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Communist Chinese Cyber Fundamentals : Strategic Thinking of Network Power //共產主義中國網絡基礎:網絡權力的戰略思考

Communist Chinese Fundamentals : Strategic Thinking of Network Power //

共產主義基本原理:網絡權力的戰略思考

Author: 中國共產黨

Date: 2017

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping has attached great importance to and vigorously promoted cybersecurity and informationization, profoundly grasped the characteristics of the development of the information age of human society, and objectively analyzed the current national conditions of China’s Internet development and the development of global Internet. The situation has successively issued a series of important speeches, and put forward a series of new ideas, new ideas and new theories on the governance of the Internet, and scientifically answered the major question of “why build a network power, build a network power and how to build a network power”. Formed Xi Jinping’s strategic thinking of network power. Seriously studying these new ideas is of great significance to promoting the building of a network-building nation and realizing the “two hundred years” struggle goal and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

First, why build a network power

On February 27, 2014, General Secretary Xi Jinping initially proposed the vision of building a network power in the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, and systematically explained the background, situation, tasks and connotations of the network power. Requirements, thus making this idea a relatively complete, systematic theoretical system.

Xi Jinping put forward a rigorous logical relationship between the strategic thinking of the network power, starting from the foundation of the big power network, in view of the overall situation of the network business and the new situation changes, especially objectively analyzing the existing gap and strengthening the strategy of building a network power. aims. In his speech, Xi Jinping pointed out that in today’s world, the information technology revolution is changing with each passing day, which has had a profound impact on the development of international politics, economy, culture, society and military. Informatization and economic globalization have promoted each other, and the Internet has been integrated into all aspects of social life, profoundly changing people’s production and lifestyle. China is in the midst of this tide and is getting more and more affected. China’s Internet and informatization work has achieved remarkable development achievements. The network has entered thousands of households, and the number of Internet users is the highest in the world. China has become a big network country. This is our basic premise. He pointed out that the Internet is a big platform for social information. The hundreds of millions of Internet users have access to information and exchange information. This will have an important impact on their ways of seeking knowledge, ways of thinking, and values. In particular, they will be against the country, society, and Work and perceptions of life have an important impact. Xi Jinping emphasized that cybersecurity and informatization are all about the whole world of a country. We must recognize the situation and tasks we are facing, fully understand the importance and urgency of doing a good job, and seek for the situation. Take the trend and follow the trend. This is all about the whole. Xi Jinping pointed out that with the development of the Internet, especially the mobile Internet, the social governance model is shifting from one-way management to two-way interaction, from offline to online and offline integration, from simple government supervision to more emphasis on social coordinated governance. This is a change in the situation. In today’s world, information technology is developing very fast. If you don’t advance, you will retreat. Compared with the world’s advanced level, compared with the strategic goal of building a network power, we still have a lot of gaps in many aspects, especially in terms of Internet innovation capability, infrastructure construction, information resource sharing, and industrial strength. The biggest gap is in core technology.

Second, what kind of network power to build

Xi Jinping pointed out that without cyber security, there would be no national security, and without informationization, there would be no modernization. To build a network power, we must have our own technology and have strong technology; we must have rich and comprehensive information services, a prosperous and developing network culture; we must have a good information infrastructure to form a strong information economy; we must have a high-quality network. Security and information technology talent team; we must actively carry out bilateral and multilateral Internet international exchanges and cooperation. He also stressed that cyberspace is the spiritual home of hundreds of millions of people. The cyberspace is clear and ecological, and is in line with the interests of the people. The cyberspace is smouldering and deteriorating, and it is not in the interests of the people.

In a nutshell, there are at least six major signs of network power: First, the network information infrastructure must be at the world’s leading level. The second is to have a clear cyberspace strategy and a network voice in the international community. Third, the key technologies must be self-controllable, especially the operating system and CPU technology. Fourth, network security must have sufficient safeguards and capabilities. Fifth, network applications should be at the world’s leading level in terms of scale and quality. Sixth, in the cyberspace strategy, we must have the ability and strength to occupy the commanding heights.

The Outline of the National Informatization Strategy proposes that the construction of a network powerhouse is divided into three steps: the first step is to 2020, the total amount of information consumption will reach 6 trillion yuan, and the scale of e-commerce transactions will reach 38 trillion yuan. At the international advanced level, the international competitiveness of the information industry has been greatly enhanced, and information technology has become the leading force driving the modernization drive. The second step is to 20 billion yuan in information consumption by 2025, and the scale of e-commerce transactions has reached 67 trillion yuan. The leading mobile communication network fundamentally changes the core key technologies to be controlled by people, realizes the strategic goals of advanced technology, developed industry, advanced application, and insecure network security. A large number of large-scale multinational network enterprises with strong international competitiveness emerge; By the middle of this century, informationization has comprehensively supported the building of a socialist modernized country with rich, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious relations. The status of a network powerhouse has been increasingly consolidated, and it has made greater achievements in leading the development of global informationization.

