Tag Archives: 中华人民共和国网络安全法

China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! // 中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! //

中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

According to CCTV news client reports, today (27th) morning, the National Internet Information Office released the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy “, which is the first time China released a strategy on cyberspace security. The “Strategy” clarifies China’s major positions and propositions on the development and security of cyberspace, clarifies the strategic guidelines and main tasks, and is a programmatic document guiding national cybersecurity work.

“Strategy” pointed out that information networks such as the Internet have become a new channel for information dissemination, a new space for production and life, a new engine for economic development, a new carrier for cultural prosperity, a new platform for social governance, a new bond for exchanges and cooperation, and a national sovereignty. New territory. With the in-depth development of information technology, the network security situation is becoming more and more serious. The use of network interference in other countries’ internal affairs and large-scale network monitoring and stealing activities seriously endangers national political security and user information security. The critical information infrastructure has been attacked and destroyed, and major security incidents have occurred. Harmful to national economic security and public interests, network rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information eroding cultural security and youth physical and mental health, cyber terror and illegal crimes directly threaten people’s lives and property security, social order, around cyberspace The international competition for resource control, rulemaking, and strategic initiative is becoming increasingly fierce, and the cyberspace arms race challenges world peace. Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, and opportunities outweigh challenges. We must adhere to active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure security, resolutely safeguard network security, maximize the utilization potential of cyberspace, better benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, benefit all mankind, and firmly safeguard world peace.

The “Strategy” requires that the overall national security concept should be taken as a guide to implement the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, enhance risk awareness and crisis awareness, coordinate the two domestic and international situations, and coordinate the development of two major events. Actively defend and effectively respond to promote the peaceful, secure, open, cooperative, and orderly cyberspace, safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and realize the strategic goal of building a network power.

The Strategy emphasizes that a safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with other countries to respect and uphold cyberspace sovereignty, peacefully utilize cyberspace, manage cyberspace according to law, coordinate network security and development, strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, actively promote global Internet governance system reform, and jointly maintain cyberspace. Peace and security. China is committed to safeguarding the sovereignty, security, and development interests of the country’s cyberspace, promoting the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promoting the peaceful use and common governance of cyberspace.

The Strategy clarifies that the strategic task of national cyberspace security work in the current and future period is to firmly defend cyberspace sovereignty, resolutely safeguard national security, protect key information infrastructure, strengthen network culture construction, combat cyber terrorism and crimes, and improve the network. Governance system, solid foundation of network security, improvement of cyberspace protection capability, and strengthening international cooperation in cyberspace.

The full text of the National Cyberspace Security Strategy

On December 27th, approved by the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office released the National Cyberspace Security Strategy, the full text of which is as follows.

The widespread use of information technology and the development of cyberspace have greatly promoted economic and social prosperity and progress, but also brought new security risks and challenges. Cyberspace security (hereinafter referred to as cybersecurity) is related to the common interests of mankind, to world peace and development, and to national security. Safeguarding China’s cybersecurity is an important measure to coordinate and promote the comprehensive construction of a well-off society, comprehensively deepen reforms, comprehensively ruling the country according to law, and comprehensively and strictly manage the party’s strategic layout. It is to achieve the goal of “two hundred years” and realize the great Chinese rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. An important guarantee. In order to implement the “Four Principles” of Chairman Xi Jinping’s promotion of the global Internet governance system reform and the “five-point proposal” for building a community of cyberspace destiny, clarify China’s important position on cyberspace development and security, guide China’s cybersecurity work, and maintain The state develops this strategy in the interests of sovereignty, security, and development of cyberspace.

I. Opportunities and challenges

(1) Major opportunities

With the rapid development of the information revolution, the cyberspace composed of the Internet, communication networks, computer systems, automation control systems, digital devices and their applications, services and data is transforming people’s production and life styles and profoundly affecting the history of human society. Development process.

New channels for information dissemination. The development of network technology has broken through the limitations of time and space, expanded the scope of communication, and innovated the means of communication, which triggered a fundamental change in the pattern of communication. The Internet has become a new channel for people to obtain information, learn and communicate, and become a new carrier of human knowledge transmission.

A new space for production and life. In today’s world, the depth of the network is integrated into people’s learning, life, and work. Online education, entrepreneurship, medical care, shopping, and finance are becoming more and more popular. More and more people exchange ideas, achieve careers, and realize their dreams through the Internet.

The new engine of economic development. The Internet has increasingly become the leading force for innovation-driven development. Information technology has been widely used in various industries of the national economy, promoting the upgrading and upgrading of traditional industries, and has spawned new technologies, new formats, new industries, and new models, and promoted the adjustment of economic structure and the transformation of economic development mode. It has injected new impetus into economic and social development.

A new carrier of cultural prosperity. The network promotes cultural exchanges and knowledge popularization, releases the vitality of cultural development, promotes cultural innovation and creation, enriches people’s spiritual and cultural life, and has become a new means of disseminating culture and providing new means of public cultural services. Network culture has become an important part of cultural construction.

A new platform for social governance. The role of the network in promoting the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity has become increasingly prominent. The application of e-government has become more in-depth, and government information has been publicly shared. It has promoted the scientific, democratic, and rule-based government decision-making, and has smoothed the channels for citizens to participate in social governance. An important way to protect citizens’ right to know, participate, express, and supervise.

A new link for exchanges and cooperation. The interweaving of informationization and globalization has promoted the global flow of information, capital, technology, talents and other factors, and has enhanced the exchange and integration of different civilizations. The Internet has turned the world into a global village, and the international community has increasingly become a community of destiny among you and me.

The new territory of national sovereignty. Cyberspace has become a new field of human activity that is as important as land, sea, sky and space. The expansion of national sovereignty extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty has become an important part of national sovereignty. Respecting cyberspace sovereignty, maintaining cybersecurity, seeking common governance, and achieving win-win results are becoming the consensus of the international community.

(2) Severe challenges

The cyber security situation is becoming increasingly severe. The country’s political, economic, cultural, social, and national defense security and citizens’ legitimate rights and interests in cyberspace are facing serious risks and challenges.

Network penetration harms political security. Political stability is the basic prerequisite for national development and people’s happiness. The use of the network to interfere in his internal affairs, attack the political system of other countries, incite social unrest, subvert the political power of other countries, and large-scale network monitoring, network theft and other activities seriously endanger the political security of the country and the security of user information.

Cyber ​​attacks threaten economic security. Network and information systems have become the backbone of critical infrastructure and the entire economic society. Attacks and destruction and major security incidents will lead to rampant infrastructure such as energy, transportation, communications, and finance, causing disastrous consequences and seriously jeopardizing national economic security. And the public interest.

Harmful information on the Internet erodes cultural security. Various ideological and cultural networks on the Internet are in conflict and confrontation, and excellent traditional culture and mainstream values ​​are facing impact. Internet rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information that violates the core values ​​of socialism erodes the physical and mental health of young people, ruin the social atmosphere, mislead value orientation and endanger cultural security. Online morality is out of order, lack of integrity is frequent, and the degree of network civilization needs to be improved.

Cyber ​​terror and illegal crimes undermine social security. Terrorism, separatism, extremism and other forces use the Internet to incite, plan, organize and implement violent terrorist activities, directly threatening people’s lives and property, and social order. Computer viruses, Trojans, etc. spread in the cyberspace. Internet fraud, hacker attacks, intellectual property infringement, and misuse of personal information are abundant. Some organizations deliberately steal user information, transaction data, location information, and corporate trade secrets, seriously damaging the country. , corporate and personal interests, affecting social harmony and stability.

The international competition in cyberspace is on the rise. The international competition for competing for and controlling cyberspace strategic resources, seizing the rule-making power and strategic commanding heights, and seeking strategic initiative is becoming increasingly fierce. Individual countries have strengthened their network deterrence strategies and intensified the cyberspace arms race, and world peace has been challenged by new challenges.

Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, and opportunities outweigh challenges. We must adhere to active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure security, resolutely safeguard network security, maximize the utilization potential of cyberspace, better benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, benefit all mankind, and firmly safeguard world peace.

Second, the goal

Guided by the overall national security concept, we will implement the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, enhance risk awareness and crisis awareness, coordinate the two major domestic and international situations, and coordinate the development of two major events, actively defending and responding effectively. Promote cyberspace peace, security, openness, cooperation, orderly, safeguard national sovereignty, security, development interests, and achieve the strategic goal of building a network power.

Peace: Information technology abuse has been effectively curbed, and activities such as the cyberspace arms race that threaten international peace have been effectively controlled, and cyberspace conflicts have been effectively prevented.

Security: The network security risks are effectively controlled, the national network security assurance system is sound and complete, the core technical equipment is safe and controllable, and the network and information systems are stable and reliable. Network security talents meet the needs, and the society’s cyber security awareness, basic protection skills and confidence in using the network have increased significantly.

Openness: Information technology standards, policies and markets are open and transparent, product circulation and information dissemination are smoother, and the digital divide is increasingly bridging. Regardless of size, strength, or wealth, countries around the world, especially developing countries, can share development opportunities, share development results, and participate fairly in cyberspace governance.

Cooperation: All countries in the world have closer cooperation in the fields of technology exchange, combating cyber terrorism and cybercrime. The multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system is sound and perfect, and the cyberspace destiny community with cooperation and win-win as the core has gradually formed.

Orderly: The public’s right to know, participation, expression, and supervision in the cyberspace is fully protected, and the privacy of cyberspace is effectively protected and human rights are fully respected. The domestic and international legal systems and standards of cyberspace have been gradually established. The cyberspace has been effectively governed according to law. The network environment is honest, civilized and healthy. The free flow of information and the maintenance of national security and public interests are organically unified.

Third, the principle

A safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with other countries to strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, actively promote the transformation of the global Internet governance system, and jointly safeguard cyberspace peace and security.

(1) Respect for maintaining cyberspace sovereignty

The cyberspace sovereignty is inviolable and respects the right of countries to choose their own development path, network management model, Internet public policy and equal participation in international cyberspace governance. The network affairs within the sovereignty of each country are the responsibility of the people of each country. The countries have the right to formulate laws and regulations concerning cyberspace according to their national conditions and draw on international experience, and take necessary measures to manage their own information systems and network activities on their own territory. The domestic information systems and information resources are protected from intrusion, interference, attacks and destruction, guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of citizens in cyberspace; prevent, prevent and punish harmful information that endangers national security and interests from spreading in the domestic network and maintain the cyberspace order. No country engages in cyber hegemony, does not engage in double standards, does not use the network to interfere in its internal affairs, and does not engage in, condone or support network activities that endanger the national security of other countries.

(2) Peaceful use of cyberspace

The peaceful use of cyberspace is in the common interest of mankind. All countries should abide by the UN Charter’s principle of not using or threatening to use force, prevent information technology from being used for the purpose of maintaining international security and stability, and jointly resist the cyberspace arms race and prevent cyberspace conflicts. Adhere to mutual respect, treat each other as equals, seek common ground while reserving differences, embrace mutual trust, respect each other’s security interests and major concerns in cyberspace, and promote the building of a harmonious network world. Oppose the use of national security as an excuse to use technological superiority to control other countries’ networks and information systems, collect and steal data from other countries, and not to seek their own absolute security at the expense of other countries’ security.

(3) Governing cyberspace according to law

We will comprehensively promote the rule of law in cyberspace, adhere to the rule of law, establish networks according to law, and go online according to law, so that the Internet can operate healthily on the rule of law. Establish a good network order according to law, protect the cyberspace information in a legal and orderly free flow, protect personal privacy, and protect intellectual property rights. Any organization or individual who enjoys freedom and exercise rights in cyberspace must abide by the law, respect the rights of others, and be responsible for their words and deeds on the Internet.

(4) Coordinating network security and development

Without cybersecurity, there is no national security. Without informationization, there will be no modernization. Network security and informationization are two wings of the two wings and the drive. Correctly handle the relationship between development and security, adhere to safety and development, and promote safety through development. Security is a prerequisite for development, and any development at the expense of security is difficult to sustain. Development is the foundation of security, and development is the biggest insecurity. Without information development, network security is not guaranteed, and existing security may even be lost.

Fourth, strategic tasks

China’s number of Internet users and network scale is the highest in the world. Maintaining China’s network security is not only its own needs, but also of great significance for maintaining global network security and even world peace. China is committed to safeguarding the sovereignty, security, and development interests of the country’s cyberspace, promoting the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promoting the peaceful use and common governance of cyberspace.

(1) Firmly defending cyberspace sovereignty

In accordance with the Constitution and laws and regulations, we will manage the network activities within the scope of our sovereignty, protect the security of our information facilities and information resources, and adopt all measures including economy, administration, science and technology, law, diplomacy, and military, and unswervingly safeguard China’s cyberspace sovereignty. Resolutely oppose all acts of subverting our state’s political power and undermining our national sovereignty through the Internet.

(2) Resolutely safeguard national security

Prevent, stop and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship; prevent, deter and punish the use of the Internet for theft, disclosure of state secrets and other acts that endanger national security; Prevent, stop and punish foreign forces in the use of the network for infiltration, destruction, subversion and separatist activities.

(iii) Protection of critical information infrastructure

National key information infrastructure refers to information facilities that are related to national security, national economy and people’s livelihood. Once data leakage, destruction or loss of function may seriously endanger national security and public interest, including but not limited to providing services such as public communication and radio and television transmission. Information networks, important information systems in the fields of energy, finance, transportation, education, scientific research, water conservancy, industrial manufacturing, medical and health care, social security, public utilities, and state agencies, and important Internet application systems. Take all necessary steps to protect critical information infrastructure and its critical data from attack. Adhere to the combination of technology and management, focus on protection, prevention, detection, early warning, response, disposal, etc., establish and implement key information infrastructure protection systems, and increase investment in management, technology, talents, and capital. Comprehensively implement policies to effectively strengthen the security protection of key information infrastructure.

The protection of key information infrastructure is the common responsibility of the government, enterprises and the whole society. The competent authorities, operating units and organizations must take necessary measures to ensure the security of key information infrastructures in accordance with the requirements of laws, regulations and system standards, and gradually realize the first evaluation and use. Strengthen risk assessment of key information infrastructure. Strengthen the security protection of party and government organs and websites in key areas, and build and operate the website of grassroots party and government organs in an intensive mode. Establish an orderly sharing mechanism for cyber security information of government, industry and enterprises, and give full play to the important role of enterprises in protecting key information infrastructure.

