there will be no joint operations”

What is the strategic support? Case before us:

May 2011, the US military killed Osama bin Laden’s operations for the armed forces around the world a vivid lesson. On the surface, is the two “Black Hawk” helicopters and 24 “seal” commando on a mission, but behind it has a huge support system: Several pieces of reconnaissance and communications satellites, one responsible for real-time transmission and radio listening stealth unmanned reconnaissance missions, more aerial cover for the war to be F / A-18 fighter, an aircraft carrier battle groups responsible for strategic support, two of the five Central Asian bases and command centers, as well as various support guarantee ten thousand personnel……

This small-scale operations, major systems supporting combat style, demonstrating the winning mechanism of modern warfare. Information leading, system support, elite combat, joint victory, has become the basic characteristics of modern warfare.

“Strategic Support Unit is to support the battlefield, to ensure smooth operations, it is an important force in joint operations.” Military experts briefed reporters, figuratively speaking, strategic support troops for the army to provide accurate and reliable information to support efficient and strategies support guarantee, propped army system “information umbrella” that will blend action and armed with rocket forces, and throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

“Without a high degree of integration, there will be no joint operations.” Strategic support units formed at the beginning, tightly pegged to the bottleneck restricting military joint operations in order to organize the work of planning military research started around how to understand the task, how construction and development, and how a good beginning in a higher starting point, different organizations Category troops, military leaders and experts in related fields, extensive research and discussion exchange, on major issues troop positioning functions, organization and structure, leadership and command system and other ongoing research and feasibility studies.Recently, the main leaders also dispatched military forces to the relevant units, mass fighting around the new generation to carry out special investigations.

Civil-military integration is the information war “nature.” According to statistics, the First World War, the number of industries involved in the development of weapons and equipment technology categories to ten dollars; World War II, extended to hundreds; to the Gulf War, it is in the thousands. In recent years, the proportion of military special technology United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other developed countries, more and more low, while military and civilian technology for more than 80%, the construction of military information technology for more than 80% are from the civil information systems.

Around the realization of civil-military integration, strategic support units proposed aspects from planning, mechanisms, resources, projects, and talent continue to promote the use of the depth of integration. New Year’s a start, force planning construction of a number of strategies, many military enterprises, scientific research institutions, experts figure has emerged, based on a unit, for the country, strong army service, “says think-tank” on the horizon.

“Accelerate the cultivation of new mass combat capability, create new combat forces.”

In the 21st century, the new military revolution shock avalanche. Especially with the continuous breakthroughs in information, intelligence, invisible, nanotechnology and other emerging technologies strategy, the new combat forces into a military capability leapfrog development “growth pole”, a new military power to compete, “darling.”

Public information, the United States set up space combat troops, built a Cyber ​​Command under the jurisdiction of 100,000 troops, to create the world’s largest network warfare forces. Russia’s integration with the Air Force Space combat forces to establish air and space forces, formed a network warfare command structure and the forces. British promoter cutting-edge network warfare units “77th Brigade”, specializing in “unconventional information warfare” by Facebook website platform. Japan through the “Basic Universe” speed up the process of militarization of space, and actively organize a “cyberspace defense team.”

Faced with surging wave of this new revolution in military affairs, who insight into the initiative, who will win in the future. Chairman of the Central Military Commission Xi and decisive decision-making, the formation of strategic support units, to create a new type of war to safeguard national security forces, and the quality of our military combat capability as an important growth point.

Around accelerate the cultivation of new mass combat troops established a technology weaponization of power systems, the ability to combat the direction of development, to enter the combat readiness as an index, advancing step by step actual combat capacity building.

Military construction focus to the war, the work to fight hard. Reporters in an interview that the strategic support units, at all levels of urgency in order to focus on reform, promote transformation, many feel accustomed to the keyboard and mouse of science and technology experts put training uniform, embarked on a parade ground. He has been shelved, parked in the research paper, was taken to the test site and the development of weapons and equipment training ground troop maneuvers, become a new quality to enhance the operational capability of the “multiplier.”