Xi Jinping planned the timetable for building a network powerhouse. The strategic deployment of building a network powerhouse should be promoted in parallel with the goal of “two hundred years”, the basic popularization of network infrastructure, the enhancement of independent innovation capability, the comprehensive development of information economy, and network security. Ensuring strong goals continue to advance.

Third, how to build a network power

(1) Fundamental requirements: People-centered

Governing the country is always the same, and the people are oriented. Xi Jinping emphasized that in order to develop the network business, it is necessary to implement the people-centered development thinking. It is necessary to adapt to people’s expectations and needs, accelerate the popularization of information services, reduce application costs, and provide useful, affordable and well-used information services for the people, so that hundreds of millions of people can gain more sense of sharing Internet development results. . Compared with cities, rural Internet infrastructure construction is our shortcoming. It is necessary to increase investment, speed up the pace of rural Internet construction, and expand the effective coverage of fiber-optic networks and broadband networks in rural areas. We can do a good job in the in-depth integration of informatization and industrialization, develop smart manufacturing, and drive more people to innovate and start a business; we can aim at the main direction of agricultural modernization, improve the level of agricultural production intelligence and network management, and help farmers increase their income; Give full play to the advantages of the Internet, implement “Internet + education”, “Internet + medical”, “Internet + culture”, etc., to promote the equalization of basic public services; can play the role of the Internet in helping to overcome poverty and promote accurate poverty alleviation and precision poverty alleviation, Let more difficult people use the Internet, let agricultural products go out of the country through the Internet, and enable children in the ravine to receive quality education; accelerate the promotion of e-government, encourage government departments at all levels to break down information barriers, improve service efficiency, and let the people run less errands. More information, running, solving problems that are difficult to handle, slow, and complicated. There are many things to do in these areas. Some Internet companies have already tried and achieved good economic and social benefits.

On November 29, 2016, the National Network Poverty Alleviation Work Promotion Meeting was held in Ningdu, Jiangxi. “We must implement the network poverty alleviation action, promote accurate poverty alleviation, and accurately eliminate poverty, so that poverty alleviation work can be accessible anytime and anywhere, so that people in poverty-stricken areas have more sense of gaining in the Internet construction and sharing.” General Secretary Xi is an important indicator in the old Red Revolution. Once again, the network’s poverty alleviation has become a new lever to win the overall well-off.

(II) Concept requirements: Practicing the five development concepts

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee put forward a new development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing. This is based on profoundly summarizing domestic and foreign development experience and lessons, and in-depth analysis of domestic and international development trends. Our party has a new understanding of China’s economic and social development laws. Promoting China’s economic and social development in accordance with the new development concept is the general requirement and general trend of China’s development in the current and future period. The ancients said: “At any time, to raise things, to make meritorious deeds due to capital, and to profit from the power of all things.” The development of China’s online letter business should adapt to this general trend. Generally speaking, the network letter business represents new productivity and new development direction, and should be able to take the lead in practicing the new development concept.

Innovation is the core strength of the development of the network business. Innovation is the genes of Internet development. The concept innovation and technological innovation of the Internet are the needs of its own development. If there is no progress in the Internet tide, there will be no living space without innovation. We must always place innovation at the forefront, promote institutional and institutional innovation, concept innovation, technological innovation, and application innovation, and support the encouragement of Internet entrepreneurs, leading talents, and engineers to create and create innovative technologies for the development of the Internet. Xi Jinping pointed out at the 2nd World Internet Conference: “China is implementing the ‘Internet +’ action plan, promoting the construction of ‘Digital China’, developing the sharing economy, supporting various Internet-based innovations, and improving the quality and efficiency of development.”

Coordination is the inherent requirement of the development of the network business. Whether it is domestic or foreign, there are problems of unbalanced and uncoordinated development of network security and informationization. To solve these problems, we must establish a concept of coordinated development, eliminate the digital divide, narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, regional differences, and ensure information security. Balanced development, all-round development, and safe development. At the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, Xi Jinping pointed out: “From the international and domestic general trend, the overall layout, co-ordinate all parties, innovation and development, and strive to build China into a network power.”

