Chinese Military Cyberspace Deterrence Characteristics // 中國軍隊的浅析网络空间威慑的特征

2016年01月04日

中国人民解放军军事科学院 袁艺

Editor’s Note: When the opposing sides have the ability to ensure the destruction invade other networks, you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with the network and do not attack the other rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even internationally will form a network and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, they began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.

As human society’s dependence on cyberspace deepening human production and life in cyberspace has become “second class living space” and military confrontation “fifth-dimensional battle space.” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.

First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions in cyberspace, showing the enemy paralyzed control cyberspace and physical space cross-border control of enemy’s determination and strength through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop An enemy form of strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

Advantages (a) deterrence in cyberspace

Advantages of deterrence in cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value.Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, re-use, and highly flexible.

(B) lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Inadequate deterrence in cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, until now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing. Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect of greatly reduced . For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you can not control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, control, prevent, control and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main type of deterrence in cyberspace

Deterrence in cyberspace there are cyberspace technology test deterrence, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence deterrence four types of operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) equipment display deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace equipment display deterrence in cyber warfare equipment development plan formulation, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, according to the need for appropriate disclosure of network warfare equipment models, performance, features, parameters, and the development schedule, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaking equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence.Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, it played a very good deterrent.

(C) combat exercise deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

(D) operations in cyberspace deterrence

Cyberspace operations deterrence, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter an actual combat the opponent’s deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program; and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace

The overall use of cyberspace deterrence requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to show, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purposes. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations

“Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially analysis to find out the enemy all kinds of soft Vulnerability hardware system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

(B) careful decision-making, control the intensity

Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, otherwise the effect may be counterproductive . Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, even nuclear states might use nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) unity of command, well-organized

Organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, can not appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. It should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You can not select innocuous, the impact was small, the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you can not select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) the actual situation, focusing on strategy

Sun Tzu said, “it can and can not be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, But there is no evidence, can not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, it is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

编者按:当敌对双方都具有确保侵入破坏对方网络的能力时,就可以带来双向网络遏制,使得双方不得不在一定条件下,遵守互不攻击对方网络的游戏规则,形成一个无形的安全阀,甚至国际上也会形成互不攻击对方网络的惯例协议或公约,网络空间由此成为可以产生巨大威慑效应的战略领域。网络空间威慑继核威慑之后,开始进入大国政治家和军事家的战略视野。研究网络空间威慑的特征、类型和运用要点,成为网络强国、网络强军的必须考量和必要行动。

随着人类社会对网络空间依赖程度的不断加深,网络空间成为人类生产生活的“第二类生存空间”和军事对抗的“第五维作战空间”。世界各国围绕网络空间的主导权、控制权、话语权展开了激烈的争夺,网络空间的竞争已达到与人类生存、国家命运和军事斗争成败休戚相关的程度。思考网络空间威慑能力建设,具有重大现实和理论价值。

一、网络空间威慑的优劣分析

网络空间威慑,是指在网络空间采取各种行动,展示瘫痪控制敌方网络空间,并通过网络空间跨域控制敌方实体空间的决心和实力,从而达到慑敌、止敌、阻敌、遏敌目的的一种战略威慑形式。网络空间与实体空间相比所具有的“虚实二相性”,网络战与传统作战样式相比所具有的独特性,决定了网络空间威慑的优缺点都非常明显。

(一)网络空间威慑的优点

网络空间威慑的优点,主要体现在:一是威慑方式更趋文明和人道。与基于物理、生物、化学杀伤机理的核生化武器相比,网络战武器的直接杀伤和破坏效应要远小于前者,通常不会对自然环境造成永久性破坏和污染,也不会造成大量的人员伤亡,并引发人道主义灾难。二是威慑成本低效费比高。网络战武器以病毒、木马等软件为主,成本相对低廉,技术门槛较低,而造成的破坏效果却相当惊人。网络防御点多面广,防不胜防,要网络安全程度每提高一个等级,投入成本会呈指数级增加。网络进攻的低成本与网络防御的高成本对比鲜明,使得网络攻防呈现“矛尖盾薄”的特点,网络战武器因而被称为“穷国的原子弹”。三是威慑手段多样实用性强。网络战武器多种多样,网络攻击目标多元,决定了有多样化的网络空间威慑手段可供选择。网络攻击效果在一定程度上是可恢复的,只要运用实施得当,引发战争和促使战争升级的风险相对较小。从某种意义上讲,核武器的威慑价值远大于实战价值,而网络战武器则是实战价值与威慑价值兼具。四是威慑运用可重复灵活性强。“核门槛”一旦跨过就会爆发全面核战争,处于核均势的双方将陷入相互摧毁状态,轻易实施核威慑特别是对无核国家进行核威慑,还会招致国际舆论的谴责,这些因素都极大地限制了核威慑手段的使用。而网络空间威慑软硬结合、威力可控的特点,决定了其可根据军事斗争形势的变化和需要,适时调控威慑强度,先期使用、全程使用、反复使用,具有很强的灵活性。

(二)网络空间威慑的不足

网络空间威慑的不足,主要体现在:一是威慑效果的可信性未得到充分验证。核威慑的可信度已在实战中得到了验证。然而,截止目前,真正意义上的网络大战还没有真正爆发过。人们对网络战惊人的破坏力,更多的只是一种猜测和担忧,网络战的真实威力只有经过实战检验后,才能真正令人信服。二是威慑手段的可靠性不太高。网络战是敌我双方网络攻防持续互动的动态过程,网络对抗复杂、技术性强的特点,决定了网络战攻击效果具有较大的不确定性,有可能达不到预期作战目的,使威慑效果大打折扣。例如,对敌实施网络空间实战威慑时,敌方若及时采取各种有效防御手段,就会增加己方网络攻击的难度和降低破坏效果,甚至导致攻击行动的失败。三是威慑范围的可控性需进一步改善。病毒武器作为网络战的重要武器之一,其传播性强、可控性较差、影响范围比较广,很难针对敌国计算机和网络发动专门性、针对性极强的攻击。如果不能控制其有效作用范围,就会波及第三方中立国家,甚至使自身也成为受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威慑对象的可选择性受限。核威慑对任何国家都是明确而有效的,而网络空间威慑的效果与敌国的信息化程度有很大关系。网络空间威慑对信息化程度高的国家极为有效,而对那些信息基础设施薄弱,网络依赖性不强的不发达国家,则很难发挥效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威慑实施的组织相对复杂。世界各个核国家无不对战略核力量实施集中统管,指挥控制权高度集中,组织实施核威慑行动时可以准确控制到每一个作战单元,组织实施十分周密。而网络空间威慑的组织实施,要涉及侦、控、防、控等多支力量,人员多、规模大,且分散在军地不同部门和单位,组织起来非常复杂,形成合力不易。

二、网络空间威慑的主要类型

网络空间威慑主要有网络空间技术试验威慑、网络空间装备展示威慑、网络空间作战演习威慑和网络空间作战行动威慑四种类型。其中,前三种是示形威慑,后一种是实战威慑。

(一)网络空间技术试验威慑

网络空间技术试验威慑,是在网络战领域,经常性地进行新作战概念的先期探索性试验、新攻击机理和战术的效果印证性试验、新技术的实用化武器化试验等,并通过媒体向外界披露,以展现本国雄厚的信息技术基础研究实力,以及转化为网络战能力的巨大潜力,以达到威慑对手的目的。当前,网络攻防技术仍在快速发展,一项关键性技术的突破,往往会对网络空间安全和作战产生重大影响,甚至引发革命性变化。谁抢先占领了网络攻防技术的战略制高点,谁就能在未来网络战中取得明显优势。

(二)网络空间装备展示威慑

网络空间装备展示威慑,是在网络战装备发展规划制定、技术开发、打靶试验、定型生产等各个发展阶段,根据需要适当披露网络战装备的型号、性能、特点、参数以及研制进度等情况,以达到威慑对手的目的。其方式主要有两种:一种是通过在国防白皮书、外交公报以及报纸、期刊、大型网站等权威媒体从官方渠道公开披露,实施显性威慑;另一种是通过网络社交媒体或其他非官方渠道,刻意泄露装备相关情况,实施隐性威慑。网络空间装备展示威慑,一方面可以虚构新机理、新概念的新型网络战装备,并渲染其独特的作战能力;另一方面可以刻意夸大已有网络战装备的作战效能。虚中有实、实中有虚,实施模糊政策,使对方摸不清己方真实情况和实力,产生恐惧和忌惮心理。例如,美军的“舒特”机载网电一体攻击系统已多次投入实战使用,对其敌对国家的防空体系构成了严重威胁,但其基本原理、工作机制、战技指标既没有公开披露,也没有被他国完全掌握破解,一直处于保密状态,令人虚实难辨,起到了很好的威慑作用。

(三)网络空间作战演习威慑

网络空间作战演习威慑,是以实兵或虚拟的方式在网络空间展开演习活动,并借助各种媒体渠道,向潜在作战对手展现本国网络战能力、实力与决心,以达到威慑对手的目的。网络空间作战演习可分为实兵演习和虚拟演习两种。前者通常在全国范围内或与盟国联合进行,一般以演练军地联合网络空间防御行动为主。近几年来,美国及盟国多次举行“网络风暴”系列网络战演习,以及“施里弗”系列太空-网络空间演习,很好展现了网络战的动员实力、整体防御水平,以及实施网络战的决心。后者通常在国家大型网络综合靶场举行,一般以演练军队专业网络战力量的进攻行动为主。

(四)网络空间作战行动威慑

网络空间作战行动威慑,是指对特定的网络目标实施攻击,以确信的攻击效果来威慑作战对手的一种实战性威慑。其运用的时机有两个:一是当己方觉察敌方即将对己方发动战争时,己方选择敌方重点防御的关键性网络目标进行针对性打击,进行预防性、遏制性威慑;二是当敌方通过对己方发起试探性网络攻击,实施网络空间威慑时,己方应立即进行有效的报复性、惩戒性威慑。具有威慑效果的网络战行动有多种。例如,对敌电信网渗透破坏,向敌国民众手机大量发送宣传反战短信;对敌电力网进行攻击,造成敌重要城市短时间的大面积停电;对敌广播电视网进行攻击,在黄金时段插播己方特制的视频节目;等等。

三、网络空间威慑的运用要点

网络空间威慑总的运用要求是:慑战结合,以实力、实战展示能力和决心,力求以小战体现威慑、以精打确保威慑,以较小的代价实现威慑目的。具体说来,应做到以下几点。

(一)平战结合,长期准备

“冰冻三尺,非一日之寒”。成功实施网络空间威慑,需要平战结合,在平时就要进行充分细致的准备。一是要进行全面周密的网络侦察。要求谍报侦察与技术侦察、无线侦察与有线侦察相结合,对敌网络目标进行长期持续的网络侦察,逐步摸清敌网络基本情况,绘制其网络拓扑结构图,尤其是分析查找出敌各种软硬件系统的漏洞。二是要进行大量有效的战略预置。采用黑客手段,通过利用系统漏洞或口令破译等办法,秘密渗透进入敌各类网络,留下后门,设置跳板机,埋设逻辑炸弹和木马,为未来发动网络攻击预留突破口。三是进行预有准备的网络防御。在对敌实施网络空间威慑时,己方应提前调整网络防御部署,使敌预先设计的攻击路径,预期利用的系统漏洞,预定执行的攻击方案难以实施,或实施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敌网络报复造成的损失。

(二)慎重决策,控制强度

孙子曰:“主不可以怒而兴师,将不可以愠而致战”。网络空间威慑是国家之间的战略博弈行为,尤其是实战威慑,敏感性强,必须做到有理、有利、有节,决不能因为威慑“门槛”较低而滥用乱用,否则其效果可能会适得其反。网络空间实战威慑对作战强度控制的要求很高。一方面,若强度太小,敌国政府和民众不会产生畏惧心理,起不到应有的威慑效果,对方还可能采取同样的手段实施反威慑,最终导致对抗升级,使己方威慑失效。另一方面,若强度过大,给敌国造成巨大的经济损失和人员伤亡,引起国际社会的谴责和敌国政府、民众的仇恨心理,就可能引发敌国运用常规力量进行大规模报复,有核国家甚至可能会动用核力量,这样不但不能慑止战争,反而会起到战争导火索的作用。

(三)统一指挥,周密组织

网络空间威慑的组织实施,要集中指挥,统一筹划,搞好协同。一是精心组织力量。统一组织军队侦、攻、防、控四支力量,积极协调军地各方网络战力量形成合力。尤其是要组织和协调好民间非专业网络战力量特别是爱国黑客,不能出现“盲动”现象,以免引发磨擦,擦枪走火,引起网络战的升级,或过早暴露攻击意图,授人以柄,导致局势不可控或行动失败。二是精当选择目标。应选择影响面广,易产生明显威慑效果的目标。例如,收视率排名靠前的广播电视频道、访问量巨大的门户网站、用户众多的无线通信网络等。不能选择无关痛痒、影响面小、民众漠不关心的目标进行攻击,易被误认为是普通黑客制造的网络安全事件,起不到应有的威慑效果。此外,还要考虑国际法和战争法约束,不能选择易造成人道主义灾难的目标,尽量不选取铁路、航空、金融、医疗等部门的网络目标,以免激起国际社会和对方民众的谴责和反感。三是精确控制进程。实施网络空间威慑性打击之前,要通过广泛的舆论宣传造势,向敌国发出打击警告,并向全世界宣告己方行动的正义性,以争取国际舆论的理解和支持。为突出威慑效果,己方可以高调宣布要攻击的敌国网络目标,再突破敌方层层网络防御,实施坚决有效的网络攻击,必要时最后还可对网络攻击效果进行定时恢复,以展现己方高超的网络攻击技术和手段,让敌方决策者和民众产生防不胜防、难以招架的心理挫折感,从而形成强烈的震慑效果。

(四)虚实结合,注重谋略

孙子所说的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,运用到网络空间威慑,其要点概括起来就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。“示而不宣”,就是利用网络攻击难以追踪定位这一点,对特定目标实施网络攻击,但不对外宣布是己方所为,既展示了己方能力,又使得敌方虽然怀疑是己方所为,但没有证据,无法追究。“宣而不示”,就是公开宣传或不经意透露己方研制或虚构的先进网络战装备的型号、性能、特点,刻意夸大其作战效能,虚虚实实,虚实结合,使敌摸不清己方真实实力,从而产生威慑效果。网络战行动具有追踪溯源困难、取证复杂的特点,发起方既可以承认,也可以矢口否认,或把责任推给民间黑客组织。

Source: 来源:中国信息安全

http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0104/

China’s PLA & Future Unconventional Warfare // 中國軍隊的未來非常規戰爭

2012年10月26日作者:知遠

Over the past decade, the United States has coped with a large number of unconventional warfare challenges. In Afghanistan, for example, at the beginning of 2012, a total of nearly 432,000 in Afghanistan, anti-riot troops, including US soldiers nearly 90,000 people, nearly 30,000 NATO soldiers, the Afghan national security forces of nearly 300,000 people, near the Afghan local police forces 12,000 people. In addition, the United States to this end spends more than 100 billion US dollars, the deployment of a large variety of advanced platforms and systems. On the other hand, “the Taliban” organization to deploy troops in between 20,000 to 40,000 people (the ratio of anti-riot troops to 1:11), the annual cost amounted to between 100 million to 200 million (with a consumption of anti-insurgency operations funds ratio of 1: 500). In addition, the Afghan insurgent groups from the main use of improvised explosive devices to the Internet using asymmetric warfare strategy and tactics. The ability to “Taliban” organization with limited resources to maintain a longer period of insurgency, highlighting the unconventional warfare challenges facing the United States. Accordingly, this report focuses on the following three questions:

• What is the United States may face challenges in the future unconventional warfare?

• What strategies best suited to address future challenges?

• Which existing cases or model can support these strategies effectively deal with unconventional warfare challenges?

And “terrorism”, “insurgency” is very similar to that, “unconventional warfare” has a variety of definitions. From the practical sense, unconventional warfare violent struggle for the national and NGO legitimacy and influence specific populations carried out.Unconventional threats include the use of guerrilla warfare, terrorism, sabotage, criminal activities and other activities rebel insurrection way countries and organizations. This article begins with a brief discussion of unconventional warfare threats, including threats from national and NGO’s. Then, the paper summarizes the United States in the fight against violence and support the insurrection could take unconventional warfare strategy. Finally, the “village stability operations,” US special forces in Afghanistan (Village Stability Operations, VSO) as an example to discuss.

 First, unconventional warfare challenges

What is the future of the United States could face unconventional warfare challenges?Period of the next decade, the United States will likely face a variety of unconventional warfare challenges, including terrorist groups (such as al-Qaeda and Hezbollah), drug trafficking organizations (such as the Mexican “cartels” drug cartels), global violence Activities Group (such as anarchist Group) NGO. In addition, the United States also faced for some countries (such as Iran) for their own purposes and the formation of unconventional warfare threats from some countries (such as Mexico) due to a result of weak dominance.These network threats, adaptability is gradually improving, and has leveraging cyberspace open up recruitment, intelligence gathering, training, spread propaganda, obtain funding and new ways to implement action.

To illustrate the future threat, it is necessary to highlight the al-Qaeda and its affiliated organizations, and now they have been a big hit because of some mysterious and gradually disappear. Future threat posed by al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations might cause depends on several factors: Some countries support the weak rule of force surviving leadership structure, North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia and other regional and local organizations. According to current trends, al-Qaeda is likely to save important leaders (with the possible exception of Pakistan), the ruling power in some countries will remain weak government, al-Qaeda will be local support in some countries. Al Qaeda may target as always: the overthrow of the monarchy more than one regime to establish pan-Islam (near enemy, or “throw into confusion the enemy within”), against the United States and its allies (the far enemy, or “anti-foreign enemies”). However, these trends are not yet clear how this will develop. For example, al-Qaeda as a global activity may be more dispersed bases in Pakistan to its core strength in Iran (Iran-Qaida), Yemen (AQAP), Somalia (Islamic Youth Corps), North Africa (Islamic Maghreb organizational relationships weaken organized base cloth) or other areas. This dispersion will enable the development of al-Qaida along the Syrian strategist Abu Arz • Lane (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri) envisaged way, more involved in the “individual jihad” and “small terror cells.”

Pan-Islamic movement al-Qaida means the United States will need to support the forces against them in many foreign areas. Al Qaeda affiliated organizations and global allies distribution shown in Figure 1. This figure highlights the future al-Qaida may support insurgent groups of countries. In some countries (such as Saudi Arabia), Al-insurgency operations have been launched to try and fail, but they might try again. In other countries (such as Yemen, Iraq), al-Qaeda has helped the insurgent groups. The figure in black-Qaida would support or continue to support the insurgency in the country. Of particular note is that for some African countries (such as Nigeria, Egypt) and Middle Eastern countries (such as Jordan, Iran), Al-Qaeda would seize every opportunity to support the insurgency.

2

In addition to these threats, the United States war effort unconventional future will be affected by a variety of other challenges. include:

• inter-agency cooperation. Inter-agency collaboration between some organizations seem to have improved, such as the United States Special Operations and CIA. But among a number of other organizations, such as the Department of Defense and the State Department, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies, inter-agency cooperation is still in a chaotic state. Whether it is still in Yemen, these challenges often result in the relationship between the military and government institutions in Afghanistan in the tensions of the strategic, operational and tactical levels.

• Vietnam syndrome. In Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as some of the challenges that may occur in Korea and Taiwan in the conventional military friction, may make some people ignore the importance of the US military future of unconventional warfare. As John • Nagel (John Nagl) In his counter-insurgency war in the study concluded, and on post-Vietnam era: “The US military believes the United States should not be again trapped in counter-insurgency operations, rather than face the US military counterinsurgency doctrine It was the fact that the failure in Vietnam. “unconventional warfare will not only extremely important for the foreseeable future, but there is a need to” should be how to stop the insurgency “and other topics for further research.

• The health of the US troops. More than a decade of fighting, it has made deep unconventional warfare quagmire of American forces extremely heavy. Officers have had to deal with their families are exposed to tremendous pressure, after the creation of stress disorder (PTSD), wars and countless other creative challenges.

• technical challenges. Future, insurgents and terrorist groups will make greater use of the Internet and social media field communication contact forum, spread propaganda, recruit personnel, to complete other tasks. Figure 2 indicates the 2015 global Internet traffic trends. Overall, Internet traffic will be 32% CAGR growth rate, that is until 2015 devices access to the Internet will be twice the total global population. By 2015, Internet traffic Wi-Fi technology and mobile devices will be 54% of the flow of Internet traffic and wired devices will total 46% of the total traffic. This growth will not happen in the West, but at a faster rate occurred in Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. These developments will likely insurgency operations and tactics have a significant impact, make it easier for the insurgents to recruit staff, spread propaganda and communications links.

Figure 2. 2010--2015 global Internet traffic

2
Figure 2. 2010–2015 global Internet traffic [Save to album]

Second, the strategy

What strategies best suited to address future challenges? US Department of Defense “Quadrennial Defense Review Report 2010” and “2012 Strategic Assessment” are briefly mentioned in unconventional warfare. But if we insist on the “strategy” is defined as “the use of armed forces and other tools to achieve military and political objectives,” then reports those are not summed unconventional warfare strategy. US Department of Defense publication “unconventional war: against unconventional threats” against unconventional warfare was more substantial research, but still focused on the United States on how to implement the joint operations of the armed forces should a military campaign in the future, rather than questions about the strategy. Due to the lack of unconventional warfare strategy in these assessments, we must seek the answers to elsewhere. The following outlines a few examples I.

(A) counter-insurgency

There are two major counter-insurgency strategy for US unconventional war.

1. Population center strategy: The first strategy is the population center strategy in Field Manual 3-24, and other resources proposed. Field Manual 3-24 from the British in Malaya, France extracted a lot of cases the best practical significance of military operations in Algeria. In these and other cases, the counterinsurgency is governance.However, in the most recent cases, the external forces is difficult to force the local government to make the necessary political change. As the American experience in Vietnam and Afghanistan as external forces can not force local governments to become legal regime. In addition, the deployment of large numbers of foreign troops is not always successful.