Adhere to opening up and maintain network security in an open environment. Establish and implement a network security review system, strengthen supply chain security management, conduct security reviews on important information technology products and services purchased by party and government organs and key industries, improve the security and controllability of products and services, and prevent product service providers. And other organizations use the advantages of information technology to implement unfair competition or harm the interests of users.

(4) Strengthening the construction of network culture

Strengthen the construction of online ideological and cultural positions, vigorously cultivate and practice the core values ​​of socialism, implement network content construction projects, develop a positive and upward network culture, spread positive energy, unite powerful spiritual strength, and create a good network atmosphere. Encourage the development of new business, create new products, create a network culture brand that reflects the spirit of the times, and continuously improve the scale of the network culture industry. Implement the China Excellent Culture Online Communication Project and actively promote the digitalization, network production and dissemination of excellent traditional culture and contemporary cultural products. Give full play to the advantages of the Internet communication platform, promote the exchange of excellent cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries, let the people of all countries understand the excellent Chinese culture, let the Chinese people understand the excellent culture of each country, jointly promote the prosperity and development of the network culture, enrich people’s spiritual world, and promote the progress of human civilization.

Strengthen the network ethics and network civilization construction, give play to the role of moral education, and use the excellent results of human civilization to nourish cyberspace and repair the network ecology. Building a civilized and honest network environment, advocating civilized network and civilized Internet access, and forming a safe, civilized and orderly information dissemination order. Resolutely crack down on illegal and harmful information such as rumors, obscenity, violence, superstition, and cults in the cyberspace. Improve the network civilization of young people, strengthen the protection of minors online, and create a good network environment for the healthy growth of young people through the joint efforts of the government, social organizations, communities, schools, and families.

(5) Combating cyber terror and illegal crimes

Strengthen the network’s anti-terrorism, anti-espionage and anti-stealing capabilities, and crack down on cyber terror and cyber espionage activities.

Adhere to comprehensive governance, source control, and legal prevention, and severely crack down on illegal activities such as online fraud, cyber theft, drug trafficking, infringement of citizens’ personal information, dissemination of obscene pornography, hacking, and infringement of intellectual property rights.

(6) Improve the network governance system

Adhere to the rule of law, open and transparent management of the network, and earnestly do the law, the law must be enforced, the law enforcement must be strict, and the law must be investigated. We will improve the network security laws and regulations, formulate laws and regulations such as the Cyber ​​Security Law and the Minor Network Protection Regulations, clarify the responsibilities and obligations of all aspects of society, and clarify the requirements for network security management. Accelerate the revision and interpretation of existing laws to make them applicable to cyberspace. Improve the network security related system, establish a network trust system, and improve the scientific and standardized level of network security management.

Accelerate the construction of a network governance system that combines legal norms, administrative supervision, industry self-discipline, technical support, public supervision, and social education, promotes network social organization management innovation, and improves basic management, content management, industry management, and network crime prevention and combat. Work linkage mechanism. Strengthen the protection of cyberspace communication secrets, freedom of speech, trade secrets, and the legitimate rights and interests of property rights and property rights.

Encourage social organizations to participate in network governance, develop online public welfare undertakings, and strengthen the construction of new types of network social organizations. Encourage netizens to report cyber violations and bad information.

(7) Consolidating the foundation of network security

Adhere to innovation-driven development, actively create a policy environment conducive to technological innovation, pool resources and strength, take enterprises as the main body, combine production, study and research, coordinate research, point-to-face, and overall advancement, and make breakthroughs in core technologies as soon as possible. Pay attention to software security and accelerate the promotion and application of security and trusted products. Develop network infrastructure and enrich cyberspace information content. Implement the “Internet +” initiative and vigorously develop the network economy. Implement national big data strategy, establish a big data security management system, and support next-generation information technology innovation and application such as big data and cloud computing. Optimize the market environment, encourage network security enterprises to become bigger and stronger, and consolidate the industrial foundation for safeguarding national network security.

Establish and improve the national network security technology support system. Strengthen the basic theory of network security and research on major issues. Strengthen network security standardization and certification and accreditation, and make greater use of standards to standardize cyberspace behavior. Do basic work such as level protection, risk assessment, and vulnerability discovery, and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and network security major incident emergency response mechanism.

Implement network security talent project, strengthen the construction of network security disciplines, build a first-class network security college and innovation park, and form an ecological environment conducive to talent cultivation and innovation and entrepreneurship. We will do a good job in the network security publicity week and vigorously carry out publicity and education on the national network security. Promote cybersecurity education into teaching materials, enter the school, enter the classroom, improve the network media literacy, enhance the cyber security awareness and protection skills of the whole society, and improve the identification and resilience of the majority of netizens on illegal criminal activities such as network illegal information and online fraud.

(8) Improving the ability of cyberspace protection

Cyberspace is a new frontier of national sovereignty. We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and compatible with the network powers. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security.

(9) Strengthening international cooperation in cyberspace

On the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, we will strengthen international cyberspace dialogue and cooperation and promote the transformation of the Internet global governance system. We will deepen dialogue and exchanges and information communication with bilateral and multilateral networks in various countries, effectively control differences, actively participate in network security cooperation between global and regional organizations, and promote the internationalization of basic resource management such as Internet addresses and root name servers.

Support the United Nations to play a leading role in promoting the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, cyberspace international counter-terrorism conventions, sound judicial assistance mechanisms against cybercrime, deepening policy and law, technological innovation, standards and norms, emergency response, and critical information infrastructure International cooperation in areas such as protection.

Strengthen support for Internet technology diffusion and infrastructure construction in developing and underdeveloped regions, and strive to bridge the digital divide. Promote the construction of the “Belt and Road”, improve the level of international communication and interconnection, and smooth the information silk road. Establish a global Internet sharing and governance platform, such as the World Internet Conference, to jointly promote the healthy development of the Internet. Through active and effective international cooperation, we will establish a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system to jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly network space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

據央視新聞客戶端報導,今天(27日)上午,國家互聯網信息辦公室發布了《國家網絡空間安全戰略》,這是我國首次發布關於網絡空間安全的戰略。 《戰略》闡明了中國關於網絡空間發展和安全的重大立場和主張,明確了戰略方針和主要任務,是指導國家網絡安全工作的綱領性文件。

《戰略》指出,互聯網等信息網絡已經成為信息傳播的新渠道、生產生活的新空間、經濟發展的新引擎、文化繁榮的新載體、社會治理的新平台、交流合作的新紐帶、國家主權的新疆域。隨著信息技術深入發展,網絡安全形勢日益嚴峻,利用網絡干涉他國內政以及大規模網絡監控、竊密等活動嚴重危害國家政治安全和用戶信息安全,關鍵信息基礎設施遭受攻擊破壞、發生重大安全事件嚴重危害國家經濟安全和公共利益,網絡謠言、頹廢文化和淫穢、暴力、迷信等有害信息侵蝕文化安全和青少年身心健康,網絡恐怖和違法犯罪大量存在直接威脅人民生命財產安全、社會秩序,圍繞網絡空間資源控制權、規則制定權、戰略主動權的國際競爭日趨激烈,網絡空間軍備競賽挑戰世界和平。網絡空間機遇和挑戰並存,機遇大於挑戰。必須堅持積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全,堅決維護網絡安全,最大限度利用網絡空間發展潛力,更好惠及13億多中國人民,造福全人類,堅定維護世界和平。

《戰略》要求,要以總體國家安全觀為指導,貫徹落實創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念,增強風險意識和危機意識,統籌國內國際兩個大局,統籌發展安全兩件大事,積極防禦、有效應對,推進網絡空間和平、安全、開放、合作、有序,維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,實現建設網絡強國的戰略目標。

《戰略》強調,一個安全穩定繁榮的網絡空間,對各國乃至世界都具有重大意義。中國願與各國一道,堅持尊重維護網絡空間主權、和平利用網絡空間、依法治理網絡空間、統籌網絡安全與發展,加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,積極推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,共同維護網絡空間和平安全。中國致力於維護國家網絡空間主權、安全、發展利益,推動互聯網造福人類,推動網絡空間和平利用和共同治理。

《戰略》明確,當前和今後一個時期國家網絡空間安全工作的戰略任務是堅定捍衛網絡空間主權、堅決維護國家安全、保護關鍵信息基礎設施、加強網絡文化建設、打擊網絡恐怖和違法犯罪、完善網絡治理體系、夯實網絡安全基礎、提升網絡空間防護能力、強化網絡空間國際合作等9個方面。

資料圖

《國家網絡空間安全戰略》全文

12月27日,經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室發布《國家網絡空間安全戰略》,全文如下。

信息技術廣泛應用和網絡空間興起發展,極大促進了經濟社會繁榮進步,同時也帶來了新的安全風險和挑戰。網絡空間安全(以下稱網絡安全)事關人類共同利益,事關世界和平與發展,事關各國國家安全。維護我國網絡安全是協調推進全面建成小康社會、全面深化改革、全面依法治國、全面從嚴治黨戰略佈局的重要舉措,是實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興中國夢的重要保障。為貫徹落實習近平主席關於推進全球互聯網治理體系變革的“四項原則”和構建網絡空間命運共同體的“五點主張”,闡明中國關於網絡空間發展和安全的重大立場,指導中國網絡安全工作,維護國家在網絡空間的主權、安全、發展利益,制定本戰略。

一、機遇和挑戰

(一)重大機遇

伴隨信息革命的飛速發展,互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的網絡空間,正在全面改變人們的生產生活方式,深刻影響人類社會歷史發展進程。

信息傳播的新渠道。網絡技術的發展,突破了時空限制,拓展了傳播範圍,創新了傳播手段,引發了傳播格局的根本性變革。網絡已成為人們獲取信息、學習交流的新渠道,成為人類知識傳播的新載體。

生產生活的新空間。當今世界,網絡深度融入人們的學習、生活、工作等方方面面,網絡教育、創業、醫療、購物、金融等日益普及,越來越多的人通過網絡交流思想、成就事業、實現夢想。

經濟發展的新引擎。互聯網日益成為創新驅動發展的先導力量,信息技術在國民經濟各行業廣泛應用,推動傳統產業改造升級,催生了新技術、新業態、新產業、新模式,促進了經濟結構調整和經濟發展方式轉變,為經濟社會發展注入了新的動力。

文化繁榮的新載體。網絡促進了文化交流和知識普及,釋放了文化發展活力,推動了文化創新創造,豐富了人們精神文化生活,已經成為傳播文化的新途徑、提供公共文化服務的新手段。網絡文化已成為文化建設的重要組成部分。

社會治理的新平台。網絡在推進國家治理體系和治理能力現代化方面的作用日益凸顯,電子政務應用走向深入,政府信息公開共享,推動了政府決策科學化、民主化、法治化,暢通了公民​​參與社會治理的渠道,成為保障公民知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權的重要途徑。

交流合作的新紐帶。信息化與全球化交織發展,促進了信息、資金、技術、人才等要素的全球流動,增進了不同文明交流融合。網絡讓世界變成了地球村,國際社會越來越成為你中有我、我中有你的命運共同體。

國家主權的新疆域。網絡空間已經成為與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。尊重網絡空間主權,維護網絡安全,謀求共治,實現共贏,正在成為國際社會共識。

(二)嚴峻挑戰

網絡安全形勢日益嚴峻,國家政治、經濟、文化、社會、國防安全及公民在網絡空間的合法權益面臨嚴峻風險與挑戰。

網絡滲透危害政治安全。政治穩定是國家發展、人民幸福的基本前提。利用網絡干涉他國內政、攻擊他國政治制度、煽動社會動亂、顛覆他國政權,以及大規模網絡監控、網絡竊密等活動嚴重危害國家政治安全和用戶信息安全。

網絡攻擊威脅經濟安全。網絡和信息系統已經成為關鍵基礎設施乃至整個經濟社會的神經中樞,遭受攻擊破壞、發生重大安全事件,將導致能源、交通、通信、金融等基礎設施癱瘓,造成災難性後果,嚴重危害國家經濟安全和公共利益。

網絡有害信息侵蝕文化安全。網絡上各種思想文化相互激盪、交鋒,優秀傳統文化和主流價值觀面臨衝擊。網絡謠言、頹廢文化和淫穢、暴力、迷信等違背社會主義核心價值觀的有害信息侵蝕青少年身心健康,敗壞社會風氣,誤導價值取向,危害文化安全。網上道德失範、誠信缺失現象頻發,網絡文明程度亟待提高。

網絡恐怖和違法犯罪破壞社會安全。恐怖主義、分裂主義、極端主義等勢力利用網絡煽動、策劃、組織和實施暴力恐怖活動,直接威脅人民生命財產安全、社會秩序。計算機病毒、木馬等在網絡空間傳播蔓延,網絡欺詐、黑客攻擊、侵犯知識產權、濫用個人信息等不法行為大量存在,一些組織肆意竊取用戶信息、交易數據、位置信息以及企業商業秘密,嚴重損害國家、企業和個人利益,影響社會和諧穩定。

網絡空間的國際競爭方興未艾。國際上爭奪和控製網絡空間戰略資源、搶占規則制定權和戰略制高點、謀求戰略主動權的競爭日趨激烈。個別國家強化網絡威懾戰略,加劇網絡空間軍備競賽,世界和平受到新的挑戰。

網絡空間機遇和挑戰並存,機遇大於挑戰。必須堅持積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全,堅決維護網絡安全,最大限度利用網絡空間發展潛力,更好惠及13億多中國人民,造福全人類,堅定維護世界和平。

二、目標

以總體國家安全觀為指導,貫徹落實創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念,增強風險意識和危機意識,統籌國內國際兩個大局,統籌發展安全兩件大事,積極防禦、有效應對,推進網絡空間和平、安全、開放、合作、有序,維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,實現建設網絡強國的戰略目標。

和平:信息技術濫用得到有效遏制,網絡空間軍備競賽等威脅國際和平的活動得到有效控制,網絡空間衝突得到有效防範。

安全:網絡安全風險得到有效控制,國家網絡安全保障體系健全完善,核心技術裝備安全可控,網絡和信息系統運行穩定可靠。網絡安全人才滿足需求,全社會的網絡安全意識、基本防護技能和利用網絡的信心大幅提升。

開放:信息技術標準、政策和市場開放、透明,產品流通和信息傳播更加順暢,數字鴻溝日益彌合。不分大小、強弱、貧富,世界各國特別是發展中國家都能分享發展機遇、共享發展成果、公平參與網絡空間治理。