Green development is an important guarantee for the healthy development of the network business. The information industry is a green industry. Informationization and networking are supporting the application and upgrading of industries, agriculture, and national defense, and promoting green development, low-carbon development, and circular development. It is necessary to carry forward the main theme, spread positive energy, and make the cyberspace clear. At the symposium on April 19, 2016, Xi Jinping pointed out: “The cyberspace is clear and ecological, and it is in line with the interests of the people. The cyberspace is smouldering and ecologically degraded, which is not in the interest of the people.” He also stressed: “We want this Responsible for the society and responsible for the people, strengthen the cyberspace governance in accordance with the law, strengthen the construction of online content, strengthen the positive publicity on the Internet, foster a positive and healthy, up-to-good network culture, and nourish the social core values ​​and the outstanding achievements of human civilization. People’s hearts, nourish the society, and achieve positive energy and high melody, creating a clean and cyberspace for the majority of Internet users, especially young people.”

Openness is the essential feature of the development of the network business. The Internet has opened the door to openness in all countries of the world. Xi Jinping pointed out: “The Internet has turned the world into a global village where the sound of chickens and dogs is heard. People who are thousands of miles away are no longer ‘old and dead.’ It can be said that the world is more colorful because of the Internet, and life is more because of the Internet. Rich.” The development of China’s Internet industry is inseparable from the world, and the Internet industry in the world cannot be separated from China. Xi Jinping pointed out at the Second World Internet Conference: “The Internet in China is booming, providing a broad market space for enterprises and entrepreneurs in various countries. The door to China’s opening will never be closed, and the policy of using foreign capital will not change. Foreign-invested enterprises The protection of legitimate rights and interests will not change, and the direction for countries and enterprises to provide better services in China will not change. He also stressed: “All countries should promote open cooperation in the Internet field, enrich the open connotation, increase the level of openness, and build more Communicate and cooperate with the platform to create more points of interest, cooperation growth, and win-win new highlights, and promote mutual complementarity and common development in the cyberspace, so that more countries and people can take advantage of the information age of express trains and share Internet development results.” We must actively participate in international Internet exchanges and cooperation, learn from the advanced experience and technological achievements of countries around the world, grasp and lead the development trend of the Internet, and promote open cooperation and mutual benefit for cyberspace.

Sharing is the fundamental purpose of the development of the network business. Serving the people and benefiting the people’s livelihood is the fundamental starting point and the foothold of China’s Internet development. Xi Jinping stressed: “In order to develop the network, the company must implement the people-centered development thinking. It is necessary to adapt to the people’s expectations and needs, accelerate the popularization of information services, reduce the application cost, and provide the people with the necessary, affordable and useful. Good information services will enable hundreds of millions of people to gain more sense of sharing Internet development results. “We must push the network into thousands of households and guide the people to understand the world, master information, exchange ideas, innovate and improve, and improve through the Internet. Life, let the Internet development achievements not only benefit the 1.3 billion Chinese people, but also benefit the people of all countries in the world.

(3) Governance requirements: safety and development go hand in hand

In 2014, Xi Jinping emphasized at the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group that “maintenance of network space security and network data integrity, security, reliability, and maintenance of network space security capabilities.” He also called for the overall relationship between network security and informatization. “Network security and informatization are two wings and two wheels of integration. They must be unified planning, unified deployment, unified promotion, and unified implementation. Do a good job in network security and informationization. Work, we must handle the relationship between security and development, to achieve coherence, go hand in hand, to ensure development by safety, to promote safety through development, to strive to build a long-term security, growth and governance.” Two years later, at the symposium, he pointed out again “Network security and informatization are mutually reinforcing. Security is the premise of development, development is the guarantee of security, and security and development must advance simultaneously. From a global perspective, cybersecurity threats and risks are increasingly prominent, and increasingly toward politics, economy, Conductive penetration in the fields of culture, society, ecology, national defense, etc., especially the key information infrastructure of the country Face greater potential risks, prevention and control of network security capability is weak, it is difficult to effectively deal with national, organized high-strength network attacks. This is a problem for the world, we are certainly no exception. “

In addition, he pointed out that “in the face of complex and severe network security situation, we must remain clear-headed, and all parties must jointly manage and effectively maintain network security.” First, establish a correct view of network security. The idea determines the action. There are several main features of today’s network security. First, cybersecurity is holistic rather than fragmented. Second, network security is dynamic rather than static. Third, cybersecurity is open rather than closed. Fourth, cybersecurity is relative rather than absolute. Fifth, cybersecurity is common rather than isolated. Second, accelerate the construction of a key information infrastructure security system. Third, all-weather perception of the network security situation. Fourth, enhance network security defense capabilities and deterrence capabilities.