2. Indirect strategy: In some cases, the best way might mainly focus on the proposal, indirect strategic equipment and support local conventional and unconventional forces and organizations above. Such assistance, including foreign internal defense (Foreign Internal Defense) and unconventional warfare, has historically become the US Special Operations task forces and intelligence agencies. In the 1950s, the United States and the Philippines since 2001, in the 1960s in Thailand, the early 1990s and the 21st century, Colombia’s aid work, weakening relative success or defeat insurgent groups. In each case, the approach adopted in the USA are indirect rather than a direct way. Indirect way means that the US personnel To combat forces in the host country provide advice and support. Although this support sometimes include tactical leadership issues, but its focus has always been to help the host country instead of the United States against the enemy elements.

(Ii) riot

In other years, the United States might need to support insurgent groups, you may have to select one of the following two strategies.

1. Maoist insurgency strategy: The first strategy is that the United States can choose Mao guerrilla strategy in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the United States had this strategy against the Soviet Union. Such a strategy, a considerable part of the national organization of the population, the government has brought enormous consumption. While Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy is to target against the armed forces and their support networks, but the goal is the collapse of the morale of the attacker, but not necessarily the other’s combat strength. Goal of the strategy is not to ensure the rapid defeat the government. As Mao Zedong pointed out, the objective of the strategy is to consume the enemy to make the final surrender, that “the enemy advances, we retreat to the enemy camps, we harass the enemy tires, we attack the enemy retreats, we pursue.”

Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy includes three sequential advance and overlapping phases. The first stage is to establish a political and military structures riots among the general public. As Mao summed up: “The main feature is to rely on the people’s guerrilla fronts and other organizations to establish their own.” One of the main objectives of the first phase is to mobilize as many people to participate in sports. When Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy implemented in the rural uprising also began for urban riots. If the riots can be gradually achieved support and access to initial victory, then enter the second phase, the main feature of this phase is the most long guerrilla war and the gradual expansion. For more victory, guerrilla warfare will enable the Government military morale, no fighting, and gradually betrayal. So, the war entered the third phase, namely the collapse of the enemy. Riots changed to government collapsed for the purpose of large-scale conventional attack maneuver.

2. Conventional insurrection strategy: the United States can choose the second strategy is routine riot strategy, the United States against “Taliban” in 2001 adopted this strategy in action. This strategy, skip the first two stages of Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy, mainly in conventional military action against each other. Elements of the strategy include the use of armed forces to capture or destroy the enemy’s armed forces, so as to control its population, territory, city or important industrial center and communications center.Objective of the strategy is a decisive action or series of actions, by defeating the enemy on which to resist the physical strength to win the war. For example, the riot troops could move forward, seizing strategic facilities the defense side, such as the capital, the communication center or base, while the defender will also take action to confront. Thus the two sides will launch a campaign or a series of battles, until the formation of a party or a political agreement to admit defeat.

Three, efficient sample

Development “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police force is one of the recent anti-insurgency operations in the most efficient mode. After three years, the United States Special Operations Forces have been in the majority of rural development in this model. Their goal is to help the Afghan people conscious action, reconstruction of traditional security institutions, economic development and consistent with Afghan history, culture and informal management. In essence, the “village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces will have joint and inter-institutional features. Since 2009, “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan and US troops deployed in Afghanistan into the rural Afghanistan to help the local community of security, management and development, and enable them to better coupled to the central government. “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces according to the point quickly flourish throughout the country, the ultimate success of the “Taliban” to recapture the territory.

CONCLUSIONS

According to recent US experience in unconventional warfare and future threats, following several issues should be considered:

(A) Organization: According to current threats and challenges, the United States Special Operations Forces Command (SOCOM) should be in the fight against the terrorists, insurgents and other unconventional threats of war to play a front-line “defense” role. Although the US economy is more serious, we should continue (if not increase) investment in the future projects, such as the “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan project.

(B) the health of the US troops: As unconventional warfare deployed US soldiers and their families have been treated countless pressures. The possibility of these threats continue to evolve, and the deployment of troops, means that the US Defense Department needs to continue to strengthen the soldiers and their families for the physical and mental health programs. March 2012 occurred in Kandahar, Afghanistan, US soldiers shot and killed civilians, had a negative impact on the US unconventional warfare operations, but also from the broader sense, is not conducive to US foreign policy.

(C) Training and education: especially for US conventional forces, the unconventional warfare military training of a temporary ad hoc in nature. In some core US military agencies, such as the US Army War College, unconventional warfare military training is relatively good. However, the current unconventional warfare military training and investment in danger of being weakened, so some departments and agencies might consider unconventional warfare military training obsolete. After the Vietnam War, and things like that happen, it would be a very serious mistake.

(D) Inter-agency cooperation: Congress may consider supporting one pair of unconventional warfare campaign experience of cooperation across agencies work assessment efforts as they perform operations against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq for cross-agency team made same. Inter-agency cooperation and did not complete the play should have the performance, we should consider an objective, analytical assessments.

Unconventional warfare struggle is a long-term activity, which will continue to be a global battlefield, will extend from the United States, Britain long coastline to Yemen, Pakistan deserted hilltop. This struggle will continue for decades, rather than months or years, this is a concept for most Westerners can not easily handle.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

過去十年內,美國應對了大量非常規戰爭挑戰。以阿富汗戰爭為例,至2012年初期,阿富汗境內共有近432000名反暴亂部隊官兵,其中包括美國官兵近90000人、北約組織官兵近30000人、阿富汗國家安全部隊近300000人、阿富汗地方警察部隊近12000人。另外,美國為此每年花費超過1000億美元,部署了大量各種先進的平台和系統。另一方面,“塔利班”組織部署部隊在20000人至40000人之間(與反暴亂兵力之比為1:11),每年花費額為1億至2億之間(與反暴亂行動資金消耗之比為1:500)。另外,阿富汗暴亂組織主要運用從使用簡易爆炸裝置到因特網作戰的不對稱戰略和戰術。 “塔利班”組織利用有限資源維持較長時間的暴亂活動的能力,凸顯了美國所面臨的非常規戰爭挑戰。因此,本報告主要關注如下三個問題:
•美國未來可能會面臨何種非常規戰爭挑戰?
•何種戰略最適於解決未來挑戰?
•哪種現有案例或者模式能夠支持這些戰略、有效應對非常規戰爭挑戰?
和“恐怖主義”、“暴亂活動”極為相似的是,“非常規戰爭”擁有各種定義。從實踐意義上說,非常規戰爭是國家和非政府組織為特定人群的合法性和影響力而進行的暴力鬥爭。非常規威脅包括運用游擊戰、恐怖主義、陰謀破壞、犯罪活動和暴動叛亂等活動方式的國家和組織。本文首先簡要討論非常規戰爭威脅,包括來自國家和非政府組織的威脅。繼而,本文總結了美國在打擊暴亂和支持暴動時可以採取的非常規戰爭戰略。最後,本文以美軍特種部隊在阿富汗進行的“鄉村穩定行動”(Village Stability Operations,VSO)為範例進行探討。
一、非常規戰爭挑戰
美國未來可能面臨何種非常規戰爭挑戰?在下一個十年時間段內,美國將有可能面臨著各種非常規戰爭挑戰,包括恐怖主義集團(如基地組織和真主黨)、毒品走私組織(如墨西哥“卡特爾”販毒集團)、全球暴力活動集團(如無政府主義分子集團)等非政府組織。此外,美國還面臨著出於某些國家(如伊朗)出於自身目的而形成的、某些國家(如墨西哥)因統治力薄弱而造成的非常規戰爭威脅。這些威脅的網絡性、適應性正在逐步提高,而且已借力網絡空間開拓招募人員、收集情報、進行訓練、散佈宣傳、獲得資助和實施行動的新途徑。
為說明未來威脅,有必要突出強調基地組織及其附屬組織,目前他們因遭到巨大打擊而有些神秘的逐步消失。未來由基地組織及其附屬組織造成的威脅可能會取決於以下幾項因素:領導結構的倖存,北非、中東和南亞等地區國家薄弱的統治力,地方組織的某些支持。根據當前趨勢,基地組織很有可能將保存重要領導人(巴基斯坦可能例外),某些國家政府的統治力將依然薄弱,基地組織將在某些國家得到地方性支持。基地組織的目標也可能一如既往:推翻多個政權建立泛伊斯蘭教王權(近敵,或者說是“攘內敵”),對抗美國及其盟友(遠敵,或者說是“抗外敵”)。但是,這些趨勢將如何發展尚不明朗。例如,基地組織作為一種全球性活動可能更加分散,在巴基斯坦的基地核心力量與其在伊朗(伊朗基地組織)、也門​​(阿拉伯半島基地組織)、索馬里(伊斯蘭青年軍)、北非(伊斯蘭馬格里布基地組織)或者其他地區的基地組織關係弱化。這種分散,將使基地組織沿由敘利亞戰略家​​阿布•阿爾蘇里(Abu Mus’ab al-Suri)所設想的方式發展,更多地捲入“個人聖戰”和“小細胞恐怖行動”。
基地組織的泛伊斯蘭教運動意味著美國將需要對抗他們在多外地區的支持力量。基地組織的附屬組織及全球盟友分佈如圖1所示。此圖突出介紹了未來基地組織可能支持暴亂集團的國家。在部分國家(如沙特阿拉伯),基地已經嘗試發起暴亂行動,而且遭到失敗,但他們可能會再次嘗試。在另外一些國家(如也門、伊拉克),基地組織已經協助了暴亂集團。圖中以黑色顯示基地組織將支持或者繼續支持暴亂活動的國家。特別值得注意的是,對於一些非洲國家(如尼日利亞、埃及)和中東國家(如約旦、伊朗),基地組織將抓住一切機會支持暴亂活動。
2
除了這些威脅,美國未來非常規戰爭努力將會受到其他各種挑戰的影響。包括:
•跨機構合作。跨機構合作似乎在某些組織之間已經有所提升,如美國特種作戰和中央情報局。但在其他一些組織之間,如國防部和國務院、美國國際開發署(USAID)等政府機構,跨機構合作尚處於一種混沌狀態。不管是在阿富汗還是在也門,這些挑戰經常會在戰略、戰役和戰術層次上造成軍事機構和政府機構之間的關係緊張化。
•越戰綜合症。在伊拉克和阿富汗以及在可能發生於朝鮮和台灣的常規性軍事摩擦中的一些挑戰,可能會使美國軍界部分人忽視未來非常規戰爭的重要性。如約翰•納格爾(John Nagl)在他反暴亂戰爭研究中所總結到的,關於越戰後時代:“美國軍隊認為美國不應當再次自陷於反暴亂作戰,而不是直面美國軍隊反暴亂作戰原則在越戰中遭到失敗這一事實。”不但非常規戰爭對於可預見的未來仍將極為重要,而且還有必要對“應當如何制止暴亂活動”等議題進行更進一步的研究。
•美國部隊的健康度。超過十年時間的戰鬥,已經使深陷非常規戰爭泥淖的美國部隊異常沉重。官兵已經不得不處理其家庭所承受的巨大壓力、創作後應激障礙(PTSD)、戰爭創作和其他無數挑戰。
•技術性挑戰。未來,暴亂分子和恐怖主義集團將更多地利用田因特網和社會媒體論壇進行通信聯繫、散佈宣傳、招募人員、完成其他任務。圖2指出了至2015年全球互聯網流量趨勢。總體上說,互聯網流量將以年復合增長率32%的速度增長,也就是至2015年接入國際互聯網的設備將是全球總人口的兩倍。到2015年,Wi-Fi技術和移動設備的互聯網流量將佔總流量的54%,而有線設備的互聯網流量將佔總流量的46%。這一增長將不僅僅發生於西方,而是將以更快的速率發生於拉丁美洲、中東和非洲。這些發展,將有可能會暴亂行動及其戰術產生重大影響,使暴亂分子更輕易的招募人員、散佈宣傳和通信聯繫。
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量2
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量[保存到相冊]

二、戰略
何種戰略最適於解決未來挑戰?美國國防部《2010年四年防務評估報告》​​和《2012年戰略評估》都簡要提及了非常規戰爭。但是,如果我們堅持將“戰略”定義為“運用武裝力量和其他工具達到軍事和政治目標”的話,這些文件報告都沒有總結出非常規戰爭戰略。美國國防部出版物《非常規戰爭:對抗非常規威脅》對非常規戰爭進行了更多實質性研究,但仍然主要集中於美國武裝力量應當如何在未來一場軍事戰役中實施聯合作戰,而不是關於戰略的問題。由於在這些評估工作中缺乏非常規戰爭戰略,我們必須向別處尋求答案。以下我概要介紹幾個範例。
(一)反暴亂
有兩種主要的反暴亂戰略適用於美國的非常規戰爭。
1.人口中心戰略:第一種戰略是在戰地手冊3-24和其他資源中提出的人口中心戰略。戰地手冊3-24從英國在馬來亞、法國在阿爾及利亞的軍事行動中提取了很多具有最佳實踐意義的案例。在這些以及其他案例中,反暴亂也就是治理。但是,在大部分近期案例中,外部勢力很難迫使當地政府作出必要的政治性改變。正如美國在越南和阿富汗所經歷的那樣,外部勢力無法強迫當地政府成為合法政權。另外,部署大量外來兵力也不是總能取得成功。
2.間接戰略:在一些案例中,最好的途徑可能會將主要著力點放在建議、裝備和支援當地常規和非常規部隊和組織之上的間接戰略。這種援助,包括國外內部防禦(Foreign Internal Defense)和非常規戰爭,已經歷史性地成為美國特種作戰部隊和情報機構的任務。美國在20世紀50年代以及自2001年開始對菲律賓、20世紀60年代對泰國、20世紀90年代和21世紀初對哥倫比亞的援助工作,相對成功地削弱或者擊敗了暴亂集團。在每一案例中,美國所採用的都是間接途徑而不是直接途徑。間接途徑意味著美國人員要向作戰中的主辦國部隊提供建議和支持。雖然這一支持有時也會包括戰術領導力問題,但其焦點始終是幫助主辦國而不是美國元素對抗敵人。
(二)暴動
在另外一些時間裡,美國可能會需要支持暴亂集團,可能必須在以下兩種戰略選擇其一。
1.毛澤東主義者的暴動戰略:美國可以選擇的第一種戰略是毛澤東游擊戰略,在上世紀80年代的阿富汗戰場上,美國就曾以此戰略對抗蘇聯。這種戰略,組織相當一部分國家人口,為政府帶來巨大消耗。雖然毛澤東游擊戰略的目標是對抗武裝力量及其支持網絡,但其目標是瓦解攻擊者的鬥志,而不一定是對方的作戰實力。這種戰略的目標並不是確保迅速擊潰政府。正如毛澤東所指出的,戰略的目標是消耗敵人使之最終投降,即“要敵進我退,敵駐我擾,敵疲我打,敵退我追。”
毛澤東游擊戰略包括三個順序推進又相互重疊的階段。第一階段是在人民大眾中建立暴動政治和軍事結構。如毛澤東所總結的:“游擊戰的主要特徵就是依靠人民群眾自己建立戰線和其他組織。”第一階段的主要目標之一,是發動盡可能多的人民參加運動。當毛澤東游擊戰略貫徹於農村暴動,也就開始適用於城市暴動。如果暴動可以逐步取得支持並獲得初步勝利,則進入第二個階段,這一最為漫長的階段的主要特點是游擊戰爭和逐步擴張。獲得更多勝利後,游擊戰將使政府軍事力量士氣低落、毫無鬥志、逐漸背叛。如此,戰爭就進入第三階段,即瓦解敵人。暴亂轉變為以政府垮台為目的的大規模常規機動攻擊。
2.常規暴動戰略:美國可以選擇的第二種戰略是常規暴動戰略,美國在2001年打擊“塔利班”行動中採取了這一戰略。這一戰略,跳過毛澤東游擊戰略的前兩個階段,主要以常規軍事行動打擊對方。戰略的內容包括運用武裝力量俘獲或者破壞敵方武裝力量,從而控制其人口、領土、城市或者重要工業中心和通信中心。戰略的目標是以一次決定性行動或者一系列行動,通過擊敗敵人賴以抵抗的物理實力,贏得戰爭。例如,暴動部隊可能會向前推進,奪取防禦方的戰略設施,如首都、通信中心或者基地,而防禦方則也採取行動進行對抗。雙方因此將展開一場戰役或者一系列戰役,直到了一方承認失敗或者形成政治協定。
三、有效的範例
“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的發展是近期反暴亂行動的最有效模式之一。此前三年,美國特種作戰部隊一直在廣大農村發展這一模式。他們的目標是幫助阿富汗人民自覺行動起來,重建傳統性安全機構、經濟發展和與阿富汗歷史、文化相一致的非正式管理。在本質上,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊就具有聯合性和跨機構性的特點。自2009年開始,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊部署阿富汗和美國兵力進入阿富汗農村,幫助地方群落的安全、管理和發展,使他們更好地聯結於中央政府。 “鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的根據點很快在整個國家內蓬勃發展,最終成功從“塔利班”手中奪回了領土。
四、結論
根據美國近期在非常規戰爭和未來威脅的經驗,對以下幾項問題應當加以考慮:
(一)組織:根據當前威脅和挑戰,美國特種作戰部隊司令部(SOCOM)應當在打擊恐怖分子、暴亂分子和其他非常規戰爭威脅中發揮前線“國防部”的作用。儘管美國的經濟形勢較為嚴峻,我們還是應當繼續(如果不是增加)對未來各種項目的投資,如“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊項目。
(二)美國部隊的健康度:由於非常規戰爭部署,美國官兵及其家庭已經處理了無數壓力。這些威脅的可能性繼續發展以及兵力部署,意味著美國國防部需要繼續加強針對官兵及其家庭的身體和心理健康項目。 2012年3月發生於阿富汗坎大哈省的美國士兵槍殺平民事件,為美國非常規戰爭行動帶來了負面影響,而且從更廣泛的意義上說也不利於美國外交政策。
(三)訓練和教育:特別是對於美國常規部隊來說,非常規戰爭軍事訓練具有臨時特設的性質。在一些美國核心軍事機構,如美國陸軍戰爭學院,非常規戰爭軍事訓練相對較好。但是,目前非常規戰爭軍事訓練和投資面臨著被消弱的危險,因此某些部門和機構可能會認為非常規戰爭軍事訓練已經過時。和越南戰爭之後所發生的事一樣,這將是一個極為重大的錯誤。
(四)跨機構合作:國會可能會考慮支持一項對非常規戰爭戰役中的跨機構合作經驗進行評估的工作,正如他們對正在阿富汗和伊拉克執行打擊恐怖主義行動的跨機構團隊所做的努力一樣。跨機構合作並沒有完成發揮出應當具備的效能,我們應當考慮進行一項客觀性、解析性評估。
非常規戰爭鬥爭是一種長期的活動,其戰場仍將是全球性的,會從美國、英國漫長海岸線延伸到也門、巴基斯坦荒無人煙的山頂。這一斗爭將持續數十年,而不是幾個月或者幾年,這是一項對大部分西方人來說都無法輕易處理的概念。

Source:  http://mil.sohu.com/20121026

 

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare 中央军事委员会解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare

中央军事委员解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

2010年12月19日 07:04

解放军报

Winter season, a confrontation exercise started somewhere in the south.

Just started fighting, “blue” group on electronic jamming to capture a group of unidentified electromagnetic signals.

Due operator eager to interfere when the signal was a commander of an emergency stop. He concluded that this group of signals is issued by the “Red Army” senior command authority, premature interference might arouse his suspicions. Right on cue, when the “Red Army” attack battle, they suppress this band in real time, effectively disrupting the “Red Army” combat deployment.

The Commander, General Miaosuan, of the “Blue Army” commander, that army outstanding commanding officers, the head of the Guangzhou Military Region regiment Xie Jinbo.

More than 60 million units of information data, witnessed his dedication and hard

The different kind of exercise summary, attracted the attention of the organizers of a number of exercises: “a certain type of equipment, depending on the conditions under conditions of less than two kilometers through, the interference effect is reduced by 13% ……” opened this up to 14 million words of summary reports, data everywhere so to speak, has changed the traditional reporting “heavy qualitative description, quantitative analysis of light,” the chronic illness.

These years, with the information technology and new equipment to allot troops, Xie Jinbo keen to find, sometimes combat environment, the nuances of equipment performance data are likely to affect the outcome of the war. In one exercise, since some stations no good equipment to control the temperature, humidity, resulting in interference to fail.

Moreover, to improve combat capability-based information system, it is also inseparable from the construction of the battlefield database. In contrast to many of the training 谢金波 found in advance into a battlefield data information technology equipment, compared with no injection data of “bare metal”, the highest combat effectiveness actually thousand fold difference.

Xie Jinbo deeply felt, each data is a valuable resource, he began a long, hard data acquisition. On one occasion, in order to obtain a certain type of equipment interference in different terrain conditions data distance, Xie Jinbo has spent more than two years, after several training, practice exercises, and finally collect the relevant data together. In recent years, in order to gain valuable operational data, he often worked day and night, tirelessly, nearly 300 days a year to soak in the training field.

Today, more than 60 million units of information data added to the database in the regiment of information technology equipment for command and decision automation solidify a solid foundation. Meanwhile, dozens of main equipment in the operating parameters of a variety of conditions are constantly refreshed, the regiment as a basis for improvement and innovation in more than 50 kinds of tactics and training methods.

Let new equipment enter onto the “battlefield,” have courage to play

July 2009, the Central Plains some ancient battlefield. Army fielded some type information equipment unit of soldiers gathered here, in the invisible space heated game.

Military leader far away in Guangzhou was very worried: 谢金波 and his forces can accomplish the task drill? You know, the regiment fielded only 14 days this equipment, this exercise they cannot participate.

At first, the military solicit the views of the regiment, led by Xie Jinbo insisted on participating. Organs Staff Recommendation: Even through emergency training, the soldiers also only master the basic operating, while sister unit has also been fitted out in the shortest one and a half, we have accumulated a wealth of coaching experience, and if a hit on units and individuals are negative.

Getting remark, Xie Jinbo eyes stare: equipped with new equipment as is the future battlefield to defeat the enemy, if you cannot make new equipment onto the “battlefield”, this is our soldier’s dereliction of duty.