It is understood that a unit of strategic support troops adhere to seek a breakthrough in the prospective, pilot, exploration, disruptive technology, research and development of a new type of combat equipment has passed the preliminary assessment, damage the effectiveness of the equipment reached the international advanced level.

“Only innovation, to seize the strategic high ground military competition”

This year New Year period, strategic support military leaders by telephone, video and checking to your combat troops on duty. From the deep ocean to mountain forests, from the Gobi desert to the border of the motherland, the troops together full member, combat readiness, to meet the troops in combat roles established.

As a safeguard national security, new combat forces, strategic support troops to innovation as a source of power to seize the strategic high ground of military competition, cohesion innovative new combat forces in combat theory, organizational form and mode of development.

On the organizational form of innovation, focusing on a new command structure, strengthen research and exploration of new combat forces woven patterns and leadership and command relationships. Focus to achieve leapfrog development, troops raised to operational requirements for traction, with technological breakthroughs driven, problem-oriented Forced to compete for the development of model approaches beyond, out to chase style, imitative development of passive situation.

“The best way to maintain peace, in accordance with their own terms to redefine the war.” Focus on accelerating the transformation of troops functions, and actively adapt to the mission mandate expansion, strategic support troops keep up with world trends of new military revolution, advance planning the layout of the new combat forces, to establish their own led “war rules” to achieve asymmetric competitive advantage.

Reporters in an interview that the strategic support units, to the troops from the authorities, from the laboratory to the training ground, a “brainstorming” is being rolled rushes –

A unit organized the workshop, big data, cloud computing, 3D printing, a new term nanotechnology often blurted out in the discussion. Graduated from a prestigious university, Dr. Young told reporters a firm voice, “the military planning and preparation is always tomorrow’s war, and even the day after the war.”

In this interview, the reporter for the officers and soldiers often high-spirited spirit, sharp shock of forward thinking on the future of this nascent force confidence.

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Source: 《 人民日报 》( 2016年01月24日 )

Chinese Military Cyberspace Deterrence Characteristics // 中國軍隊的浅析网络空间威慑的特征


中国人民解放军军事科学院 袁艺

Editor’s Note: When the opposing sides have the ability to ensure the destruction invade other networks, you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with the network and do not attack the other rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even internationally will form a network and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, they began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.

As human society’s dependence on cyberspace deepening human production and life in cyberspace has become “second class living space” and military confrontation “fifth-dimensional battle space.” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.

First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions in cyberspace, showing the enemy paralyzed control cyberspace and physical space cross-border control of enemy’s determination and strength through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop An enemy form of strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

Advantages (a) deterrence in cyberspace

Advantages of deterrence in cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value.Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, re-use, and highly flexible.

(B) lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Inadequate deterrence in cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, until now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing. Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect of greatly reduced . For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you can not control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, control, prevent, control and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main type of deterrence in cyberspace

Deterrence in cyberspace there are cyberspace technology test deterrence, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence deterrence four types of operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) equipment display deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace equipment display deterrence in cyber warfare equipment development plan formulation, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, according to the need for appropriate disclosure of network warfare equipment models, performance, features, parameters, and the development schedule, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaking equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence.Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, it played a very good deterrent.

(C) combat exercise deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

(D) operations in cyberspace deterrence

Cyberspace operations deterrence, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter an actual combat the opponent’s deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program; and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace

The overall use of cyberspace deterrence requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to show, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purposes. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations

“Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially analysis to find out the enemy all kinds of soft Vulnerability hardware system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

(B) careful decision-making, control the intensity

Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, otherwise the effect may be counterproductive . Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, even nuclear states might use nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) unity of command, well-organized

Organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, can not appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. It should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You can not select innocuous, the impact was small, the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you can not select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) the actual situation, focusing on strategy

Sun Tzu said, “it can and can not be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, But there is no evidence, can not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, it is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