(4) Cadre requirements: Take the network mass line and build a concentric circle

The mass line is the fundamental line of our party. Xi Jinping pointed out: “The netizens come from the common people, the people are on the net, and the public opinion is on the net. Where are the people, where are our leading cadres going, or how to contact the masses? Party and government organs and leading cadres at all levels must learn Take the mass route through the Internet, often go online to see, dive, chat, and voice, understand what the masses think, collect good ideas and suggestions, and actively respond to netizens’ concerns and doubts. Be good at using the Internet to understand public opinion and work. It is the basic skill of leading cadres to do their work well under the new situation.”

How to take the network mass route? Xi Jinping gave the method. “The majority of netizens are ordinary people, come from all directions, and their experiences are different. The opinions and ideas must be varied. They cannot be asked to be so accurate and correct about all issues. To be more inclusive. And patience, timely absorption of constructive opinions, timely assistance for difficulties, timely referrals to those who do not understand the situation, timely clarification of vague understanding, timely resolution of complaints of resentment, timely guidance and correction of wrong opinions, Let the Internet become a new platform for us to communicate and communicate with the masses, and become a new way to understand the masses, be close to the masses, solve problems for the masses, and become a new channel for carrying forward people’s democracy and accepting people’s supervision.”

At the same time, Xi Jinping pointed out the efforts of cadres at all levels. “To correctly handle the relationship between security and development, openness and autonomy, management and service, and constantly improve the ability to grasp the laws of the Internet, the ability to guide the public opinion, and the development of informationization. Capabilities, the ability to guarantee network security, and the continuous advancement of network power construction.”

(5) Management requirements: unified leadership, management according to law

The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee conducted the 36th collective study on the implementation of the strategy of strengthening the country by the Internet. Accelerate the improvement of network management.

Xi Jinping put forward requirements from the institutional mechanism. He emphasized that the central cybersecurity and informationization leading group should play a centralized and unified leadership role, coordinate and coordinate major issues of cybersecurity and informatization in various fields, and formulate and implement national cybersecurity and informationization development strategies. , macro-planning and major policies, continuously enhance security and security capabilities.

Instructed from the management ideas, in China, more than 700 million people on the Internet, certainly need to manage, and this management is very complicated and very heavy. Enterprises must assume the responsibility of enterprises, and the party and the government must assume the responsibility of the party and the government. No side can give up their responsibilities. It is necessary to deeply understand the role of the Internet in state management and social governance, and to promote e-government and build a new smart city, and to build a nationally integrated national big data center with data concentration and sharing as a way to promote technology integration. Business integration, data integration, and cross-level, cross-regional, cross-system, cross-department, and cross-business collaborative management and services. It is necessary to strengthen the Internet thinking, take advantage of the flat, interactive and rapid advantages of the Internet, promote the scientific decision-making of the government, the precision of social governance, the efficiency of public services, and better use the means of information to better understand the social situation, smooth communication channels, and assist decision-making governance. .

From the legislative norms to point out the direction, we must promptly formulate legislative plans, improve Internet information content management, key information infrastructure protection and other laws and regulations, manage cyberspace in accordance with the law, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of citizens. It is necessary to strictly guard against cybercrime, especially new cybercrime, and safeguard the interests of the people and the harmony and stability of society. It is necessary to speed up the process of network legislation, improve the regulatory measures according to law, and resolve network risks. It is necessary to strengthen the management of big data in accordance with the law. Some data concerning national interests and national security are in the hands of Internet companies, and enterprises must ensure the security of these data. Enterprises should pay attention to data security. If the company has problems with data protection and security, it will also have an adverse impact on its own reputation.

It also puts forward hopes for the whole society. Network security is for the people, network security depends on the people, and maintaining network security is the common responsibility of the whole society. It requires the government, enterprises, social organizations and the majority of netizens to participate in the construction of a network security defense line. These characteristics must be well grasped by all relevant parties.

(6) Guarantee requirements: technological breakthroughs, construction of infrastructure and sharing systems

Xi Jinping emphasized that in order to grasp the initiative of China’s Internet development and safeguard Internet security and national security, we must break through the core technology and strive to achieve “curve overtaking” in certain areas and in certain aspects. To achieve breakthroughs in core technologies, we must have determination, perseverance, and focus. He hopes that the vast number of entrepreneurs, experts, scholars and scientific and technological personnel in the field of China’s online information should establish this ambition, strive for this tone, and strive to achieve new major breakthroughs in core technology as soon as possible. The so-called “days, not afraid of thousands of miles; often do, not afraid of thousands of things.”