In this drill, Xie Jinbo day to lead the troops to engage in combat, in the evening, led cadres backbone fumble summary, truly a “fight a battle further.” Just a few more than 40 days, the soldiers not only mastered this new equipment, but also several times in the walkthrough cornered his opponent. Finally, the regiment was named “advanced unit in the exercise.”

In this exercise, he proposed an idea to give the headquarters of heads and experts highly recognized. He led troops prepared this type of equipment operation manuals and Tactics methods, training materials issued by the headquarters of the army as a similar force. Three years, under the leadership of 谢金波 team constantly explore new equipment group training method summary, prepared more than 30 sets of textbooks, teaching Van and user manual, which is the headquarters of promoting the use of five sets; research and development of the three sets of simulation training software The signal automatic identification software, which obtained two military scientific and technological progress prize.

Xie Jinbo familiar people call him “isolated situation.” This is because in training he always trying to force opponents to find out the problem, just a defeat.

Two years ago, Xie Jinbo that neighbor a unit fielded a new equipment, he immediately with a “gauntlet” to the unit. Thereafter, they are back to back through a field exercise, a powerful increase the combat effectiveness of the two forces.

In recent years, the group has several units and 10 Army, Air Force, Navy established a joint training relationship, master a set to adapt to new equipment, tactics and close combat in a variety of complex conditions emergency support experience.

Usually “seeking abortion” as is undefeated wartime. Because of the technical performance of the equipment war fraternal units more familiar with the training he often felt recruited opponents hard enough, he would for ourselves, “made” opponents.

In 2008, Xie Jinbo well-established group “Blue Army” units, and personally served as commander. Under his leadership, our in-depth study of each of a regional war since the Gulf War, from operational to tactical training principles guiding ideology, means of attack, an action an action before, one would like to set a scenario to pull, so that the “blue army” soon He entered the role as military training of “grindstone.”

In a time of “seeking lost” experience, the team’s fighting again and again to give rise. In recent years, various types of exercises held superiors, they times and successfully complete the task.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

初冬时节,一场对抗演练在南方某地打响。

战斗刚刚打响,“蓝军”电子干扰群就捕捉到一组来历不明的电磁信号。正当操作手急于对信号实施干扰时,被一名指挥员紧急叫停。他断定这组信号是由“红军”高级指挥机关发出的,过早干扰可能会打草惊蛇。果然不出所料,当“红军”发起进攻战斗时,他们实时压制这一频段,有效打乱了“红军”战斗部署。

这位神机妙算的“蓝军”指挥员,就是全军优秀指挥军官、广州军区某团团长谢金波。

60多万组信息数据,见证着他的执著与艰辛

这份别样的演习总结,吸引了多位演习组织者的眼球:“某型装备,在通视条件低于2公里的条件下,干扰效果下降13%……”翻开这份长达14万字的总结报告,处处都是这样用数据说话,改变了传统报告“重定性描述,轻定量分析”的痼疾。

后来,这份由谢金波亲自撰写的演习总结被当成范本下发参演部队传阅。

这些年,随着信息化新装备配发部队,谢金波敏锐地发现,有时作战环境、装备性能一个数据的细微差别都有可能影响战争的胜负。在一次演练中,由于某台站没有控制好装备的温度、湿度,结果导致干扰失败。

不仅如此,提高基于信息系统体系作战能力,也离不开战场数据库的建设。谢金波在多次的训练对比中发现,事先注入了战场数据的信息化装备,与没注入数据的“裸机”相比,作战效能最高时竟相差上千倍。

谢金波深深感到,每一个数据都是一笔宝贵的资源,他开始了漫长、艰辛的数据采集。有一次,为取得某型装备在不同地形条件下干扰距离的数据,谢金波先后花了2年多时间,经过多次训练、演习的实践,终于将相关数据收集齐。几年来,为了取得宝贵的作战数据,他常常夜以继日、不辞辛劳,一年有近300天泡在训练场。

如今,60多万组信息数据充实到该团信息化装备的数据库中,为指挥决策的自动化夯实了坚实的根基。同时,数十种主战装备在各种条件的工作参数被不断刷新,团里以此为依据完善和创新了50余种战法训法。

让新装备走上“战场”,他勇于担当

2009年7月,中原某古战场。全军列装某型信息化装备单位的官兵云集于此,在无形空间展开激烈博弈。

远在广州的军区领导很是担心:谢金波和他的部队能否完成好演练任务?要知道,该团列装这套装备仅14天,这次演练他们完全可以不参加。

当初,军区征求团里的意见,谢金波坚持要求带队参演。机关参谋建议:即便通过应急训练,官兵们也仅掌握基本的操作使用,而兄弟单位列装最短也已有一年半,积累了丰富的训练经验,要是演砸了对单位和个人都不利。

闻听此言,谢金波眼睛一瞪:配备新装备为的是未来战场克敌制胜,如果不能让新装备走上“战场”,这是我们军人的失职。

在这次演练中,谢金波白天带领部队搞对抗,晚上带领干部骨干摸索总结,真正做到了“打一仗进一步”。短短40多天,官兵们不仅熟练掌握了这套新装备,还多次在演练中把对手逼入绝境。最后,该团被评为“演练先进单位”。

在这次演练中,他提出一项构想,得到了总部首长和专家的高度认可。他带领官兵编写的该型装备操作使用手册和战术运用方法,被总部作为训练教材印发全军同类部队。3年来,在谢金波的带领下,团队不断摸索总结新装备组训方法,编写了30多套教材、教范和使用手册,其中5套被总部推广运用;研究开发了3套模拟训练系统软件、信号自动识别软件,其中2项获得军队科技进步三等奖。

在“求败”中砥砺战斗力,是他的制胜之道

熟悉谢金波的人,都叫他“独孤求败”。这是因为他在训练中总是想方设法给部队找对手、出难题,只求一败。

两年前,谢金波得知友邻某部列装了一套新装备,他立即带着“战书”到了该部。此后,他们通过一场场背靠背的演练,有力提高了两支部队的战斗力。

几年来,该团先后与陆军、空军、海军的10几个单位建立起了联训关系,掌握了一套适应新装备,贴近实战的战法和在各种复杂条件下应急保障的经验。

平时“求败”为的是战时不败。由于对兄弟单位装备战技术性能比较熟悉,训练中他常常感到找来的对手还不够硬,他就自己给自己“造”对手。

2008年,谢金波精心组建了团“蓝军”分队,并亲自担任指挥员。在他的带领下,大家深入研究海湾战争以来的每一场局部战争,从作战指导思想到战术训练原则、攻击手段,一个动作一个动作过,一个想定一个想定抠,使“蓝军”很快就进入了角色,成为部队训练的“磨刀石”。

在一次次的“求败”经历中,团队的战斗力一次次得到攀升。在近几年上级举行的各类演习中,他们次次圆满完成任务。

Original Source: 解放军报

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace – 威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace

威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

January 6th 2016

China’s National Defence University

 

Given the recent People’s Liberation Army (PLA) restructuring and renewed emphasis on strategic forces and cyberwarfare units it is no surprise that military experts in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are discussing how to use military force in cyberspace effectively.

when the opposing sides have the ability to ensure invade destroy the other network when you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with and do not attack the other network rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even will form international networks and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.   China Military Online publication Yuan Yi of PLA Military Academy of Sciences, said the article, along with human society’s dependence on cyberspace continues to deepen, cyberspace has become the “fifth dimension of human production and life of the” second class living space “and military confrontation battle space. ” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.   First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace   cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions taken in cyberspace, cyberspace display paralyze enemy control, and cross-domain control of the enemy’s determination and strength of the physical space through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop the enemy in the form of a strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

(A) Advantages of cyberspace deterrence.   Deterrence advantage of cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber-attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value. Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, repeated use, with strong flexibility.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

雙方都具有確保侵入破壞對方網絡的能力時,就可以帶來雙向網絡遏制,使得雙方不得不在一定條件下,遵守互不攻擊對方網絡的遊戲規則,形成一個無形的安全閥,甚至國際上也會形成互不攻擊對方網絡的慣例協議或公約,網絡空間由此成為可以產生巨大威懾效應的戰略領域。網絡空間威懾繼核威懾之後,開始進入大國政治家和軍事家的戰略視野。研究網絡空間威懾的特征、類型和運用要點,成為網絡強國、網絡強軍的必須考量和必要行動。

中國軍網發表中國人民解放軍軍事科學院袁藝的文章稱,隨著人類社會對網絡空間依賴程度的不斷加深,網絡空間成為人類生產生活的“第二類生存空間”和軍事對抗的“第五維作戰空間”。世界各國圍繞網絡空間的主導權、控制權、話語權展開了激烈的爭奪,網絡空間的競爭已達到與人類生存、國家命運和軍事鬥爭成敗休戚相關的程度。思考網絡空間威懾能力建設,具有重大現實和理論價值。

一、網絡空間威懾的優劣分析

網絡空間威懾,是指在網絡空間採取各種行動,展示癱瘓控制敵方網絡空間,並通過網絡空間跨域控制敵方實體空間的決心和實力,從而達到懾敵、止敵、阻敵、遏敵目的的一種戰略威懾形式。網絡空間與實體空間相比所具有的“虛實二相性”,網絡戰與傳統作戰樣式相比所具有的獨特性,決定了網絡空間威懾的優缺點都非常明顯。

(一)網絡空間威懾的優點

網絡空間威懾的優點,主要體現在:一是威懾方式更趨文明和人道。與基於物理、生物、化學殺傷機理的核生化武器相比,網絡戰武器的直接殺傷和破壞效應要遠小於前者,通常不會對自然環境造成永久性破壞和污染,也不會造成大量的人員傷亡,並引發人道主義災難。二是威懾成本低效費比高。網絡戰武器以病毒、木馬等軟件為主,成本相對低廉,技術門檻較低,而造成的破壞效果卻相當驚人。網絡防禦點多面廣,防不勝防,要網絡安全程度每提高一個等級,投入成本會呈指數級增加。網絡進攻的低成本與網絡防禦的高成本對比鮮明,使得網絡攻防呈現“矛尖盾薄”的特點,網絡戰武器因而被稱為“窮國的原子彈”。三是威懾手段多樣實用性強。網絡戰武器多種多樣,網絡攻擊目標多元,決定了有多樣化的網絡空間威懾手段可供選擇。網絡攻擊效果在一定程度上是可恢復的,只要運用實施得當,引發戰爭和促使戰爭升級的風險相對較小。從某種意義上講,核武器的威懾價值遠大於實戰價值,而網絡戰武器則是實戰價值與威懾價值兼具。四是威懾運用可重複靈活性強。“核門檻”一旦跨過就會爆發全面核戰爭,處於核均勢的雙方將陷入相互摧毀狀態,輕易實施核威懾特別是對無核國家進行核威懾,還會招致國際輿論的譴責,這些因素都極大地限制了核威懾手段的使用。而網絡空間威懾軟硬結合、威力可控的特點,決定了其可根據軍事鬥爭形勢的變化和需要,適時調控威懾強度,先期使用、全程使用、反覆使用,具有很強的靈活性。

(B) Lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace is insufficient when it comes to a deterrent effect, mainly reflected in the following:

First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, as of now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing.

Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, and there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect greatly reduced. For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber-attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.

Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you cannot control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, attack, control, prevention and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main types of cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace includes the following; there are cyberspace technology test deterrence measures, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence. There are four types of deterrence operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) Technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(二)網絡空間威懾的不足

網絡空間威懾的不足,主要體現在:一是威懾效果的可信性未得到充分驗證。核威懾的可信度已在實戰中得到了驗證。然而,截至目前,真正意義上的網絡大戰還沒有真正爆發過。人們對網絡戰驚人的破壞力,更多的只是一種猜測和擔憂,網絡戰的真實威力只有經過實戰檢驗後,才能真正令人信服。二是威懾手段的可靠性不太高。網絡戰是敵我雙方網絡攻防持續互動的動態過程,網絡對抗複雜、技術性強的特點,決定了網絡戰攻擊效果具有較大的不確定性,有可能達不到預期作戰目的,使威懾效果大打折扣。例如,對敵實施網絡空間實戰威懾時,敵方若及時採取各種有效防禦手段,就會增加己方網絡攻擊的難度和降低破壞效果,甚至導致攻擊行動的失敗。三是威懾範圍的可控性需進一步改善。病毒武器作為網絡戰的重要武器之一,其傳播性強、可控性較差、影響範圍比較廣,很難針對敵國計算機和網絡發動專門性、針對性極強的攻擊。如果不能控制其有效作用範圍,就會波及第三方中立國家,甚至使自身也成為受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威懾對象的可選擇性受限。核威懾對任何國家都是明確而有效的,而網絡空間威懾的效果與敵國的信息化程度有很大關係。網絡空間威懾對信息化程度高的國家極為有效,而對那些信息基礎設施薄弱,網絡依賴性不強的不發達國家,則很難發揮效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威懾實施的組織相對複雜。世界各個核國家無不對戰略核力量實施集中統管,指揮控制權高度集中,組織實施核威懾行動時可以準確控制到每一個作戰單元,組織實施十分周密。而網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要涉及偵、攻、控、防等多支力量,人員多、規模大,且分散在軍地不同部門和單位,組織起來非常複雜,形成合力不易。

二、網絡空間威懾的主要類型

網絡空間威懾主要有網絡空間技術試驗威懾、網絡空間裝備展示威懾、網絡空間作戰演習威懾和網絡空間作戰行動威懾四種類型。其中,前三種是示形威懾,後一種是實戰威懾。

(一)網絡空間技術試驗威懾

Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) Deterrence in cyberspace equipment display.

Equipment display deterrence in cyberspace, is planning to develop cyber warfare equipment development, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, appropriate disclosure network warfare equipment models, performance, features needed, parameters and development progress, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaked equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence. Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, played a very good deterrent.

(C) Cyberspace exercise deterrence.

In cyberspace combat exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡空間技術試驗威懾,是在網絡戰領域,經常性地進行新作戰概念的先期探索性試驗、新攻擊機理和戰術的效果印證性試驗、新技術的實用化武器化試驗等,並通過媒體向外界披露,以展現本國雄厚的信息技術基礎研究實力,以及轉化為網絡戰能力的巨大潛力,以達到威懾對手的目的。當前,網絡攻防技術仍在快速發展,一項關鍵性技術的突破,往往會對網絡空間安全和作戰產生重大影響,甚至引發革命性變化。誰搶先占領了網絡攻防技術的戰略制高點,誰就能在未來網絡戰中取得明顯優勢。

(二)網絡空間裝備展示威懾

網絡空間裝備展示威懾,是在網絡戰裝備發展規劃制定、技術開發、打靶試驗、定型生產等各個發展階段,根據需要適當披露網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點、參數以及研製進度等情況,以達到威懾對手的目的。其方式主要有兩種:一種是通過在國防白皮書、外交公報以及報紙、期刊、大型網站等權威媒體從官方渠道公開披露,實施顯性威懾;另一種是通過網絡社交媒體或其他非官方渠道,刻意洩露裝備相關情況,實施隱性威懾。網絡空間裝備展示威懾,一方面可以虛構新機理、新概念的新型網絡戰裝備,並渲染其獨特的作戰能力;另一方面可以刻意誇大已有網絡戰裝備的作戰效能。虛中有實、實中有虛,實施模糊政策,使對方摸不清己方真實情況和實力,產生恐懼和忌憚心理。例如,美軍的“舒特”機載網電一體攻擊系統已多次投入實戰使用,對其敵對國家的防空體系構成了嚴重威脅,但其基本原理、工作機制、戰技指標既沒有公開披露,也沒有被他國完全掌握破解,一直處於保密狀態,令人虛實難辨,起到了很好的威懾作用。

(三)網絡空間作戰演習威懾

網絡空間作戰演習威懾,是以實兵或虛擬的方式在網絡空間展開演習活動,並借助各種媒體渠道,向潛在作戰對手展現本國網絡戰能力、實力與決心,以達到威懾對手的目的。網絡空間作戰演習可分為實兵演習和虛擬演習兩種。前者通常在全國範圍內或與盟國聯合進行,一般以演練軍地聯合網絡空間防禦行動為主。近幾年來,美國及盟國多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列網絡戰演習,以及“施裡弗”系列太空-網絡空間演習,很好展現了網絡戰的動員實力、整體防禦水平,以及實施網絡戰的決心。後者通常在國家大型網絡綜合靶場舉行,一般以演練軍隊專業網絡戰力量的進攻行動為主。

(D) Operations in cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace operations, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter fighting a real opponent deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program, and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace.

Cyberspace deterrence general use requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to demonstrate, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purpose. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) Both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations, “Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially soft and hard analysis to find out the enemy Vulnerability member system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber-attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(四)網絡空間作戰行動威懾

網絡空間作戰行動威懾,是指對特定的網絡目標實施攻擊,以確信的攻擊效果來威懾作戰對手的一種實戰性威懾。其運用的時機有兩個:一是當己方覺察敵方即將對己方發動戰爭時,己方選擇敵方重點防禦的關鍵性網絡目標進行針對性打擊,進行預防性、遏制性威懾;二是當敵方通過對己方發起試探性網絡攻擊,實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應立即進行有效的報復性、懲戒性威懾。具有威懾效果的網絡戰行動有多種。例如,對敵電信網滲透破壞,向敵國民眾手機大量發送宣傳反戰短信;對敵電力網進行攻擊,造成敵重要城市短時間的大面積停電;對敵廣播電視網進行攻擊,在黃金時段插播己方特製的視頻節目等等。

三、網絡空間威懾的運用要點

網絡空間威懾總的運用要求是:懾戰結合,以實力、實戰展示能力和決心,力求以小戰體現威懾、以精打確保威懾,以較小的代價實現威懾目的。具體說來,應做到以下幾點。

(一)平戰結合,長期準備

“冰凍三尺,非一日之寒”。成功實施網絡空間威懾,需要平戰結合,在平時就要進行充分細致的準備。一是要進行全面周密的網絡偵察。要求諜報偵察與技術偵察、無線偵察與有線偵察相結合,對敵網絡目標進行長期持續的網絡偵察,逐步摸清敵網絡基本情況,繪制其網絡拓撲結構圖,尤其是分析查找出敵各種軟硬件系統的漏洞。二是要進行大量有效的戰略預置。採用黑客手段,通過利用系統漏洞或口令破譯等辦法,秘密滲透進入敵各類網絡,留下後門,設置跳板機,埋設邏輯炸彈和木馬,為未來發動網絡攻擊預留突破口。三是進行預有準備的網絡防禦。在對敵實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應提前調整網絡防禦部署,使敵預先設計的攻擊路徑,預期利用的系統漏洞,預定執行的攻擊方案難以實施,或實施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敵網絡報復造成的損失。

(B) Careful decision-making.

Control the intensity of decision-making   Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, or their effect may be counterproductive. Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, possibly even nuclear states will be spent on nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) Unity of command, well-organized.

Military organizations implement deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, cannot appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. Should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You cannot select innocuous, the impact was small, and the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you cannot select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.

Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) Actual situation, focusing on strategy.

Sun Tzu said, “it can and cannot be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber-attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber-attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, but no evidence, not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(二)慎重決策,控制強度

孫子曰:“主不可以怒而興師,將不可以慍而致戰”。網絡空間威懾是國家之間的戰略博弈行為,尤其是實戰威懾,敏感性強,必須做到有理、有利、有節,決不能因為威懾“門檻”較低而濫用亂用,否則其效果可能會適得其反。網絡空間實戰威懾對作戰強度控制的要求很高。一方面,若強度太小,敵國政府和民眾不會產生畏懼心理,起不到應有的威懾效果,對方還可能採取同樣的手段實施反威懾,最終導致對抗升級,使己方威懾失效。另一方面,若強度過大,給敵國造成巨大的經濟損失和人員傷亡,引起國際社會的譴責和敵國政府、民眾的仇恨心理,就可能引發敵國運用常規力量進行大規模報復,有核國家甚至可能會動用核力量,這樣不但不能懾止戰爭,反而會起到戰爭導火索的作用。

(三)統一指揮,周密組織

網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要集中指揮,統一籌劃,搞好協同。一是精心組織力量。統一組織軍隊偵、攻、防、控四支力量,積極協調軍地各方網絡戰力量形成合力。尤其是要組織和協調好民間非專業網絡戰力量特別是愛國黑客,不能出現“盲動”現象,以免引發摩擦,擦槍走火,引起網絡戰的升級,或過早暴露攻擊意圖,授人以柄,導致局勢不可控或行動失敗。二是精當選擇目標。應選擇影響面廣,易產生明顯威懾效果的目標。例如,收視率排名靠前的廣播電視頻道、訪問量巨大的門戶網站、用戶眾多的無線通信網絡等。不能選擇無關痛癢、影響面小、民眾漠不關心的目標進行攻擊,易被誤認為是普通黑客製造的網絡安全事件,起不到應有的威懾效果。此外,還要考慮國際法和戰爭法約束,不能選擇易造成人道主義災難的目標,盡量不選取鐵路、航空、金融、醫療等部門的網絡目標,以免激起國際社會和對方民眾的譴責和反感。三是精確控制進程。實施網絡空間威懾性打擊之前,要通過廣泛的輿論宣傳造勢,向敵國發出打擊警告,並向全世界宣告己方行動的正義性,以爭取國際輿論的理解和支持。為突出威懾效果,己方可以高調宣布要攻擊的敵國網絡目標,再突破敵方層層網絡防禦,實施堅決有效的網絡攻擊,必要時最後還可對網絡攻擊效果進行定時恢復,以展現己方高超的網絡攻擊技術和手段,讓敵方決策者和民眾產生防不勝防、難以招架的心理挫折感,從而形成強烈的震懾效果。

(四)虛實結合,注重謀略

孫子所說的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,運用到網絡空間威懾,其要點概括起來就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。“示而不宣”,就是利用網絡攻擊難以追蹤定位這一點,對特定目標實施網絡攻擊,但不對外宣布是己方所為,既展示了己方能力,又使得敵方雖然懷疑是己方所為,但沒有證據,無法追究。“宣而不示”,就是公開宣傳或不經意透露己方研製或虛構的先進網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點,刻意誇大其作戰效能,虛虛實實,虛實結合,使敵摸不清己方真實實力,從而產生威懾效果。網絡戰行動具有追蹤溯源困難、取證複雜的特點,發起方既可以承認,也可以矢口否認,或把責任推給民間黑客組織。

Original Source: www.crntt.iw/888

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

20160104131249755

Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)

中国解放军事科学院_lit

People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces

3259521140

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Source:

http://chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/photo-reports/2016-01/01/content_6840094.htm

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate 中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China

Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate

中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

八一解放軍

China’s People’s Liberation Army General Staff, subordinate to the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The Central Military Commission, is the organization which leads China’s national armed forces; it is a building and military operational command of the supreme command of authority. After streamlining under Xi Jinping’s recent modernization and adjustment, the Office of the General Staff now has an Operations Division, a Ministry of Information, the third section, is the Ministry of Information, which includes military training, a military affairs department, an equipment procurement department, a mobilization section, artillery, armor, combat engineering, anti-chemical warfare unit , electronic warfare radar units, Department of Political Affairs, Confidential Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Bureau, Foreign Affairs Bureau, Aviation Authority, and the military authority over other departments within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

f0c82be1a96d775cde9eb2b22c62cfd4

The following highlights at a few key sectors:

A General Staff

General Staff is considered a “General Staff Operations Department,” and is the ultimate operational military authority under China’s Central Military Commission, General Staff of the sequence is the “boss.” One is the most crucial of the General Staff, a division of the army all military commands are issued by one. He is the headquarters of the army during the war, when the war broke out, he was the representative of the country’s Central Military Commission, commander of military operations, and it also serves as the country’s highest military command, from the first place in the hierarchy of the General Staff.