合作:世界各國在技術交流、打擊網絡恐怖和網絡犯罪等領域的合作更加密切,多邊、民主、透明的國際互聯網治理體系健全完善,以合作共贏為核心的網絡空間命運共同體逐步形成。

有序:公眾在網絡空間的知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權等合法權益得到充分保障,網絡空間個人隱私獲得有效保護,人權受到充分尊重。網絡空間的國內和國際法律體系、標準規範逐步建立,網絡空間實現依法有效治理,網絡環境誠信、文明、健康,信息自由流動與維護國家安全、公共利益實現有機統一。

三、原則

一個安全穩定繁榮的網絡空間,對各國乃至世界都具有重大意義。中國願與各國一道,加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,積極推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,共同維護網絡空間和平安全。

(一)尊重維護網絡空間主權

網絡空間主權不容侵犯,尊重各國自主選擇發展道路、網絡管理模式、互聯網公共政策和平等參與國際網絡空間治理的權利。各國主權範圍內的網絡事務由各國人民自己做主,各國有權根據本國國情,借鑒國際經驗,制定有關網絡空間的法律法規,依法採取必要措施,管理本國信息系統及本國疆域上的網絡活動;保護本國信息系統和信息資源免受侵入、干擾、攻擊和破壞,保障公民在網絡空間的合法權益;防範、阻止和懲治危害國家安全和利益的有害信息在本國網絡傳播,維護網絡空間秩序。任何國家都不搞網絡霸權、不搞雙重標準,不利用網絡干涉他國內政,不從事、縱容或支持危害他國國家安全的網絡活動。

(二)和平利用網絡空間

和平利用網絡空間符合人類的共同利益。各國應遵守《聯合國憲章》關於不得使用或威脅使用武力的原則,防止信息技術被用於與維護國際安全與穩定相悖的目的,共同抵製網絡空間軍備競賽、防範網絡空間衝突。堅持相互尊重、平等相待,求同存異、包容互信,尊重彼此在網絡空間的安全利益和重大關切,推動構建和諧網絡世界。反對以國家安全為藉口,利用技術優勢控制他國網絡和信息系統、收集和竊取他國數據,更不能以犧牲別國安全謀求自身所謂絕對安全。

(三)依法治理網絡空間

全面推進網絡空間法治化,堅持依法治網、依法辦網、依法上網,讓互聯網在法治軌道上健康運行。依法構建良好網絡秩序,保護網絡空間信息依法有序自由流動,保護個人隱私,保護知識產權。任何組織和個人在網絡空間享有自由、行使權利的同時,須遵守法律,尊重他人權利,對自己在網絡上的言行負責。

(四)統籌網絡安全與發展

沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。網絡安全和信息化是一體之兩翼、驅動之雙輪。正確處理髮展和安全的關係,堅持以安全保發展,以發展促安全。安全是發展的前提,任何以犧牲安全為代價的發展都難以持續。發展是安全的基礎,不發展是最大的不安全。沒有信息化發展,網絡安全也沒有保障,已有的安全甚至會喪失。

四、戰略任務

中國的網民數量和網絡規模世界第一,維護好中國網絡安全,不僅是自身需要,對於維護全球網絡安全乃至世界和平都具有重大意義。中國致力於維護國家網絡空間主權、安全、發展利益,推動互聯網造福人類,推動網絡空間和平利用和共同治理。

(一)堅定捍衛網絡空間主權

根據憲法和法律法規管理我國主權範圍內的網絡活動,保護我國信息設施和信息資源安全,採取包括經濟、行政、科技、法律、外交、軍事等一切措施,堅定不移地維護我國網絡空間主權。堅決反對通過網絡顛覆我國國家政權、破壞我國國家主權的一切行為。

(二)堅決維護國家安全

防範、制止和依法懲治任何利用網絡進行叛國、分裂國家、煽動叛亂、顛覆或者煽動顛覆人民民主專政政權的行為;防範、制止和依法懲治利用網絡進行竊取、洩露國家秘密等危害國家安全的行為;防範、制止和依法懲治境外勢力利用網絡進行滲透、破壞、顛覆、分裂活動。

(三)保護關鍵信息基礎設施

國家關鍵信息基礎設施是指關係國家安全、國計民生,一旦數據洩露、遭到破壞或者喪失功能可能嚴重危害國家安全、公共利益的信息設施,包括但不限於提供公共通信、廣播電視傳輸等服務的基礎信息網絡,能源、金融、交通、教育、科研、水利、工業製造、醫療衛生、社會保障、公用事業等領域和國家機關的重要信息系統,重要互聯網應用系統等。採取一切必要措施保護關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據不受攻擊破壞。堅持技術和管理並重、保護和震懾並舉,著眼識別、防護、檢測、預警、響應、處置等環節,建立實施關鍵信息基礎設施保護製度,從管理、技術、人才、資金等方面加大投入,依法綜合施策,切實加強關鍵信息基礎設施安全防護。

關鍵信息基礎設施保護是政府、企業和全社會的共同責任,主管、運營單位和組織要按照法律法規、制度標準的要求,採取必要措施保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,逐步實現先評估後使用。加強關鍵信息基礎設施風險評估。加強黨政機關以及重點領域網站的安全防護,基層黨政機關網站要按集約化模式建設運行和管理。建立政府、行業與企業的網絡安全信息有序共享機制,充分發揮企業在保護關鍵信息基礎設施中的重要作用。

堅持對外開放,立足開放環境下維護網絡安全。建立實施網絡安全審查制度,加強供應鏈安全管理,對黨政機關、重點行業採購使用的重要信息技術產品和服務開展安全審查,提高產品和服務的安全性和可控性,防止產品服務提供者和其他組織利用信息技術優勢實施不正當競爭或損害用戶利益。

(四)加強網絡文化建設

加強網上思想文化陣地建設,大力培育和踐行社會主義核心價值觀,實施網絡內容建設工程,發展積極向上的網絡文化,傳播正能量,凝聚強大精神力量,營造良好網絡氛圍。鼓勵拓展新業務、創作新產品,打造體現時代精神的網絡文化品牌,不斷提高網絡文化產業規模水平。實施中華優秀文化網上傳播工程,積極推動優秀傳統文化和當代文化精品的數字化、網絡化製作和傳播。發揮互聯網傳播平台優勢,推動中外優秀文化交流互鑑,讓各國人民了解中華優秀文化,讓中國人民了解各國優秀文化,共同推動網絡文化繁榮發展,豐富人們精神世界,促進人類文明進步。

加強網絡倫理、網絡文明建設,發揮道德教化引導作用,用人類文明優秀成果滋養網絡空間、修復網絡生態。建設文明誠信的網絡環境,倡導文明辦網、文明上網,形成安全、文明、有序的信息傳播秩序。堅決打擊謠言、淫穢、暴力、迷信、邪教等違法有害信息在網絡空間傳播蔓延。提高青少年網絡文明素養,加強對未成年人上網保護,通過政府、社會組織、社區、學校、家庭等方面的共同努力,為青少年健康成長創造良好的網絡環境。

(五)打擊網絡恐怖和違法犯罪

加強網絡反恐、反間諜、反竊密能力建設,嚴厲打擊網絡恐怖和網絡間諜活動。

堅持綜合治理、源頭控制、依法防範,嚴厲打擊網絡詐騙、網絡盜竊、販槍販毒、侵害公民個人信息、傳播淫穢色情、黑客攻擊、侵犯知識產權等違法犯罪行為。

(六)完善網絡治理體系

堅持依法、公開、透明管網治網,切實做到有法可依、有法必依、執法必嚴、違法必究。健全網絡安全法律法規體系,制定出台網絡安全法、未成年人網絡保護條例等法律法規,明確社會各方面的責任和義務,明確網絡安全管理要求。加快對現行法律的修訂和解釋,使之適用於網絡空間。完善網絡安全相關製度,建立網絡信任體系,提高網絡安全管理的科學化規範化水平。

加快構建法律規範、行政監管、行業自律、技術保障、公眾監督、社會教育相結合的網絡治理體系,推進網絡社會組織管理創新,健全基礎管理、內容管理、行業管理以及網絡違法犯罪防範和打擊等工作聯動機制。加強網絡空間通信秘密、言論自由、商業秘密,以及名譽權、財產權等合法權益的保護。

鼓勵社會組織等參與網絡治理,發展網絡公益事業,加強新型網絡社會組織建設。鼓勵網民舉報網絡違法行為和不良信息。

(七)夯實網絡安全基礎

堅持創新驅動發展,積極創造有利於技術創新的政策環境,統籌資源和力量,以企業為主體,產學研用相結合,協同攻關、以點帶面、整體推進,盡快在核心技術上取得突破。重視軟件安全,加快安全可信產品推廣應用。發展網絡基礎設施,豐富網絡空間信息內容。實施“互聯網+”行動,大力發展網絡經濟。實施國家大數據戰略,建立大數據安全管理制度,支持大數據、雲計算等新一代信息技術創新和應用。優化市場環境,鼓勵網絡安全企業做大做強,為保障國家網絡安全夯實產業基礎。

建立完善國家網絡安全技術支撐體系。加強網絡安全基礎理論和重大問題研究。加強網絡安全標準化和認證認可工作,更多地利用標準規範網絡空間行為。做好等級保護、風險評估、漏洞發現等基礎性工作,完善網絡安全監測預警和網絡安全重大事件應急處置機制。

實施網絡安全人才工程,加強網絡安全學科專業建設,打造一流網絡安全學院和創新園區,形成有利於人才培養和創新創業的生態環境。辦好網絡安全宣傳周活動,大力開展全民網絡安全宣傳教育。推動網絡安全教育進教材、進學校、進課堂,提高網絡媒介素養,增強全社會網絡安全意識和防護技能,提高廣大網民對網絡違法有害信息、網絡欺詐等違法犯罪活動的辨識和抵禦能力。

(八)提升網絡空間防護能力

網絡空間是國家主權的新疆域。建設與我國國際地位相稱、與網絡強國相適應的網絡空間防護力量,大力發展網絡安全防御手段,及時發現和抵禦網絡入侵,鑄造維護國家網絡安全的堅強後盾。

(九)強化網絡空間國際合作

在相互尊重、相互信任的基礎上,加強國際網絡空間對話合作,推動互聯網全球治理體系變革。深化同各國的雙邊、多邊網絡安全對話交流和信息溝通,有效管控分歧,積極參與全球和區域組織網絡安全合作,推動互聯網地址、根域名服務器等基礎資源管理國際化。

支持聯合國發揮主導作用,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則、網絡空間國際反恐公約,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,深化在政策法律、技術創新、標準規範、應急響應、關鍵信息基礎設施保護等領域的國際合作。

加強對發展中國家和落後地區互聯網技術普及和基礎設施建設的支持援助,努力彌合數字鴻溝。推動“一帶一路”建設,提高國際通信互聯互通水平,暢通信息絲綢之路。搭建世界互聯網大會等全球互聯網共享共治平台,共同推動互聯網健康發展。通過積極有效的國際合作,建立多邊、民主、透明的國際互聯網治理體系,共同構建和平、安全、開放、合作、有序的網絡空間。

Original Referring URL: https://military.china.com/important/

 

Chinese Military Intent to Defeat US Military Cyber Forces Using the “Thirty-Six” Strategy of Cyber Warfare //中國軍事意圖利用“三十六”網絡戰策略擊敗美國軍事網絡部隊

Chinese Military Intent to Defeat US Military Cyber Forces Using the “Thirty-Six” Strategy of Cyber Warfare //

中國軍事意圖利用“三十六”網絡戰策略擊敗美國軍事網絡部隊

■ cyberspace is easy to attack and defend, traditional passive defense is difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity attacks

■ Improve network security, the defense side can not rely solely on the technology game, but also need to win the counterattack on the concept

The new “Thirty-six” of network security

  ■Chen Sen

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Fisher

  News reason

  In the information age, cybersecurity has taken the lead in national security. The Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy emphasizes that it should actively adapt to the new changes in the national security situation, new trends in information technology development, and new requirements for strong military objectives, build an information security defense system, and comprehensively improve the ability to win localized information warfare. Cyberspace has become a new field that affects national security, social stability, economic development and cultural communication. Cyberspace security has become an important topic of increasing concern to the international community.

  The United States has clearly declared that cyberspace is a new field of operations, and has significantly expanded its network command and combat forces to continue to focus on cyberspace weapons development. Since entering the summer, the US military network exercises have been one after another, and the invisible wars are filled with smoke. At the beginning of March, “Network Storm 5” took the lead in kicking off the drill; in April, “Network Aegis 2016” completed the fifth-generation upgrade; in June, “Network Defense” and “Network Capture” as the core re-installation of the annual joint exercise Debut.

  The essence of network security lies in the ability to attack and defend both ends. Currently, static, isolated, passive defenses such as firewalls, intrusion detection technologies, and anti-virus software are difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity network attacks. To build a cyberspace security defense line, we need to get rid of the idea of ​​falling behind and win the counterattack on the defensive concept.

New “Thirty-six” mobile target defense

Increase the difficulty of attack by building a dynamic network

  Network attacks require a certain amount of time to scan and research the target network, detect and utilize system “vulnerabilities” to achieve intrusion control purposes. In theory, the attacker has unlimited time to start the scanning and detecting work, and always find the weak point of defense, and finally achieve the purpose of the invasion. To this end, the network pioneer USA is committed to planning and deploying security defense transformation work, striving to break through the traditional defense concept and develop revolutionary technology that can “change the rules of the game”. Mobile target defense is one of them.

  Mobile target defense is called the new paradigm of cyberspace security defense. The technical strategy is to construct a dynamic network through the processing and control of the protection target itself, increasing randomness and reducing predictability to improve the difficulty of attack. If the static cyberspace is likened to a constant “city defense deployment”, it is difficult to stick to it; and the dynamic network configuration can be called the ever-changing “eight squad”, which is difficult to crack. At present, mobile target defense technology has priority in various US government and military research, covering dynamic platform technology, dynamic operating environment technology, dynamic software and data technology. In August 2012, the US Army awarded Raytheon’s “Deformation Network Facility” project to study the dynamic adjustment and configuration of networks, hosts and applications in case the enemy could not detect and predict, thus preventing, delaying or blocking the network. attack.