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Source: 来源:中国信息安全

China’s PLA & Future Unconventional Warfare // 中國軍隊的未來非常規戰爭


Over the past decade, the United States has coped with a large number of unconventional warfare challenges. In Afghanistan, for example, at the beginning of 2012, a total of nearly 432,000 in Afghanistan, anti-riot troops, including US soldiers nearly 90,000 people, nearly 30,000 NATO soldiers, the Afghan national security forces of nearly 300,000 people, near the Afghan local police forces 12,000 people. In addition, the United States to this end spends more than 100 billion US dollars, the deployment of a large variety of advanced platforms and systems. On the other hand, “the Taliban” organization to deploy troops in between 20,000 to 40,000 people (the ratio of anti-riot troops to 1:11), the annual cost amounted to between 100 million to 200 million (with a consumption of anti-insurgency operations funds ratio of 1: 500). In addition, the Afghan insurgent groups from the main use of improvised explosive devices to the Internet using asymmetric warfare strategy and tactics. The ability to “Taliban” organization with limited resources to maintain a longer period of insurgency, highlighting the unconventional warfare challenges facing the United States. Accordingly, this report focuses on the following three questions:

• What is the United States may face challenges in the future unconventional warfare?

• What strategies best suited to address future challenges?

• Which existing cases or model can support these strategies effectively deal with unconventional warfare challenges?

And “terrorism”, “insurgency” is very similar to that, “unconventional warfare” has a variety of definitions. From the practical sense, unconventional warfare violent struggle for the national and NGO legitimacy and influence specific populations carried out.Unconventional threats include the use of guerrilla warfare, terrorism, sabotage, criminal activities and other activities rebel insurrection way countries and organizations. This article begins with a brief discussion of unconventional warfare threats, including threats from national and NGO’s. Then, the paper summarizes the United States in the fight against violence and support the insurrection could take unconventional warfare strategy. Finally, the “village stability operations,” US special forces in Afghanistan (Village Stability Operations, VSO) as an example to discuss.

 First, unconventional warfare challenges

What is the future of the United States could face unconventional warfare challenges?Period of the next decade, the United States will likely face a variety of unconventional warfare challenges, including terrorist groups (such as al-Qaeda and Hezbollah), drug trafficking organizations (such as the Mexican “cartels” drug cartels), global violence Activities Group (such as anarchist Group) NGO. In addition, the United States also faced for some countries (such as Iran) for their own purposes and the formation of unconventional warfare threats from some countries (such as Mexico) due to a result of weak dominance.These network threats, adaptability is gradually improving, and has leveraging cyberspace open up recruitment, intelligence gathering, training, spread propaganda, obtain funding and new ways to implement action.

To illustrate the future threat, it is necessary to highlight the al-Qaeda and its affiliated organizations, and now they have been a big hit because of some mysterious and gradually disappear. Future threat posed by al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations might cause depends on several factors: Some countries support the weak rule of force surviving leadership structure, North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia and other regional and local organizations. According to current trends, al-Qaeda is likely to save important leaders (with the possible exception of Pakistan), the ruling power in some countries will remain weak government, al-Qaeda will be local support in some countries. Al Qaeda may target as always: the overthrow of the monarchy more than one regime to establish pan-Islam (near enemy, or “throw into confusion the enemy within”), against the United States and its allies (the far enemy, or “anti-foreign enemies”). However, these trends are not yet clear how this will develop. For example, al-Qaeda as a global activity may be more dispersed bases in Pakistan to its core strength in Iran (Iran-Qaida), Yemen (AQAP), Somalia (Islamic Youth Corps), North Africa (Islamic Maghreb organizational relationships weaken organized base cloth) or other areas. This dispersion will enable the development of al-Qaida along the Syrian strategist Abu Arz • Lane (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri) envisaged way, more involved in the “individual jihad” and “small terror cells.”