Bai Jianjun incumbent Minister Major General Staff Operations Department, served as the Jinan Military Region deputy commander of the 54th Army, in March 2008, Marshall became the first 20 Army commander led his troops in May to participate in earthquake relief. 2009 appointed Minister of the General Staff Operations Division. There are five deputy minister one, are Major General, the direct leadership of the Chief of Staff Admiral Room Feng Hui.

General Staff of the General Staff is one of the largest department, under the jurisdiction of eight regular division level of bureau-level units, including the operational plan bureau, war Environment Agency, Joint Operations Bureau, Bureau of combat logistics organization, the Special Operations Bureau, the Bureau of the strategic objectives, readiness Bureau the exercise of the Authority. Two units would be under the jurisdiction of more to go, this section of the generals there are dozens of people, there is a joke, just throw a big stone, you can killed several generals. Liang Guanglie, chief of general staff came out after the reform, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff learning system, has been prepared to adjust. The military services, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Strategic Missile Forces (Artillery) – were in combat with a corresponding portion of the armed services bureau, in peacetime, the military services bureau responsible for tracking the corresponding daily activities of the military services, and to the Central Military Commission report. And in wartime, is responsible for coordinating the activities of the various military services.

A functional equivalent of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff J-3. Suppose the PLA is preparing a formal war plan, or emergency contingency plans, then this is a dry live. If Japan is now suddenly on the Diaoyu Islands to stir up trouble, then, is the one responsible for what, in 2001, the South China Sea military aircraft collided, is a direct command of the situation by the process. Also on the 1st to the 6th Shenzhou spacecraft launch, recovery, participation by a command of the General Staff, scheduling.

General Staff on duty 24 hours a belonging department, the command post located near the Summer Palace in northwest Beijing Yuquan Hill, commonly known as “Western Hills command post”, hundreds of meters deep underground command post by the elevator and out, can withstand nuclear attack; the Chinese people PLA land, sea and air, the Second Artillery Corps combat nerve center, similar to the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center. Its own communication center, information center, operations center, and other functional allegations. In wartime can act as a “national war command center” role. Western Hills command post with similar national readiness command center, the country there are many.

Second section of the General Staff

Two is the General Staff of the General Staff “intelligence unit”, is responsible for collecting, analyzing military and political intelligence, and the General Staff and the General Political Department of the three are considered military intelligence system. In a way, its strategic intelligence work and the Ministry of State Security (MSS) has partially overlap. Two main “customer” is the leadership of the General Staff, the Central Military Commission, the Department of Defense, branches of the military headquarters, the military-industrial leadership, and troop commander.

Major General Yang Hui is the incumbent minister of the General Staff bipartite, who has worked in Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Embassy, ​​the Russian Embassy and Kazakh embassy, ​​and later served as vice minister of the General Staff of three, 31 Army deputy commander and concurrently he was appointed Russia Eastern Europe, Central Asia Institute, vice president, director of the Anti-Terrorism Research Center, China International Strategic Studies, Senior Fellow, adjunct professor of the Nanjing Institute of International Relations. Major General Yang Hui network warfare specialists. (Note: The latest data, Vice Minister Chen Friendship promoted bipartite minister)

General Staff consists of more than two bureau-level units.

A game in which the General Staff bipartite intelligence gathering is mainly responsible for Hong Kong and Taiwan. Of course, it is also responsible for important goals worldwide. The following inning with five offices: Guangzhou work at work at Beijing, Tianjin work at work at Shanghai, Shenyang work place. These work all over the place in this city in the name of certain offices appear. For example, work at Guangzhou, the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government is the fifth office. Beijing Working People’s Government of Beijing Office called several offices. Now head of bipartite work at Beijing, the original military attaché in Russia. This is based on the geographical distribution of five configurations are also engaged in the work of the secret intelligence operations overseas. For example, Shenyang is responsible for intelligence gathering work in Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the Guangzhou office work also seems to be responsible for intelligence gathering its adjacent areas. Its primary goal is to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions people. Shanghai and Nanjing at work at work are responsible for Western Europe and the United States.

Second, the General Staff Department of the Second Board, also known as “tactical intelligence bureau”, the PLA’s seven military regions (Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Jinan, Beijing, and Shenyang) each under the jurisdiction of the military intelligence unit, is being at the division level. These two sectors directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Second Board of Management. Primarily responsible for providing tactical intelligence to seven military forces and coordinate their work.

Two military intelligence officers of the General Staff Department of Military Strategy in order to meet demand and sent intelligence, belonging to the General Staff bipartite three innings, commonly known as military attaché office, there are more than four hundred employees, by geographical region and the importance of the Special Envoy of the collection activities is subdivided into seven groups. Military personnel gather intelligence on major foreign arms technology, the scale of war, military doctrine, economic and policy aspects. A lot of this information can be obtained from public sources, but sensitive technology in general must also be taken in order to obtain confidential manner. The main way to get there is the General Staff Intelligence bipartite three ways: First, in various capacities as a cover for sending military personnel to a foreign intelligence; the second is the analysis of military intelligence from foreign publications; third is sent to the embassy military attaché. Chinese embassies were sent by the military attaché bipartite General Staff, and not by the Foreign Ministry or the Ministry of Defence. Attaché is military personnel, the highest level is the military attaché in the United States, is the military level, the rank of Major General. Some military attaché stationed in other countries is a positive military level, some deputy corps, but in most countries the military attaché, were positive at the division level, which is the colonel.

Two military personnel have specialized training institutions, training programs including espionage skills and language ability. Two former Minister General Staff Major General Luo Yudong served as president of the Nanjing Institute of Foreign Affairs. Nanjing Foreign Affairs College now renamed the People’s Liberation Army Institute of International Relations, the predecessor of the PLA 793 hospital School of Foreign Languages, Luoyang and Nanjing after the Cultural Revolution moved from Zhangjiakou, is divided into two colleges. That’s two intelligence skills training and language skills of school.

Second, under the jurisdiction of the Department of the General Staff also have many intelligence analysis bureau, responsible for specific geographical targets deep intelligence analysis: If the bipartite four innings responsible for understanding the CIS and Eastern Europe, political and military policy, five innings for the US and Western countries Analysis of intelligence gathering; and the sixth inning put the focus on neighboring Asian countries and China. Five innings during political and economic analysis of the main advantage of open channels to obtain publications. Analysts bipartite in the United States often have to work for many years in the United States, because this particular study enjoy high reputation in China intelligence circles. At the same time it may take considerable time and effort to develop the language ability of the analyst, so that he can identify the cultural and political information publications in the United States and Europe reflected. Five innings two favorite sources of information is the US Congress and the RAND Corporation report file.

Bipartite seven innings for the Science and Technology Bureau, is responsible for military weapons research, design and development of intelligence. Seven foreign intelligence aimed at future military science and technology, and domestic weapons development unit has close ties, can play a significant role in weapons development process. Qiju existing six research institutions belong to the Agency’s Management: includes fifty-eighth Institute of espionage equipment development, production and technical assistance equipment seagulls electronic equipment factory, Beijing electronics factory, fifty-seventh Institute, North Jiaotong University Computer center and where your own computer center.

Two and a bureau of arms control, specifically designed to deal with foreign ballistic missile defense systems and arms control issues. Since the Foreign Ministry has a department in charge of arms control and disarmament, the People’s Liberation Army and he set up a similar department. And the arms control mechanism is provided under the two, it is because the work of intelligence and foreign affairs at the General Staff of the interior is made with a deputy chief of staff to charge.

Section II has the following departments:

Archives Collection publications abroad. It is a subordinate unit of military Yi Wen Press, the company responsible for the translation and re-military magazine published in other countries.

Secret Service is responsible for handling, conveying and collection of confidential documents, is also responsible for the development of security classification of documents.

Provide comprehensive logistics services for office staff, such as transportation, office equipment, entertainment centers and diet.

Guard Bureau is responsible for the safety of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of leadership. In the second section of the security agencies also enjoy judicial powers.

In addition, the name of the General Staff publicly bipartite research institution “International Institute for Strategic Studies”, which is past the Beijing International Institute of Research. So that both experts and scholars Strategic Research Institute, is the second unit of the General Staff officer. For example, in the period after Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often published by a young scholar to speak against Taiwan Xin Qi, which is the second portion of the General Staff of a scholar. Staff Intelligence bipartite level is much higher than the Ministry of National Security, as it has been extended from the Red Army era to the present, therefore, there is China’s CIA (US Central Intelligence Agency) said.

Second section of the General Staff intelligence officers who are basically three: dense industrial and commercial dry, anchored. The first man is of the General Staff of full-time military personnel bipartite, is in the preparation of such a person in the circle is called the “secret work” professionally trained. The Ministry of State Security and Public Security of these people are called “dense dry”, but also in public security or national security establishment in the interior. The second man is half in the series, in the circle is called the “commercial dry”, saying that they are ‘half in the series “because their names on the computer intelligence unit, but the staff did not enter the military system. The administrative establishment such as one called Zhang Peng, whether it is an accident in Guangdong beat up, robbed, or open the underground brothel, as long as there is no dead, police came when Zhang Peng, Peng can say: You I cannot move, I was engaged in intelligence, a certain person. In addition, if Peng exit, than People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration can only take six thousand Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong when the Chinese citizens to the provisions of carry sixty ten thousand Hong Kong dollars and then caught by Customs, customs Peng will tell people, you cannot move me, I was the mouth of intelligence, is a certain person. Then customs will likely make a phone call to the authorities to ask. And because Peng’s name is on the mouth of computer intelligence, there a check and said: Peng is our people after such confirmation, the customs then you can only put people to put money.

In fact, the second man inside, and can be divided into two categories: one is relatively close to the “secret workers” are both on the list of military computers, has officially made the uniforms. Also, there is a salary nominally, the Central Military Commission is Rehang. If this person is indeed engaged in intelligence work because of the expense, then the money will be handed over to the man’s family. This may usually receive no wages, but the state will retain a person for this. Another person is not doing intelligence, it can be said of such people into the intelligence sector is purely to be able to rely on the usual relationship between the two portions for trading a lot of money. Because everyone knows that Chinese military authorities have called exemption chapter, there is an absolute privilege exemption of imports of goods. A third person is called “anchored”, which most people in the community. The vast majority of these people who are affiliated to a number of foreign military in the local offices below. For example: the Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department of identity at the local level is the “Guangdong Provincial People’s Government fifth office”, the head of sub-director and political commissar. The original five-run political commissar called Fu Jun, vice minister-level equivalent of Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department, he turned out to be the Director of Personnel Department of the Guangzhou Military Region.

Three of the General Staff

Three General Staff, also known as “listening unit”, is responsible for interception, processing and transfer of foreign radio communication signal propagation. That is through a border and coastal areas in the numerous “listening post” in intercepting electronic intelligence work. Former intelligence officers monitoring 24 hours a day listening to foreign television, and now adds support for Internet surveillance. This is somewhat similar to the US National Security Agency (NSA). “Network Control Center” section of the three located in Haidian District. General Staff is currently estimated at three hundred thousand persons responsible for monitoring all international calls. All international calls on recording equipment in advance to enter some key words, such as the names of some of the Chinese leaders, some sensitive event name, as well as some of the taboo words, when the recorder is sensitive to these terms, it will automatically jump up, then monitor staff will immediately check this phone to track listening, and three also intercepted faxes overseas.

Three overseas has many listening posts, in 1992 the Government of Myanmar agreed to set up a listener Chinese station on the Andaman Islands, to monitor the Indian Ocean. 1994 Lao government agree China Champasak Province in southern Laos (Champasak) listens to establish three stations, one in Khong. 1999 Chinese in Cuba located on Lourdes (Lourdes) in a project to expand cooperation listens station, the station was originally established by the Soviet Union.

Three is also responsible for domestic military network communication listener work, any wired and wireless communication links cannot avoid this listener’s ears network between the military regions, which helps to combat security checks.

Similar to the second section of the General Staff, General Staff three in seven military also has subsidiary bodies, regional anti-military regions responsible for intelligence gathering and processing backbone listens station is the headquarters of three military regions to operate directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff Department of the three management. The commander of military regions and staff have no right to intervene in the three institutions to expand their area of ​​prevention work. There is no affiliation between its stationed with the provincial military and large military. These listeners stand personnel, budget, establish respectfully the responsibility of the three Department of the General Staff. Listening station military regions have different functions and objectives of the region, such as: the Lanzhou Military Region, responsible for three innings in signal communication with the Russian side of the listener, and shoulder the important mission of the Russian missile attack early warning. The department should belong to three eight innings, the “former Soviet Union responsible for intercept electronic communications signal”, Central Asian republics also the council’s target range, the listener object is the Sino-Russian border areas. Three 12th Bureau is mainly responsible for the “identification and tracking of foreign satellite – the US military satellites.” A facility located 12 Bureau of Xichang.

Three minister Major General Wu Guohua, political commissar: Major General Wang Yongsheng.

Four General Staff

Four General Staff as “electronic radar countermeasure unit”, established in 1990, is mainly responsible for electronic warfare, including electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, and radar control and so on. Minister of the General Staff had accounted for four flat Major. In recent years, the PLA and electronic warfare tactics Jizhen been strengthened. Before the formation of the General Staff of four electronic warfare is a duty two portions. In addition to the implementation of the policy content of the PLA electronic warfare theory prescribed, four also provides electronic defense to strategic objectives, such as the Western Hills in Beijing military command and control center of the C4I system. In providing electronic protective measures to important national goals, and also in charge of the General Staff of four electronic warfare units army down to the division level units belong. Also manages and signals intelligence and electronic warfare operations leading naval and air forces, such as airborne intelligence-gathering system, the Navy shipboard facilities.

There are also a number four innings, armed forces troops to provide guidance on business respectively, directly under the Department of Electronics and radar troops against troop’s vertical leadership, or their counterparts responsible for some of the work of the Institute. Including the Southwest Research Institute of Electronic (i.e. 29 Chengdu Institute), responsible for the development of radar jammer station. 54 Institute of General Staff, that the special “for the development of electronic warfare and radar unit radar pulse parameters analyzed digital signal processors electronic intelligence.” 36 Hefei Institute, responsible for the development of communication jammer. In addition, the General Staff as well as its own four military academies, including Hefei PLA Electronic Engineering Institute.

In addition to managing the PLA’s military communications systems outside the General Staff Communication Department also full communications infrastructure modernization drive in China has played a leading role. Mainly includes the following items:

◎ Military telephone network (non-secret)

◎ Confidential telephone network

◎ Army data communications network (probably above the “army of public data exchange network”)

◎ Field communications system, which “integrates sound, light, electrical signals, the use of aerial, underground, submarine data link.” (As tactical / operational network system, the integration of optical fiber communications, and satellite communications.)

Another item on the People’s Liberation Army communication systems include:

◎ Underground fiber-optic network

◎ Communications satellite

◎ Microwave Communication

◎ Shortwave radio stations

◎ Automatic command and control network

General Staff Communication Department has a lot of units and personnel within the establishment in the fixed communication facilities (such as high-frequency communications, microwave communications, satellite communications, telephone switching systems, tropospheric scatter communications) as well as mobile communications equipment strategy. Four General Staff under a lot of maintenance and logistics units within the establishment to the relevant equipment repair, supply, maintenance, testing, calibration, and perform the functions of the General terms. In short, the General Staff Communication Department shouldered the main military mission is: planning and realization of the PLA modernization operational command and administrative communication network. Currently in charge of General Staff Communication Department is to build a telecommunication network to meet the need to fight a “local war under high-tech conditions”. At this point, the communication unit is focusing on achieving “six changes” military communications. These changes include:

  1. from the analog communications to digital communications transformation
  2. The transition from cable to fiber optic cable
  3. Terminal to change from single-use multipurpose terminal
  4. From the electromechanical switching system to an automatic switching system changes
  5. from the single-task network transition to multi-task network
  6. from manual to automated systems management and intelligent system management change

General Staff Guard Bureau

People’s Liberation Army General Staff Guard Bureau is prepared, which is the Central Office Guard Bureau, responsible for directing the Central Guards Regiment, known as 8341 troops.

General Staff Guard Bureau is being prepared corps, under the eight regular division level unit, the person in charge is the rank of general, and Chief of Staff of the same level. Secretary is also first deputy director of the Central Office (ministerial level), deputy director of including Deputy Secretary are Major General. Responsible for specific security command and coordination of national leaders you.

General Staff Guard Bureau is responsible for the defense of the leading organs of the Party Central Committee (Politburo) of the Central Military Commission and a safe. Also included Vice President, Vice Chairman of the NPC, CPPCC vice-chairman, the deputy secretary, Supreme People’s Procuratorate long, Supreme Court president and above leaders. Almost all state leaders living near Zhongnanhai and Zhongnanhai, the General Staff Guard Bureau is undoubtedly high position. A head of the Guards Regiment, awarded the rank, indicating the central importance of this force, for example, if what happened now Zhongnanhai, the Central Guards Regiment to the quick, or stationed in the Beijing suburb of 38th Army to the quick. Thus in 1976, the CPC Central Committee smash gang of four, is the central security group (8341 units) completed. Central Guards Regiment in charge of the central leadership of the security work, which is a very important and very politically sensitive posts, who must fill the position is the central leadership of the most trusted people.

In many army troops designation in 8341 is arguably the most famous. It was in 1953 in the Central Guard Division to form the basis of a group together, was formally established in Zhongnanhai June 9 that year. First built in 8341 when the army only 1,000 people, the main task is to defend the five leaders – Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun. Owned by the Ministry of Public ninth inning leadership. The then Minister of Public Security is Lo Jui-ching, Wang Dongxing nine innings of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary is Zhang Yaoci. During the “Cultural Revolution” 8341 troops replaced by the Central Office leadership, Wang Dongxing specifically responsible for leading, directing. Preparation expanding more than 8,000, the jurisdiction of seven brigades, 36 squadrons. The number of troops has been the equivalent of a division of troops. “913” after the incident, Lin Biao and the gang attempted to use against aircraft bombed Zhongnanhai, the Diaoyutai conspiracy, has set up an eighth brigade, namely cannon brigade, arranged around Zhongnanhai in order to ensure the safety of its over, but not for long on withdrawn. First built in 8341 when the guard unit or the target is more concentrated, mainly in Yuquan Mountain; new Rokkasho, Zhongnanhai, etc., and later expanded to Beidaihe, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall, Diaoyutai. Due to various reasons, the scope of security is greatly increased during the “Cultural Revolution”, the addition of Changping farm, Beijing Botanical Garden, Garden Village, East Cabinet and other places.

General Staff Guard Bureau under the jurisdiction of departments are: the General Office of Political Affairs, Policy Research Department, the Department (command and coordination center), Ministry of Information Technology, Communications, Training Wing (Cadre Training Group), livelihood security department, construction review Ministry Liaison Department, cadres Force (Guard Battalion), a brigade authorities Service Center (Zhongnanhai) Second Battalion (Great Hall) Third Brigade (new six) four teams (Yuquan Hill) five brigades (Beidaihe) Six Brigade (Special Operations Battalion) Seven Battalion (Cadre Battalion) Eight brigade is (engineering and maintenance team).

Leading security standards are divided into: a guard of the Politburo Standing Committee.

Politburo member, alternate member of the CPC Central Committee, vice chairman of National People’s Congress, State Councilor for the two guards (the Chinese Nationalist Party Chairman Lien Chan to visit the mainland to strengthen the use of two security guards). CPPCC Vice Chairman, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the three guards over the leadership after retirement if, based upon the original standard security guards. Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the main party leaders who also guard the goal, secretary of the country, the city, the state, as the case may determine the level of security, usually three guards and so on.

8341 security work forces very tight organization, the principal leaders of both the division of labor forces, Mao’s guards done by Wang Dongxing, Zhang Yaoci responsible, guards brigade is a brigade, security forces Zhongnanhai A zone is a brigade, a squadron; Lin Biao The guards work by the deputy head Zhang is responsible for, guards brigade is the Second Battalion, Second Battalion of the Guard squadron is a squadron; because Zhou Enlai lived in Zhongnanhai, the guards brigade is also a brigade, a squadron guards brigade three squadrons headed by Yang in. Other Politburo Standing Committee also has specific security brigade and squadron and responsible person. Was responsible for a team of Zhongnanhai and the surrounding area, the Second Battalion in charge of Maojiawan and the surrounding area, the four teams in charge of security in and around the Yuquan Shan, seven brigade responsible for the central directorate Beidaihe resort and the surrounding area, five brigade responsible for the Diaoyutai State and surrounding areas, other Several brigades are mobile brigade. In addition, each security zone has divided into specific perimeter and inner circle, the inner circle is divided into A, B, C area. A person can freely access area B, C area, but B, C zone A zone cannot easily access. In the 1970s to over Beijing’s Great Hall of the people know or see around pulling the cord, there are security guard, pedestrians cannot enter the security zone. Outside the red walls of Zhongnanhai have fixed posts and swimming whistle, of course, plainclothes whistle. Zhongnanhai, the Great Hall in addition to sentry outside the door, door security zone there, an outsider, a stranger is simply to get in. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others around the residence and living areas as well as multi-channel guard, unrelated persons, including 8341 troops of some leading cadres without the approval and consent also do not allow access, which is strictly regulated. 8341 cadres and soldiers because of their work out of Zhongnanhai, the Sentinels know can be released, and did not know where the company should be contacted to ensure correct case can be released.

