Tag Archives: 中國軍事三十六”網絡戰

Anxious US Military Worried about China’s Information Warfare // 焦急美國軍方擔心中國信息戰

Anxious US Military Worried about China’s Information Warfare // 焦急美國軍方擔心中國信息戰

In the past few years, the Chinese military and folk experts have set off a wave of research information warfare. After reading their works, it is not difficult to find that China’s information warfare theory research has several obvious characteristics: First, China is eager to develop its own information warfare theory, which is related to its judgment on its own security threats; secondly, China’s information War theory is deeply influenced by its traditional military command art. Both the ancient “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” and “Thirty-six”, or Mao Zedong’s people’s war thoughts have deeply imprinted in the information warfare theory; third, China’s cognition and classification of information warfare is obviously different. In the United States, the originator of information warfare, the United States, although similar to Russia’s information warfare theory, is only similar and God is not.

Wei Wei Zhao

The advent of the information age has prompted people to rethink the way war is carried out. China is aware that its conventional armed forces are far less powerful than superpowers. In the near future, neither conventional forces nor nuclear weapons can pose a powerful deterrent to the United States. However, the ambitious Eastern Dragon believes that with the advent of the information age, there will be new changes in the form of war, military structure, methods of warfare and command means, and information will replace people in the future battlefield. As long as the focus of strategic research is placed on the warfare of information warfare and grasping the trend of the times, it is not difficult to shorten the distance and further gain a leading position.

In ancient China, there was a military book called “Thirty-six Meters”. One of them, “Wei Wei Zhao”, pointed out that if the enemy’s positive power is too strong, it should be avoided and it should be weak. The Chinese are used for the present, applying this strategy to the current struggle between countries – if you can’t launch a direct attack (nuclear strike), then fight information warfare, weak financial, electricity, etc.

The network system starts. Although conventional armed forces cannot compete with the United States, China’s information warfare forces theoretically threaten the political and economic security of the United States. Americans cannot afford the instant of the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ stock exchange. collapse. The global accessibility of information warfare and the spread of light speed are characteristics that nuclear war does not have. What Chinese want is to defeat opponents with the speed, accuracy and continuity of information warfare.

The power of information warfare can make up for the shortcomings of conventional armed forces. The establishment of various battlefield information networks can not only improve the management level of traditional warfare, enhance the overall combat effectiveness of the troops, but also compensate for the shortage of conventional forces to a certain extent. In the eyes of the Chinese, the information warfare seems to be more powerful, and it is the force multiplier of the conventional armed forces.

Information war think tank

In 1996, Shen Weiguang, the earliest expert on information warfare in China, defined the information warfare as: “The warring parties fight for the battlefield initiative by controlling information and intelligence resources.” and the United States “protecting the friendly information system and attacking enemy information.” Compared with the definition of “system”, Shen Weiguang emphasizes “controlling” the enemy.

In 1998, the Chinese military information warfare authority Wang saves the classification of information warfare: divided into normal time, crisis time, war time according to time; divided into attack and defense according to nature; divided into country, strategy, theater, tactic according to level According to the scale, it is divided into battlefield, theater, and local war. The characteristics of information warfare include command and control warfare, intelligence warfare, electronic warfare, psychological warfare, space control warfare, hacker warfare, virtual warfare, and economic warfare. In principle, information warfare measures such as cutting off, blinding, transparent, rapid, and improving viability. General Wang’s understanding of information warfare is closer to that of the West, and he focuses on the confrontation of advanced technology.

In 1999, Chinese experts launched a big discussion on information warfare. At this time, Shen Weiguang expanded the scope of information warfare. He believes that “information warfare, broadly refers to the war against the information space and the competition for information resources in the military (including political, economic, scientific, and social fields), narrowly refers to war. The confrontation between the two parties in the field of information. It is one of the essential characteristics of modern warfare. The essence of information warfare is to achieve the ‘no war and defeat the soldiers’ by capturing the right to control the system.”