Pan-Islamic movement al-Qaida means the United States will need to support the forces against them in many foreign areas. Al Qaeda affiliated organizations and global allies distribution shown in Figure 1. This figure highlights the future al-Qaida may support insurgent groups of countries. In some countries (such as Saudi Arabia), Al-insurgency operations have been launched to try and fail, but they might try again. In other countries (such as Yemen, Iraq), al-Qaeda has helped the insurgent groups. The figure in black-Qaida would support or continue to support the insurgency in the country. Of particular note is that for some African countries (such as Nigeria, Egypt) and Middle Eastern countries (such as Jordan, Iran), Al-Qaeda would seize every opportunity to support the insurgency.


In addition to these threats, the United States war effort unconventional future will be affected by a variety of other challenges. include:

• inter-agency cooperation. Inter-agency collaboration between some organizations seem to have improved, such as the United States Special Operations and CIA. But among a number of other organizations, such as the Department of Defense and the State Department, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies, inter-agency cooperation is still in a chaotic state. Whether it is still in Yemen, these challenges often result in the relationship between the military and government institutions in Afghanistan in the tensions of the strategic, operational and tactical levels.

• Vietnam syndrome. In Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as some of the challenges that may occur in Korea and Taiwan in the conventional military friction, may make some people ignore the importance of the US military future of unconventional warfare. As John • Nagel (John Nagl) In his counter-insurgency war in the study concluded, and on post-Vietnam era: “The US military believes the United States should not be again trapped in counter-insurgency operations, rather than face the US military counterinsurgency doctrine It was the fact that the failure in Vietnam. “unconventional warfare will not only extremely important for the foreseeable future, but there is a need to” should be how to stop the insurgency “and other topics for further research.

• The health of the US troops. More than a decade of fighting, it has made deep unconventional warfare quagmire of American forces extremely heavy. Officers have had to deal with their families are exposed to tremendous pressure, after the creation of stress disorder (PTSD), wars and countless other creative challenges.

• technical challenges. Future, insurgents and terrorist groups will make greater use of the Internet and social media field communication contact forum, spread propaganda, recruit personnel, to complete other tasks. Figure 2 indicates the 2015 global Internet traffic trends. Overall, Internet traffic will be 32% CAGR growth rate, that is until 2015 devices access to the Internet will be twice the total global population. By 2015, Internet traffic Wi-Fi technology and mobile devices will be 54% of the flow of Internet traffic and wired devices will total 46% of the total traffic. This growth will not happen in the West, but at a faster rate occurred in Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. These developments will likely insurgency operations and tactics have a significant impact, make it easier for the insurgents to recruit staff, spread propaganda and communications links.

Figure 2. 2010--2015 global Internet traffic

Figure 2. 2010–2015 global Internet traffic [Save to album]

Second, the strategy

What strategies best suited to address future challenges? US Department of Defense “Quadrennial Defense Review Report 2010” and “2012 Strategic Assessment” are briefly mentioned in unconventional warfare. But if we insist on the “strategy” is defined as “the use of armed forces and other tools to achieve military and political objectives,” then reports those are not summed unconventional warfare strategy. US Department of Defense publication “unconventional war: against unconventional threats” against unconventional warfare was more substantial research, but still focused on the United States on how to implement the joint operations of the armed forces should a military campaign in the future, rather than questions about the strategy. Due to the lack of unconventional warfare strategy in these assessments, we must seek the answers to elsewhere. The following outlines a few examples I.

(A) counter-insurgency

There are two major counter-insurgency strategy for US unconventional war.

1. Population center strategy: The first strategy is the population center strategy in Field Manual 3-24, and other resources proposed. Field Manual 3-24 from the British in Malaya, France extracted a lot of cases the best practical significance of military operations in Algeria. In these and other cases, the counterinsurgency is governance.However, in the most recent cases, the external forces is difficult to force the local government to make the necessary political change. As the American experience in Vietnam and Afghanistan as external forces can not force local governments to become legal regime. In addition, the deployment of large numbers of foreign troops is not always successful.