However, this designation in 8341 there was a time back and forth change too. In 1975, when the military forces of the designation by the 4-digit rise to 5 digits, but the central security group is still 4 digits, then 8341 to 57001 by the designation of external, internal and remains unchanged, but Soon forces have received notice of the change callback 57001 8341 until shortly after the death of Chairman Mao in 1976, 8341 before it was changed to 57003, in October 2000 to 61,889 units.

General Staff Guard Bureau leaders

SECRETARY: Cao Qing in

Deputy Director:

Major General Li Hongfu

Major General Yan Min

Ma Jinhu Major General in charge of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo guard

Major General Zhao Jiang stay

Major General Sun Yuan Gong

Major Jiangguang Qing

Major General Zhou Dongsheng

Major General Ye your new

The leaders of the Central Military Commission

CMC leadership

PRESIDENT: Xi Jinping

Vice-Chairmen: Xu Liang Fan Changlong

Members: Chang Wanquan Room Feng Hui Zhang Yang Zhao Xia Wu Shengli and Zhang Shi Wei Feng and Ma Xiaotian

Former Chief of Staff

Zhou Enlai and chief of staff

Marshal Xu Xiangqian

Marshal Nie

Su Yu

Huang Kecheng general

Lo Jui-ching generals

Yang Chengwu

Admiral Huang Yongsheng

Deng Xiaoping’s chief of staff

Admiral Yang Dezhi

Chi Haotian

Zhang Wannian

Fu Admiral

Liang Guanglie

Chen Bingde

Admiral Room Feng Hui

Belonging to the Military Academy of the General Staff

Nanjing Army Command College

Shijiazhuang Army Command College

Information Engineering College (Zhengzhou)

Artillery Command College (Hebei Xuanhua)

Shenyang Artillery Academy

Zhenjiang Institute of boats

Engineering Command College (Xuzhou)

Communication Command Academy (Wuhan)

Chongqing Communication Institute

Electronic Engineering Institute (Hefei)

Institute of International Relations (Nanjing}

Army Missile Academy (Langfang)

Nanjing University of technology & Engineering

Anhui Artillery Academy

Bengbu Tank Institute

Xi’an Communication Institute

Luoyang Foreign Languages ​​Institute

Zhangjiakou Communication Institute

Zhengzhou Air Defense Forces College

Sports (communication) College (Guangzhou)

Engineering Institute of Chemical Defense Command (Hebei Changping)

Beijing Army Aviation Academy

National Defense and the National Defense University directly under the Central Military Commission, not to the local college enrollment

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中國人民解放軍總參謀部,在中國共產黨中央委員會、中央軍事委員會領導下,負責組織全國武裝力量建設和作戰指揮的最高軍事統率機關。經過精簡調整後,總參謀部下設辦公廳、作戰部、情報部、第三部、信息化部、軍訓部、軍務部、裝備部、動員部、炮兵部、裝甲兵部、工程兵部、防化部、電子對抗雷達部、政治部、機要局、測繪局、外事局、陸航局、管理局等部門。下面重點介紹一下幾個主要部門:

總參一部

總參一部就是“總參作戰部”,是總參序列中的”老大”。一部是總參最最要害的一個部門,全軍所有的軍事命令都是通過一部下達。他是全軍作戰時的總指揮部,在戰爭爆發時,他就代表中央軍委指揮全國的軍事行動,它同時也作為國傢最高軍事指揮部,在總參的層次結構中起首位作用。

白建軍少將是現任總參作戰部部長,曾擔任過濟南軍區第54集團軍副軍長,2008年3月任陸軍第20集團軍軍長,5月率部參加汶川地震抗震救災。2009年任總參謀部作戰部部長。一部還有5個副部長,都是少將,由總參謀長房峰輝上將直接領導。

總參一部是總參最大的一個部門,下轄8個正師級的局級單位,包括作戰計劃局、戰爭環境局、聯合作戰局、作戰組織運籌局、特種作戰局、戰略目標局、戰備局、演習管理局。下轄的二級的單位那就多瞭去瞭,這個部的將軍有幾十人,有笑話,隨便扔個大石頭,就可以砸死幾個將軍。梁光烈總參謀長上臺後搞瞭改革,向美國的參謀長聯席會議制度學習,已經進行瞭編制調整。各軍種,包括陸軍、海軍、空軍、戰略導彈部隊(二炮)–均在作戰部設有相應的軍種局,在平時,這些軍種局負責追蹤其對應的各軍種日常活動情況,並向中央軍委匯報。而戰時,則負責協調各軍種的活動。

一部在職能上相當於五角大樓Joint Staff的J-3。假設解放軍正在擬定一份正式的作戰計劃,或者突發事件的應變計劃,那麼這就是一部幹的活。如果現在日本突然在釣魚島挑起事端,那麼,負責處理就是一部的事情,2001年,南海軍機相撞,就是由一部直接指揮事態處理的。還有神州1號到6號飛船的發射、回收,都由總參一部參與指揮、調度。

總參一部屬於24小時值班的部門,指揮所位於北京頤和園西北的玉泉山附近,俗稱“西山指揮所”,指揮所深處於上百米的地下,通過電梯進出,可以抵禦核打擊;是中國人民解放軍陸、海、空、二炮的作戰神經中樞,類似於五角大樓的國傢軍事指揮中心。其擁有通信中心、情報中心、作戰指控中心等職能。在戰時可以起到“國傢戰爭指揮中心”的作用。與西山指揮所類似的國傢戰備指揮中心,全國還有多處。

總參二部

總參二部就是總參“情報部”,主要負責搜集、分析軍事政治情報,與總參三部和總政聯絡部都屬軍隊情報系統。在某種程度上,其戰略情報方面的工作與國傢安全部(MSS)有部分重迭。二部的主要”客戶”是總參領導,軍委、國防部、軍兵種總部、軍事工業集團的領導,和部隊指揮員。

楊暉少將是現任總參二部的部長,曾先後在中國駐南斯拉夫使館、前蘇聯使館、俄羅斯使館和哈薩克使館工作,後又擔任總參三部副部長、31集團軍副軍長,並兼任任中國俄羅斯東歐中亞學會副會長,中國國際戰略學會反恐怖研究中心主任、高級研究員,南京國際關系學院兼職教授。楊暉少將是網絡戰專傢。(註:最新資料,二部副部長陳友誼晉升部長)

總參二部下設多個局級單位。

其中總參二部一局主要負責香港和臺灣的情報收集。當然,它也負責全世界范圍內的重要目標。一局下面有五個辦事處:廣州工作處、北京工作處、天津工作處、上海工作處、沈陽工作處。而這些工作處都是以駐這個城市的某某辦公室的名義出現。比如說廣州工作處,就是廣州市人民政府第5辦公室。北京工作處就叫北京市人民政府第幾辦公室。現在二部北京工作處的負責人,原來是駐俄羅斯的武官。這五個根據地理分佈配置的工作處也從事海外秘密諜報行動。例如,沈陽工作處負責俄羅斯、東歐、日本的情報收集,廣州工作處看來也是負責其鄰近地區的情報收集。其首要目標是港澳臺地區的人。上海工作處和南京工作處分別負責西歐和美國。

總參二部二局,又稱“戰術情報局”,解放軍七大軍區(廣州、蘭州、南京、成都、濟南、北京、沈陽)各有軍區下轄的情報部,屬正師級。這些部門直接歸口總參二部二局管理。主要負責向七大軍區部隊提供戰術情報並協調其工作。

總參二部為滿足軍事戰略情報需求而派出的軍情人員,屬於總參二部三局,俗稱武官處,有四百多員工,按地理位置和所在地區對特使搜集活動的重要性,又被細分為七個小組。軍情人員主要搜集有關外國武器技術、戰爭規模、軍事學說、經濟和政策方面的情報。很多這種信息都能從公開渠道得到,但敏感技術一般來說還必須采取秘密方式才能獲得。總參二部獲得情報的方式主要有三個途徑:一是向外國派遣以各種身份為掩護的軍事情報人員;二是從外國的公開出版物上分析軍事情報;三是向駐外使館派出武官。中國駐各國大使館的武官都是由總參二部派出,而不是由外交部或國防部。武官是軍職人員,級別最高的是駐美國的武官,正軍級,軍銜是少將。駐其他國傢的武官有些是正軍級,有些是副軍級,但是駐多數國傢的武官,都是正師級,也就是大校。

二部有專門機構培訓軍情人員,培訓項目包括諜報技巧和語言能力。原總參二部部長羅宇棟少將曾擔任南京外交學院院長。南京外交學院現更名為解放軍國際關系學院,該院前身是中國人民解放軍793外國語學院,文革後從張傢口遷至洛陽和南京,分為兩個學院。這就是二部培訓諜報技巧和外語能力的學校。

總參二部還下轄有多個情報分析局,負責對特定地域的目標進行深層次的情報分析:如二部四局負責瞭解獨聯體和東歐的政治軍事政策,五局負責美國和西方國傢的情報搜集分析;而六局則把工作重點放在與中國相鄰的亞洲國傢上。五局在進行政治和經濟分析時主要利用公開渠道得到的出版物。二部駐美國的分析傢常常要在美國工作很多年,因為這一特殊的研究在中國情報圈內享有較高的聲譽。同時可能要花相當多時間和精力來培養語言能力強的分析傢,這樣他才能辨別出美國和歐洲公開出版物中所反映的文化和政治信息。五局最喜歡的兩個美國資料來源就是國會的報告和蘭德公司的文件。

二部七局為科技局,主要負責軍事武器的研究、設計和開發情報。七處瞄準的是國外未來軍事科學技術的情報,和國內武器研發單位有密切的聯系,能夠在武器研發過程中起到很大作用。七局現有六個研究機構屬該局管理:包括開發諜報設備的第五十八研究所、生產技術性援助設備的海鷗電子設備廠、北京電子廠、第五十七研究所、北方交通大學計算機中心和該處自己的計算機中心。

二部還有一個軍控局,專門用來處理國外彈道導彈防禦系統和軍控問題。由於外交部設有一個負責軍控和裁軍的部門,所以解放軍自己也設一個類似的部門。而把軍控機構設在二部之下,則是因為情報和外事方面的工作在總參內部是由同一名副總參謀長來分管。

二部還有以下幾個部門:

檔案局 收藏海外的公開出版物。它的一個下屬單位就是軍事誼文出版社,該公司負責翻譯和重新出版其他國傢的軍事雜志。

機要局 負責處理、傳達和收藏機密文件,也負責為文件制定密級。

綜合局 為工作人員提供後勤服務,如交通、辦公設備、娛樂中心和飲食。

警衛局 負責中央軍委委員和各總部領導的人身安全。在二部各機構的安全工作中它還享有司法權。

另外,總參二部研究機構的對外公開名稱是“國際戰略研究學會”,也就是過去的北京國際研究學會。所以凡是戰略研究協會的專傢學者,都是總參二部的軍官。比如說在陳水扁上臺以後,臺海局勢緊張期間,經常發表針對臺灣講話的一位年輕的學者辛旗,這就是總參二部的一個秀才。總參二部的情報水平比國傢安全部高很多,因為它從紅軍時代一直延續到現在,因而,有中國的CIA(美國中央情報局)之稱。

總參二部的情報人員基本上有三種人:密工、商幹、掛靠。第一種人是總參二部的專職軍情人員,是在編制內的,這種人在圈子裡被叫做“密工”,受過專業培訓。而國安部和公安部的這類人則都叫“密幹”,也是在公安或者國安內部編制裡的。第二種人是半在編的,在圈子裡被稱為“商幹”,說他們是’半在編”,就是因為這些人的名字上瞭情報部的電腦,但是人員並沒有進入軍情系統的行政編制。比如一個叫張鵬的,在廣東出事瞭。不管是打人瞭,搶劫瞭,還是開地下妓院瞭,隻要沒有死人,公安來抓張鵬的時候,張鵬就可以說:你不能動我,我是搞情報的,某某的人。另外,如果張鵬出境時,超過中華人民共和國外匯管理局關於中國公民到香港時隻能帶六千港幣的規定,隨身帶瞭六十萬港幣而被海關抓住的話,張鵬又會告訴海關的人,你不能動我,我是情報口的,是某某的人。這時海關就可能會打個電話到有關部門去問。而因為張鵬的名字是上瞭情報口電腦的,那邊一查就說:張鵬是我們的人。這樣確認瞭之後,海關這時就隻能放人、放錢。

其實在第二種人裡邊,又可以分兩類:一類是比較接近於“密工”的,是既上瞭軍情電腦名單,也正式發瞭軍裝的。並且,在名義上還有一份工資,軍委是認賬的。如果這個人確實是因為搞情報工作犧牲瞭,那麼這筆錢會交給這個人的傢屬。可能平時這份工資並沒領,但是國傢會替這個人存著。另一類人其實並不做情報,也可以說這類人進軍情部門純粹是為瞭平時能夠靠二部的關系作買賣賺很多錢。因為,誰都知道,中國軍情部門有所謂的免檢章,有貨物進口免檢的絕對特權。第三種人被稱為“掛靠”,社會上這種人最多。而這些人當中的絕大部分人是掛靠於軍情在地方上對外的一些辦公室下邊的。比如說:廣州軍區情報部在地方上的身份是“廣東省人民政府第五辦公室”,負責人分主任和政委。原來五辦的政委叫傅軍,級別相當於廣州軍區情報部的副部長,他原來是廣州軍區人事處的處長。

總參三部

總參三部,又稱“監聽部”,主要負責偵聽、處理和轉送國外電臺的通信傳播信號。也就是通過設在各邊境和沿海地區的無數“監聽站”進行電子情報的截收工作。情報人員以前全天24小時監聽監看外國電視,現在又增加瞭對互聯網的監視。這有點類似於美國的國傢安全局(NSA)。三部的“網絡控制中心”位於北京市海淀區。總參三部目前估計有十幾萬人員負責監聽所有國際長途電話。所有的國際長途電話在錄音設備上預先輸入一些關鍵詞匯,例如一些中國領導人的名字、一些敏感的事件名稱、以及一些隱諱的詞語,當錄音機感應到這些詞匯時,就會自動跳起來,這時監聽人員就會立即對這個電話進行跟蹤監聽檢查,而且三部也同時截收海外的傳真。

三部在海外擁有眾多的監聽站,1992年緬甸政府同意中國在安達曼海的島嶼上設立偵聽站,以監視印度洋。1994年老撾政府同意中國在老撾南方占巴塞省(Champasak)設立三個偵聽站,其中一個在Khong。1999年中國在古巴位於盧爾德(Lourdes)的一個偵聽站項目上展開合作,該站最初是由蘇聯援助建立。

三部也負責對國內軍網通信的偵聽工作,各大軍區之間任何有線和無線的通信聯系都無法避過這張偵聽網的耳朵,這有助於對戰備安全的抽查。

與總參二部類似,總參三部在七大軍區也有下設機構,各大軍區防區內負責情報收集和處理的骨幹偵聽站是由各大軍區司令部三局來運作,直接歸口總參三部管理。各大軍區的司令和參謀無權幹預在其防區內展開工作的三部機構。其同所駐紮的省軍區及大軍區之間沒有任何隸屬關系。這些偵聽站在人員、編制、預算、組建方面,完全由總參三部負責。各大軍區的偵聽站有不同的功能和目標區域,例如:蘭州軍區的三局負責偵聽俄羅斯方面的信號通信,並肩負著對俄方導彈攻擊進行早期預警的重要使命。這個部門應該隸屬於三部八局,其”負責截聽前蘇聯地區的電子通信信號”,中亞地區各共和國也是該局的目標范圍,其偵聽對象是中俄邊界地區。三部十二局主要負責”識別和跟蹤外國衛星–即美國軍用衛星”。十二局的一處設施位於西昌。

三部部長為吳國華少將,政治委員:王永生少將.

總參四部

總參四部為“電子雷達對抗部”,組建於1990年,主要負責電子戰,包括電子情報、電子對抗、雷達管制等。總參四部部長為曾占平少將。近年來,解放軍在戰術技偵和電子戰方面得到瞭加強。在總參四部組建之前,電子戰是二部的一項職責。除瞭執行解放軍電子戰理論政策所規定的內容之外,四部也向戰略目標提供電子防禦,例如位於北京西山的軍事指揮控制中心的C4I系統。在向國傢重要目標提供電子保護措施的同時,總參四部也掌管全軍下至師級單位所屬的電子戰分隊。同時也管理和領導海空軍部隊的信號情報和電子戰的運作,如機載情報收集系統、海軍艦載設施。

四部裡還設有一些局,分別對陸海空三軍部隊在業務上提供指導,對直屬該部的電子對抗部隊和雷達兵部隊進行垂直領導,或負責一些對口研究所的工作。主要包括西南電子研究所(即成都第29研究所),負責雷達幹擾發射臺的研發。總參第54研究所,該所專門”為電子對抗與雷達兵部研制分析雷達脈沖參數的數字電子情報信號處理器。” 合肥第36研究所,負責研發通信幹擾發射臺。此外,總參四部還有自己的軍事院校,其中包括安徽合肥解放軍電子工程學院。

除瞭管理解放軍的軍事通信系統之外,總參通信部也在全中國的通信基礎設施現代化建設方面扮演瞭領頭作用。主要包括以下一些項目:

◎軍用電話網(非密)

◎保密電話網

◎全軍數據通信網絡(可能就是上述的”全軍公共數據交換網絡”)

◎野戰通信系統,它”整合瞭聲、光、電信號,利用空中、地下、潛艇數據鏈。”(就像戰術/作戰網絡系統,整合瞭光纖通信和衛星通信。)

另一個關於解放軍通信系統的項目包括:

◎地下光纖網絡

◎通信衛星

◎微波通信

◎短波廣播站

◎自動指揮和控制網絡

總參通信部設有很多建制內的單位和人員從事著固定通信設施(例如高頻通信、微波通信、衛星通信、電話交換系統、對流層散射通信)以及移動戰略通信設備。總參四部下設大量建制內的維護和後勤部隊,以對相關設備進行修理、供給、維護、測試、校準,並執行總務方面的職能。總之,總參通信部肩負的主要軍事使命是:規劃和實現解放軍作戰指揮及行政管理通信網絡的現代化。目前總參通信部正負責建設一個長途通信網絡,以滿足打一場”高技術條件下局部戰爭”的需要。在這點上,通信部正著力於實現軍事通信的”六大轉變”。這些轉變包括:

1.從模擬通信向數字通信的轉變

2.從電纜向光纜的轉變

3.從單用途終端向多用途終端轉變

4.從機電交換系統向自動交換系統的轉變

5.從單任務網絡向多任務網絡的轉變

6.從人工系統管理向自動以及智能系統管理的轉變

總參警衛局

總參警衛局是解放軍編制,也就是中央辦公廳警衛局,負責指揮中央警衛團,俗稱8341部隊。

總參警衛局是正軍級編制,下設8個正師級單位,負責人是上將軍銜,與總參謀長平級。局長兼任中央辦公廳第一副主任(正部級) ,副局長包括常務副局長均為少將。負責具體指揮協調各位國傢領導人的安全。

總參警衛局主要負責保衛黨中央領導機關(政治局常委)和軍委領導的安全。此外還包括國傢副主席、人大副委員長、政協副主席、中紀委副書記、高檢院長、高法院長及其以上領導人。國傢領導人幾乎都生活在中南海和中南海附近,總參警衛局無疑是位高權重。一個警衛團的團長,授予上將軍銜,說明中央的對這個部隊的重視,舉個例子,如果現在中南海出瞭什麼事,是中央警衛團來的快,還是駐紮在北京郊區的第38集團軍來的快。因此1976年,黨中央粉碎四人幫,就是由中央警衛團(8341部隊)完成的。中央警衛團負責中央領導的保安工作,這是一個很重要的也很政治敏感的職位,擔任此職者必是中央領導最信任的人。

在我軍諸多部隊番號中,8341可以說是最出名的。它是1953年以中央警衛師一團為基礎組建起來的,當年6月9日在中南海正式成立。8341部隊初建時隻有1000多人,主要任務是保衛五大領袖–毛澤東、劉少奇、朱德、周恩來、陳雲。歸公安部第九局領導。當時的公安部部長是羅瑞卿,九局局長是汪東興,副局長是張耀祠。”文革”期間8341部隊改由中央辦公廳領導,汪東興具體負責領導、指揮。編制不斷擴大達8000多人,轄7個大隊、36個中隊。部隊人數已相當於一個師的兵力。”913″事件後,針對林彪一夥企圖用飛機轟炸中南海、釣魚臺的陰謀活動,又成立瞭第八大隊,即機炮大隊,佈置在中南海周圍以確保其上空的安全,但時間不長就撤銷瞭。8341初建時警衛單位或目標較為集中,主要有玉泉山;新六所、中南海等地,後來擴大到北戴河、天安門、人民大會堂、釣魚臺等。”文革”期間由於種種原因警衛范圍更是大大地增加瞭,又多瞭昌平農場、北京植物園、花園村、東官房等地。

總參警衛局下轄部門主要有:辦公廳、政治部、政策研究部、行動部(指揮協調中心)、情報部、技術部、通信部、訓練部(幹部訓練大隊)、生活保障部、建設審查部、聯絡部、幹部隊(衛士大隊)、機關服務中心一大隊(中南海)二大隊(人民大會堂)三大隊(新六所)四大隊(玉泉山)五大隊(北戴河)六大隊(特種作戰大隊)七大隊(幹部大隊)八大隊是(工程維護大隊)。