Major military expert Wang Pufeng, who is another information warfare expert in the military, has a deep understanding of information warfare. In 2000, he distinguished information warfare from information warfare. According to his explanation, information warfare refers to a form of warfare, which contains information warfare, and information warfare refers to a kind of warfare activity. He believes that “information warfare includes all combat activities, including a series of intrusion activities and computer virus attacks on enemy information and information systems, such as information theft, tampering, deletion, deception, disruption, blocking, interference, and shackles. The network is not working properly.” He advocates that China’s information warfare theory should have its own characteristics while drawing on foreign advanced combat thinking.

“Mao Network People’s War”

China’s perception of information warfare is very traditional. Many military theorists believe that the information age has given new meaning to Mao Zedong’s people’s war thoughts. Therefore, he advocates relying on and mobilizing the masses of the people to conduct online wars. It is conceivable that no matter which of the same family, playing online with 1.3 billion people is daunting.

The most important feature of the Mao Zedong-style cyber war theory is that it breaks the boundary between the military and the people. The traditional dividing line between military and civilian facilities, military technology and civil technology has been blurred. The sharing of information technology in military and civilian use has created conditions for the widespread use of civilian technology for military purposes. For example, private electronic information equipment can be used for intelligence interception and transmission. Civil communication networks can be used for war mobilization; private computers can be used for network attack and defense. Second, the difference between military and non-military personnel is gradually disappearing. With the development of network technology and the expansion of application fields, a large number of network technology talents stand out. These network elites with special abilities will become gladiators in the future network people’s war. At the same time, information networks such as communications, transportation, and financial systems and international networking have provided the necessary conditions for China to carry out the people’s war.

Today, the idea of ​​the people’s war has been established as the fundamental guiding principle of China’s network information warfare. A Chinese military author wrote: “The strategic and tactical principles of flexible maneuvering are still the soul of network information warfare. The broad masses of the people actively participate in the war, especially the technical support and online warfare, which is the mass base and strength to win the victory of the network information war. Source.”

The power of the Internet People’s War is so terrible. Perhaps we can understand why the Chinese are willing to reduce the size of their armed forces. Imagine that once the war breaks out, China can launch a large number of people to participate in the war, information engineers and civilians will be organized through the home. When computers attack the US network information system, why should we maintain a large-scale combat force?

Information war drill

In the past few years, China has conducted several major information warfare military exercises to test the information warfare theory. The first “special warfare” (information warfare) drill was conducted in October 1997. A group army in a military region was attacked by a virus designed to smash its system. The group used military anti-virus software to defend it. The drill was called “invasion and anti-invasion drills.” Ground logistics, medical and air force units were also used during the exercise.

In October 1998, China held a high-tech comprehensive exercise jointly conducted by the three major military regions. For the first time in the joint defense operations exercise, the “military information highway” was used. The information network system in the command automation system consists of digital, dialing, command network and secret channel. The other parts of the command automation system are subsystems for command operations, audio and graphics processing, control, and data encryption.

In October 1999, the PLA conducted the first battle-level computer online confrontation exercise between two group armies. Reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, interference and anti-interference, blockade and anti-blockade, air strikes and anti-air strikes. In the software environment, six types of operations such as resource sharing, operational command, situation display, auxiliary evaluation, signal transmission and intelligence warfare were carried out. The computer evaluation system performs data and quality analysis on the performance of both sides of the exercise.

In July 2000, a military region also conducted an online confrontation drill. The three training tasks related to this exercise are: organizing and planning campaigns, seizing air and information rights, implementing breakthroughs and counter-breakthroughs. More than 100 terminals were connected to the walkthrough.

Militia detachment

China’s people’s war has a complete system. Its overall development direction is “the combination of a capable standing army and a strong reserve force.” This national defense system is conducive to giving full play to the overall effectiveness of the people’s war and the advantages of “network tactics.”