2. Indirect strategy: In some cases, the best way might mainly focus on the proposal, indirect strategic equipment and support local conventional and unconventional forces and organizations above. Such assistance, including foreign internal defense (Foreign Internal Defense) and unconventional warfare, has historically become the US Special Operations task forces and intelligence agencies. In the 1950s, the United States and the Philippines since 2001, in the 1960s in Thailand, the early 1990s and the 21st century, Colombia’s aid work, weakening relative success or defeat insurgent groups. In each case, the approach adopted in the USA are indirect rather than a direct way. Indirect way means that the US personnel To combat forces in the host country provide advice and support. Although this support sometimes include tactical leadership issues, but its focus has always been to help the host country instead of the United States against the enemy elements.

(Ii) riot

In other years, the United States might need to support insurgent groups, you may have to select one of the following two strategies.

1. Maoist insurgency strategy: The first strategy is that the United States can choose Mao guerrilla strategy in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the United States had this strategy against the Soviet Union. Such a strategy, a considerable part of the national organization of the population, the government has brought enormous consumption. While Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy is to target against the armed forces and their support networks, but the goal is the collapse of the morale of the attacker, but not necessarily the other’s combat strength. Goal of the strategy is not to ensure the rapid defeat the government. As Mao Zedong pointed out, the objective of the strategy is to consume the enemy to make the final surrender, that “the enemy advances, we retreat to the enemy camps, we harass the enemy tires, we attack the enemy retreats, we pursue.”

Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy includes three sequential advance and overlapping phases. The first stage is to establish a political and military structures riots among the general public. As Mao summed up: “The main feature is to rely on the people’s guerrilla fronts and other organizations to establish their own.” One of the main objectives of the first phase is to mobilize as many people to participate in sports. When Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy implemented in the rural uprising also began for urban riots. If the riots can be gradually achieved support and access to initial victory, then enter the second phase, the main feature of this phase is the most long guerrilla war and the gradual expansion. For more victory, guerrilla warfare will enable the Government military morale, no fighting, and gradually betrayal. So, the war entered the third phase, namely the collapse of the enemy. Riots changed to government collapsed for the purpose of large-scale conventional attack maneuver.

2. Conventional insurrection strategy: the United States can choose the second strategy is routine riot strategy, the United States against “Taliban” in 2001 adopted this strategy in action. This strategy, skip the first two stages of Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy, mainly in conventional military action against each other. Elements of the strategy include the use of armed forces to capture or destroy the enemy’s armed forces, so as to control its population, territory, city or important industrial center and communications center.Objective of the strategy is a decisive action or series of actions, by defeating the enemy on which to resist the physical strength to win the war. For example, the riot troops could move forward, seizing strategic facilities the defense side, such as the capital, the communication center or base, while the defender will also take action to confront. Thus the two sides will launch a campaign or a series of battles, until the formation of a party or a political agreement to admit defeat.

Three, efficient sample

Development “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police force is one of the recent anti-insurgency operations in the most efficient mode. After three years, the United States Special Operations Forces have been in the majority of rural development in this model. Their goal is to help the Afghan people conscious action, reconstruction of traditional security institutions, economic development and consistent with Afghan history, culture and informal management. In essence, the “village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces will have joint and inter-institutional features. Since 2009, “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan and US troops deployed in Afghanistan into the rural Afghanistan to help the local community of security, management and development, and enable them to better coupled to the central government. “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces according to the point quickly flourish throughout the country, the ultimate success of the “Taliban” to recapture the territory.


According to recent US experience in unconventional warfare and future threats, following several issues should be considered:

(A) Organization: According to current threats and challenges, the United States Special Operations Forces Command (SOCOM) should be in the fight against the terrorists, insurgents and other unconventional threats of war to play a front-line “defense” role. Although the US economy is more serious, we should continue (if not increase) investment in the future projects, such as the “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan project.

(B) the health of the US troops: As unconventional warfare deployed US soldiers and their families have been treated countless pressures. The possibility of these threats continue to evolve, and the deployment of troops, means that the US Defense Department needs to continue to strengthen the soldiers and their families for the physical and mental health programs. March 2012 occurred in Kandahar, Afghanistan, US soldiers shot and killed civilians, had a negative impact on the US unconventional warfare operations, but also from the broader sense, is not conducive to US foreign policy.