領導警衛標準分為:政治局常委為一級警衛。

政治局委員、候補委員、中央書記處書記、全國人大副委員長、國務委員為二級警衛(中國國民黨連戰主席至大陸訪問采用二級加強警衛)。全國政協副主席、最高人民法院院長、最高人民檢察院檢察長為三級警衛,以上領導如果退休之後,仍按原警衛標準警衛。省、自治區、直轄市的黨政主要領導人員也是警衛目標,各地、市、州的書記可以視情況決定警衛級別,通常是三級警衛等。

8341部隊的警衛工作組織相當嚴密,部隊主要領導都有分工,毛澤東的警衛工作由汪東興、張耀祠具體負責,警衛大隊是一大隊,中南海甲區的警衛部隊是一大隊的一中隊;林彪的警衛工作由副團長張宏負責,警衛大隊是二大隊,警衛中隊是二大隊的一中隊;周恩來因住在中南海,警衛大隊也是一大隊,警衛中隊是一大隊的三中隊,由楊德中負責。其他政治局常委也都有具體警衛大隊和中隊及負責人。當時一大隊負責中南海及周圍地區,二大隊負責毛傢灣及周圍地區,四大隊負責玉泉山及周圍的警衛,七大隊負責北戴河中央首長療養地及周圍地區,五大隊負責釣魚臺及周圍地區,其他幾個大隊是機動大隊。此外,每個警衛區又具體分為外圍和內圍,內圍又分甲、乙、丙區。甲區的人可以自由出入乙、丙區,但乙、丙區的人不能隨便出入甲區。上世紀70年代到過北京的人都知道或看到人民大會堂周圍拉著線繩,有警衛站崗,行人是不能進入警衛區的。中南海的紅墻外也有固定哨和遊動哨,當然還有便衣哨。中南海、人民大會堂除門口有哨兵外,門裡還有警衛區,外人、生人是根本就進不去的。在毛澤東、周恩來等人的住地周圍及生活區還有多道門衛,無關人員,包括8341部隊的一些領導幹部不經批準和同意也根本不允許出入,這是嚴格規定的。8341的幹部戰士因工作需要出入中南海,哨兵認識的可以放行,不認識的要和所在連隊進行聯系,確保無誤的情況下才能放行。

不過,8341這個番號在有段時間來回變動過。在1975年,那時全軍部隊的番號都由4位數上升為5位數,但中央警衛團仍然是4位數,後來番號對外由8341改為57001,對內仍然不變,但不久部隊又接到通知,把57001改回叫8341,直到1976年毛主席逝世後不久,8341才又改為57003,2000年10月改為61889部隊。

總參警衛局領導人

局長:曹清中將

副局:

李洪福少將

顏 敏少將

馬金虎少將 負責全國人大常委會委員長吳邦國警衛

趙留江少將

孫元功少將

薑廣清少將

周冬生少將

葉貴新少將

軍委領導人

中央軍委領導

主席:習近平

副主席:范長龍 許其亮

委員:常萬全 房峰輝 張陽 趙克石 張又俠 吳勝利 馬曉天 魏鳳和

歷任總參謀長

周恩來 兼總參謀長

徐向前 元帥

聶榮臻 元帥

粟裕 大將

黃克誠 大將

羅瑞卿 大將

楊成武 上將

黃永勝 上將

鄧小平 兼總參謀長

楊得志 上將

遲浩田 上將

張萬年 上將

傅全有 上將

梁光烈 上將

陳炳德 上將

房峰輝 上將

隸屬於總參的軍校

南京陸軍指揮學院

石傢莊陸軍指揮學院

信息工程學院(河南鄭州)

炮兵指揮學院(河北宣化)

沈陽炮兵學院

鎮江船艇學院

工程指揮學院(江蘇徐州)

通訊指揮學院(湖北武漢)

重慶通信學院

電子工程學院(安徽合肥)

國際關系學院(江蘇南京}

陸軍導彈學院(河北廊坊)

南京理工大學

安徽炮兵學院

蚌埠坦克學院

西安通信學院

洛陽外國語學院

張傢口通信學院

鄭州防空兵學院

體育(通信)學院(廣州)

防化指揮工程學院(河北昌平)

北京陸軍航空兵學院

國防大學和國防科技大學直接隸屬中央軍委,不向地方高考招生

 

Original Source: http://www.81.cn/jwgd/index.htm

 

China’s Strategic Support Forces & Winning Information Warfare – 中國网络战部队 Chinese Cyber Forces 建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争

China’s Strategic Support Forces & Winning Information Warfare – 中國网络战部队 Chinese Cyber Forces 建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争

2016年01月05日來源:人民網-軍事頻道手機看新聞

December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army leadership organization, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping granted to the Army flag, rocket forces, strategic support troops and caused precepts. This is Xi Jinping will flag solemnly granted Takatsu strategic support troops commander, political commissar Liu Fu Company. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Gangshe

People, Beijing, January 5 (by Qiu Yue) December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army leadership organization, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main strategic support mission task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battlefield can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and will integrate with the armed actions and rocket forces, and throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support troops is to maintain national security of the new combat forces, is an important qualitative growth of our military combat capability, mainly to strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support troops, military help to optimize the structure, improve the comprehensive support capabilities. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong, modern strategic support units.

Yin 卓介绍 that strategic support mission task force is to support the main battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battlefield can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support task force include: Return on target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation action, as well as the Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means of management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission . “These are decisions on the future of our military battlefield victory of the ability to obtain new areas.”

In times of war, reconnaissance forces cyberspace can help grasp the movements of the enemy army, Assistance Force to develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory. In peacetime, with the national level of information increasing, safety electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in the private sector application, the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities, these facilities for our socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of a lot of hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation, such as important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to implement a network attack, which requires that we must be equipped with the appropriate defenses. Strategic support troops in the protection of the country’s financial security of nuclear people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support troops is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic forces will support reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, digital ocean, digital construction and other aspects play an important role in the earth, and will provide strong support for the joint operations battlefield various branches of the military, in order to achieve the objectives under win local wars in conditions of informationization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support troops are not a separate fighting force, it will work with armed, rocket forces and other branches of the military action integrated to form an integrated joint operations, strategic support troops fighting throughout the whole process, penetration every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Origianl Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队授予军旗并致训词。这是习近平将军旗郑重授予战略支援部队司令员高津、政治委员刘福连。新华社记者 李刚摄

人民网北京1月5日电 (邱越)2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。新成立的战略支援部队颇为神秘,这究竟是一支什么样的军事力量呢?军事专家尹卓在接受人民网采访时表示,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。它是联合作战的重要力量,将与陆海空和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

国防部新闻发言人杨宇军指出,战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点,主要是将战略性、基础性、支撑性都很强的各类保障力量进行功能整合后组建而成的。成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。我们将坚持体系融合、军民融合,加强新型作战力量建设,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

尹卓介绍称,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。具体地说,战略支援部队的任务包括:对目标的探测、侦察和目标信息的回传;承担日常的导航行动,以及北斗卫星和太空侦察手段的管理工作;承担电磁空间和网络空间的防御任务。“这些都是决定我军在未来战场上能否取得胜利的新领域。”

在战争时期,电子空间的侦察力量可以帮助我军掌握敌人的动向,协助部队制定作战行动,确保取得战场胜利。在和平时期,随着国家信息化程度日益提高,电磁空间和网络空间的安全也日益重要。尹卓指出,随着卫星导航设施在民间的应用,今后高铁、轮船、飞机、汽车都会配备车载或机载的定位设施,这些设施对我国的社会主义建设将起到重要的作用。此外,面对诸多黑客在互联网上针对我国实施的非法行动,比如对重要政府设施、军队设施、重要民用设施实施的网络攻击,这要求我们必须配备相应的防御力量。战略支援部队在保障国家金融安全核人民日常生活安全等方面将起到重要作用。

“战略支援部队是联合作战行动的重要力量。”尹卓说,如今任何作战行动都离不开电子空间攻防,战略支援部队将对侦察、预警、通信、指挥、控制、导航、数字化海洋、数字化地球建设等方面发挥重要作用,并将为各军兵种的联合作战行动提供有力的战场支持,以实现打赢信息化条件下局部战争的目标。

尹卓指出,战略支援部队不是一支单独的作战力量,它将与陆海空、火箭军等军兵种的行动融为一体,形成一体化的联合作战行动,战略支援部队贯穿于作战的全过程,渗透到每一个作战行动中,将成为战争制胜的关键力量。

Original Source: http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0105/

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy 国家信息化战略中的军民结合

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy

国家信息化战略中的军民结合

“中辦發〔2006〕11號各省、自治區、直轄市黨委和人民政府,中央和國家機關各部委,解放軍各總部、各大單位,各人民團體: 《2006—2020年國家信息化發展戰略》已經黨中央、國務院同意,現印發給你們,請結合實際認真貫徹落實。”

中共中央辦公廳

國 務 院 辦 公 廳

China Communist Party

“Affecting all Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Communist Party of China, all committees and governments, central ministries and state organs, the People’s Liberation Army headquarters, major units, and people’s organizations:” This 2006–2020 National Informatization Development Strategy applies effective immediately”

[Foreign military and civilian strategy [1] ]

(A) legal form of integrating the armed forces to implement the strategy

The United States and other developed countries attach great importance to integrating the armed forces of institutional strengthening to the people, as a national strategy and to promote it in the form of legislation. After the Cold War, according to changes in the international situation, the US Congress and the Department of Defense issued a “National Defense Authorization Act ( 1993 ) “and” streamlining of the Federal Acquisition Act ( 1994 ), “affirmed the principle of legal form of military and civilian integration. The United States has enacted the “Defense transition strategy”, “National Security Strategy of Science and Technology ( 1995 ) “and” National Defense Science and Technology Strategy ( 2000 ) “, the strategic goal is:” to create a both to meet military requirements and meet the business needs of advanced national technology and industrial base. ” US Department of Defense in 2003, released in a new version of DOD5000.1 , stressing that “give priority to civilian products, technology and services”, provides that “to the extent feasible, the task can be modified requirements to facilitate civilian products, technology and services,” the procurement . British Ministry of Defense in 2001 for the promulgation of the 21 century national defense science and innovation strategy, clearly the long-term development of national defense science and technology point of view, the Ministry of Defence must attract the world advanced technology in the civilian sector to participate in defense research and development, accelerate weapons Update pace. French 1994 annual defense white paper also clearly announced that “the defense industry to consider the direction of the dual-use and military research and civilian research to combine as far as possible.”

(B) to promote the development of dual-use technology from both the investment and organization

The main countries in the world to start and accelerate new revolution in military affairs and military information technology, which is to implement the military strategy of the important people skills background. US Department of Defense in 1995 and published in “dual-use technology, aimed at obtaining affordable cutting-edge technology of the national defense strategy” and proposed to have important military needs but also has the potential transfer of dual-use technology, do need government intervention, clear by the government to invest in development. In 1998 the US Department of Defense promulgated the “National Defense Authorization Act”, asked the military to increase investment in the development of dual-use technology, and provides dual-use technology sharing principle of project funds. From the 20 century, 90 years began, the United States has implemented a variety of special programs to support the development of dual-use technology. In recent years, a substantial increase in the US defense budget, the 2007 fiscal year reached 5064 billion US dollars, compared with 2003, an increase of one-third of the defense budget in the 30-40% invested in the defense industry, it is worth noting that the US Department of Defense 20 Century 90 ‘s end total annual investment in IT is about 500 billion dollars in 2006 increased in 742 million US dollars, focus on supporting the development of dual-use of information technology. US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) attaches great importance to the development and application of dual-use technology, which is half of the office responsible for the development of dual-use technology.

In order to facilitate the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States in 1993, including the establishment of the armed forces and the Ministry of Commerce, the Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (year NASA ) and the National Science Foundation ( NSF ) and other units’ defense technology transition committee ” . The United States also developed a joint research and development agreement ( CRADA ), to support the development of federal technology transfer to the private sector, encouraging joint investment with industry to develop dual-use technologies and projects. If we say that the era of mechanization technologies accounted for all military and civilian technology military equipment 30-40% , then the era of military and civilian integration of information technology will account for 80-90% . In enhancing the economic competitiveness of key technologies and key defense technologies listed in the US Department of Defense Department of Commerce elected in respect of about 80% overlap. British Ministry of Defense and Trade and Industry jointly invest in the development of dual-use technology, including a number of areas, including aviation, the British set up a special bureau defense technology transfer, scientific research institutions engaged in management of civil defense projects and funding contracts, using competitive mechanisms to encourage having strong technical force of civilian institutions to develop military technology. France through the implementation of the space program, space program, nuclear programs and electronic, information and communication plans a number of projects to develop dual-use technology. Japanese defense procurement is mainly aimed at using defense contracts as a means to promote the development of advanced technologies, especially having a civilian or dual use of advanced technologies.

Accelerate the development of dual-use technologies in the military, while information technology and services in the national economy, resulting in huge economic benefits, a study reported that the US Congress, the second application of space technology, each invested one dollar, we can produce seven dollars efficiency [2] . 2006 early American NASA Goddard Space Flight Center will be awarded the development of a simple, safe and low cost of the patent license single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing method of ISM company, formed a production capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these Nanotubes can be widely used in various fields of medical, fuel cells, video displays, solar batteries, etc., to promote the economic development of the United States [3] .

Management and equipment procurement mechanisms (iii) the reform of research projects, encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment

Civilian high-tech enterprise innovation system and a flexible, quick response, the results of many. Supporting civilian enterprises to develop products for the military, it has become the guidelines of the US military. 2003 introduced the “defense industrial transformation roadmap,” emphasized the need to change the main contractor control defense market situation, through the bidding and government procurement forms to encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment, guide and encourage enterprises to master the innovative technology into the civil defense thereby forming the size of both, the new defense market structure of many vendors. For example, the US communications equipment maker Motorola Inc. have independent military communications equipment manufacturing sector, both the production of Boeing civil aviation with the machine also produces military aircraft, Lockheed – Martin, the company’s main business is system integration, aviation, aerospace and technical services, are dual-use technology. To support SMEs, the United States has enacted the Small Business Innovation program. The US scientists, engineers, nearly half of military-related research, about one-third of enterprises and military production, whereas the Ministry of Defence orders for the total order amount accounts for 90% . British military research facilities management reform measures, encourage the use of military research facilities in the civilian sector technology development. France set up an integrated project team from the Department of Defense Weaponry Department, the military services Staff, industry composition, management of weapons and equipment procurement program development and projects. French Defense Weaponry Department promptly inform the military to SMEs development plan, acquisition plan set aside 10% for small and medium enterprises, to encourage them to participate in the competitive procurement of weapons and equipment. German weaponry annual plan by the General Armament Department operations departments, the services bureau, defense technology and industry cooperation Acquisition Department developed together. Germany developed a “Federal Republic of Germany ordered assignments principles” clearly defined weaponry defense contractor general contractor in the task, the task must be assigned to military orders to subcontractors by means of competition, in the form of legislation to protect small and medium enterprises to participate in defense research mission competition. Note that the Japanese government has the military capacity to foster private enterprise, the Japanese are eligible to receive military orders of enterprises has reached two thousand, basically formed a technologically advanced, wide range and great potential of military research and production system. Russia’s two ways to establish the defense industry system integration of military and civilian, in the implementation of the defense industry group, the formation of large-scale military company at the same time, part of the military enterprises demutualization, privatization, so that military enterprises retain the core military production capacity at the same production civilian.

A greater proportion of military production undertaken by civilian enterprises, contribute to the formation of military bidding competition mechanism, thereby reducing costs, improving quality and production of military enterprises to civilian products companies face appeared, facilitate international technical exchange and absorption of foreign advanced technology. Military through purchase orders, to strengthen cooperation with the civilian high-tech enterprises, to provide abundant funds or venture capital, which has become a developed country WTO era important mode of government to support their strategy of industrial development, enhance international competitiveness, in addition, military and technical performance of the process of challenging requirements, promote the growth of civilian high-tech enterprise technological innovation and high-quality scientific and technological talents. The development of civilian high-tech enterprises to grow, for the defense industry has laid a solid foundation, also contributed to the national economic development, and enhance the strength of the country.

(Iv) open defense procurement, maximize the use of civilian norms and standards

In order to promote the development of civil-military integration, many countries have carried out reforms to military standards, the equipment acquisition process and vigorously promote the use of civil standards and commercial specifications. US forces continue to pursue the reform of military standards, based on the past all military standards and specifications to conduct a comprehensive clean-up review, the repeal of the 4000 military specification remainder (including single-piece specification) and 300 remainder military standards, adopted the 1784 item civilian standards ( non-governmental standard), the equipment acquisition process, limit the use of military norms and standards, not only does the civil standard is available to meet the military requirements when considering the use of military standards, and the use of military standards must be approved or existing civilian standards can not. UK Equipment Acquisition management, not to military standards and military specifications and performance-based specifications proposed procurement requirements, given enough freedom and flexibility contractor. Japan 1999-2002 years, a total amend or repeal the military technical standards and technical specifications 10231 , accounting for all military technical standards 74 percent . In 2003 , the Defense Agency also proposed in its new weapons and equipment procurement policy making, instead of using civilian technology standard about 18,000 entries Defense Agency dedicated military standards and norms.

US defense scientist famous Gansler estimate, the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States Department of Defense Department of Defense procurement could save the equivalent of the total annual fee of 20% or more. Although the US military R & D expenditure of the United States the proportion of total funding from the last century, 60 years of 50% is reduced to the current 15% , but the US military technology but gained rapid development, mainly due to integrating the armed forces of the new system.

[To change the information into a new military and civilian military features, integrating the armed forces]

A new era of international competition, information into the characteristics of modern military equipment is becoming one of the core content of the new revolution in military affairs of States. An information era notable feature is the combination of surface defense economy and social economy more widely, military technology and civilian technology deeper degree of integration, association technological innovation and new revolution in military affairs increasingly tight. Developed countries have the information technology as a strategic national research priorities, the United States and Japan in the field of R & D investment in information separately account for the total R & D investment of 40% or more, the United States Department of Defense 2005 budget on science and technology information systems and sensors accounted for 35.7% .

(A) information technology in all areas of civil industrial technology is the most easy to achieve also the people’s army also

Information industry is large in scale compared to other industrial sectors and technology updates quickly, there is no other information technology fields like civil industry as more people realize also the military also. The United States since 1999 years has launched the “fast bird”, “Ikonos” and other dual-use high-resolution satellite, in 2001 in Afghanistan, “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US “fast bird” and “Yi Kenuo Sri Lanka “satellite to 20 US dollars / km ² price to US Department of Defense provides photographic reconnaissance image related operations area. IT-based civilian battlefield information network in the Iraq war also played an important role, via satellite, drones and other airborne sensors to obtain information on a computer map updated every friendly and enemy positions every five minutes. The Pentagon claims that China and the US Air Force, the war in Iraq, the extent of information the Navy reached 70% , ground forces also up 50 percent or more. US information technology has made ​​such rapid progress, China has played an important role in military technology.

(B) in the civilian market-wide test of IT applications in the military low-cost and reliable utility

Dedicated to the military use of information technology, although in training and military exercises, but without a real baptism after the test is limited. Civil information products market is large, hundreds of millions or even billions of people subjected to extensive tests using its technology, fierce competition in the market also contributed to accelerate its improvement and perfection, easy-to-use products, the cost to decline rapidly. From the military GPS and the Internet is a good example, which after a civilian market competition and popularity improvement to mature and reliable and cost-effective way reflect the greater value in military applications.

(C) Information technology can rapidly increase the combat effectiveness of military applications

Performance information weaponry is much higher than the mechanized weaponry, but the development of high risk, high investment, an increase in its cost of IT accounts for a large proportion. Many civilian high-tech product development of low cost, standard upgrade quickly, just put a small amount of money to improve its performance can meet the requirements of military systems, make full use of civilian IT achievements can significantly reduce costs. United States, Britain, Japan and other developed countries in the development of information technology weaponry and equipment system, especially when a variety of military information systems, directly from the market civilian technology sector and corporate purchasing high-tech equipment, such as communications equipment, all kinds of computers, all kinds of computer software, security anti-virus software, satellite image analysis equipment to minimize the risk of national defense research and development investment. US Department of Defense contractor is due to the direct use existing commercial software and hardware, greatly reducing development time information Weapon System.

In addition, the use of information technology to transform and upgrade weapons systems is rapidly effective measures to improve the combat effectiveness. A typical weapon system development cycle for up to 7-15 years, the high cost of its replacement. The typical development cycle civilian IT hardware and software business a few months to a few years, mobile phones and PC replacement is faster, with a civilian rapid development of information technology to transform weapons and equipment, only a few funds, Every few years the performance of existing weapons and equipment will be able to a higher level, thereby prolonging the service life. Western countries show a measure of existing mechanized weaponry information transformation, the development time and cost required, roughly equivalent production of new weaponry 1/4 to 1/3 .

 

(D) The information construction in the military use of civil IT and products beneficial to the national defense mobilization

Army civilian information technology products through the use of these technologies to deepen understanding, familiar with the use of these products, once wartime there is a need to quickly collect a large number of civilian products, and in the armed forces of these products can be quickly effective. US troops in 95 percent of the computer is in the civilian military communications conducted online, with commercial networks linked up to 15 million units changed hand, the Iraq war, the US military also requisitioned and rented some commercial satellites and civilian information networks, in order to bridge the information transfer capability deficiencies. IT complexity it becomes replace the faulty equipment maintenance module, civilian technology products helps to reduce the use of troops and equipment spare parts inventory. In addition, the use of civil information technology products also provide the possibility for civilian IT enterprises to participate in military equipment maintenance, thus reducing maintenance costs of troops and equipment. 2003 , the United States in the Iraq war, has with the world’s four 10,000 manufacturers signed a 50 million copies of material support contract, “the contractor battlefield” socialization of military logistical support.