  As a new idea in the field of cyberspace security, mobile target defense reflects the technological development trend of future network defenses to turn “dead” networks into “live” networks.

The new “Thirty-six” honey cans deceive defense

Reduce cyberattack threats by consuming attacker resources

  Conventional network security protection is mainly to defend against cyber attacks from the front. Although the defensive measures have made great progress, they have not changed the basic situation of cyberspace “easy to attack and defend”. In recent years, the development of “Honeypot Deception Defense” has proposed a new concept of “bypass guidance”, which is to reduce the threat of cyber attacks to the real protection target by absorbing network intrusion and consuming the resources of attackers, thereby winning time. Strengthen protection measures to make up for the shortcomings of the traditional cyberspace defense system.

  Similar to the intentional setting of false positions on the battlefield, honeypot deception defense is to actively use the computer network with lower security defense level to lure all kinds of network attacks, monitor its attack means and attributes, and set corresponding defenses on the target system that needs to be protected. System to stop similar attacks. Honeypots can be divided into two types, product-type honeypots and research-type honeypots. The main purpose of the former is to “attract firepower” and reduce the pressure of defense. The latter is designed for research and acquisition of attack information. It is an intelligence gathering system that not only needs network attack resistance but also strives to monitor powerfully to capture the attack behavior data to the maximum extent.

  In addition to the establishment of a virtual network environment attack and defense laboratory consisting of four sub-networks of gray, yellow, black and green, the US military has also carefully deployed a honeypot decoy system on the Internet. What is certain is that the network defense idea based on deception will be further emphasized, and the technical means to achieve deception will be more and more.

New “Thirty-six Meters” linkage synergy defense

Integrate multiple defense technologies to “reject enemy from outside the country”

  At present, most of the security protection devices and defense technologies are “individually fighting”. The data between network protection nodes is difficult to share, and the protection technologies are not related. As a result, the current defense system is isolated and static, which cannot meet the increasingly complex network security situation. need. The original motivation of the US “Einstein Plan” was that all federal agencies had exclusive access to the Internet, making overall security difficult to guarantee. Through the collaborative linkage mechanism, the relatively independent security protection devices and technologies in the network are organically combined to complement each other and cooperate with each other to defend against various attacks. It has become an inevitable choice for the future development of cyberspace security defense.

  Collaborative collaborative defense refers to the use of existing security technologies, measures and equipment to organically organize multiple security systems that are separated in time, spatially distributed, and work and interdependent, so that the entire security system can maximize its effectiveness. Vertically, it is the coordinated defense of multiple security technologies, that is, one security technology directly includes or links to another security technology through some communication method. For example, the “deep defense” mechanism adopted by the US Navy network defense system targets the core deployment layer protection measures, including flag-based attack detection, WAN security audit, vulnerability alert, etc., and the attacker must break through multiple defense layers to enter the system. Thereby reducing its attack success rate. When a node in the system is threatened, it can forward the threat information to other nodes in time and take corresponding protective measures to adjust and deploy the protection strategy.

  In the past, individual combat operations have been unable to meet the needs of today’s network security defenses, and coordinated collaborative defense will leap into the mainstream of network security. Integrate a variety of defense technologies, establish an organized defense system, and “reject the enemy outside the country” to effectively prevent problems before they occur.

The optimal strategy defense of the new “Thirty-six”

Seeking a balance between cybersecurity risks and investments

  The attacks in cyberspace are more and more complicated. The ideal network security protection is to protect all the weak or attack behaviors. However, from the perspective of defense resources limitation, it is obviously unrealistic to pursue absolute security defense. Based on the concept of “moderate security”, the optimal strategy defense is on the horizon.

  Optimal policy defense can be understood as seeking a balance between cyber security risks and inputs, and using limited resources to make the most reasonable decision defense. As far as investment is concerned, even the strong United States is trying to build a collective defense system for cyberspace. The United States and Australia cyberspace defense alliance agreement, as well as the Japan-US network defense cooperation joint statement, its “share of results” behind the “cost sharing” shadow. From the perspective of risk, the pursuit of absolute security will adhere to the principle of safety supremacy. When formulating relevant strategic objectives and responding to threats, it is easy to ignore the limited and legitimacy of the resources and means available, and it is difficult to grasp the advance and retreat.

  The optimal strategy defense is mainly focused on the “optimal” strategy of game theory, focusing on the research direction of cyberspace security assessment, cost analysis, security defense model construction and evolution. Applying the idea of ​​game theory to cyber attacks and defenses provides a new way to solve the problem of optimal defense decision-making.

The new “Thirty-six” intrusion tolerance defense

Create a “last line of defense” for cyberspace security

  The threats to cyberspace are unpredictable, irresistible, and unpredictable. Protection can’t completely avoid system failure or even collapse. Traditional reliability theory and fault-tolerant computing technology are difficult to meet the actual needs, which has to consider more comprehensive and deeper problems than pure protection. In this context, a new generation of intrusion-tolerance defenses has received increasing attention.

  Intrusion tolerance is the third-generation network security technology, which belongs to the category of information survival technology and is called the “last line of defense” for cyberspace security defense. Unlike traditional cybersecurity defenses, intrusion-tolerant defenses recognize the existence of vulnerabilities and assume that some of them may be exploited by attackers to attack the system. When the target of protection is attacked or even some parts have been destroyed or manipulated, the target system can “kill the tail” like a gecko to complete the healing and regeneration of the target system.

  Intrusion-tolerance technology is no longer based on “defense”, but on how to reduce losses and recover as soon as the system has been damaged. However, intrusion tolerance is an emerging research field. Its cost, cost and benefit will be the next research direction.

Related Links–

Network attack and defense

“Shenzhen”: the pioneer of network physics warfare

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  In August 2010, Iran built the Bushehr nuclear power plant with the help of Russia. However, the nuclear power plant, which was scheduled to be put into operation in October of that year, was postponed several times. A year later, according to media reports, it was caused by a computer network virus attack of unknown source. More than 30,000 computers were “in the middle”. Thousands of centrifuges in Natans were scrapped. The newly capped Bushehr nuclear power plant had to be taken out. Nuclear fuel was delayed and the Iranian nuclear development plan was forced to shelve. This virus, later named “Shenzhen”, pioneered the control and destruction of entities through the network.

“Flame”: the most powerful spy in history

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  Network intelligence activities are the most active part of the cyberspace strategy game and security struggle. In 2012, a large amount of data from the Iranian oil sector was stolen and cleared, making it impossible for oil production and exports to function properly. In order to avoid continuing to create hazards, Iran was urgently disconnected from the network of the oil facilities on the Halk Island near the Gulf. After a large-scale investigation, a new virus emerged, which later appeared in the “flame” virus in Israel, Palestine and other Middle Eastern countries. The “Flame” virus combines the three characteristics of worms, backdoors and Trojans. It combines the interception of screen images, recording audio dialogues, intercepting keyboard input, and stealing Bluetooth devices. It has become a new type of electronic company that steals secret information from other countries. spy”.

“Shut”: System breaks

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  In 2007, in order to kill the Syrian nuclear program in the bud, 18 F-16 fighters of the 69th Fighter Squadron of the Israeli Air Force quietly broke through the advanced Russian “Dor”-M1 air defense deployed by Syria on the Syrian-Israeli border. The system carried out precise bombing of a nuclear facility about 100 kilometers west of the Syrian-Israeli border and about 400 kilometers northeast of Damascus, and returned safely from the original road.

  According to the disclosure, the “Orchard Action” has made the US “Shuter” attack system shine. “Shut” invaded by remote radio, 瘫痪 radar, radio communication system, is the “behind the scenes” to make the Syrian air defense system in a state of failure. As a new type of network power attack system for networked weapon platforms and networked information systems, “Shut” represents the development trend of military technology and combat methods, and is bound to bring a new war landscape.

“Shadow Network”: Invisible Internet

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  The complicated situation of ideological struggle caused by the Internet has created an alternative channel for information penetration and “colonization” of thought. In the “Jasmine Revolution” in North Africa and the “Arab Spring” in the Middle East, there are “shadow networks”.

  A ghost-like “shadow network” can bypass the traditionally regulated Internet, form an invisible and independent wireless local area network, realize mutual information communication, and access the Internet at any time as needed, and access the network resources “unrestricted”. The New York Times disclosed that the US State Department and the Pentagon have invested heavily in building an independent system in Afghanistan and using a launch tower located in the military camp to transmit signals to protect them from Taliban militants. Subsequently, an “invisible communication system” was established in Iran, Syria and Libya to help local anti-government organizations to communicate with each other or with the outside world.

“X Plan”: To control the network battlefield

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  Foreign media revealed that the Pentagon is building a 22nd century war plan, the “X Plan.” The “X Plan” is dedicated to building an advanced global computer map. With this “network map” that can be continuously updated and updated, the US military can easily lock the target and make it embarrassing. “If this plan is completed, the US military will be able to control the network battlefield as it controls the traditional battlefield.”

  It is not difficult to foresee that after the deployment of the “X Plan”, it is definitely not just “get rid of the constraints of the keyboard”, but also enables situational awareness and cyber attacks on a global scale.

Original Mandarin Chinese

■網絡空間易攻難守,傳統的被動式防禦難以有效應對有組織的高強度攻擊

■提高網絡安全性,防禦一端不能只靠技術博弈,還需打贏理念上的反擊戰

網絡安全之新“三十六計”

■陳 森

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費雪 繪

新聞緣由

信息時代,網絡安全對國家安全牽一發而動全身。 《國家信息化發展戰略綱要》強調,積極適應國家安全形勢新變化、信息技術發展新趨勢和強軍目標新要求,構建信息安全防禦體系,全面提高打贏信息化局部戰爭能力。網絡空間已經成為影響國家安全、社會穩定、經濟發展和文化傳播的全新領域,網絡空間安全隨之成為國際社會日益關注的重要議題。

美國明確宣稱網絡空間為新的作戰領域,大幅擴編網絡司令部和作戰部隊,持續聚力網絡空間武器研發。進入夏季以來,美軍網絡演習接二連三,隱形戰火硝煙瀰漫。 3月初,“網絡風暴5”率先拉開演練戰幕;4月,“網絡神盾2016”完成第五代升級;6月,“網絡防衛”“網絡奪旗”作為年度聯合演習的核心重裝登場。

網絡安全的本質在於攻防兩端能力較量,目前依賴防火牆、入侵檢測技術和反病毒軟件等靜態的、孤立的、被動式防禦難以有效應對有組織的高強度網絡攻擊。構築網絡空間安全防線,需要革除落伍思想,打贏防禦理念上的反擊戰。

新“三十六計”之移動目標防禦

通過構建動態網絡增加攻擊難度

網絡攻擊行動均需要一定的時間用於掃描和研究目標網絡,探測並利用系統“漏洞”,達到入侵控制目的。從理論上說,攻擊者有無限的時間展開掃描探測工作,總能找到防禦薄弱點,最終達成入侵目的。為此,網絡先行者美國致力於籌劃和部署安全防禦轉型工作,力求突破傳統防禦理念,發展能“改變遊戲規則”的革命性技術,移動目標防禦即是其中之一。

移動目標防禦被稱為網絡空間安全防禦新範式,技術策略上通過對防護目標本身的處理和控制,致力於構建一種動態的網絡,增加隨機性、減少可預見性,以提高攻擊難度。若將靜態的網絡空間比喻為一成不變的“城防部署”,勢難固守;而動態的網絡配置堪稱變幻無窮的“八卦陣”,難以破解。目前,移動目標防禦技術在美國政府和軍方各類研究中均享有優先權,涵蓋動態平台技術、動態運行環境技術、動態軟件和數據技術等方面。 2012年8月,美陸軍授予雷神公司“變形網絡設施”項目,主要研究在敵方無法探測和預知的情況下,對網絡、主機和應用程序進行動態調整和配置,從而預防、遲滯或阻止網絡攻擊。

作為網絡空間安全領域的新思路,移動目標防禦反映了未來網絡防禦將“死”網絡變成“活”網絡的技術發展趨勢。

新“三十六計”之蜜罐誘騙防禦

通過消耗攻擊者的資源減少網絡攻擊威脅

常規的網絡安全防護主要是從正面抵禦網絡攻擊,雖然防禦措施取得了長足進步,但仍未能改變網絡空間“易攻難守”的基本局面。近年來發展的“蜜罐誘騙防禦”則提出了一個“旁路引導”的新理念,即通過吸納網絡入侵和消耗攻擊者的資源來減少網絡攻擊對真正要防護目標的威脅,進而贏得時間以增強防護措施,彌補傳統網絡空間防禦體系的不足。

與戰場上有意設置假陣地相仿,蜜罐誘騙防禦是主動利用安全防禦層級較低的計算機網絡,引誘各類網絡攻擊,監測其攻擊手段和屬性,在真正需要做防護的目標系統上設置相應防禦體系,以阻止類似攻擊。蜜罐可分為兩種類型,即產品型蜜罐和研究型蜜罐。前者主要目的是“吸引火力”,減輕防禦壓力,後者則為研究和獲取攻擊信息而設計,堪稱情報蒐集系統,不僅需要網絡耐攻擊而且力求監視能力強大,以最大限度捕獲攻擊行為數據。

美軍除了建立由灰網、黃網、黑網、綠網4個子網絡組成的虛擬網絡環境攻防實驗室外,還在國際互聯網上精心部署有蜜罐誘騙系統。可以肯定的是,基於誘騙的網絡防禦思想將被進一步重視,實現誘騙的技術途徑也將會越來越多。

新“三十六計”之聯動協同防禦

整合多種防禦技術“拒敵於國門之外”

目前的安全防護設備和防禦技術大都是“各自為戰”,網絡防護節點間的數據難共享,防護技術不關聯,導致目前的防禦體係是孤立和靜態的,已不能滿足日趨複雜的網絡安全形勢需要。美國“愛因斯坦計劃”最初的動因就在於各聯邦機構獨享互聯網出口,使得整體安全性難以保障。通過協同聯動機制把網絡中相對獨立的安全防護設備和技術有機組合起來,取長補短,互相配合,共同抵禦各種攻擊,已成為未來網絡空間安全防禦發展的必然選擇。