China’s 1.5 million reserve forces are very keen on playing the online people’s war. In some areas, the PLA has compiled reserve forces into small information warfare units. For example, in Yichang City, Hubei Province, the military division organized 20 municipal departments (electricity, finance, television, medical, etc.) technical personnel to set up a reserve information warfare. The department has a network battle camp, an electronic war camp, an intelligence psychological war camp and 35 technical teams. The Ministry also established the first reserve information warfare training base in China that can accommodate 500 people.

Yichang is not the only area where the reserve and militia are trained in information warfare. In December 1999, a reserve and militia meeting was held in Xiamen, Fujian. In the subsequent exercises, the militia detachment with high-tech equipment carried out electronic countermeasures, cyber attacks and protection, and radar reconnaissance performances. The goal of the imaginary attack is an island that is surrounded, so it is easy for outsiders to think of Taiwan. Xiamen is a special economic zone that brings together a large number of high-tech talents, so it has the superior conditions for implementing information warfare.

In an exercise held by the Jinan Military Region, the Xi’an People’s Armed Forces Information Warfare Division played the blue party responsible for the attack. They developed 10 information warfare measures, including information mines, information reconnaissance, alteration of network information, release of information bombs, and dumping. Web spam, distribution of network flyers, information spoofing, dissemination of false information, organization of information defense, establishment of cyber espionage stations. It can be seen from these network information warfare methods that their research on network information warfare has been quite specific and in-depth.

Chinese military experts also suggest that militia organizations at all levels should set up network technology professional detachments. In order to facilitate command and coordination, the militia network technology professional detachment should implement grouping and vertical management in the province or region. The reserve forces participate in the “network attack and defense” and “network technology guarantee” in the future war, and their actions must be implemented and unified by the military organization.


The Chinese People’s Liberation Army has developed its own set of information warfare education methods. The steps are: first, teach the basic knowledge of network information warfare; secondly, improve the information warfare knowledge level by telling the advanced military thoughts of foreign troops; then improve the information warfare use skills, especially Electronic technology, psychological warfare techniques, and information offensive and defensive techniques; finally, through exercises, knowledge is translated into practical operational capabilities. In China, it is mainly the responsibility of the PLA Academy to train high-tech talents in information warfare:

The People’s Liberation Army Communication Command College is located in Wuhan. In 1998, the Institute published two books, Information Command and Control Science and Information Warfare Technology. These two books are the most important textbooks for information warfare education in China. The college enjoys a high reputation for its excellent information warfare tutorials, which analyze information warfare requirements at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.

The People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering University, located in Zhengzhou, was formed by the merger of the former People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering College, Electronic Technology College and Surveying and Mapping College. The school’s current main research areas are information security, modern communication technology and space technology, and exploration in some cutting-edge disciplines, such as remote sensing information technology, satellite navigation and positioning technology, geographic information database technology.

The PLA University of Science and Technology, located in Nanjing, was formed by the merger of the former People’s Liberation Army Communication Engineering College, the Engineering Corps Engineering College, the Air Force Meteorological College and the General Staff No. 63 Research Institute. The school specializes in training military personnel in information warfare, command automation and other new disciplines. Nearly 400 experts and professors are engaged in information warfare theory and technology research at the university.

The National Defense Science and Technology University of the People’s Liberation Army is located in Changsha. The school is directly affiliated to the Central Military Commission. Has developed the famous “Galaxy” series supercomputer. During the Kosovo War between April and June 1999, nearly 60 senior officers gathered here to study high-tech wars.

The Naval Engineering University of the People’s Liberation Army, located in Wuhan, is the only institution in the Navy that studies information warfare. The purpose of the school’s research information warfare is to apply information technology to naval equipment so that the Chinese navy can adapt to information warfare.

in conclusion

What conclusions can we draw from China’s information warfare research? What lessons can the US military get from it?