Xi Jinping stressed that it is necessary to firmly hold the core technology of independent innovation, and to break through the cutting-edge technologies of network development and key core technologies with international competitiveness, accelerate the promotion of domestically controlled independent alternative plans, and build a safe and controllable information technology system. . First, correctly handle open and autonomous relationships. Second, concentrate on the scientific research investment to do big things. Third, actively promote the transformation of core technological achievements. Fourth, promote strong alliances and coordinated research. Fifth, we can explore the formation of an alliance of industry, academia and research, and open the list. To lay a solid foundation for the research and development of core technologies, it is necessary not only to blow up the charge, but also to blow up the collection number, that is, to accumulate the strongest forces together to form the commando and special forces.

Xi Jinping stressed that it is necessary to speed up the construction of a key information infrastructure security system. The key information infrastructure in the fields of finance, energy, electricity, communications, transportation, etc. is the nerve center of economic and social operation, the top priority of network security, and the target of possible key attacks. The “physical isolation” line of defense can be invaded across the network, the power allocation instructions can be maliciously tampered with, and the financial transaction information can be stolen. These are major risk hazards. If there is no problem, it will cause traffic disruption, financial disorder, power hupfer and other issues, which is very destructive and lethal. We must conduct in-depth research and take effective measures to effectively protect the country’s critical information infrastructure.

At the same time, he pointed out that it is necessary to promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity through informationization, coordinate the development of e-government, build an integrated online service platform, promote the construction of new smart cities by hierarchical classification, open up information barriers, and build a national information resource sharing system. It is easy to use information technology to sense social situation, smooth communication channels, and assist scientific decision-making.

(7) Propaganda requirements: the most important thing, to build consensus

Xi Jinping pointed out that we must adhere to the attitude of being responsible to the society and responsible to the people, strengthen the cyberspace governance in accordance with the law, strengthen the construction of online content, strengthen the positive publicity on the Internet, foster a positive and healthy, up-to-good network culture, and use the socialist core values. outstanding achievements of human civilization and nourishing the heart, nourishing community, so that positive energy is abundant, the main theme of the high for the majority of Internet users, especially young people to create a Delicate gas is cyberspace.

Do online media work is a long-term task to improve the online promotion of innovation, the use of propagation network, promote the theme, stimulate positive energy, great efforts to cultivate and practice the socialist core values, when good grasp of the Internet to guide public opinion, and validity To make the cyberspace clear.

Forming a good online public opinion atmosphere is not to say that there can only be one voice, one tone, but that it cannot be used to confess right and wrong, reverse black and white, make a living, commit crimes, and cannot transcend the legal boundaries of the Constitution. An important means to put power into the cage of the system is to play the role of public opinion supervision, including Internet supervision. This article, party and government organs and leading cadres at all levels must pay special attention to, first of all, do a good job. We must not only welcome, but also carefully study and learn from the online criticism of goodwill and the supervision of the Internet, whether it is for the work of the party and the government or for the leading cadres, whether it is ruthless or loyal.

Xi Jinping pointed out that the new application of new technologies and new technologies in the Internet has made the social mobilization function of the Internet increasingly enhanced. To spread positive energy, enhance communication and guiding force. It is necessary to strictly guard against cybercrime, especially new cybercrime, and safeguard the interests of the people and the harmony and stability of society. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of network communication, experience, and sharing, listen to the will of the people, benefit the people’s livelihood, solve the people’s worries, and unite the social consensus. Online and offline networks should be united and coordinated, forming a good situation for jointly preventing social risks and building a concentric circle together. It is necessary to maintain the security of cyberspace and the integrity, security and reliability of network data, and improve the security of maintaining cyberspace.

Xi Jinping pointed out that the new application of new technologies and new technologies in the Internet has made the social mobilization function of the Internet increasingly enhanced. To spread positive energy, enhance communication and guiding force. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of network communication, experience, and sharing, listen to the will of the people, benefit the people’s livelihood, solve the people’s worries, and unite the social consensus. Online and offline networks should be united and coordinated, forming a good situation for jointly preventing social risks and building a concentric circle together.

(8) Talent requirements: unrestricted talents

“The people are happy, the losers are falling.” Xi Jinping stressed that to build a network power, we must bring together talent resources and build a strong team with strong politics, good business and good work style. “A thousand troops are easy to get, and one will be hard to find.” It is necessary to train scientists, network technology leaders, engineers, and high-level innovation teams that have created world-class skills.

In terms of ideas, he pointed out that the competition in cyberspace is, in the final analysis, talent competition. Building a network power, there is no outstanding talent team, no talent creation, vitality, and it is difficult to succeed. After reading the talents, you can get twice the result with half the effort. Our brains have to turn around, not only paying attention to capital, but also paying attention to talents. The intensity of introducing talents should be further increased, and the steps of reforming the talent system should be further developed. The field of network information can be tested first, and research should be carried out to formulate ways to attract talents, train talents, and retain talents.