(C) Training and education: especially for US conventional forces, the unconventional warfare military training of a temporary ad hoc in nature. In some core US military agencies, such as the US Army War College, unconventional warfare military training is relatively good. However, the current unconventional warfare military training and investment in danger of being weakened, so some departments and agencies might consider unconventional warfare military training obsolete. After the Vietnam War, and things like that happen, it would be a very serious mistake.

(D) Inter-agency cooperation: Congress may consider supporting one pair of unconventional warfare campaign experience of cooperation across agencies work assessment efforts as they perform operations against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq for cross-agency team made same. Inter-agency cooperation and did not complete the play should have the performance, we should consider an objective, analytical assessments.

Unconventional warfare struggle is a long-term activity, which will continue to be a global battlefield, will extend from the United States, Britain long coastline to Yemen, Pakistan deserted hilltop. This struggle will continue for decades, rather than months or years, this is a concept for most Westerners can not easily handle.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

過去十年內,美國應對了大量非常規戰爭挑戰。以阿富汗戰爭為例,至2012年初期,阿富汗境內共有近432000名反暴亂部隊官兵,其中包括美國官兵近90000人、北約組織官兵近30000人、阿富汗國家安全部隊近300000人、阿富汗地方警察部隊近12000人。另外,美國為此每年花費超過1000億美元,部署了大量各種先進的平台和系統。另一方面,“塔利班”組織部署部隊在20000人至40000人之間(與反暴亂兵力之比為1:11),每年花費額為1億至2億之間(與反暴亂行動資金消耗之比為1:500)。另外,阿富汗暴亂組織主要運用從使用簡易爆炸裝置到因特網作戰的不對稱戰略和戰術。 “塔利班”組織利用有限資源維持較長時間的暴亂活動的能力,凸顯了美國所面臨的非常規戰爭挑戰。因此,本報告主要關注如下三個問題:
和“恐怖主義”、“暴亂活動”極為相似的是,“非常規戰爭”擁有各種定義。從實踐意義上說,非常規戰爭是國家和非政府組織為特定人群的合法性和影響力而進行的暴力鬥爭。非常規威脅包括運用游擊戰、恐怖主義、陰謀破壞、犯罪活動和暴動叛亂等活動方式的國家和組織。本文首先簡要討論非常規戰爭威脅,包括來自國家和非政府組織的威脅。繼而,本文總結了美國在打擊暴亂和支持暴動時可以採取的非常規戰爭戰略。最後,本文以美軍特種部隊在阿富汗進行的“鄉村穩定行動”(Village Stability Operations,VSO)為範例進行探討。
為說明未來威脅,有必要突出強調基地組織及其附屬組織,目前他們因遭到巨大打擊而有些神秘的逐步消失。未來由基地組織及其附屬組織造成的威脅可能會取決於以下幾項因素:領導結構的倖存,北非、中東和南亞等地區國家薄弱的統治力,地方組織的某些支持。根據當前趨勢,基地組織很有可能將保存重要領導人(巴基斯坦可能例外),某些國家政府的統治力將依然薄弱,基地組織將在某些國家得到地方性支持。基地組織的目標也可能一如既往:推翻多個政權建立泛伊斯蘭教王權(近敵,或者說是“攘內敵”),對抗美國及其盟友(遠敵,或者說是“抗外敵”)。但是,這些趨勢將如何發展尚不明朗。例如,基地組織作為一種全球性活動可能更加分散,在巴基斯坦的基地核心力量與其在伊朗(伊朗基地組織)、也門​​(阿拉伯半島基地組織)、索馬里(伊斯蘭青年軍)、北非(伊斯蘭馬格里布基地組織)或者其他地區的基地組織關係弱化。這種分散,將使基地組織沿由敘利亞戰略家​​阿布•阿爾蘇里(Abu Mus’ab al-Suri)所設想的方式發展,更多地捲入“個人聖戰”和“小細胞恐怖行動”。
•越戰綜合症。在伊拉克和阿富汗以及在可能發生於朝鮮和台灣的常規性軍事摩擦中的一些挑戰,可能會使美國軍界部分人忽視未來非常規戰爭的重要性。如約翰•納格爾(John Nagl)在他反暴亂戰爭研究中所總結到的,關於越戰後時代:“美國軍隊認為美國不應當再次自陷於反暴亂作戰,而不是直面美國軍隊反暴亂作戰原則在越戰中遭到失敗這一事實。”不但非常規戰爭對於可預見的未來仍將極為重要,而且還有必要對“應當如何制止暴亂活動”等議題進行更進一步的研究。
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量2
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量[保存到相冊]