First, Chinese military theorists have found a cheap and effective method of information warfare that gives China a position equal to that of the West in terms of strategic military and international status, thus enabling China to play a more important strategic role in the Asian region.

Second, China’s emphasis on new information warfare forces is extraordinary. Therefore, it is possible to develop various forms of information warfare forces, such as: network forces (independent units), “network warriors” raid units, information protection units, information units, electronic police and joint network people’s war organizations. Interestingly, in terms of current capabilities, Western countries, not China, have the ability to put these ideas into practice.

Third, China’s information warfare theory reflects the combination of Western and Chinese thoughts, and the influence of the former is getting weaker. Due to some common sources of military command art (Marxist dialectical thinking), China’s information warfare is more similar to Russia. However, by its very nature, China’s information warfare theory is different from Russia and the West. China’s information warfare theory emphasizes control, computerized warfare, cyber warfare, knowledge warfare, and information rights.

Fourth, in the field of information warfare, China has crossed several stages of technological development, and using the technology of the Quartet has not only saved time but also saved money. However, China does not fully emulate foreign countries, but adopts a creative information warfare strategy. But no matter what, China is a different information warfare force that is worthy of attention.

For the US military, studying China’s information warfare theory is not just to provide the military with several opinions. “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” said that “knowing that he knows, has won every battle.” From the perspective of foreign information warfare theory to analyze the information warfare capabilities of the United States, we can discover the fatal flaws of the US information warfare system.

As the Chinese say, the losers of information warfare are not necessarily technically backward, and those who lack the ability to direct art and strategy are most likely to be losers. It is time for the United States to reflect on its own information warfare and to study information warfare strategies and tactics. 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

























宜昌並不是組織預備役和民兵進行信息戰訓練的唯一地區。 1999年12月在福建廈門召開了預備役和民兵會議。在隨後進行的演習中,擁有高技術裝備的民兵分隊進行了電子對抗、網絡攻擊和防護、雷達偵察表演。山於假想攻擊的目標是一座被包圍的島嶼,因此很容易讓外人聯想到是針對台灣。廈門是經濟特區,匯集了大量高科技人才,因此有實施信息戰的優越條件。





解放軍通信指揮學院,位於武漢。 1998年,該院出版了兩部書籍,分別是《信息作戰指揮控制學》和《信息作戰技術學》,這兩部書籍是中國信息戰教育最重要的教材。該學院以其優良的信息戰教程設置而享有很高的聲譽,這些教程分析了戰略、戰役、戰術層次的信息作戰要求。



解放軍國防科技大學,位於長沙,該校直接隸屬於中央軍委。曾開發了著名的“銀河”系列超級計算機。 1999年4月到6月科索沃戰爭期間,近60名高級軍官匯集在此研究高科技戰爭。








對美軍而言,研究中國的信息戰理論絕非僅僅為了給軍方提供幾條意見。 《孫子兵法》稱“知彼知已,百戰百勝”。從外國信息戰理論的角度來分析美國的信息戰能力,才能發現美國信息戰系統的致命缺陷。


Original Referring url:

Chinese Military Intent to Defeat US Military Cyber Forces Using the “Thirty-Six” Strategy of Cyber Warfare //中國軍事意圖利用“三十六”網絡戰策略擊敗美國軍事網絡部隊

Chinese Military Intent to Defeat US Military Cyber Forces Using the “Thirty-Six” Strategy of Cyber Warfare //


■ cyberspace is easy to attack and defend, traditional passive defense is difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity attacks

■ Improve network security, the defense side can not rely solely on the technology game, but also need to win the counterattack on the concept

The new “Thirty-six” of network security

  ■Chen Sen



  News reason

  In the information age, cybersecurity has taken the lead in national security. The Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy emphasizes that it should actively adapt to the new changes in the national security situation, new trends in information technology development, and new requirements for strong military objectives, build an information security defense system, and comprehensively improve the ability to win localized information warfare. Cyberspace has become a new field that affects national security, social stability, economic development and cultural communication. Cyberspace security has become an important topic of increasing concern to the international community.