In terms of scope, he pointed out that the development of China’s online letter industry must fully mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of entrepreneurs, experts, scholars and scientific and technological personnel. Entrepreneurs, experts, scholars, and scientific and technological personnel must have the responsibility of the state and social responsibility, and contribute their wisdom and strength to the development of the national network. Party committees and governments at all levels must respect knowledge and respect talents from the bottom of their hearts, create good conditions for talents to develop their intelligence, create a relaxed environment, and provide a broad platform.

In terms of methods, he pointed out that the Internet is mainly the cause of young people, and it is necessary to reduce talents. It is necessary to emancipate the mind, to recognize the talents, and to love the talents. To train netizen talents, we must make great efforts and make big money. We invite excellent teachers, compile excellent teaching materials, recruit outstanding students, and build a first-class cyberspace security college. Many talents in the Internet field are geeks and geniuses. They often do not take the usual routines and have many whimsy. There must be special policies for treating special talents, not requiring full blame, not arguing for seniority, and not using a ruler.

In terms of policy, he pointed out that it is necessary to adopt special policies, establish a personnel system and a salary system that adapt to the characteristics of online letters, and condense outstanding talents into technical departments, research departments, and management departments. It is necessary to establish a talent evaluation mechanism that adapts to the characteristics of online letters. The actual ability is the standard of measurement. It is not only academic, not only a thesis, not only a qualification, but also highlights professionalism, innovation and practicality. It is necessary to establish a flexible talent incentive mechanism to enable those who contribute to have a sense of accomplishment and a sense of acquisition. It is necessary to explore scientific research results, intellectual property rights, and interest distribution mechanisms in the field of online information, and formulate specific policies on talent stock participation, technology shareholding, and taxation. In the flow of talents, we must break the institutional boundaries and enable talents to achieve an orderly and smooth flow between the government, enterprises, and think tanks. The advantages of the “revolving door” system in foreign countries can also be used for reference.

At the station, he pointed out that there must be a global perspective on talent selection and the introduction of high-end talents. As China’s comprehensive national strength continues to increase, many countries’ talents also hope to come to China for development. We must take advantage of the trend, reform talents to introduce various supporting systems, and build a globally competitive talent system. No matter which country or region, as long as it is a good talent, it can be used for me. This work has been done by some enterprises and research institutes. I went to some enterprises and research institutes, and also talked with these talents imported from abroad. In this regard, we must increase our efforts to continuously improve our ability to allocate talent resources globally.

(9) Industry requirements: focus on self-discipline and healthy development

The development of a company is directly proportional to its social responsibility. Xi Jinping pointed out that China’s Internet enterprises have played an important role in stabilizing growth, promoting employment, and benefiting people’s livelihood, from small to large, from weak to strong. Let the company continue to develop healthily is not only the goal of entrepreneurs but also the needs of national development. The fate of a company is closely related to the development of the country. It is difficult to become stronger and bigger than the support of the state, the disengagement of the masses, and the service to the country and the people.

How to be stronger and bigger? Xi Jinping pointed out the direction: internally, it is necessary to introduce policies to support the development of enterprises, so that they become the main body of technological innovation and become the main body of information industry development. Externally, we must encourage and support China’s network enterprises to go out, deepen Internet international exchanges and cooperation, and actively participate in the construction of the “Belt and Road” to achieve “where the national interests are and where informationization will be covered”. Foreign Internet companies, as long as they comply with our laws and regulations, we are welcome.

How to avoid the phenomenon of “disconnecting one after another, killing one tube” that has often appeared in the past, and embarking on a new road of joint management and benign interaction? Xi Jinping gave the idea: First, insist on encouraging support and standard development in parallel. Enterprises should be encouraged and supported to become the main body of R&D, the main body of innovation, and the main body of industry. Encourage and support the cutting-edge technology of enterprise layout, promote independent innovation of core technologies, create and seize more opportunities, participate in international competition, and expand overseas development space. It is necessary to regulate market order and encourage healthy competition. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee proposed to improve the system of property rights protection with fairness as the core principle, strengthen the protection of property rights of various ownership economic organizations and natural persons, and clean up laws and regulations that violate fairness. These requirements should be put in place as soon as possible. Second, adhere to policy guidance and management according to law. The government should create a favorable environment for enterprise development, accelerate the reform of the examination and approval system, financing system, and patent system, reduce duplication of testing and certification, implement a high-quality and high-price government procurement system, reduce the burden on enterprises, and remove institutional and institutional obstacles. At the same time, it is necessary to speed up the process of network legislation, improve the regulatory measures according to law, and resolve network risks. It is necessary to strengthen the management of big data in accordance with the law. Third, adhere to both economic and social benefits. Only a wealth of love is a truly meaningful asset. Only a company that actively assumes social responsibility is the most competitive and vital enterprise. It is hoped that the vast number of Internet companies will adhere to the unity of economic and social benefits, and at the same time of their own development, drink water and source, return the society and benefit the people. We must encourage and support our networked enterprises to go out, deepen the international exchanges and cooperation in the Internet, and actively participate in the construction of the “Belt and Road” to achieve “where the national interests are and where informationization will be covered”. Foreign Internet companies, as long as they comply with our laws and regulations, we are welcome.