2.間接戰略:在一些案例中,最好的途徑可能會將主要著力點放在建議、裝備和支援當地常規和非常規部隊和組織之上的間接戰略。這種援助,包括國外內部防禦(Foreign Internal Defense)和非常規戰爭,已經歷史性地成為美國特種作戰部隊和情報機構的任務。美國在20世紀50年代以及自2001年開始對菲律賓、20世紀60年代對泰國、20世紀90年代和21世紀初對哥倫比亞的援助工作,相對成功地削弱或者擊敗了暴亂集團。在每一案例中,美國所採用的都是間接途徑而不是直接途徑。間接途徑意味著美國人員要向作戰中的主辦國部隊提供建議和支持。雖然這一支持有時也會包括戰術領導力問題,但其焦點始終是幫助主辦國而不是美國元素對抗敵人。
“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的發展是近期反暴亂行動的最有效模式之一。此前三年,美國特種作戰部隊一直在廣大農村發展這一模式。他們的目標是幫助阿富汗人民自覺行動起來,重建傳統性安全機構、經濟發展和與阿富汗歷史、文化相一致的非正式管理。在本質上,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊就具有聯合性和跨機構性的特點。自2009年開始,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊部署阿富汗和美國兵力進入阿富汗農村,幫助地方群落的安全、管理和發展,使他們更好地聯結於中央政府。 “鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的根據點很快在整個國家內蓬勃發展,最終成功從“塔利班”手中奪回了領土。
(二)美國部隊的健康度:由於非常規戰爭部署,美國官兵及其家庭已經處理了無數壓力。這些威脅的可能性繼續發展以及兵力部署,意味著美國國防部需要繼續加強針對官兵及其家庭的身體和心理健康項目。 2012年3月發生於阿富汗坎大哈省的美國士兵槍殺平民事件,為美國非常規戰爭行動帶來了負面影響,而且從更廣泛的意義上說也不利於美國外交政策。



China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare 中央军事委员会解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare


2010年12月19日 07:04


Winter season, a confrontation exercise started somewhere in the south.

Just started fighting, “blue” group on electronic jamming to capture a group of unidentified electromagnetic signals.

Due operator eager to interfere when the signal was a commander of an emergency stop. He concluded that this group of signals is issued by the “Red Army” senior command authority, premature interference might arouse his suspicions. Right on cue, when the “Red Army” attack battle, they suppress this band in real time, effectively disrupting the “Red Army” combat deployment.

The Commander, General Miaosuan, of the “Blue Army” commander, that army outstanding commanding officers, the head of the Guangzhou Military Region regiment Xie Jinbo.

More than 60 million units of information data, witnessed his dedication and hard

The different kind of exercise summary, attracted the attention of the organizers of a number of exercises: “a certain type of equipment, depending on the conditions under conditions of less than two kilometers through, the interference effect is reduced by 13% ……” opened this up to 14 million words of summary reports, data everywhere so to speak, has changed the traditional reporting “heavy qualitative description, quantitative analysis of light,” the chronic illness.

These years, with the information technology and new equipment to allot troops, Xie Jinbo keen to find, sometimes combat environment, the nuances of equipment performance data are likely to affect the outcome of the war. In one exercise, since some stations no good equipment to control the temperature, humidity, resulting in interference to fail.