  The United States has clearly declared that cyberspace is a new field of operations, and has significantly expanded its network command and combat forces to continue to focus on cyberspace weapons development. Since entering the summer, the US military network exercises have been one after another, and the invisible wars are filled with smoke. At the beginning of March, “Network Storm 5” took the lead in kicking off the drill; in April, “Network Aegis 2016” completed the fifth-generation upgrade; in June, “Network Defense” and “Network Capture” as the core re-installation of the annual joint exercise Debut.

  The essence of network security lies in the ability to attack and defend both ends. Currently, static, isolated, passive defenses such as firewalls, intrusion detection technologies, and anti-virus software are difficult to effectively deal with organized high-intensity network attacks. To build a cyberspace security defense line, we need to get rid of the idea of ​​falling behind and win the counterattack on the defensive concept.

New “Thirty-six” mobile target defense

Increase the difficulty of attack by building a dynamic network

  Network attacks require a certain amount of time to scan and research the target network, detect and utilize system “vulnerabilities” to achieve intrusion control purposes. In theory, the attacker has unlimited time to start the scanning and detecting work, and always find the weak point of defense, and finally achieve the purpose of the invasion. To this end, the network pioneer USA is committed to planning and deploying security defense transformation work, striving to break through the traditional defense concept and develop revolutionary technology that can “change the rules of the game”. Mobile target defense is one of them.

  Mobile target defense is called the new paradigm of cyberspace security defense. The technical strategy is to construct a dynamic network through the processing and control of the protection target itself, increasing randomness and reducing predictability to improve the difficulty of attack. If the static cyberspace is likened to a constant “city defense deployment”, it is difficult to stick to it; and the dynamic network configuration can be called the ever-changing “eight squad”, which is difficult to crack. At present, mobile target defense technology has priority in various US government and military research, covering dynamic platform technology, dynamic operating environment technology, dynamic software and data technology. In August 2012, the US Army awarded Raytheon’s “Deformation Network Facility” project to study the dynamic adjustment and configuration of networks, hosts and applications in case the enemy could not detect and predict, thus preventing, delaying or blocking the network. attack.

  As a new idea in the field of cyberspace security, mobile target defense reflects the technological development trend of future network defenses to turn “dead” networks into “live” networks.

The new “Thirty-six” honey cans deceive defense

Reduce cyberattack threats by consuming attacker resources

  Conventional network security protection is mainly to defend against cyber attacks from the front. Although the defensive measures have made great progress, they have not changed the basic situation of cyberspace “easy to attack and defend”. In recent years, the development of “Honeypot Deception Defense” has proposed a new concept of “bypass guidance”, which is to reduce the threat of cyber attacks to the real protection target by absorbing network intrusion and consuming the resources of attackers, thereby winning time. Strengthen protection measures to make up for the shortcomings of the traditional cyberspace defense system.

  Similar to the intentional setting of false positions on the battlefield, honeypot deception defense is to actively use the computer network with lower security defense level to lure all kinds of network attacks, monitor its attack means and attributes, and set corresponding defenses on the target system that needs to be protected. System to stop similar attacks. Honeypots can be divided into two types, product-type honeypots and research-type honeypots. The main purpose of the former is to “attract firepower” and reduce the pressure of defense. The latter is designed for research and acquisition of attack information. It is an intelligence gathering system that not only needs network attack resistance but also strives to monitor powerfully to capture the attack behavior data to the maximum extent.

  In addition to the establishment of a virtual network environment attack and defense laboratory consisting of four sub-networks of gray, yellow, black and green, the US military has also carefully deployed a honeypot decoy system on the Internet. What is certain is that the network defense idea based on deception will be further emphasized, and the technical means to achieve deception will be more and more.