聯動協同防禦是指利用現有安全技術、措施和設備,將時間上分離、空間上分佈而工作上又相互依賴的多個安全系統有機組織起來,從而使整個安全系統能夠最大程度地發揮效能。縱向上,是多個安全技術的聯動協同防禦,即一種安全技術直接包含或是通過某種通信方式鏈接另一種安全技術。如美國海軍網絡防禦體係採用的“縱深防禦”機制,針對核心部署層層防護措施,包括基於標誌的攻擊檢測、廣域網安全審計、脆弱性警報等,攻擊方須突破多個防禦層才能進入系統,從而降低其攻擊成功率。當系統中某節點受到威脅時,能夠及時將威脅信息轉發給其他節點並採取相應防護措施,進行一體化調整和部署防護策略。

昔日的單兵作戰已不能適應當今網絡安全防禦的需要,聯動協同防禦將躍升為網絡安全領域的主流。整合多種防禦技術,建立有組織性的防禦體系,“拒敵於國門之外”才能有效防患於未然。

新“三十六計”之最優策略防禦

在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡

網絡空間的攻擊越來越複雜,理想的網絡安全防護當然是對所有的弱項或攻擊行為都做出對應的防護,但是從防禦資源限制等情況考慮,追求絕對安全的防禦顯然是不現實的。基於“適度安全”的理念,最優策略防禦呼之欲出。

最優策略防禦可以理解為在網絡安全風險和投入之間尋求一種均衡,利用有限的資源做出最合理決策的防禦。就投入而言,即便是實力雄厚的美國,也是盡量打造網絡空間集體防禦體系。美國與澳大利亞網絡空間防禦同盟協定,以及日美網絡防禦合作聯合聲明,其“成果共享”背後亦有“成本分攤”的影子。從風險角度看,對絕對安全的追求將會秉持安全至上原則,在製定相關戰略目標和對威脅作出反應時,易忽視所擁有資源和手段的有限性、合法性,難以掌握進退。

最優策略防禦主要圍繞博弈論的策略“最優”而展開,集中在網絡空間安全測評、代價分析、安全防禦模型構建與演化等研究方向上。將博弈論的思想應用到網絡攻擊和防禦中,為解決最優防禦決策等難題研究提供了一種新思路。

新“三十六計”之入侵容忍防禦

打造網絡空間安全 “最後一道防線”

網絡空間面臨的威脅很多是不可預見、無法抗拒和防不勝防的,防護再好也不能完全避免系統失效甚至崩潰的發生。傳統的可靠性理論和容錯計算技術難以滿足實際需要,這就不得不思考比單純防護更全面、更深層次的問題。在此背景下,新一代入侵容忍防禦愈發受到重視。

入侵容忍是第三代網絡安全技術,隸屬於信息生存技術的範疇,被稱作是網絡空間安全防禦“最後一道防線”。與傳統網絡安全防禦思路不同,入侵容忍防禦承認脆弱點的存在,並假定其中某些脆弱點可能會被攻擊者利用而使系統遭到攻擊。防護目標在受到攻擊甚至某些部分已被破壞或被操控時,防護目標系統可以像壁虎一樣“斷尾求生”,完成目標系統的癒合和再生。

入侵容忍技術不再以“防”為主,而是重在系統已遭破壞的情況下如何減少損失,盡快恢復。但入侵容忍畢竟是一個新興研究領域,其成本、代價、效益等將是下一步的研究方向。

相關鏈接——

各顯其能的網絡攻防戰

“震網”:網絡物理戰先驅

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2010年8月,伊朗在俄羅斯幫助下建成布什爾核電站,但這座計劃於當年10月正式發電運轉的核電站,卻多次推遲運行。一年後,據媒體揭秘,是因為遭到來源不明的計算機網絡病毒攻擊,超過3萬台電腦“中招”,位於納坦斯的千台離心機報廢,剛封頂的布什爾核電站不得不取出核燃料並延期啟動,伊朗核發展計劃則被迫擱置。這種後來被冠名為“震網”的病毒,開創了通過網絡控制並摧毀實體的先河。

“火焰”:史上最強大間諜

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網絡情報活動,是網絡空間戰略博弈和安全斗爭最活躍的部分。 2012年,伊朗石油部門大量數據失竊並遭到清除,致使其無法正常進行石油生產和出口。為避免繼續製造危害,伊朗被迫切斷了海灣附近哈爾克島石油設施的網絡連接。大規模的調查後,一種新的病毒浮出水面,即後來又現身於以色列、巴勒斯坦等中東國家的“火焰”病毒。 “火焰”病毒兼具蠕蟲、後門和木馬三重特點,集截取屏幕畫面、記錄音頻對話、截獲鍵盤輸入、偷開藍牙設備等多種數據盜竊功能於一身,成為專門竊取他國機密情報的新型“電子間諜”。

“舒特”:體系破擊露鋒芒

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2007年,為將敘利亞核計劃扼殺於萌芽之中,以色列空軍第69戰鬥機中隊的18架F-16戰機,悄無聲息地突破敘利亞在敘以邊境部署的先進俄製“道爾”-M1防空系統,對敘以邊境以西約100千米、大馬士革東北部約400千米的一處核設施實施精確轟炸,並從原路安全返回。

據披露,讓“果園行動”大放異彩的是美軍“舒特”攻擊系統。 “舒特”通過遠程無線電入侵,癱瘓雷達、無線電通信系統,是使敘防空系統處於失效狀態的“幕後真兇”。作為針對組網武器平台及網絡化信息系統的新型網電攻擊系統,“舒特”代表著軍事技術和作戰方式的發展趨勢,勢必將帶來全新戰爭景觀。

“影子網絡”:隱形國際互聯網

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國際互聯網導致意識形態鬥爭的複雜局面,造成了信息滲透、思想“殖民”的另類通道。在北非“茉莉花革命”和中東“阿拉伯之春”中,均有“影子網絡”踪跡。

像幽靈一樣的“影子網絡”可繞過傳統監管的互聯網,形成隱形和獨立的無線局域網,實現相互間信息溝通,一旦需要又可隨時接入國際互聯網,“不受限制”地訪問網絡資源。 《紐約時報》披露稱,美國國務院和五角大樓斥巨資在阿富汗建造了獨立的系統,並利用設在軍營內的發射塔傳遞信號,以免遭塔利班武裝分子破壞。隨後在伊朗、敘利亞和利比亞設立“隱形通訊系統”,幫助當地反政府組織相互聯繫或與外界溝通。

“X計劃”:欲掌控網絡戰場

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外媒披露,五角大樓正在打造一項22世紀的戰爭計劃,即“X計劃”。 “X計劃”致力於建立先進的全球計算機分佈圖,有了這張能夠不斷升級更新的“網絡地圖”,美軍就可以輕易鎖定目標令其癱瘓。 “如果完成了這個計劃,美軍將能夠像控制傳統戰場那樣控製網絡戰場。”

不難預見,“X計劃”部署後,絕對不只是“擺脫鍵盤的束縛”,更可以實現在全球範圍內進行態勢感知和網絡攻擊。

Original Referring URL: http://www.chinanews.com/mil/2016/08-11/

中國新的網絡安全法 // Internet Security Law of the People ‘s Republic of China

中國新的網絡安全法 // Internet Security Law of the People ‘s Republic of China

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1 General Provisions

Chapter 2 Network Security Support and Promotion

Chapter 3 Network Operation Safety

Section 1 General Provisions

SECTION 2: Operational safety of key information infrastructures

Chapter 4 Network Information Security

Chapter 5 Monitoring Early Warning and Emergency Handling

Chapter VI Legal Liability

Chapter VII Supplementary Provisions

Chapter 1 General Provisions

The first order to protect network security , safeguard cyberspace sovereignty and national security , public interests , protection of citizens , legal persons and other organizations , to promote the healthy development of economic and social information , this law is enacted .

Article in the territory of People’s Republic of China construction , operation , maintenance and use of the network , as well as supervision and management of network security , this Law shall apply .

Third countries adhere to both network security and information technology development , follow the active use , scientific development , according to management , to ensure the safety policy , promote the network infrastructure construction and interoperability , to encourage innovation and application of network technology , to support the development of network security personnel , Establish and improve the network security system , improve network security protection .

Article 4 The State shall formulate and continuously improve the network security strategy , clearly define the basic requirements and main objectives of the network security , and put forward the network security policies , tasks and measures in the key areas .

Article 5 The State shall take measures to monitor , defend and dispose of network security risks and threats arising from the territory of the People’s Republic of China , protect the critical information infrastructure from attack , intrusion , interference and destruction , punish the network for criminal activities and maintain the network Space security and order .

Article 6 The State shall promote the network behavior of honesty and trustworthiness , health and civilization , promote the dissemination of socialist core values , and take measures to raise the awareness and level of cybersecurity in the whole society and form a favorable environment for the whole society to participate in promoting network security .

Article VII countries active in cyberspace governance , network technology research and standards development , the fight against international exchange and cooperation network and other crimes , to promote the building of peace , security , open , cooperative cyberspace , multilateral , democratic , transparent network Governance system .

Article VIII of the National Network Information Department is responsible for co-ordination network security and related supervision and administration . State Council department in charge of telecommunications , public security departments and other relevant authorities in accordance with this Law and other relevant laws , administrative regulations , responsible for network security and supervision and administration within their respective areas of responsibility .

Local people’s governments above the county level of network security and regulatory functions , determined in accordance with relevant state regulations .

Article IX network and service operators to carry out business activities , must abide by laws , administrative regulations , respect social ethics , abide by business ethics , honesty and credit , fulfill the obligation to protect network security , and accept the supervision of government and society , social responsibility .

Article X build , operate or provide network services through a network , it should be in accordance with laws , regulations and national standards and administrative regulations of mandatory requirements , technical measures and other necessary measures , to ensure network security , stable operation , to effectively deal with network security incidents , Prevent cyber criminal activities , maintain the integrity of network data , confidentiality and usability .

Article XI  network-related industry organizations accordance with the constitution , strengthen self-discipline , to develop guidelines for network security behavior , guide members to strengthen network security , increase network security levels , and promote the healthy development of the industry .

Article XII of  the State protection of citizens , legal persons and other organizations the right to use the network in accordance with law , the promotion of universal access network , improve network service levels , and provide safe , convenient network services , to protect the free flow of network information according to law and orderly .

Any person and organization using the network should abide by the constitutional law , abide by the public order , respect social morality , not endanger the network security , shall not use the network to endanger national security , honor and interests , incite subversion of state power , overthrow the socialist system , incitement to split the country , The destruction of national unity , the promotion of terrorism , extremism , the promotion of national hatred , ethnic discrimination , the dissemination of violence , obscene pornography , fabricating and disseminating false information to disrupt economic order and social order , and infringe upon the reputation , privacy , intellectual property and other legitimate rights and interests of others And other activities .

Article XIII  countries to support research and development is conducive to healthy growth of minors networking products and services , punishing minors using the Internet to endanger physical and mental health activities according to law , to provide security for minors , healthy network environment .

Article 14  Any individual or organization shall have the right to report to the network , telecommunications , public security and other departments that are harmful to the safety of the Internet . The department that receives the report shall handle it in a timely manner and if it does not belong to the duties of the department , it shall promptly transfer the department to be handled .

The relevant departments shall keep the relevant information of the whistleblower and protect the legitimate rights and interests of the whistleblower .

Chapter 2 Network Security Support and Promotion

Article 15 The  State shall establish and improve the network security standard system . The department in charge of standardization of the State Council and other relevant departments under the State Council shall, in accordance with their respective duties , organize and formulate and revise the national standards and industry standards for network security management and network products , services and operation safety .

National support enterprises , research institutions , colleges and universities , network-related industry organizations to participate in network security national standards , industry standards .

Article 16 The   State Council and the people’s governments of provinces , autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall make overall plans , increase investment , support key network security technology industries and projects , support the research and development and application of network security technology , promote safe and reliable network products and services , Protection of network technology intellectual property rights , support enterprises , research institutions and colleges and universities to participate in national network security technology innovation projects .

Article 17 The   State shall promote the construction of a social security service system for network security and encourage the relevant enterprises and institutions to carry out safety services such as network security certification , testing and risk assessment .

Article 18 The   State encourages the development of network data security protection and utilization technology to promote the opening of public data resources and promote technological innovation and economic and social development .

State support innovative network security management , the use of new network technologies , enhance network security level .

Article XIX   governments at all levels and relevant departments should organize regular network security education , and guidance , and urge the relevant units to do network safety publicity and education work .

The mass media should be targeted to the community for network security publicity and education .

Article 20 The  State shall support enterprises and institutions of higher education , vocational schools and other educational and training institutions to carry out network safety-related education and training , and adopt a variety of ways to train network security personnel and promote the exchange of network security personnel .

Chapter 3 Network Operation Safety

Section 1 General Provisions

Article 21 The  State shall implement a system of network security protection . Network operators should be in accordance with the requirements of the network security level protection system , perform the following security obligations , to protect networks from interference , damage or unauthorized access , preventing data leakage or stolen , tampered with :

( 1 ) to formulate internal safety management systems and operating procedures , to determine the network security responsible person , the implementation of network security protection responsibility ;

( 2 ) to take precautions against computer viruses and network attacks , network intrusion and other hazards of network security behavior of technical measures ;

( 3 ) to take technical measures to monitor and record the operation status of the network and the network security incident , and to keep the relevant network log in accordance with the regulations for not less than six months ;

( D ) to take data classification , important data backup and encryption and other measures ;

( 5 ) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations .

Article 22 The  network products and services shall conform to the mandatory requirements of the relevant national standards . Network products , service providers may not set up malicious programs ; found their network products , services, security defects , loopholes and other risks , should immediately take remedial measures , in accordance with the provisions of the timely notification of the user and report to the relevant authorities .

The providers of network products and services shall provide continuous maintenance of their products and services ; they shall not terminate the provision of safety maintenance within the time limit prescribed by the parties or the parties .

Network products , services with the collection of user information function , the provider should be clear to the user and obtain consent ; involving the user’s personal information , but also should comply with this law and the relevant laws and administrative regulations on personal information protection requirements .

Article 23 The  network of key equipment and network security specific products should be in accordance with national standards of mandatory requirements , qualified by the agency safety certification or qualified safety testing to meet the requirements after , before they sell or provide . The State Network letter department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council to develop and publish network key equipment and network security products directory , and promote safety certification and safety testing results mutual recognition , to avoid duplication of certification , testing .

Article 24 The  network operator shall handle the services such as network access , domain name registration service , fixed telephone and mobile telephone , or provide services such as information release and instant messaging , and enter into an agreement with the user or confirm the service when , should be required to provide true user identity information . If the user does not provide the true identity information , the network operator shall not provide the relevant service .