(E) The development of intellectual property in the competition for civil defense information technology helps improve information security

IT field of international, market-oriented walking in front of other areas, competition is quite fierce patents, the United States, Japan and other developed countries to ten in 2005 by the end of the cumulative patent applications in China in 46.27% concentrated in the field of information. Many IT even basic technology is also likely to be used in the military field, the developed countries are often incorporated into this limit exports of the column, especially China, and therefore unable to equip our troops or through the introduction of foreign advanced weapons systems procurement. At a critical time in international politics, the military situation changes, do not rule out the possibility of the introduction of certain key parts weaponry stuck or certain functional failure exists. On the other hand, China’s civilian IT through international competition, hard work, has been the rapid development, the domestic IT companies are also corresponding increase innovation capability, some of the technology has reached the world advanced level, such as third generation mobile communication TD-SCDMA . In order to compete and reduce costs needs, many domestic enterprises have developed information technology products dedicated chip, to change the long-standing dependence on foreign chip status, while developing the capability to rapidly increase, to undertake the task of developing national defense to lay a good foundation dedicated chip . These chips use civilian high-tech and specialized in military equipment in the army would avoid the kinds of information security with its own technology.

(F) make full use of local advantages of network professionals prepared to deal with cyber warfare preparation

Information is double-edged sword, information technology to improve the combat capability of the armed forces but also requires special attention to the information network security. An essential feature of cyberwarfare is asymmetric, low cost and easy to attack and attack and hard to defend, particularity cyber warfare means will lead to future war ” civilians ” trend, “hackers” may become a war hero. To prevent ” network’9.11′ incident , ” President George W. Bush early in 2002 on the release of the first 16 numbers , ” National Security Presidential Directive , ” the history of the formation of the US military is the world’s first network hacker troops – cyber warfare capabilities constitute the Joint Command, The Army and Navy also have a computer emergency response unit, the Air Force is responsible for the implementation of the establishment of a network of Air Force attack these troops from the world’s top computer experts and ” hacker ” , and currently has formally incorporated into the order of battle in Las Vegas on the largest computer exhibition, former US Assistant Secretary of Defense Sihamoni had in his speech on the ” hacker ” who said: ” If you considered the rest of his life to doing, make sure you do not forget the Department of Defense. ” In addition, the US military also hired some hackers specialize in computer vulnerability testing. 2004 In September , the US set up by 28 international industry consortium composed of major companies specialized home – NCW Industries Alliance, to strengthen the military and civilian aspects of the field of information technology coordination.

(G) make full use of scientific and technological resources of a strong army and civil service

It was reported that the US Air Force in terms of the lack of high-tech professional officer Capt up to two-thirds of the Army Navy also facing the same problem. US Department of Defense, NASA and other very seriously the role of the United States Academy of Engineering and universities and other research institutions and companies in the defense consulting RAND research and personnel training. According to foreign military experts estimate that the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other major developed countries developing high-tech weapons and equipment information required for 80-90% from local businesses, 10-20% from their military research institutes that the basis of dual-use items and technology sector may bear the civil, defense, science and technology department and the military technology sector specializing in purely military projects, and overall system project. US military reconnaissance plane EP-3 electronic information system consists of a variety of functional equipment components, many of them readily available on the market and are not necessarily technologically advanced products, but its integrated performance of the system on a higher level, visible integrated innovation You can increase the value.

The total amount of scientific and technical personnel and research and development staff accounted for the world’s first and second place, to make good use of the intellectual resources will significantly enhance our military’s strength in the balance of forces. Establish civil-military integration of scientific and technological innovation system, the development of military and civilian science and technology co-ordinate the project and reasonable deployment of dual-use items, do not repeat and can complement each other to achieve the optimal combination of scientific and technological resources of the country, at the same time vigorously develop local resources by means of force personnel to ensure national defense construction in a strategic initiative. The Central Military Commission in 2007 issued a “attract and retain high-level military professional and technical personnel provisions”, the increased focus on the introduction and use of high-quality human resources community efforts to further improve the policy mechanism innovation. System established academicians, academicians hired as technical adviser, full use of the state’s top talent and intelligence resources to better serve the army major decision-making advice, major scientific research and high-level personnel training; in preparation for military struggle and closely related major research projects (project) and key disciplines, a chief expert positions, for the community to hire high-level professional and technical personnel.

[Seize the opportunities of information technology, to promote civil-military integration, integrating the armed forces]

China’s national defense scientific research and industrial system is set up on the basis of the planned economy, the planned economy of management concepts and tools still play a leading role in the management and self-contained closed hinder the establishment of a market-oriented philosophy, is not conducive to cooperation and innovation culture the formation, performance assessment indicators of military units rely on the lack of industrial development and promote the civil requirements or mission, in research programs and equipment procurement in military and civilian disjointed. Since reform and opening, the defense industry began with the development of a single military structure structure change, the nuclear industry, shipbuilding industry, information industry to the military and civilian, to benefit from the transfer of military technology to civilian use, the radiation leading role in the defense industry to the local economy and society significantly enhanced, but these transfers have not yet risen to the institutional level. On the other hand, our country has grown to a group of innovative and industrial capacity of civilian high-tech enterprises, capable military mission, but the lack of demand for military communication channels norms, policies and regulations related to the imperfection of reason, basically it less involved in national defense tasks. If there are no civilian technology sector urgent national security needs, it is impossible to obtain in the areas of national defense and security level of strong support, it is difficult to play a greater role in supporting the civilian sectors to support and not to assume the task of training defense, nor conducive to its development and growth. Compared with developed countries, China’s military and civilian from positive interaction and coordinated development goals are still many gaps, more prominent is the lag corresponding laws and regulations and institutions. Military and civilian national behavior and reflects the will of the state, not only to rely on technological innovation, but also to rely on innovation and institutional innovation to achieve.

In the CPC Central Committee and State Council in 2006 issued in ” 2006-2020 National Information Development Strategy “, pointed out the global information technology are causing profound changes in today’s world, reshaping the world political, economic, social, cultural and military a new pattern of development. Accelerate the development of information technology, it has become the common choice of all countries. And clearly put forward the development of China’s information technology strategic approach – the overall planning, resource sharing, deepen the application, seek practical, market-oriented, based on innovation, military and civilian, safe and reliable.

In the implementation of the national development strategy, we need to learn from foreign ideas, to address the constraints of institutional issues from military and civilian regulations, coordination mechanisms, standards and procurement policies and other strategic height. The current need to establish and improve the bidding system, the formation of fair and equitable competition, maximize the use of mature private standards, guidance and encouragement to master innovative technology enterprises, especially small and medium sized companies to enter the defense sector, so as to form a new multi-vendor defense industry system, led military mission to enhance the level of civilian development, adding vitality to economic development, to achieve military and civilian interaction.

In an important experience in promoting foreign military and civilian aspects of the information is from the start. Revolution in military affairs in the world today, is the rapid development of information technology and its wide range of applications in the military field for direct power, high-tech advantages of local wars in conditions of informationization to be achieved, relying solely on national defense science and technology sector and the military system itself to be ineffective, soldiers and civilians combined, integrating the armed forces is the key, information technology is one of the important starting point. In the task of industrialization, information technology integration and development of our country with the military mechanization and informatization complex development goals, information technology has become a very good combination of points overall economic construction and national defense construction. In particular, most of the reform of the State Council, gave birth to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, not only from the organic unity of the organization will be industrialization and information management, and the civilian industry and the defense industry closely, from the institutional to seize information strategic opportunity to strengthen civil-military integration provides an important guarantee. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology at the same time implementation of national information technology and new industrial development strategy, will give full consideration to the development needs of the defense industry and the development of weapons and equipment, the establishment of military and civilian national level to promote policies and coordination mechanisms to promote industrialization, information technology and defense comprehensive and coordinated development and enhance the independent innovation capability of science and technology industry, and actively explore market-oriented approach combining military and civilian, military and civilian industries planning to achieve convergence between supply and demand docking and resource sharing [4] , two-way play the leading role, promoting the national economy and national defense modernization.

Seventeenth Party Congress report pointed out that “national defense and army building, we must stand on national security and the development of strategic height, overall economic development and national defense building” . “To attain the building computerized armed forces and winning the information war strategic objectives, accelerate composite development of mechanization and information, and actively carry out military training under conditions of informationization, build a modern logistics, intensify training a large number of qualified military talent, effectively change the mode of generating combat. ““Reform of the defense industry to adjust and of weapons and equipment procurement, improve weapons and equipment developed by independent innovation capability and quality benefits. Establish and improve military and civilian, combine military weaponry and equipment research and production system to the people, military personnel training and military security system , adhere to thrift and hard work, out of a Chinese characteristics, civil-military integration path of development. “Discuss these important military and civilian strategic approach is to achieve scientific development. We must seize the opportunities of information technology, integrating the armed forces to do this great article, make our country prosperous and our armed forces powerful while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

【國外軍民結合的戰略[1]】

(一)以法律形式落實寓軍於民戰略

美國等發達國家十分重視寓軍於民的體制建設,將其作為國家戰略並以立法的形式加以推動。冷戰結束後,根據國際形勢的變化,美國國會和國防部出台了《國防授權法(1993)》和《聯邦採辦精簡法案(1994)》以法律形式肯定了軍民一體化的原則。美國先後頒布了《國防轉軌戰略》、《國家安全科學技術戰略(1995)》和《國防科學技術戰略(2000)》,其戰略目標是:“建立一個既滿足軍事需求又滿足商業需求的先進的國家技術和工業基礎”。美國防部於2003年發布了新版的DOD5000.1,強調“優先採用民用產品、技術和勞務”,規定“在可行的情況下,可修改任務要求,以促成民用產品、技術和勞務”的採購。英國國防部於2001年頒布了面向21世紀的國防科技和創新戰略,明確提出從國防科技的長遠發展來看,國防部必須吸引世界範圍內技術先進的民用部門參與國防科研開發,加快武器裝備的更新步伐。法國1994年公佈國防白皮書也明確提出“國防工業要考慮向軍民兩用方向發展,軍用研究和民用研究要盡可能結合”。

(二)從投資和組織機構兩方面促進軍民兩用技術的發展

世界主要國家啟動和加速推進新軍事變革和軍隊信息化建設,這是推行民技軍用戰略的重要背景。美國國防部於1995年發表《兩用技術,旨在獲取經濟可承受的前沿技術的國防戰略》,提出了對有重要軍事需求同時又具有轉移潛力的兩用技術,確實需要政府介入的,明確由政府進行投資開發。 1998年美國國防部頒布的《國防授權法》,要求軍方必須加大對兩用技術開發的投資,並規定了兩用技術項目經費的分攤原則。從20世紀90年代開始,美國還實施了多種專項計劃,支持軍民兩用技術開發。美國近年來大幅度增加國防預算,2007財年達到5064億美元,比2003年增加了1/3,國防預算中30-40%投資到國防工業,值得注意的是,美國國防部20世紀90年代末每年對信息技術的投資總額約為500億美元,2006年增至742億美元,重點支持軍民兩用信息技術的開發。美國國防部國防先進技術研究計劃局(DARPA)十分重視軍民兩用技術的開發和應用,其半數辦公室負責軍民兩用技術的發展。

為了推動軍民一體化的實施,美國於1993年成立了包括三軍和商務部、能源部、運輸部、國家航空航天局(NASA)以及國家科學基金會(NSF)等單位的“國防技術轉軌委員會” 。美國還制定了聯合研究和發展協議(CRADA),支持聯邦開發的技術轉讓給私營部門,鼓勵與工業界聯合投資和合作開發兩用技術項目。如果說機械化時代軍民技術結合占到全部軍事裝備技術的30-40%,那麼,信息化時代軍民技術融合將會占到80-90%。在美國國防部推選的國防關鍵技術與商務部列出的提高經濟競爭力的關鍵技術中就有約80%是重疊的。英國國防部與貿工部聯合投資開發包括航空領域在內的多項軍民兩用技術,英國還專門成立國防技術轉化局,管理民用科研機構從事國防項目的合同和經費,採用競爭機制,鼓勵具有較強技術力量的民用機構開發軍用技術。法國通過實施航天計劃、航空計劃、核能計劃和電子、信息與通信計劃等多項計劃來開發軍民兩用技術。日本國防採購主要著眼於利用國防合同作為一種手段,促進先進技術特別是具有民用或兩用用途的先進技術的發展。

發展軍民兩用技術在加速軍隊信息化建設的同時,服務於國民經濟,產生巨大的經濟效益,美國國會一份研究報告稱,航天技術的二次應用,每投入1美元,能產出7美元的效益[2]。 2006年初美國NASA戈達德航天飛行中心將所開發的一種簡單、安全且費用較低的單壁碳納米管製造方法的專利許可權授予ISM公司,形成了單壁碳納米管生產能力,這些納米管可廣泛應用於醫療、燃料電池、視頻顯示器、太陽能電池等各個領域,推動了美國經濟的發展[3]。

(三)改革科研項目的管理和裝備採購機制,鼓勵民用企業參與裝備科研生產

民用高新技術企業創新體系機制靈活,反應快,成果多。扶持民用企業為軍方開發產品,已成為美軍方的指導方針。 2003年出台的《國防工業轉型路線圖》強調,必須改變主承包商控制國防市場的局面,通過招標和政府採購形式鼓勵民用企業參與裝備科研生產,引導和鼓勵掌握創新技術的民用企業進入國防領域,從而形成大小兼備、眾多供應商的新型國防市場格局。例如,美國的通信設備生產商摩托羅拉公司就有獨立的軍事通信設備生產製造部門,美國波音公司既生產民航用機也生產軍用機,洛克希德-馬丁公司的主營業務就是系統集成、航空、航天和技術服務,都是軍民兩用的技術。為了扶持中小企業,美國還專門製定了小企業創新計劃。目前美國的科學家、工程師中有近半從事與軍事有關的研究,約有1/3的企業與軍工生產有關,而訂貨量約佔國防部總訂貨量的90%。英國改革軍用科研設施管理辦法,鼓勵民用部門利用軍用科研設施進行技術開發。法國成立了由國防部武器裝備總署、軍種參謀部、工業界組成的一體化項目小組,參與武器裝備採辦計劃的製定和項目的管理。法國國防部武器裝備總署及時向中小企業通報軍品發展計劃,專門留出採辦計劃的10%給中小企業,鼓勵他們參加武器裝備採辦的競爭。德國的武器裝備年度計劃是由總裝備部各業務局、各軍種局、國防技術採辦總署和工業界一起合作制訂的。德國製訂了《聯邦德國訂貨任務分配原則》,明確規定武器裝備的總承包商在承包國防任務後,必須用競爭手段向分包方分配軍工訂貨任務,以法規形式保護中小型企業參與國防科研任務的競爭。日本政府注意扶植有軍工生產能力的民間企業,日本有資格接受軍品訂貨的企業已達兩千餘家,基本形成了一個技術先進、門類齊全、潛力巨大的軍事科研生產體系。俄羅斯從兩方面建立軍民一體化國防科技工業體制,在實行國防工業集團化、組建大型軍工集團公司的同時,將部分軍工企業股份化、私有化,讓軍工企業在保留核心軍工生產能力的同時生產民品。

較大比例的軍工生產由民用企業承擔,有助於形成軍品招投標競爭機制,從而降低成本,提高質量,生產軍品的企業以民用產品公司面貌出現,便於進行國際技術交流,吸收國外先進技術。軍方通過採購訂貨,加強與民用高技術企業的合作,為其提供雄厚的資金或風險投資,這已成為發​​達國家在WTO時代政府支持本國戰略產業發展、提高國際競爭力的重要模式,另外,軍品對產品的工藝和技術性能提出挑戰性的要求,促進了民用高技術企業技術創新和高素質科技人才的成長。民用高新技術企業的發展壯大,為國防工業打下了堅實的基礎,也推動了國民經濟發展,增強了國家的實力。

(四)開放國防採購,盡量採用民用規範和標準

為了推動軍民一體化的發展,許多國家都紛紛對軍用標准進行了改革,在裝備採辦過程中大力倡導利用民用標準和商業規範。美軍不斷推行軍事標準改革,在對過去所有軍用標準和規范進行全面清理審查的基礎上,廢止了4000餘項軍用規範(含單篇規範)和300餘項軍用標準,採納了1784項民用標準(非政府標準),在裝備採辦過程中,限制使用軍事規範和標準,只有在確實沒有民用標準可用,或現有民用標準不能滿足軍事要求時才考慮使用軍用標準,而且使用軍用標準必須經過批准。英國在裝備採辦管理中,不以軍用標準和軍用規範而以性能規範為主提出採購要求,給予承包商足夠的自由度和靈活性。日本1999-2002年間,共修改或廢止軍事技術標準及技術規範10231項,佔所有軍事技術標準的74%。 2003年,防衛廳在其製定的新武器裝備採辦政策中又提出,用民用技術標準取代約18000項防衛廳專用的軍品標準和規範。

美國著名防務學家Gansler估計,實行軍民一體化,美國國防部每年能節省相當於國防部採辦費總額的20%以上。雖然美國軍事研發經費占美總經費的支出比例從上世紀60年代的50%減到現在的15%,但美國的軍事技術反而獲得了突飛猛進的發展,主要就是得益於寓軍於民的新型體制。

【以信息化為新軍事變革特徵的軍民結合、寓軍於民】

面對新時代的國際競爭,以信息化為特徵的軍事裝備現代化正成為各國新軍事變革的核心內容之一。信息化時代的一個顯著特點是國防經濟與社會經濟的結合面越來越廣、軍用技術與民用技術融合度越來越深,科技創新和新軍事變革的關聯越來越緊。發達國家紛紛將信息技術作為國家研究戰略重點,美國和日本在信息領域的研發投入分別占到總研發投入的40%以上,美國國防部2005年科技預算中信息系統與傳感器佔35.7%。

(一)信息技術是所有民用工業技術中最容易實現亦軍亦民的領域

信息產業規模大而且相比其他工業領域技術更新快,沒有其他民用工業領域的技術像信息領域那樣更易實現亦軍亦民。美國自1999年先後發射了“快鳥”、“伊科諾斯”等高分辨率軍民兩用衛星,在2001年的阿富汗“持久自由行動”中,美國的“快鳥”和“伊科諾斯”衛星以20美元/km²的價格向美國防部提供了有關作戰地區的照相偵察圖像。基於民用信息技術的戰場信息網絡在伊拉克戰爭中也發揮了重要作用,通過衛星,無人機和其他機載傳感器獲得情報,在計算機地圖上每五分鐘更新一次友軍和敵軍位置。美國五角大樓聲稱,伊拉克戰爭中美空軍、海軍的信息化程度達到70%,地面部隊也達50%以上。美軍信息化建設取得如此迅速的進展,民技軍用扮演了重要角色。

(二)在民用市場廣泛考驗的信息技術在軍事上應用成本低且可靠實用

專用於軍事的信息技術雖然在訓練和軍事演習中也使用,但未經實戰洗禮畢竟考驗有限。民用信息產品市場規模大,上億人甚至數十億人的使用使其技術經受廣泛考驗,市場的激烈競爭也促使其加快改進和完善,產品方便易用,成本迅速下降。源於軍用的GPS和互聯網是一個很好的例子,它們在經過民用市場的競爭和普及完善後,以成熟可靠和低成本的方式在軍事應用中體現更大的價值。

(三)信息技術的軍事應用可以迅速提高戰鬥力

信息化武器裝備的性能要比機械化武器裝備高得多,但開發風險高、投資大,在其增加的造價中信息技術佔很大比重。很多民用高技術產品開發成本低廉,標準升級迅速,只需投入少量資金提高其性能指標就能達到軍用系統的要求,充分利用民用信息技術成果可以顯著降低成本。美、英、日等發達國家在發展信息化武器裝備體系,特別是各種軍事信息系統時,都直接從市場上民用科技部門和企業採購高技術設備,如通信器材、各種計算機、各類計算機軟件、安全防病毒軟件、衛星圖像分析設備等,最大限度地減少國防科研開發投資的風險。美國防部承包商就是由於直接採用現成的商用軟硬件,大大縮短了信息化武器系統的研製時間。

另外,利用信息技術改造和升級武器系統是迅速提高戰鬥力的有效措施。典型的武器系統的研製週期長達7-15年,其換代的成本很高。典型的民用信息技術商業硬件和軟件的研製週期是幾個月到幾年,手機和PC的更新換代就更快,用快速發展的民用信息技術對武器裝備進行改造,僅需很少的經費,每隔幾年原有武器裝備的性能就能上一個台階,從而延長了服役年限。西方國家的一項測算表明,對現有機械化武器裝備進行信息化改造,其研製時間和所需的費用,大約只相當於生產新型武器裝備的1/4至1/3。

(四)在軍隊信息化建設中民用信息技術和產品的使用有利於國防動員

軍隊通過使用民用信息技術產品加深了對這些技術了解,熟識這些產品的使用,戰時一旦有需要可以迅速徵集大量民用產品,而且在部隊中這些產品能迅速發揮效用。美軍中95%的軍事通信是在民用網上進行的,與商業網相聯的計算機達15萬台之多,伊拉克戰爭中美軍還徵用和租用了部分商業衛星和民用信息網絡,以彌補信息傳輸能力的不足。信息技術的複雜性使其裝備的維修變為故障模塊的更換,民用技術產品的採用有利於減少部隊裝備備件的庫存。另外,民用信息技術產品的使用也為民用信息技術企業參與部隊裝備維修提供了可能,從而也降低了部隊裝備的維修費用。 2003年,美國在伊拉克戰爭中,先後同全球4萬個生產商簽訂了50萬份物資保障合同,“承包商上戰場”實現軍隊後勤保障的社會化。

(五)在競爭中發展的民用信息技術的自主知識產權有助於改進國防信息安全

信息技術領域國際化、市場化走在了其他領域的前面,在專利方面的競爭也相當激烈,美日等十個發達國家到2005年底累計在華申請的發明專利中46.27%集中在信息領域。很多信息技術即便是基礎技術也很可能用在軍事領域,發達國家往往將此編入限制出口之列,尤其是對中國,因此無法通過引進或採購國外先進的武器系統來裝備我們的部隊。在國際政治、軍事形勢變化的關鍵時候,不排除存在引進的武器裝備某些關鍵配件被卡或某些功能失效的可能性。另一方面,我國民用信息技術經過國際競爭的打拼,得到了快速發展,國內信息技術企業創新能力也相應提高,一些技術已經達到了世界領先水平,例如第三代移動通信的TD-SCDMA。為了競爭和降低成本需要,國內很多企業的信息技術產品都有自主開發的專用芯片,改變了長期以來依賴國外芯片的狀況,同時開發能力迅速提高,為承接國防任務開發專用芯片打下很好的基礎。這些民用高技術和專用芯片在部隊裝備中的使用將以其自主技術避免我軍信息安全受制於人。