New “Thirty-six Meters” linkage synergy defense

Integrate multiple defense technologies to “reject enemy from outside the country”

  At present, most of the security protection devices and defense technologies are “individually fighting”. The data between network protection nodes is difficult to share, and the protection technologies are not related. As a result, the current defense system is isolated and static, which cannot meet the increasingly complex network security situation. need. The original motivation of the US “Einstein Plan” was that all federal agencies had exclusive access to the Internet, making overall security difficult to guarantee. Through the collaborative linkage mechanism, the relatively independent security protection devices and technologies in the network are organically combined to complement each other and cooperate with each other to defend against various attacks. It has become an inevitable choice for the future development of cyberspace security defense.

  Collaborative collaborative defense refers to the use of existing security technologies, measures and equipment to organically organize multiple security systems that are separated in time, spatially distributed, and work and interdependent, so that the entire security system can maximize its effectiveness. Vertically, it is the coordinated defense of multiple security technologies, that is, one security technology directly includes or links to another security technology through some communication method. For example, the “deep defense” mechanism adopted by the US Navy network defense system targets the core deployment layer protection measures, including flag-based attack detection, WAN security audit, vulnerability alert, etc., and the attacker must break through multiple defense layers to enter the system. Thereby reducing its attack success rate. When a node in the system is threatened, it can forward the threat information to other nodes in time and take corresponding protective measures to adjust and deploy the protection strategy.

  In the past, individual combat operations have been unable to meet the needs of today’s network security defenses, and coordinated collaborative defense will leap into the mainstream of network security. Integrate a variety of defense technologies, establish an organized defense system, and “reject the enemy outside the country” to effectively prevent problems before they occur.

The optimal strategy defense of the new “Thirty-six”

Seeking a balance between cybersecurity risks and investments

  The attacks in cyberspace are more and more complicated. The ideal network security protection is to protect all the weak or attack behaviors. However, from the perspective of defense resources limitation, it is obviously unrealistic to pursue absolute security defense. Based on the concept of “moderate security”, the optimal strategy defense is on the horizon.

  Optimal policy defense can be understood as seeking a balance between cyber security risks and inputs, and using limited resources to make the most reasonable decision defense. As far as investment is concerned, even the strong United States is trying to build a collective defense system for cyberspace. The United States and Australia cyberspace defense alliance agreement, as well as the Japan-US network defense cooperation joint statement, its “share of results” behind the “cost sharing” shadow. From the perspective of risk, the pursuit of absolute security will adhere to the principle of safety supremacy. When formulating relevant strategic objectives and responding to threats, it is easy to ignore the limited and legitimacy of the resources and means available, and it is difficult to grasp the advance and retreat.

  The optimal strategy defense is mainly focused on the “optimal” strategy of game theory, focusing on the research direction of cyberspace security assessment, cost analysis, security defense model construction and evolution. Applying the idea of ​​game theory to cyber attacks and defenses provides a new way to solve the problem of optimal defense decision-making.

The new “Thirty-six” intrusion tolerance defense

Create a “last line of defense” for cyberspace security

  The threats to cyberspace are unpredictable, irresistible, and unpredictable. Protection can’t completely avoid system failure or even collapse. Traditional reliability theory and fault-tolerant computing technology are difficult to meet the actual needs, which has to consider more comprehensive and deeper problems than pure protection. In this context, a new generation of intrusion-tolerance defenses has received increasing attention.

  Intrusion tolerance is the third-generation network security technology, which belongs to the category of information survival technology and is called the “last line of defense” for cyberspace security defense. Unlike traditional cybersecurity defenses, intrusion-tolerant defenses recognize the existence of vulnerabilities and assume that some of them may be exploited by attackers to attack the system. When the target of protection is attacked or even some parts have been destroyed or manipulated, the target system can “kill the tail” like a gecko to complete the healing and regeneration of the target system.