National implementation trusted identity network strategy , to support research and development of safe , convenient electronic authentication technology , to promote mutual recognition between different electronic authentication .

Article 25  network operators shall develop network security emergency response plan , timely disposal system vulnerabilities , computer viruses , network attacks , security risks and other network intrusions ; in the event of the occurrence of the harm network security , immediately launched the emergency plan , take the appropriate remedial measures , and report to the relevant authorities in accordance with the provisions .

Article 26   to carry out certification of network security , detection , risk assessment and other activities , released to the public system vulnerabilities , computer viruses , network attacks , network intrusions and other network information security , should comply with the relevant provisions of the State .

Article 27   No individual or organization may not engage in illegal intrusion into networks of others , interfere with the normal function of the network of others , active network data theft and other hazards network security ; not provide specifically for the network in the invasion , interfere with the normal function of the network and protective measures , theft Network data and other activities that endanger the network security activities , tools ; knowing that others engaged in activities that endanger network security , not to provide technical support , advertising , payment and settlement help .

Article 28 The   network operators shall provide technical support and assistance to the public security organs and the state security organs to safeguard the national security and the investigation of crimes according to law .

Article 29 The   State supports between network operators to collect information on network security , analysis , reporting and emergency response and other aspects of cooperation , to improve the security capabilities of network operators .

Relevant industry organizations to establish and improve network security norms and mechanisms for cooperation in this sector , to strengthen the analysis and evaluation of network security risks , regularly risk warning to the members , to support , to assist members to deal with network security risks .

Article 30   Network and Information Department and relevant information acquired in the performance of network security protection responsibilities , only for the need to maintain network security , shall not be used for other purposes .

SECTION 2: Operational safety of key information infrastructures

Article 31 The   state public communication and information services , energy , transportation , water conservancy , finance , public services , e-government and other important industries and fields , as well as other once destroyed , the loss of functionality or data leakage , could seriously endanger national security , people’s livelihood , the critical information infrastructure of public interest , on the basis of network security protection system on , special protection . The specific scope and safety protection of key information infrastructure shall be formulated by the State Council .

The country encourages network operators outside key information infrastructures to participate voluntarily in critical information infrastructure protection systems .

Article 32  in accordance with the division of duties prescribed by the State Council , responsible for the protection of critical information infrastructure security departments are working to formulate and implement the industry , the art of critical information infrastructure security planning , guidance and supervision of the safe operation of critical information infrastructure protection Work .

Article 33 The   construction of the critical information infrastructure to support business should ensure it has a stable , continuous operation performance , and technical measures to ensure the safety synchronized planning , simultaneous construction , simultaneous use .

Article 34   In addition to the provisions of Article 21 of this Law , critical information infrastructure operators shall perform the following security obligations :

( A ) set up a special safety management and safety management agency in charge of people , and the negative security background screening of responsibility and the key staff positions ;

( 2 ) regularly carry out network security education , technical training and skills assessment for employees ;

( Iii ) disaster recovery of critical systems and databases ;

( D ) the development of network security incident contingency plans , and regular exercise ;

( 5 ) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations .

Article 35 Where  a operator of a key information infrastructure purchases a network of products and services that may affect the safety of the State , it shall pass the national security review organized by the State Network Department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council .

Article 36 of   the critical information infrastructure of network operators purchasing products and services , shall sign a confidentiality agreement with the security provider in accordance with the provisions , clear security and confidentiality obligations and responsibilities .

Article 37  Personal information and important data collected and produced by operators of key information infrastructure operators in the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall be stored in the territory . Due to business needs , do need to provide to the outside , should be in accordance with the State Network letter department in conjunction with the relevant departments of the State Council to develop a safety assessment ; laws and administrative regulations otherwise provided , in accordance with its provisions .

Article 38   critical information infrastructure operator shall himself or entrust their network security services and the possible risk of network security test and evaluation carried out at least once a year , and will assess the situation and improve the detection measures submitted to the responsible Key information Infrastructure Security protection work .

Article 39 The   State Network Letters shall coordinate the relevant departments to take the following measures for the protection of key information infrastructures :

( A ) the security risk of critical information infrastructure will be random testing , suggest improvements , can be entrusted network security services when necessary for the existence of network security risk assessment to detect ;

( 2 ) to organize the operators of key information infrastructures on a regular basis to conduct network security emergency drills to improve the level and coordination capability of responding to network security incidents ;

( 3 ) to promote the sharing of network security information between the relevant departments and operators of key information infrastructures and relevant research institutions and network security services ;

( Four ) emergency response network security incidents and recovery network functions, etc. , to provide technical support and assistance .

Chapter 4 Network Information Security

Article 40  network operators should collect information on its users strictly confidential , and establish and improve the user information protection system .

Article 41 Where a  network operator collects or uses personal information , it shall follow the principles of lawfulness , reason and necessity , publicly collect and use the rules , expressly collect and use the purpose , manner and scope of the information and agree with the collectors .

Services unrelated to the personal information of the network operator shall not collect its offer , shall not violate laws , administrative regulations and bilateral agreements to collect , use of personal information , and shall be in accordance with laws , administrative regulations and the agreement with the user , process save Of personal information .

Article 42   network operators shall not be disclosed , tampering , destruction of personal information it collects ; without the consent of the collectors , may not provide personal information to others . However , except that processing does not recognize a particular person and can not be recovered .

The network operator shall take technical measures and other necessary measures to ensure that the personal information collected by it is safe to prevent leakage , damage and loss of information . Or may occur in the event of leakage of personal information , damage , time lost the case , it should take immediate remedial measures , in accordance with the provisions promptly inform the user to the relevant competent authorities report .

Article 43   personal discovery network operators violate laws , administrative regulations or bilateral agreements to collect , use their personal information , the right to require network operators to delete their personal information ; find network operators to collect , store their personal The information is wrong , the right to require the network operator to be corrected . The network operator should take action to remove or correct it .

Article 44   No individual or organization may steal or acquire personal information in any other illegal manner and may not illegally sell or illegally provide personal information to others .

Article 45 The   departments and their staff members with network security supervision and administration according to law , must be aware of personal information in carrying out their duties , privacy and trade secrets strictly confidential , shall not disclose , sell or illegally available to others .

Article 46   No individual or organization shall be responsible for the use of network behavior , not set up to commit fraud , to teach criminal methods , production or sale of prohibited items , sites illegal and criminal activities of controlled items, etc. , communication groups , should not be used Internet publishing involves the implementation of fraud , the production or sale of prohibited items , control of goods and other criminal activities of the information .

Article 47   network operators should strengthen the management of information published by its users , we found that laws , administrative regulations prohibit the release or transfer of information , should immediately stop the transmission of the information , to take measures to eliminate the disposal, etc. , to prevent the diffusion of information , save The relevant records and report to the relevant authorities .

Article 48  electronic information sent by any individual and organization , application software provided , shall set up a malicious program , shall not contain laws , administrative regulations prohibit the release or transfer of information .

Send electronic information service providers and application software download service provider , shall perform the safety management obligations , know that the user is under the aforesaid acts , it should stop providing services , to take measures to eliminate the disposal, etc. , keep the relevant records , and the relevant authorities Report .

Article 49 The  network operators shall establish information such as complaints and reporting systems for network information security , announce complaints and report methods, and promptly accept and handle complaints and reports on the security of network information .

Supervision and inspection network operators to network and Information Department and relevant departments according to law , shall cooperate .

Article 50   National Grid and other departments concerned to fulfill the letter of network information security supervision and administration according to law , found legal , information and administrative regulations prohibit the release or transfer , should be required to stop the transmission network operator , to take measures to eliminate the disposal, etc. , keep the relevant records ; the above information comes from outside the People’s Republic of China , it shall notify the relevant agencies to take technical measures and other necessary measures to interrupt transmission .

Chapter 5 Monitoring Early Warning and Emergency Handling

Article 51 The   State shall establish a network security monitoring and early warning and information communication system . The national network letter department should coordinate the relevant departments to strengthen the network security information collection , analysis and notification work , in accordance with the provisions of unified release of network security monitoring and early warning information .

Article 52   is responsible for critical information infrastructure security affairs , shall establish and improve the industry , network security monitoring and early warning and communications systems in the art , and network security monitoring and early warning information submitted in accordance with the provisions .

Article 53   National Grid and Information Department to coordinate relevant departments to establish and improve network security risk assessment and emergency response mechanisms , the development of network security emergency response plan , and regular exercise .

Responsible for key information infrastructure security work departments should develop the industry , the field of network security incident contingency plans , and regularly organize exercises .

Network security emergency response plan should be in accordance with the degree of harm after the incident , the network security incidents were graded sphere of influence and other factors , and provides the appropriate emergency measures .

Article 54   of network security event that occurs when the risk increases , the provincial people’s governments shall, in accordance with statutory authorities and procedures , and the characteristics of the network security risks and possible harm , take the following measures :

( A ) asked the relevant authorities , institutions and personnel timely collection , reporting information , strengthening the monitoring of network security risks ;

( Two ) organizational departments , agencies and professionals , network security risk assessment information for analysis , predicting the likelihood of events , the scope and extent of harm ;

( C ) to the community release network security risk early warning , release to avoid , reduce the harm measures .

Article 55   of network security incidents , should immediately start emergency response plan network security , network security incident investigation and assessment , require network operators to take technical measures and other necessary measures , to eliminate safety hazards , prevent harm to expand , and in a timely manner Publish public-related warning messages to the community .

Article 56  above the provincial level people’s governments in the implementation of network safety supervision and management responsibilities , found that there is a big security risk or network security incidents , be in accordance with the authority and procedures of the legal representative of the network operator’s Person or main person in charge . The network operator shall take measures as required and carry out rectification and rectification to eliminate the hidden danger .

Article 57  because of network security incidents , the occurrence of unexpected events or production safety accidents , should be in accordance with the ” Emergency Response Law of People’s Republic of China “, ” Production Safety Law of People’s Republic of China ,” the relevant laws and so on , disposal and administrative regulations The

Article 58 for the maintenance of national security and public order , require major emergency incidents disposal of social security , the State Council decision or approval , can take temporary measures such as limiting network traffic in a particular area .

Chapter VI Legal Liability

Article 59 Where the   network operator fails to perform the obligations of the network security protection stipulated in Article 21 and Article 25 of this Law , the relevant competent department shall order it to make corrections and give a warning ; refusing to correct or cause harm to the network security and other consequences of , at 100,000 yuan fine of $ 10,000 or more , the person directly responsible for the 50,000 yuan fine of $ 5,000 or more .

If the operator of the key information infrastructure fails to perform the obligations of the network security protection as prescribed in Article 33 , Article 34 , Article 36 and Article 38 of this Law , the relevant competent department shall order it to make corrections and give a warning ; refuse to correct or cause harm network security consequences , at 1,000,000 yuan fine of $ 100,000 or more , the person directly responsible for at 100,000 yuan fine of $ 10,000 or more .

Article 60   in violation of the first paragraph of Article 22 of this Law , (2) and the first paragraph Article 48 , any of the following acts , ordered by the competent department of corrections , give a warning ; refuse to correct Or cause harm to the network security and other consequences , at 50,000 yuan to more than 500,000 yuan fine , the person in charge directly responsible for more than 10,000 yuan more than 100,000 yuan fine :

( A ) set up malicious programs ;

( Two ) of their products , security flaws services , risk exposure and other remedial measures are not taken immediately , or failing to promptly inform the user of the report to the relevant authorities ;

( 3 ) to terminate the security of its products and services .

Article 61   network operators who violate the provisions of Article 24 first paragraph , did not require users to provide real identity information , or provide related services for the user does not provide real identity information , by the competent authorities ordered to make corrections ; or refuse to correct the circumstances are serious , at five hundred thousand fine of $ 50,000 or more , and may be ordered by the competent authorities to suspend the relevant business , ordered to stop , to close the site , revoke the relevant business license or business license revoked , directly responsible for The person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan .

Article 62  in violation of Article 26 of this Law , to carry out certification of network security , detection , risk assessment and other activities , or to the public distribution system vulnerability , computer viruses , network attacks , network intrusions and other network security information , by the relevant the competent department shall order correction , given a warning ; refuse to correct or circumstances are serious , at 100,000 yuan fine of $ 10,000 or more , and may be ordered by the competent authorities to suspend the relevant business , ordered to stop , to close the site , revoked or related business license revoke the business license , the persons in charge and other directly responsible personnel directly responsible for 50,000 yuan fine of $ 5,000 or more .

Article 63   violation of Article 27 of this Law , engaged in activities that endanger network security , or to provide dedicated program to endanger network security activities , tools , technical support, or to endanger the security of network activity for others , advertising , payment settlement and other help , not constitute a crime , the public security authorities confiscate the illegal income , 5 days detention , can fine of over 50,000 yuan to 500,000 yuan fine ; the circumstances are serious , at least five days 15 days of detention , and may impose a fine of not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than one million yuan .

Units with the conduct of , the public security authorities confiscate the illegal income , at a fine of one million yuan more than 100,000 yuan , and directly in charge and other directly responsible personnel shall be punished in accordance with the preceding paragraph .

Violation of Article 27 of this Law , subject to administrative penalties for public security personnel , shall not engage in network security management and network operators work in key positions within five years ; people subject to criminal punishment , he may not engage in key positions in operations and network security management network Work .

Article 64 A  provider of a network operator , a network product or service shall , in violation of the provisions of Article 22 , paragraph 3 , and Article 41 to Article 43 of this Law , violate the right of the personal information to be protected according to law , ordered to make corrections by the competent authorities , can be a warning or a fine according to the seriousness single office , confiscate the illegal income , illegal income more than doubled a fine of ten times , there is no illegal income , at a fine of one million yuan , directly responsible Supervisors and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan ; if the circumstances are serious , they may order to suspend the relevant business , suspend business for rectification , close the website , revoke the relevant business license or revoke the business license .

Violation of the provisions of Article 44 of this Law , theft or other illegal means to obtain , illegally sell or illegally provide personal information to others , does not constitute a crime , the public security organs confiscated the illegal income , and more than double the illegal income ten times If there is no illegal income , a fine of not more than one million yuan shall be imposed .

Article 65 of the   critical information infrastructure of operators in violation of the provisions of Article 35 of this Law , used without safety review or not to review the security of the network through a product or service , by the competent authorities ordered to stop using , at the purchase amount More than ten times the fine ; the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan .

Article 66   critical information infrastructure operators in violation of the provisions of Article 37 of this Law , outside the network data storage , or network data provided to the outside , ordered to make corrections by the competent authorities , be given a warning , confiscate the illegal income , of fifty yuan fine of $ 50,000 or more , and may be ordered to suspend the business , ordered to stop , to close the site , revoke the relevant business license or revoke the business license ; in charge and other directly responsible personnel directly responsible yuan and not Fine of not more than 100,000 yuan .

Article 67   in violation of the provisions of Article 46 of this Law , the website set up for the implementation of criminal activities , distribution group , or use the Internet release of information related to the implementation of criminal activities , does not constitute a crime , the public security organs 5 days detention , can impose a fine of 100,000 yuan ; the circumstances are serious , at least five days custody for 15 days or less , you can fine of over 50,000 yuan to 500,000 yuan fine . Close the website for the implementation of criminal activities , communication groups .

If the unit has the preceding paragraph , the public security organ shall be fined not less than 100,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan , and shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph for the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons .

Article 68  network operators in violation of the provisions of Article 47 of this Law , legal , administrative regulations prohibit the release or transfer of information transmission is not stopped , to take measures to eliminate the disposal, etc. , keep the relevant records , ordered by the competent department of corrections , given a warning , confiscation of illegal gains ; refuse to correct or circumstances are serious , at 500,000 yuan more than 100,000 yuan , and can be ordered to suspend the relevant business , ordered to stop , to close the site , revoke the relevant business license or business license revoked , A fine of not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan shall be imposed on the person directly in charge and other directly responsible persons .

Electronic messaging services provider , application software download service providers , non-compliance and safety management obligations specified in the second paragraph of Article 48 of this Law , in accordance with the preceding paragraph shall be punished .

Article 69   network operators in violation of the provisions of this Act , any of the following acts , by the competent authorities shall order rectification ; refuse to correct or circumstances are serious , at 500,000 Yuan more than 50,000 yuan , directly responsible for the charge and other directly responsible personnel , at one million yuan to 100,000 yuan fine :

( A ) not in accordance with the requirements of the relevant departments of the law , administrative regulations prohibit the release or the information’s transmission , taken to stop transmission , disposal measures to eliminate such ;

( 2 ) refusing or hindering the supervision and inspection carried out by the relevant departments according to law ;

( 3 ) refusing to provide technical support and assistance to the public security organs and the state security organs .

Article 70  issued or transmitted in Article 12 (2) and other laws , administrative regulations prohibit the release or transfer of information , in accordance with relevant laws , penalties and administrative regulations .

Article 71   of this Law prescribed offenses , in accordance with relevant laws , administrative regulations credited to the credit files , and to be publicized .

Article 72 Where  an operator of a government organ of a state organ fails to perform its obligations under the provisions of this Law , it shall be ordered by its superior organ or the relevant organ to make corrections , and the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished according to law .

Article 73  Network and Information Department and relevant departments in violation of the provisions of Article 30 of this Law , the information acquired in the performance of network security protection responsibilities for other purposes , given to the persons in charge and other directly responsible personnel directly responsible according to law Punish .

The network department and the relevant departments of the staff neglected duty , abuse of power , favoritism , does not constitute a crime , according to the law to give punishment .

Article 74 Whoever , in violation of the   provisions of this Law , causes damage to others , shall bear civil liability according to law .

Violation of the provisions of this Law , constitute a violation of public security management behavior , according to the law to give security management punishment ; constitute a crime , shall be held criminally responsible .

Article 75   The organs , organizations and individuals engaged in activities , such as attack , intrusion , interference or destruction , which violate the key information infrastructure of the People’s Republic of China , cause serious consequences, and shall hold legal liabilities according to law ; the public security departments and relevant departments of the State Council the institution may decide , organize , to freeze property or other necessary personal sanctions .

Chapter VII Supplementary Provisions

Article 76   The meaning of the following terms in this Law :

( A ) network , refers to a computer or other information terminals and associated equipment consisting of the information collected in accordance with certain rules and procedures , storage , transmission , switching , the system processing .

( Two ) network security , refers to taking the necessary measures , to prevent attacks on the network , intrusion , interference , destruction and illegal use and accidents , the network is in a state of stable and reliable operation , integrity, and protect network data , privacy , The ability to be available .

( C ) network operators , refers to the network of owners , managers and network service providers .

( D ) network data , refers to the network through the collection , storage , transmission , processing and production of various electronic data .

( Five ) personal information , refer to various identification information can be used alone or in combination with other natural personal identity information electronically recorded or otherwise , including but not limited to a natural person’s name , date of birth , ID number , personal biometric information , Address , telephone number and so on .

Article 77 The   storage , processing network information involving state secrets operational security , in addition shall comply with this Act , shall also comply with privacy laws , administrative regulations .

Article 78   security protection of military networks , otherwise provided by the Central Military Commission .

Article 79   of this Law since 2017  6 June 1 from the date of implementation .

Original mandarin Chinese:

目    录

    第一章  总    则

第二章  网络安全支持与促进

第三章  网络运行安全

第一节  一般规定

第二节  关键信息基础设施的运行安全

第四章  网络信息安全

第五章  监测预警与应急处置

第六章  法律责任

第七章  附    则

第一章  总    则

第一条  为了保障网络安全,维护网络空间主权和国家安全、社会公共利益,保护公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益,促进经济社会信息化健康发展,制定本法。

第二条  在中华人民共和国境内建设、运营、维护和使用网络,以及网络安全的监督管理,适用本法。

第三条  国家坚持网络安全与信息化发展并重,遵循积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,推进网络基础设施建设和互联互通,鼓励网络技术创新和应用,支持培养网络安全人才,建立健全网络安全保障体系,提高网络安全保护能力。

第四条  国家制定并不断完善网络安全战略,明确保障网络安全的基本要求和主要目标,提出重点领域的网络安全政策、工作任务和措施。

第五条  国家采取措施,监测、防御、处置来源于中华人民共和国境内外的网络安全风险和威胁,保护关键信息基础设施免受攻击、侵入、干扰和破坏,依法惩治网络违法犯罪活动,维护网络空间安全和秩序。

第六条  国家倡导诚实守信、健康文明的网络行为,推动传播社会主义核心价值观,采取措施提高全社会的网络安全意识和水平,形成全社会共同参与促进网络安全的良好环境。

第七条  国家积极开展网络空间治理、网络技术研发和标准制定、打击网络违法犯罪等方面的国际交流与合作,推动构建和平、安全、开放、合作的网络空间,建立多边、民主、透明的网络治理体系。

第八条  国家网信部门负责统筹协调网络安全工作和相关监督管理工作。国务院电信主管部门、公安部门和其他有关机关依照本法和有关法律、行政法规的规定,在各自职责范围内负责网络安全保护和监督管理工作。

县级以上地方人民政府有关部门的网络安全保护和监督管理职责,按照国家有关规定确定。

第九条  网络运营者开展经营和服务活动,必须遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德,遵守商业道德,诚实信用,履行网络安全保护义务,接受政府和社会的监督,承担社会责任。

第十条  建设、运营网络或者通过网络提供服务,应当依照法律、行政法规的规定和国家标准的强制性要求,采取技术措施和其他必要措施,保障网络安全、稳定运行,有效应对网络安全事件,防范网络违法犯罪活动,维护网络数据的完整性、保密性和可用性。

第十一条  网络相关行业组织按照章程,加强行业自律,制定网络安全行为规范,指导会员加强网络安全保护,提高网络安全保护水平,促进行业健康发展。

第十二条  国家保护公民、法人和其他组织依法使用网络的权利,促进网络接入普及,提升网络服务水平,为社会提供安全、便利的网络服务,保障网络信息依法有序自由流动。

任何个人和组织使用网络应当遵守宪法法律,遵守公共秩序,尊重社会公德,不得危害网络安全,不得利用网络从事危害国家安全、荣誉和利益,煽动颠覆国家政权、推翻社会主义制度,煽动分裂国家、破坏国家统一,宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义,宣扬民族仇恨、民族歧视,传播暴力、淫秽色情信息,编造、传播虚假信息扰乱经济秩序和社会秩序,以及侵害他人名誉、隐私、知识产权和其他合法权益等活动。

第十三条  国家支持研究开发有利于未成年人健康成长的网络产品和服务,依法惩治利用网络从事危害未成年人身心健康的活动,为未成年人提供安全、健康的网络环境。

第十四条  任何个人和组织有权对危害网络安全的行为向网信、电信、公安等部门举报。收到举报的部门应当及时依法作出处理;不属于本部门职责的,应当及时移送有权处理的部门。

有关部门应当对举报人的相关信息予以保密,保护举报人的合法权益。

第二章  网络安全支持与促进

第十五条  国家建立和完善网络安全标准体系。国务院标准化行政主管部门和国务院其他有关部门根据各自的职责,组织制定并适时修订有关网络安全管理以及网络产品、服务和运行安全的国家标准、行业标准。

国家支持企业、研究机构、高等学校、网络相关行业组织参与网络安全国家标准、行业标准的制定。

第十六条  国务院和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府应当统筹规划,加大投入,扶持重点网络安全技术产业和项目,支持网络安全技术的研究开发和应用,推广安全可信的网络产品和服务,保护网络技术知识产权,支持企业、研究机构和高等学校等参与国家网络安全技术创新项目。

第十七条  国家推进网络安全社会化服务体系建设,鼓励有关企业、机构开展网络安全认证、检测和风险评估等安全服务。

第十八条  国家鼓励开发网络数据安全保护和利用技术,促进公共数据资源开放,推动技术创新和经济社会发展。

国家支持创新网络安全管理方式,运用网络新技术,提升网络安全保护水平。

第十九条  各级人民政府及其有关部门应当组织开展经常性的网络安全宣传教育,并指导、督促有关单位做好网络安全宣传教育工作。

大众传播媒介应当有针对性地面向社会进行网络安全宣传教育。

第二十条  国家支持企业和高等学校、职业学校等教育培训机构开展网络安全相关教育与培训,采取多种方式培养网络安全人才,促进网络安全人才交流。

第三章  网络运行安全

第一节 一般规定

第二十一条  国家实行网络安全等级保护制度。网络运营者应当按照网络安全等级保护制度的要求,履行下列安全保护义务,保障网络免受干扰、破坏或者未经授权的访问,防止网络数据泄露或者被窃取、篡改:

(一)制定内部安全管理制度和操作规程,确定网络安全负责人,落实网络安全保护责任;

(二)采取防范计算机病毒和网络攻击、网络侵入等危害网络安全行为的技术措施;

(三)采取监测、记录网络运行状态、网络安全事件的技术措施,并按照规定留存相关的网络日志不少于六个月;

(四)采取数据分类、重要数据备份和加密等措施;

(五)法律、行政法规规定的其他义务。

第二十二条  网络产品、服务应当符合相关国家标准的强制性要求。网络产品、服务的提供者不得设置恶意程序;发现其网络产品、服务存在安全缺陷、漏洞等风险时,应当立即采取补救措施,按照规定及时告知用户并向有关主管部门报告。

网络产品、服务的提供者应当为其产品、服务持续提供安全维护;在规定或者当事人约定的期限内,不得终止提供安全维护。

网络产品、服务具有收集用户信息功能的,其提供者应当向用户明示并取得同意;涉及用户个人信息的,还应当遵守本法和有关法律、行政法规关于个人信息保护的规定。

第二十三条  网络关键设备和网络安全专用产品应当按照相关国家标准的强制性要求,由具备资格的机构安全认证合格或者安全检测符合要求后,方可销售或者提供。国家网信部门会同国务院有关部门制定、公布网络关键设备和网络安全专用产品目录,并推动安全认证和安全检测结果互认,避免重复认证、检测。

第二十四条  网络运营者为用户办理网络接入、域名注册服务,办理固定电话、移动电话等入网手续,或者为用户提供信息发布、即时通讯等服务,在与用户签订协议或者确认提供服务时,应当要求用户提供真实身份信息。用户不提供真实身份信息的,网络运营者不得为其提供相关服务。

国家实施网络可信身份战略,支持研究开发安全、方便的电子身份认证技术,推动不同电子身份认证之间的互认。

第二十五条  网络运营者应当制定网络安全事件应急预案,及时处置系统漏洞、计算机病毒、网络攻击、网络侵入等安全风险;在发生危害网络安全的事件时,立即启动应急预案,采取相应的补救措施,并按照规定向有关主管部门报告。

第二十六条  开展网络安全认证、检测、风险评估等活动,向社会发布系统漏洞、计算机病毒、网络攻击、网络侵入等网络安全信息,应当遵守国家有关规定。

第二十七条  任何个人和组织不得从事非法侵入他人网络、干扰他人网络正常功能、窃取网络数据等危害网络安全的活动;不得提供专门用于从事侵入网络、干扰网络正常功能及防护措施、窃取网络数据等危害网络安全活动的程序、工具;明知他人从事危害网络安全的活动的,不得为其提供技术支持、广告推广、支付结算等帮助。

第二十八条  网络运营者应当为公安机关、国家安全机关依法维护国家安全和侦查犯罪的活动提供技术支持和协助。

第二十九条  国家支持网络运营者之间在网络安全信息收集、分析、通报和应急处置等方面进行合作,提高网络运营者的安全保障能力。

有关行业组织建立健全本行业的网络安全保护规范和协作机制,加强对网络安全风险的分析评估,定期向会员进行风险警示,支持、协助会员应对网络安全风险。

第三十条  网信部门和有关部门在履行网络安全保护职责中获取的信息,只能用于维护网络安全的需要,不得用于其他用途。

第二节 关键信息基础设施的运行安全

第三十一条  国家对公共通信和信息服务、能源、交通、水利、金融、公共服务、电子政务等重要行业和领域,以及其他一旦遭到破坏、丧失功能或者数据泄露,可能严重危害国家安全、国计民生、公共利益的关键信息基础设施,在网络安全等级保护制度的基础上,实行重点保护。关键信息基础设施的具体范围和安全保护办法由国务院制定。

国家鼓励关键信息基础设施以外的网络运营者自愿参与关键信息基础设施保护体系。

第三十二条  按照国务院规定的职责分工,负责关键信息基础设施安全保护工作的部门分别编制并组织实施本行业、本领域的关键信息基础设施安全规划,指导和监督关键信息基础设施运行安全保护工作。