Moreover, to improve combat capability-based information system, it is also inseparable from the construction of the battlefield database. In contrast to many of the training 谢金波 found in advance into a battlefield data information technology equipment, compared with no injection data of “bare metal”, the highest combat effectiveness actually thousand fold difference.

Xie Jinbo deeply felt, each data is a valuable resource, he began a long, hard data acquisition. On one occasion, in order to obtain a certain type of equipment interference in different terrain conditions data distance, Xie Jinbo has spent more than two years, after several training, practice exercises, and finally collect the relevant data together. In recent years, in order to gain valuable operational data, he often worked day and night, tirelessly, nearly 300 days a year to soak in the training field.

Today, more than 60 million units of information data added to the database in the regiment of information technology equipment for command and decision automation solidify a solid foundation. Meanwhile, dozens of main equipment in the operating parameters of a variety of conditions are constantly refreshed, the regiment as a basis for improvement and innovation in more than 50 kinds of tactics and training methods.

Let new equipment enter onto the “battlefield,” have courage to play

July 2009, the Central Plains some ancient battlefield. Army fielded some type information equipment unit of soldiers gathered here, in the invisible space heated game.

Military leader far away in Guangzhou was very worried: 谢金波 and his forces can accomplish the task drill? You know, the regiment fielded only 14 days this equipment, this exercise they cannot participate.

At first, the military solicit the views of the regiment, led by Xie Jinbo insisted on participating. Organs Staff Recommendation: Even through emergency training, the soldiers also only master the basic operating, while sister unit has also been fitted out in the shortest one and a half, we have accumulated a wealth of coaching experience, and if a hit on units and individuals are negative.

Getting remark, Xie Jinbo eyes stare: equipped with new equipment as is the future battlefield to defeat the enemy, if you cannot make new equipment onto the “battlefield”, this is our soldier’s dereliction of duty.

In this drill, Xie Jinbo day to lead the troops to engage in combat, in the evening, led cadres backbone fumble summary, truly a “fight a battle further.” Just a few more than 40 days, the soldiers not only mastered this new equipment, but also several times in the walkthrough cornered his opponent. Finally, the regiment was named “advanced unit in the exercise.”

In this exercise, he proposed an idea to give the headquarters of heads and experts highly recognized. He led troops prepared this type of equipment operation manuals and Tactics methods, training materials issued by the headquarters of the army as a similar force. Three years, under the leadership of 谢金波 team constantly explore new equipment group training method summary, prepared more than 30 sets of textbooks, teaching Van and user manual, which is the headquarters of promoting the use of five sets; research and development of the three sets of simulation training software The signal automatic identification software, which obtained two military scientific and technological progress prize.

Xie Jinbo familiar people call him “isolated situation.” This is because in training he always trying to force opponents to find out the problem, just a defeat.

Two years ago, Xie Jinbo that neighbor a unit fielded a new equipment, he immediately with a “gauntlet” to the unit. Thereafter, they are back to back through a field exercise, a powerful increase the combat effectiveness of the two forces.

In recent years, the group has several units and 10 Army, Air Force, Navy established a joint training relationship, master a set to adapt to new equipment, tactics and close combat in a variety of complex conditions emergency support experience.

Usually “seeking abortion” as is undefeated wartime. Because of the technical performance of the equipment war fraternal units more familiar with the training he often felt recruited opponents hard enough, he would for ourselves, “made” opponents.

In 2008, Xie Jinbo well-established group “Blue Army” units, and personally served as commander. Under his leadership, our in-depth study of each of a regional war since the Gulf War, from operational to tactical training principles guiding ideology, means of attack, an action an action before, one would like to set a scenario to pull, so that the “blue army” soon He entered the role as military training of “grindstone.”

In a time of “seeking lost” experience, the team’s fighting again and again to give rise. In recent years, various types of exercises held superiors, they times and successfully complete the task.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

























Original Source: 解放军报

Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Reasearch