(10) International requirements: building a community of destiny

With the multi-polarization of the world, economic globalization, cultural diversity, and in-depth development of social information, the Internet will play a greater role in promoting the progress of human civilization. At the same time, problems such as unbalanced development in the Internet field, unsound rules, and unreasonable order have become increasingly prominent. The information gap between different countries and regions is constantly widening. Existing cyberspace governance rules are difficult to reflect the wishes and interests of most countries; violations of personal privacy, intellectual property rights, cybercrime, etc. occur worldwide, network monitoring, cyber attacks, networks Terrorism and other activities have become global public nuisances.

Faced with these problems and challenges, the international community should strengthen dialogue and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, promote the reform of the global governance system of the Internet, and jointly build a cyberspace of peace, security, openness and cooperation, and establish multilateral, democratic and transparent. The global Internet governance system. It is proposed that “China is willing to work with the international community to adhere to the common prosperity of mankind, adhere to the concept of cyber sovereignty, promote global Internet governance in a more just and rational direction, and promote cyberspace to achieve equal respect, innovative development, open sharing, and security. The goal of the order.”

“The way of benefit is to go with time.” Cyberspace is the common space for human activities. The future of cyberspace should be mastered by all countries in the world. To promote the reform of the global Internet governance system, we should adhere to the four principles. Respect network sovereignty. Maintain peace and security. Promote open cooperation. Build a good order. Countries should strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, and jointly build a community of cyberspace destiny. In this regard, I would like to make five points. First, accelerate the construction of global network infrastructure and promote interconnection. Second, create an online cultural exchange and sharing platform to promote exchanges and mutual learning. Third, promote the innovation and development of the network economy and promote common prosperity. Fourth, safeguard network security and promote orderly development. Fifth, build an Internet governance system to promote fairness and justice. It has won the approval of most countries in the world.

Xi Jinping pointed out that the Internet is the common home of mankind and works together to build a community of cyberspace destiny. It is the common responsibility of the international community to make this home more beautiful, cleaner and safer. Let us join hands to jointly promote the interconnection and sharing of cyberspace, share common governance, and help create a better future for human development!

Original Mandarin Chinese:

黨的十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央高度重視、大力推進網絡安全和信息化工作,深刻把握人類社會發展信息時代階段特徵,客觀分析當前我國互聯網發展基本國情及全球互聯網發展新形勢,先後發表了一系列重要講話,提出了一系列治網新理念新思想新論斷,科學回答了“為什麼要建設網絡強國、建設什麼樣的網絡強國以及怎樣建設網絡強國”這一重大問題,形成了習近平網絡強國戰略思想。認真學習這些新思想,對於推進網絡強國建設,實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標和中華民族偉大復興的中國夢具有重要意義。

一、為什麼建設網絡強國

2014年2月27日,習近平總書記在中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組第一次會議上初步提出了建設網絡強國的願景目標,並系統闡釋了網絡強國戰略思想的時代背景、形勢任務、內涵要求,從而使這一思想成為相對完整、系統的理論體系。

習近平提出網絡強國戰略思想的有著嚴謹的邏輯關係,從網絡大國的基礎出發,鑑於網信事業事關全局和麵臨的新形勢轉變,尤其是客觀剖析了存在的差距,堅定了建設網絡強國的戰略目標。習近平在講話中指出,當今世界,信息技術革命日新月異,對國際政治、經濟、文化、社會、軍事等領域發展產生了深刻影響。信息化和經濟全球化相互促進,互聯網已經融入社會生活方方面面,深刻改變了人們的生產和生活方式。我國正處在這個大潮之中,受到的影響越來越深。我國互聯網和信息化工作取得了顯著發展成就,網絡走入千家萬戶,網民數量世界第一,我國已成為網絡大國。這是我們的基礎前提。他指出,互聯網是一個社會信息大平台,億萬網民在上面獲得信息、交流信息,這會對他們的求知途徑、思維方式、價值觀念產生重要影響,特別是會對他們對國家、對社會、對工作、對人生的看法產生重要影響。習近平強調,網絡安全和信息化對一個國家很多領域都是牽一發而動全身的,要認清我們面臨的形勢和任務,充分認識做好工作的重要性和緊迫性,因勢而謀,應勢而動,順勢而為。這是事關全局。習近平指出,隨著互聯網特別是移動互聯網發展,社會治理模式正在從單向管理轉向雙向互動,從線下轉向線上線下融合,從單純的政府監管向更加註重社會協同治理轉變。這是形勢轉變。當今世界,信息化發展很快,不進則退,慢進亦退。同世界先進水平相比,同建設網絡強國戰略目標相比,我們在很多方面還有不小差距,特別是在互聯網創新能力、基礎設施建設、信息資源共享、產業實力等方面還存在不小差距,其中最大的差距在核心技術上。