第三十三条  建设关键信息基础设施应当确保其具有支持业务稳定、持续运行的性能,并保证安全技术措施同步规划、同步建设、同步使用。

第三十四条  除本法第二十一条的规定外,关键信息基础设施的运营者还应当履行下列安全保护义务:

(一)设置专门安全管理机构和安全管理负责人,并对该负责人和关键岗位的人员进行安全背景审查;

(二)定期对从业人员进行网络安全教育、技术培训和技能考核;

(三)对重要系统和数据库进行容灾备份;

(四)制定网络安全事件应急预案,并定期进行演练;

(五)法律、行政法规规定的其他义务。

第三十五条  关键信息基础设施的运营者采购网络产品和服务,可能影响国家安全的,应当通过国家网信部门会同国务院有关部门组织的国家安全审查。

第三十六条  关键信息基础设施的运营者采购网络产品和服务,应当按照规定与提供者签订安全保密协议,明确安全和保密义务与责任。

第三十七条  关键信息基础设施的运营者在中华人民共和国境内运营中收集和产生的个人信息和重要数据应当在境内存储。因业务需要,确需向境外提供的,应当按照国家网信部门会同国务院有关部门制定的办法进行安全评估;法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。

第三十八条  关键信息基础设施的运营者应当自行或者委托网络安全服务机构对其网络的安全性和可能存在的风险每年至少进行一次检测评估,并将检测评估情况和改进措施报送相关负责关键信息基础设施安全保护工作的部门。

第三十九条  国家网信部门应当统筹协调有关部门对关键信息基础设施的安全保护采取下列措施:

(一)对关键信息基础设施的安全风险进行抽查检测,提出改进措施,必要时可以委托网络安全服务机构对网络存在的安全风险进行检测评估;

(二)定期组织关键信息基础设施的运营者进行网络安全应急演练,提高应对网络安全事件的水平和协同配合能力;

(三)促进有关部门、关键信息基础设施的运营者以及有关研究机构、网络安全服务机构等之间的网络安全信息共享;

(四)对网络安全事件的应急处置与网络功能的恢复等,提供技术支持和协助。

第四章  网络信息安全

第四十条  网络运营者应当对其收集的用户信息严格保密,并建立健全用户信息保护制度。

第四十一条  网络运营者收集、使用个人信息,应当遵循合法、正当、必要的原则,公开收集、使用规则,明示收集、使用信息的目的、方式和范围,并经被收集者同意。

网络运营者不得收集与其提供的服务无关的个人信息,不得违反法律、行政法规的规定和双方的约定收集、使用个人信息,并应当依照法律、行政法规的规定和与用户的约定,处理其保存的个人信息。

第四十二条  网络运营者不得泄露、篡改、毁损其收集的个人信息;未经被收集者同意,不得向他人提供个人信息。但是,经过处理无法识别特定个人且不能复原的除外。

网络运营者应当采取技术措施和其他必要措施,确保其收集的个人信息安全,防止信息泄露、毁损、丢失。在发生或者可能发生个人信息泄露、毁损、丢失的情况时,应当立即采取补救措施,按照规定及时告知用户并向有关主管部门报告。

第四十三条  个人发现网络运营者违反法律、行政法规的规定或者双方的约定收集、使用其个人信息的,有权要求网络运营者删除其个人信息;发现网络运营者收集、存储的其个人信息有错误的,有权要求网络运营者予以更正。网络运营者应当采取措施予以删除或者更正。

第四十四条  任何个人和组织不得窃取或者以其他非法方式获取个人信息,不得非法出售或者非法向他人提供个人信息。

第四十五条  依法负有网络安全监督管理职责的部门及其工作人员,必须对在履行职责中知悉的个人信息、隐私和商业秘密严格保密,不得泄露、出售或者非法向他人提供。

第四十六条  任何个人和组织应当对其使用网络的行为负责,不得设立用于实施诈骗,传授犯罪方法,制作或者销售违禁物品、管制物品等违法犯罪活动的网站、通讯群组,不得利用网络发布涉及实施诈骗,制作或者销售违禁物品、管制物品以及其他违法犯罪活动的信息。

第四十七条  网络运营者应当加强对其用户发布的信息的管理,发现法律、行政法规禁止发布或者传输的信息的,应当立即停止传输该信息,采取消除等处置措施,防止信息扩散,保存有关记录,并向有关主管部门报告。

第四十八条  任何个人和组织发送的电子信息、提供的应用软件,不得设置恶意程序,不得含有法律、行政法规禁止发布或者传输的信息。

电子信息发送服务提供者和应用软件下载服务提供者,应当履行安全管理义务,知道其用户有前款规定行为的,应当停止提供服务,采取消除等处置措施,保存有关记录,并向有关主管部门报告。

第四十九条  网络运营者应当建立网络信息安全投诉、举报制度,公布投诉、举报方式等信息,及时受理并处理有关网络信息安全的投诉和举报。

网络运营者对网信部门和有关部门依法实施的监督检查,应当予以配合。

第五十条  国家网信部门和有关部门依法履行网络信息安全监督管理职责,发现法律、行政法规禁止发布或者传输的信息的,应当要求网络运营者停止传输,采取消除等处置措施,保存有关记录;对来源于中华人民共和国境外的上述信息,应当通知有关机构采取技术措施和其他必要措施阻断传播。

第五章  监测预警与应急处置

第五十一条  国家建立网络安全监测预警和信息通报制度。国家网信部门应当统筹协调有关部门加强网络安全信息收集、分析和通报工作,按照规定统一发布网络安全监测预警信息。

第五十二条  负责关键信息基础设施安全保护工作的部门,应当建立健全本行业、本领域的网络安全监测预警和信息通报制度,并按照规定报送网络安全监测预警信息。

第五十三条  国家网信部门协调有关部门建立健全网络安全风险评估和应急工作机制,制定网络安全事件应急预案,并定期组织演练。

负责关键信息基础设施安全保护工作的部门应当制定本行业、本领域的网络安全事件应急预案,并定期组织演练。

网络安全事件应急预案应当按照事件发生后的危害程度、影响范围等因素对网络安全事件进行分级,并规定相应的应急处置措施。

第五十四条  网络安全事件发生的风险增大时,省级以上人民政府有关部门应当按照规定的权限和程序,并根据网络安全风险的特点和可能造成的危害,采取下列措施:

(一)要求有关部门、机构和人员及时收集、报告有关信息,加强对网络安全风险的监测;

(二)组织有关部门、机构和专业人员,对网络安全风险信息进行分析评估,预测事件发生的可能性、影响范围和危害程度;

(三)向社会发布网络安全风险预警,发布避免、减轻危害的措施。

第五十五条  发生网络安全事件,应当立即启动网络安全事件应急预案,对网络安全事件进行调查和评估,要求网络运营者采取技术措施和其他必要措施,消除安全隐患,防止危害扩大,并及时向社会发布与公众有关的警示信息。

第五十六条  省级以上人民政府有关部门在履行网络安全监督管理职责中,发现网络存在较大安全风险或者发生安全事件的,可以按照规定的权限和程序对该网络的运营者的法定代表人或者主要负责人进行约谈。网络运营者应当按照要求采取措施,进行整改,消除隐患。

第五十七条  因网络安全事件,发生突发事件或者生产安全事故的,应当依照《中华人民共和国突发事件应对法》、《中华人民共和国安全生产法》等有关法律、行政法规的规定处置。

第五十八条 因维护国家安全和社会公共秩序,处置重大突发社会安全事件的需要,经国务院决定或者批准,可以在特定区域对网络通信采取限制等临时措施。

第六章  法律责任

第五十九条  网络运营者不履行本法第二十一条、第二十五条规定的网络安全保护义务的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告;拒不改正或者导致危害网络安全等后果的,处一万元以上十万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员处五千元以上五万元以下罚款。

关键信息基础设施的运营者不履行本法第三十三条、第三十四条、第三十六条、第三十八条规定的网络安全保护义务的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告;拒不改正或者导致危害网络安全等后果的,处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

第六十条  违反本法第二十二条第一款、第二款和第四十八条第一款规定,有下列行为之一的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告;拒不改正或者导致危害网络安全等后果的,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款:

(一)设置恶意程序的;

(二)对其产品、服务存在的安全缺陷、漏洞等风险未立即采取补救措施,或者未按照规定及时告知用户并向有关主管部门报告的;

(三)擅自终止为其产品、服务提供安全维护的。

第六十一条  网络运营者违反本法第二十四条第一款规定,未要求用户提供真实身份信息,或者对不提供真实身份信息的用户提供相关服务的,由有关主管部门责令改正;拒不改正或者情节严重的,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款,并可以由有关主管部门责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、关闭网站、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

第六十二条  违反本法第二十六条规定,开展网络安全认证、检测、风险评估等活动,或者向社会发布系统漏洞、计算机病毒、网络攻击、网络侵入等网络安全信息的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告;拒不改正或者情节严重的,处一万元以上十万元以下罚款,并可以由有关主管部门责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、关闭网站、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处五千元以上五万元以下罚款。

第六十三条  违反本法第二十七条规定,从事危害网络安全的活动,或者提供专门用于从事危害网络安全活动的程序、工具,或者为他人从事危害网络安全的活动提供技术支持、广告推广、支付结算等帮助,尚不构成犯罪的,由公安机关没收违法所得,处五日以下拘留,可以并处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款;情节较重的,处五日以上十五日以下拘留,可以并处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款。

单位有前款行为的,由公安机关没收违法所得,处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,并对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依照前款规定处罚。

违反本法第二十七条规定,受到治安管理处罚的人员,五年内不得从事网络安全管理和网络运营关键岗位的工作;受到刑事处罚的人员,终身不得从事网络安全管理和网络运营关键岗位的工作。

第六十四条  网络运营者、网络产品或者服务的提供者违反本法第二十二条第三款、第四十一条至第四十三条规定,侵害个人信息依法得到保护的权利的,由有关主管部门责令改正,可以根据情节单处或者并处警告、没收违法所得、处违法所得一倍以上十倍以下罚款,没有违法所得的,处一百万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款;情节严重的,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、关闭网站、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照。

违反本法第四十四条规定,窃取或者以其他非法方式获取、非法出售或者非法向他人提供个人信息,尚不构成犯罪的,由公安机关没收违法所得,并处违法所得一倍以上十倍以下罚款,没有违法所得的,处一百万元以下罚款。

第六十五条  关键信息基础设施的运营者违反本法第三十五条规定,使用未经安全审查或者安全审查未通过的网络产品或者服务的,由有关主管部门责令停止使用,处采购金额一倍以上十倍以下罚款;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

第六十六条  关键信息基础设施的运营者违反本法第三十七条规定,在境外存储网络数据,或者向境外提供网络数据的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告,没收违法所得,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、关闭网站、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

第六十七条  违反本法第四十六条规定,设立用于实施违法犯罪活动的网站、通讯群组,或者利用网络发布涉及实施违法犯罪活动的信息,尚不构成犯罪的,由公安机关处五日以下拘留,可以并处一万元以上十万元以下罚款;情节较重的,处五日以上十五日以下拘留,可以并处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款。关闭用于实施违法犯罪活动的网站、通讯群组。

单位有前款行为的,由公安机关处十万元以上五十万元以下罚款,并对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依照前款规定处罚。

第六十八条  网络运营者违反本法第四十七条规定,对法律、行政法规禁止发布或者传输的信息未停止传输、采取消除等处置措施、保存有关记录的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告,没收违法所得;拒不改正或者情节严重的,处十万元以上五十万元以下罚款,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、关闭网站、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

电子信息发送服务提供者、应用软件下载服务提供者,不履行本法第四十八条第二款规定的安全管理义务的,依照前款规定处罚。

第六十九条  网络运营者违反本法规定,有下列行为之一的,由有关主管部门责令改正;拒不改正或者情节严重的,处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,处一万元以上十万元以下罚款:

(一)不按照有关部门的要求对法律、行政法规禁止发布或者传输的信息,采取停止传输、消除等处置措施的;

(二)拒绝、阻碍有关部门依法实施的监督检查的;

(三)拒不向公安机关、国家安全机关提供技术支持和协助的。

第七十条  发布或者传输本法第十二条第二款和其他法律、行政法规禁止发布或者传输的信息的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定处罚。

第七十一条  有本法规定的违法行为的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定记入信用档案,并予以公示。

第七十二条  国家机关政务网络的运营者不履行本法规定的网络安全保护义务的,由其上级机关或者有关机关责令改正;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。

第七十三条  网信部门和有关部门违反本法第三十条规定,将在履行网络安全保护职责中获取的信息用于其他用途的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。

网信部门和有关部门的工作人员玩忽职守、滥用职权、徇私舞弊,尚不构成犯罪的,依法给予处分。

第七十四条  违反本法规定,给他人造成损害的,依法承担民事责任。

违反本法规定,构成违反治安管理行为的,依法给予治安管理处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第七十五条  境外的机构、组织、个人从事攻击、侵入、干扰、破坏等危害中华人民共和国的关键信息基础设施的活动,造成严重后果的,依法追究法律责任;国务院公安部门和有关部门并可以决定对该机构、组织、个人采取冻结财产或者其他必要的制裁措施。

第七章  附    则

第七十六条  本法下列用语的含义:

(一)网络,是指由计算机或者其他信息终端及相关设备组成的按照一定的规则和程序对信息进行收集、存储、传输、交换、处理的系统。

(二)网络安全,是指通过采取必要措施,防范对网络的攻击、侵入、干扰、破坏和非法使用以及意外事故,使网络处于稳定可靠运行的状态,以及保障网络数据的完整性、保密性、可用性的能力。

(三)网络运营者,是指网络的所有者、管理者和网络服务提供者。

(四)网络数据,是指通过网络收集、存储、传输、处理和产生的各种电子数据。

(五)个人信息,是指以电子或者其他方式记录的能够单独或者与其他信息结合识别自然人个人身份的各种信息,包括但不限于自然人的姓名、出生日期、身份证件号码、个人生物识别信息、住址、电话号码等。

第七十七条  存储、处理涉及国家秘密信息的网络的运行安全保护,除应当遵守本法外,还应当遵守保密法律、行政法规的规定。

第七十八条  军事网络的安全保护,由中央军事委员会另行规定。

第七十九条  本法自2017年6月1日起施行。

Communist Party of China referring URL:

http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/2016-11/07/content_2001605.htm