  Intrusion-tolerance technology is no longer based on “defense”, but on how to reduce losses and recover as soon as the system has been damaged. However, intrusion tolerance is an emerging research field. Its cost, cost and benefit will be the next research direction.

Related Links–

Network attack and defense

“Shenzhen”: the pioneer of network physics warfare


  In August 2010, Iran built the Bushehr nuclear power plant with the help of Russia. However, the nuclear power plant, which was scheduled to be put into operation in October of that year, was postponed several times. A year later, according to media reports, it was caused by a computer network virus attack of unknown source. More than 30,000 computers were “in the middle”. Thousands of centrifuges in Natans were scrapped. The newly capped Bushehr nuclear power plant had to be taken out. Nuclear fuel was delayed and the Iranian nuclear development plan was forced to shelve. This virus, later named “Shenzhen”, pioneered the control and destruction of entities through the network.

“Flame”: the most powerful spy in history


  Network intelligence activities are the most active part of the cyberspace strategy game and security struggle. In 2012, a large amount of data from the Iranian oil sector was stolen and cleared, making it impossible for oil production and exports to function properly. In order to avoid continuing to create hazards, Iran was urgently disconnected from the network of the oil facilities on the Halk Island near the Gulf. After a large-scale investigation, a new virus emerged, which later appeared in the “flame” virus in Israel, Palestine and other Middle Eastern countries. The “Flame” virus combines the three characteristics of worms, backdoors and Trojans. It combines the interception of screen images, recording audio dialogues, intercepting keyboard input, and stealing Bluetooth devices. It has become a new type of electronic company that steals secret information from other countries. spy”.

“Shut”: System breaks


  In 2007, in order to kill the Syrian nuclear program in the bud, 18 F-16 fighters of the 69th Fighter Squadron of the Israeli Air Force quietly broke through the advanced Russian “Dor”-M1 air defense deployed by Syria on the Syrian-Israeli border. The system carried out precise bombing of a nuclear facility about 100 kilometers west of the Syrian-Israeli border and about 400 kilometers northeast of Damascus, and returned safely from the original road.

  According to the disclosure, the “Orchard Action” has made the US “Shuter” attack system shine. “Shut” invaded by remote radio, 瘫痪 radar, radio communication system, is the “behind the scenes” to make the Syrian air defense system in a state of failure. As a new type of network power attack system for networked weapon platforms and networked information systems, “Shut” represents the development trend of military technology and combat methods, and is bound to bring a new war landscape.

“Shadow Network”: Invisible Internet


  The complicated situation of ideological struggle caused by the Internet has created an alternative channel for information penetration and “colonization” of thought. In the “Jasmine Revolution” in North Africa and the “Arab Spring” in the Middle East, there are “shadow networks”.

  A ghost-like “shadow network” can bypass the traditionally regulated Internet, form an invisible and independent wireless local area network, realize mutual information communication, and access the Internet at any time as needed, and access the network resources “unrestricted”. The New York Times disclosed that the US State Department and the Pentagon have invested heavily in building an independent system in Afghanistan and using a launch tower located in the military camp to transmit signals to protect them from Taliban militants. Subsequently, an “invisible communication system” was established in Iran, Syria and Libya to help local anti-government organizations to communicate with each other or with the outside world.

“X Plan”: To control the network battlefield


  Foreign media revealed that the Pentagon is building a 22nd century war plan, the “X Plan.” The “X Plan” is dedicated to building an advanced global computer map. With this “network map” that can be continuously updated and updated, the US military can easily lock the target and make it embarrassing. “If this plan is completed, the US military will be able to control the network battlefield as it controls the traditional battlefield.”

  It is not difficult to foresee that after the deployment of the “X Plan”, it is definitely not just “get rid of the constraints of the keyboard”, but also enables situational awareness and cyber attacks on a global scale.