(六)充分利用地方網絡人才的優勢做好應對網絡戰的準備

信息化是雙刃劍,軍隊的信息化建設在提高作戰能力的同時也需要特別關注對信息網絡的安全防護。網絡戰的一個基本特點是不對稱性,攻擊成本低且易攻難守,網絡戰手段的特殊性將導致未來戰爭的“平民化”趨勢,“黑客”有可能成為戰爭的主角。為了防止出現“網絡’9·11’事件”,布什總統早在2002年就發布了第16號“國家安全總統令”,組建美軍歷史上也是世界上第一支網絡黑客部隊——網絡戰聯合功能構成司令部,陸軍和海軍也各有電腦應急反應分隊,空軍則建立了專門負責實施網絡進攻的航空隊。這些部隊由世界頂級電腦專家和“黑客”組成,目前已經正式編入了作戰序列。在美國拉斯維加斯最大的計算機展覽上,美國前助理國防部長莫尼曾在演講中對“黑客”們說:“如果你們考慮過餘生要幹些什麼,請務必不要忘記國防部。”此外,美軍還僱用一些黑客專門從事計算機漏洞測試工作。 2004年9月,美國成立了由28家專業化大公司組成的國際工業財團——網絡中心戰工業聯盟,加強信息技術領域方面的軍民協調。

(七)充分利用民用科技資源為強軍服務

據報導美國空軍在高科技專業方面缺少的上尉軍官多達2/3,陸軍海軍也面臨同樣的問題。美國防部、航天局等很重視發揮美國工程院和高校等科研機構及蘭德公司等在國防諮詢研究和人才培養的作用。據國外軍事專家估計,美、英、法、德、日等世界主要發達國家發展信息化武器裝備所需要的高新技術80-90%來自地方企業,10-20%來自軍方自己的科研院所,即基礎和兩用項目可由民用科技部門承擔,國防科技部門和軍隊科技部門專攻純軍事項目以及系統總體項目。美軍的偵察機EP-3的信息電子系統由多種功能設備組成,其中不乏市場上隨手可得的且技術上不見得先進的產品,但其集成後系統的性能上了一個台階,可見集成創新能提高價值。

我國科技人員和研發人員總量分別佔世界第一位和第二位,利用好這一智力資源將在敵我對比中顯著增強我軍的實力。建立軍民融合的科技創新體系,統籌軍民科技項目的發展,合理地部署軍民兩用項目,做到既不重複又能互補,在全國范圍內實現科技資源的優化組合,同時藉助地方資源大力培養部隊人才,保證國防建設處於戰略主動地位。中央軍委於2007年發出《軍隊吸引保留高層次專業技術人才的規定》,著眼加大引進和利用社會優質人才資源力度,進一步創新完善政策機制。建立院士顧問制度,聘請兩院院士擔任技術顧問,充分利用國家頂尖人才和智力資源,更好地為軍隊重大決策諮詢、重大科技攻​​關和高層次人才培養提供服務;在與軍事鬥爭準備密切相關的重大科研項目(課題)和重點建設學科,設立首席專家崗位,面向社會聘用高層次專業技術人才。

【抓住信息化機遇,促進軍民結合、寓軍於民】

我國的國防科研與工業體係是在計劃經濟基礎上建立起來的,計劃經濟的管理理念和手段仍然發揮著主導作用,封閉管理和自成體系妨礙了市場化理念的建立,也不利於合作創新文化的形成,軍工單位的績效考核指標中缺乏依靠和帶動民用產業發展的要求或使命,在科研計劃和裝備採購中軍品和民品脫節。改革開放以來,國防工業開​​始由單一軍品結構向軍民結合型結構的轉變,核工業、船舶工業、信息產業等的發展,受益於軍事技術向民品的轉移,國防工業對地方經濟社會的輻射帶動作用明顯增強,但是這些轉移還未上升到製度層面。另一方面,我國國內已經成長了一批具有創新和產業能力的民用高新技術企業,能夠勝任軍品任務,但因缺乏規範的軍品需求信息溝通渠道、有關的政策法規不完善等原因,基本上很少介入國防任務。民用科技部門如果沒有國家安全的迫切需求,也不可能在國防安全領域方面得到國家層次的有力支持,難以發揮更大的支撐作用,民用產業部門得不到承擔國防任務的扶持和鍛煉,也不利於其發展壯大。與發達國家相比,我國離軍民良性互動、協調發展的目標尚有不少差距,更為突出的是相應的法規和製度的滯後。軍民結合是國家行為和國家意志的反映,不僅要依靠技術創新,而且要依靠體制創新和機制創新來實現。

在中共中央辦公廳、國務院辦公廳2006年印發的《2006-2020年國家信息化發展戰略》中,指出全球信息化正在引發當今世界的深刻變革,重塑世界政治、經濟、社會、文化和軍事發展的新格局。加快信息化發展,已經成為世界各國的共同選擇。並明確提出了我國信息化發展的戰略方針——統籌規劃、資源共享,深化應用、務求實效,面向市場、立足創新,軍民結合、安全可靠。

在落實國家信息化發展戰略中,我們需要藉鑒國外思路,從法規、協調機制、標準和採購政策等戰略高度解決制約軍民結合的體制問題。當前需要建立健全招投標制度,形成公正公平的競爭態勢,盡量採用成熟的民間標準,引導和鼓勵掌握創新技術的企業特別是中小型公司進入國防領域,從而形成多供應商的新型國防產業體系,以軍工任務帶動民品開發​​水平提升,為國民經濟發展增添活力,實現軍民良性互動。

國外在促進軍民結合方面的一個重要經驗是從信息化入手。當今世界軍事變革,是以信息技術的飛速發展及其在軍事領域的廣泛應用為直接動力,信息化條件下局部戰爭所要達成的高技術優勢,單純依靠國防科技部門和軍隊系統自身難以奏效,軍民結合,寓軍於民是關鍵,信息技術是其中的重要抓手。在我國國家工業化、信息化融合發展的任務與軍隊機械化、信息化複合的發展目標中,信息化成為統籌經濟建設和國防建設的很好結合點。特別是國務院的大部製改革,催生了工業與信息化部,不但從組織上將工業化與信息化的管理有機統一,而且將民用產業與國防科技工業緊密結合,從體制上為抓住信息化戰略機遇加強軍民結合提供了重要保證。工業和信息化部在落實國家信息化和新型工業化發展戰略的同時,將充分考慮國防工業和武器裝備研製的發展需要,建立國家層面的軍民結合促進政策和協調機制,促進工業化、信息化和國防科技工業的全面協調發展和自主創新能力的提高,積極探索軍民結合市場化途徑,實現軍工與民用工業的規劃銜接、供需對接和資源共享[4],發揮雙向輻射帶動作用,推進國民經濟和國防現代化。

黨的十七大報告指出,“國防和軍隊建設,必須站在國家安全和發展戰略全局的高度,統籌經濟建設和國防建設”。 “堅持科技強軍,按照建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭的戰略目標,加快機械化和信息化複合發展,積極開展信息化條件下軍事訓練,全面建設現代後勤,加緊培養大批高素質新型軍事人才,切實轉變戰鬥力生成模式”。 “調整改革國防科技工業體制和武器裝備採購體制,提高武器裝備研製的自主創新能力和質量效益。建立和完善軍民結合、寓軍於民的武器裝備科研生產體系、軍隊人才培養體系和軍隊保障體系,堅持勤儉建軍,走出一條中國特色軍民融合式發展路子”。上述重要論述是實現軍民結合科學發展的戰略方針。我們要抓住信息化的機遇,做好寓軍於民這篇大文章,在全面建設小康社會進程中實現富國和強軍的統一。

Original Source(s)

(1) http://www.cia.org.cn/subject/subject_08

(2) http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2006/content

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department” 鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department”  鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

Within the People’s Republic of China is the little known “Central Investigation Unit”, this cadre generates strategic intelligence for economic, military and Communist Party leadership strategic decision-making.

The following article comes from the Communist Party of China News website and the Chinese Military portion of Sohu.com.

八一解放軍

Original Modern English (loose translation):

Recently we saw a material, referred to the Party after the founding of new China an institution called the “Central Investigation Department,” but not too clear on the presentation. Asked colleagues around, it was said “in tune unit” is the former “central social unit”, it was considered by the restructuring from. So, it really is what kind of organization? What are its main functions? When it is established? Could the experts answer?

Daxing District, Zhang Xinyu Readers

Speaking of the central social unit, people still know the big end, and for the Central Investigation Department, is known to only a handful, and some even thought that the central social unit which consists of the establishment of Sino-Japanese War came directly reorganization. History, however, is not true.

First, the “Central Investigation Department” is not the “central social unit

Central Social Department in 1939 to set up the “Central special working committee”, management and leadership intelligence and security work, stating that “the CPC Central Intelligence Department,” outside “the CPC Central Committee Working Committee enemy territory”, but in the preparation of new China namely revocation of the occasion. However, the Central Social Work Department revoked, defending section included in the Ministry of Public Security (normalized before the government established the Central Military Commission formed), is set to change the intelligence part of the Liaison Department of the Central Military Commission, former Secretary-General of the Central Social Department 邹大鹏 minister, and former Central Minister of Social Affairs, when he was minister in charge of the Central Military Commission General Intelligence Department of LI.

October 1949, the third meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee adopted 邹大鹏 Director of Intelligence, to August 1952, due to intelligence agencies Administration revoked the Seventeenth Meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee approved the Department dismissed 邹大鹏length and level of the Deputy Director of 王少春. These show that the intelligence agencies after the founding of New China in the Ministry of Personnel and the Central Social closely linked, and in the affiliation by the CPC Central Committee and State Council on site were transferred to the Central Military Commission. However, the State Council’s Information Department only existed for three years, after intelligence work has focused on the Central Military Commission.

Central Investigation Department at the Central Social Department is not being withdrawn directly established on its basis, but in the Central Military Liaison Department of the Army transferred from within the party sometimes formed together. According to the 2001 book “Yang Shangkun diary” recorded February 23, 1955, when he was Deputy Minister Liaison Department of Lo long, green and Secretary-General Ma times wait until Mao Cheng Yang Shangkun place on “liaison department of ‘fate’ problem ‘ . February 28, Yang Shangkun about when he was Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLA LI “On the section on the political situation where the problem.” LI advice is: “entirely on the good organization within the party, you can set up one.” About the name and personnel issues of this section, Yang Shangkun contained in the diary: “name for ‘investigation unit’, Comrade Enlai Interested by the gram farming and Minister for unified management. “Subsequently, Yang Shangkun reported the matter to the Zhou Enlai. March 4, Yang Shangkun to Zhou Enlai at the “political situation the organization’s decision to participate in the” discussion, “decided to separate the military from the Central Military Commission, the party set up a ‘research department’, by the gram farming and Minister Zhou reported by the Secretariat decision. “That night, Secretariat meeting held in the office of Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai decided to agree on the establishment of the Ministry of the opinion survey, reported Chairman Mao Zedong decided. April 8, Yang Shangkun recorded in his diary: “The central and the President has approved the establishment of the Central Investigation Department of the LI was appointed by the minister, please contact the Department of the Central Military Commission of existing transfer system into the CPC Central Committee..” And contains: “to be in After the formal transfer of 1 July. ”

Second, the “Central Investigation Department” is to adapt to the actual needs of the construction and the establishment of new China, is an exploration and development on the organizational structure of the military.

Central Investigation Department to “investigation” is named, is the nature of intelligence work by the party under the leadership of the decision, but also with the CPC Central Committee issued the “Decision on investigation and study” on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding, in order to strengthen research, realize intelligence work from the collection of alert and defend the military strategic intelligence gathering intelligence to turn the inseparable. At that time, the central authorities set up the Central Investigation Bureau of Investigation, under a Ministry of Information, etc., whose function is to collect political, military, economic, cultural and social class relations and other aspects of domestic and foreign materials, to research, that the central work Direct assistant. Central Investigation Department inherited this work is the “investigation” of history and tradition and the basic spirit and adapt to the actual needs of the construction of the new China and in the organizational structure of an exploration and development.

On the working mechanism of the Central Investigation Department, Yang Shangkun in his diary records, daily work by his contact with the LI, big things consult Deng Xiaoping resolved. LI is the first Secretary of the Central Investigation Department was established. Incumbent Minister of tone in the hole after LI. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the ministry also failed from the impact. June 13, 1969, the Central People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department of the decision by the Second Investigation Department took over, gradually returning to normal until after 1971. To 1983, in view of the Central Investigation Department of historical issues in the “Cultural Revolution”, as well as adapt to the new situation of reform and opening up of intelligence work, the central government decided to revoke the unit formed, and its main body, with the Ministry of Public Security’s counterintelligence department and other parts of the relevant units merged to form the Ministry of National Security.

Third, the “Central Investigation Department” on the front to provide decision-making information secret for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee and his assistant staff

Central Investigation Department of the existence of nearly 30 years, as the organizers and perpetrators of the specific period since the new Chinese intelligence work, through painstaking research, on major issues related to the party and national security interests, and often at a critical moment provide decision-making information for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee staff and assistants.

First, the anti-peaceful evolution, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. After the founding of New China, the anti-peaceful evolution related to the new Chinese regime and consolidate the party’s ruling position, on this issue, Mao Zedong attached great importance to study the political situation in the United States, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. In autumn 1958, the US Congress elections, the ruling Republican Party defeated Democrats. On the US domestic political situation after the elections, the Central Investigation Department to write a report, noting that in the case of a severe economic crisis, the United States within the ruling class and national conflicts intensified, people from all walks widespread fear of war, internal political atmosphere bright side development. November 27, Mao Zedong when reviewing this report, will be subject to “political climate in the United States for the better development”, and instructed to say: The Central Investigation Department of the analysis is very interesting, at the same time he was appointed charge d’affaires in the British Embassy official township British diplomatic situation and analyze the situation in Western Europe is similar is a good article. He added: “In short, the Western world for the better day by day in terms of change, direct and indirect allies allies in the development of the proletariat.” Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPC Mao’s comments on the issuance and the Central Investigation Department The analysis report.

Second, in the development and expansion of patriotic united front staff played a role. The mid-1960s, the Central Investigation Department involved in the fight on behalf of the former Kuomintang government of President Li Tsung-jen Nanjing returning to work, and staff play an important role. July 9, 1965, the Central Investigation Department in writing to return to the central reporting jen comments on issues raised could be considered two options: First, do not need to enter the country on a statement to be issued a statement after returning to discuss; two I agree to enter the country on a written statement at the airport and met with reporters, but the statement is issued in advance with domestic suppliers properly. July 12, Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai instructed: “like a second program for the better, the manuscript beforehand good providers, there is no harm.” July 20, Mrs. Li Tsung-jen kai Guode Jie arrived in Beijing, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen at the airport welcome, which bore the original, Zou Dapeng, like Feng hyun, head of tune also meet personnel of the column.

In short, the Central Investigation Department in secret front for the new construction and development of China made a historic contribution to the party and the country’s intelligence has accumulated rich historical experience.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

编辑同志:

近日看到一则材料,提到新中国成立后党的一个机构叫“中央调查部”,但对之介绍不甚了了。问及周围的同事,有人说“中调部”就是以前的“中央社会部”,也有人认为是由其改组而来。那么,它究竟是一个什么样的机构?其主要功能是什么?它是什么时候组建的?能否请专家解答一下?

大兴区读者 张新宇

说起中央社会部,人们还是知其大端的,而对于中央调查部,则知者寥寥,有的甚或以为它由抗日战争时期成立的中央社会部直接改组而来。然而,历史事实并非如此。

一、“中央调查部”并非“中央社会部

中央社会部于1939年由“中央特别工作委员会”改设,管理和领导情报与保卫工作,内称“中共中央情报部”,外称“中共中央敌区工作委员会”,但在筹建新中国之际即被撤销。但是,中央社会工作部撤销后,保卫部分归入了公安部(在政府建立之前归军委建制),情报部分改设为中央军委联络部,原中央社会部秘书长邹大鹏任部长,并由原中央社会部部长、时任中央军委总情报部部长李克农主管。

1949年10月,中央人民政府委员会第三次会议通过邹大鹏为情报总署署长,至1952年8月,因情报总署机构撤销,中央人民政府委员会第十七次会议批准免去邹大鹏的署长和王少春的副署长之职。这些表明,新中国成立后的情报机构在人事上与中央社会部有着密切的联系,而在隶属关系上则由党中央内设分别转至中央军委与政务院。但是,政务院的情报总署只存在了三年之久,之后情报工作主要集中在了中央军委。

中央调查部并不是在中央社会部被撤销后在其基础上直接成立的,而是在中央军委联络部由军内转入党内时而组建起来的。根据2001年出版的《杨尚昆日记》记载,1955年2月23日,时任联络部副部长的罗青长、马次青和秘书长毛诚等到杨尚昆处谈“联络部的‘归宿’问题”。2月28日,杨尚昆约时任中国人民解放军副总参谋长的李克农“谈政情部放在哪里的问题”。李克农的意见是:“以完全放在党的组织内为好,可成立一部。”关于这个部的名称和人事问题,杨尚昆在日记中载:“名称可为‘调查研究部’,恩来同志有意由克农兼部长,以便统一管理。”随后,杨尚昆将此事呈报给了周恩来。3月4日,杨尚昆到周恩来处“参加对于政情组织的决定”,经讨论,“决定把军情由军委分开,在党内成立一‘调查部’,由克农兼部长,由周呈报书记处决定。”当晚,书记处会议在刘少奇办公室召开,决定同意周恩来关于成立调查部的意见,报毛泽东主席决定。4月8日,杨尚昆在日记中记载:“中央和主席已批准成立中央调查部。由李克农同志任部长,请现有的军委联络部转移到党中央系统内来。”并载:“拟在7月1日之后正式转移。”

二、“中央调查部”是为适应新中国建设的实际需要而设立的,是在组织体制上的一种探索与发展

二、“中央调查部”是为适应新中国建设的实际需要而设立的,是在组织体制上的一种探索与发展

中央调查部以“调查”命名,是由党领导下的情报工作的性质所决定的,也是与中共中央在建党20周年之际发出《关于调查研究的决定》,以加强调查研究,实现情报工作由搜集警报性和保卫性的情报向搜集军政战略性情报的转折所分不开的。当时,中央设置的调查研究机关即中央调查研究局,下设有情报部等,其职能是收集国内外政治、军事、经济、文化及社会阶级关系等各方面材料,加以研究,以为中央工作的直接助手。中央调查部正是继承了这一工作“调查研究”的历史传统与基本精神,并适应新中国建设的实际需要而在组织体制上的一种探索与发展。

关于中央调查部的工作机制,杨尚昆在日记中记载,日常工作由他与李克农联系,大的事情请示邓小平解决。李克农是中央调查部成立后的第一任部长。李克农之后,孔原任中调部部长。“文化大革命”期间,该部也未能免于冲击。1969年6月13日,中央决定由中国人民解放军总参谋部二部接管调查部,至1971年后逐渐恢复正常。至1983年,鉴于中央调查部在“文革”中的历史遗留问题,同时为适应改革开放以来情报工作的新形势,中央决定撤销该部建制,并以其为主体,同公安部的反间谍部门及其他部分相关单位合并,组成了国家安全部。

三、“中央调查部”在隐秘战线上为党和国家提供决策情报,成为党中央工作的重要参谋与助手

中央调查部存续近30年,作为新中国一个时期以来情报工作的具体组织者和实施者,它通过艰苦细致的调查研究,在事关党和国家安全利益等重大问题上,而且往往在关键时刻,为党和国家提供决策情报,成为党中央工作的重要参谋与助手。

其一,在反和平演变上,中央调查部起到了重要智囊作用。新中国成立后,反和平演变关系到新中国的政权和党的执政地位的巩固,在这一问题上,毛泽东十分重视研究美国的政治局势,中央调查部起到了重要智囊作用。1958年秋,美国国会举行选举,执政的共和党败于民主党。就这次选举后的美国国内的政治局势,中央调查部写了一个报告,指出在严重的经济危机情况下,美国统治集团内部和国内的阶级矛盾加剧,各阶层人民普遍恐惧战争,国内政治气氛在往好的方面发展。11月27日,毛泽东在审阅此报告时,将题目改为《美国政治气氛向好的方面发展》,并批示说:中央调查部这个分析,很有意思,同时任中国驻英国大使馆代办宦乡对英国外交形势与西欧形势的分析相似,都是好文章。他还说:“总之,西方世界一天一天地在向好的方面变,无产阶级的直接同盟军和间接同盟军都在发展。”中共八届六中全会上印发了毛泽东的批语和中央调查部的分析报告。

其二,在发展壮大爱国主义统一战线上起到了参谋作用。20世纪60年代中叶,中央调查部参与了争取原国民党南京政府代总统李宗仁回国的工作,并发挥了重要的参谋作用。1965年7月9日,中央调查部以书面形式向中央报告李宗仁回国有关问题的意见,提出两个可以考虑的方案:一是不必一进国门就发表声明,待回国商量后再发表声明;二是同意一进国门就在机场发表书面声明并接见记者,但声明稿应事先同国内商妥。7月12日,毛泽东批示周恩来总理:“似以第二方案为较好,稿子事前商好,并无坏处。”7月20日,李宗仁偕夫人郭德洁抵达北京,周恩来、彭真等到机场欢迎,其中孔原、邹大鹏、冯铉等中调部负责人也在迎接人员之列。

总之,中央调查部在隐秘战线为新中国的建设和发展作出了历史性贡献,为党和国家的情报工作积累了丰富历史经验。

 

Source: 战略决策情报支撑

Major PLA Structural Announcements on a weekend?

Is anyone else out there wondering why China would make significant military announcements when the USGOV isn’t paying attention?

3259521140

China upgrades missile force, adds space and cyber war forces

China on Friday unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars.

Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing.

This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

Rocket force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert.

The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said.

The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy.

Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security.

“We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Cyber and space forces

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces.

But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security.

Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

Army command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department.

The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song.

At Thursday’s conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics.

It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting.

According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development.

The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

Xinhua contributed to this story


The General Command of Army Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.


The PLA Rocket Force Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.
 

The PLA Strategic Support ForceBadge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.

Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Reasearch