Original Mandarin Chinese




■陳 森


費雪 繪


信息時代,網絡安全對國家安全牽一發而動全身。 《國家信息化發展戰略綱要》強調,積極適應國家安全形勢新變化、信息技術發展新趨勢和強軍目標新要求,構建信息安全防禦體系,全面提高打贏信息化局部戰爭能力。網絡空間已經成為影響國家安全、社會穩定、經濟發展和文化傳播的全新領域,網絡空間安全隨之成為國際社會日益關注的重要議題。

美國明確宣稱網絡空間為新的作戰領域,大幅擴編網絡司令部和作戰部隊,持續聚力網絡空間武器研發。進入夏季以來,美軍網絡演習接二連三,隱形戰火硝煙瀰漫。 3月初,“網絡風暴5”率先拉開演練戰幕;4月,“網絡神盾2016”完成第五代升級;6月,“網絡防衛”“網絡奪旗”作為年度聯合演習的核心重裝登場。





移動目標防禦被稱為網絡空間安全防禦新範式,技術策略上通過對防護目標本身的處理和控制,致力於構建一種動態的網絡,增加隨機性、減少可預見性,以提高攻擊難度。若將靜態的網絡空間比喻為一成不變的“城防部署”,勢難固守;而動態的網絡配置堪稱變幻無窮的“八卦陣”,難以破解。目前,移動目標防禦技術在美國政府和軍方各類研究中均享有優先權,涵蓋動態平台技術、動態運行環境技術、動態軟件和數據技術等方面。 2012年8月,美陸軍授予雷神公司“變形網絡設施”項目,主要研究在敵方無法探測和預知的情況下,對網絡、主機和應用程序進行動態調整和配置,從而預防、遲滯或阻止網絡攻擊。


















打造網絡空間安全 “最後一道防線”











網絡情報活動,是網絡空間戰略博弈和安全斗爭最活躍的部分。 2012年,伊朗石油部門大量數據失竊並遭到清除,致使其無法正常進行石油生產和出口。為避免繼續製造危害,伊朗被迫切斷了海灣附近哈爾克島石油設施的網絡連接。大規模的調查後,一種新的病毒浮出水面,即後來又現身於以色列、巴勒斯坦等中東國家的“火焰”病毒。 “火焰”病毒兼具蠕蟲、後門和木馬三重特點,集截取屏幕畫面、記錄音頻對話、截獲鍵盤輸入、偷開藍牙設備等多種數據盜竊功能於一身,成為專門竊取他國機密情報的新型“電子間諜”。




據披露,讓“果園行動”大放異彩的是美軍“舒特”攻擊系統。 “舒特”通過遠程無線電入侵,癱瘓雷達、無線電通信系統,是使敘防空系統處於失效狀態的“幕後真兇”。作為針對組網武器平台及網絡化信息系統的新型網電攻擊系統,“舒特”代表著軍事技術和作戰方式的發展趨勢,勢必將帶來全新戰爭景觀。




像幽靈一樣的“影子網絡”可繞過傳統監管的互聯網,形成隱形和獨立的無線局域網,實現相互間信息溝通,一旦需要又可隨時接入國際互聯網,“不受限制”地訪問網絡資源。 《紐約時報》披露稱,美國國務院和五角大樓斥巨資在阿富汗建造了獨立的系統,並利用設在軍營內的發射塔傳遞信號,以免遭塔利班武裝分子破壞。隨後在伊朗、敘利亞和利比亞設立“隱形通訊系統”,幫助當地反政府組織相互聯繫或與外界溝通。



外媒披露,五角大樓正在打造一項22世紀的戰爭計劃,即“X計劃”。 “X計劃”致力於建立先進的全球計算機分佈圖,有了這張能夠不斷升級更新的“網絡地圖”,美軍就可以輕易鎖定目標令其癱瘓。 “如果完成了這個計劃,美軍將能夠像控制傳統戰場那樣控製網絡戰場。”


Original Referring URL: http://www.chinanews.com/mil/2016/08-11/