二、建設什麼樣的網絡強國

習近平指出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。建設網絡強國,要有自己的技術,有過硬的技術;要有豐富全面的信息服務,繁榮發展的網絡文化;要有良好的信息基礎設施,形成實力雄厚的信息經濟;要有高素質的網絡安全和信息化人才隊伍;要積極開展雙邊、多邊的互聯網國際交流合作。他還強調,網絡空間是億萬民眾共同的精神家園。網絡空間天朗氣清、生態良好,符合人民利益。網絡空間烏煙瘴氣、生態惡化,不符合人民利益。

概括地講,網絡強國至少有六大標誌:一是網絡信息化基礎設施要處於世界領先水平。二是要有明確的網絡空間戰略和國際社會中的網絡話語權。三是關鍵技術上要自主可控,特別是操作系統和CPU技術。四是網絡安全要有足夠的保障手段和能力。五是網絡應用在規模、質量等方面要處在世界領先水平。六是在網絡空間戰略中,要有佔領制高點的能力和實力。

《國家信息化戰略綱要》提出,建設網絡強國具體分三步走:第一步到2020年,信息消費總額達到6萬億元,電子商務交易規模達到38萬億元,核心關鍵技術部分領域達到國際先進水平,信息產業國際競爭力大幅提升,信息化成為驅動現代化建設的先導力量;第二步到2025年,信息消費總額達到12萬億元,電子商務交易規模達到67萬億元,建成國際領先的移動通信網絡,根本改變核心關鍵技術受制於人的局面,實現技術先進、產業發達、應用領先、網絡安全堅不可摧的戰略目標,湧現一批具有強大國際競爭力的大型跨國網信企業;第三步到本世紀中葉,信息化全面支撐富強民主文明和諧的社會主義現代化國家建設,網絡強國地位日益鞏固,在引領全球信息化發展方面有更大作為。

習近平規劃了建設網絡強國的時間表,建設網絡強國的戰略部署要與“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標同步推進,向著網絡基礎設施基本普及、自主創新能力顯著增強、信息經濟全面發展、網絡安全保障有力的目標不斷前進。

三、怎樣建設網絡強國

(一)根本要求:以人民為中心

治國有常,而利民為本。習近平強調,網信事業要發展,必須貫徹以人民為中心的發展思想。要適應人民期待和需求,加快信息化服務普及,降低應用成本,為老百姓提供用得上、用得起、用得好的信息服務,讓億萬人民在共享互聯網發展成果上有更多獲得感。相比城市,農村互聯網基礎設施建設是我們的短板。要加大投入力度,加快農村互聯網建設步伐,擴大光纖網、寬帶網在農村的有效覆蓋。可以做好信息化和工業化深度融合這篇大文章,發展智能製造,帶動更多人創新創業;可以瞄準農業現代化主攻方向,提高農業生產智能化、經營網絡化水平,幫助廣大農民增加收入;可以發揮互聯網優勢,實施“互聯網+教育”、“互聯網+醫療”、“互聯網+文化”等,促進基本公共服務均等化;可以發揮互聯網在助推脫貧攻堅中的作用,推進精準扶貧、精準脫貧,讓更多困難群眾用上互聯網,讓農產品通過互聯網走出鄉村,讓山溝裡的孩子也能接受優質教育;可以加快推進電子政務,鼓勵各級政府部門打破信息壁壘、提升服務效率,讓百姓少跑腿、信息多跑路,解決辦事難、辦事慢、辦事繁的問題,等等。這些方面有很多事情可做,一些互聯網企業已經做了嘗試,取得了較好的經濟效益和社會效益。

2016年11月29日,全國網絡扶貧工作現場推進會在江西寧都召開。 “要實施網絡扶貧行動,推進精準扶貧、精準脫貧,讓扶貧工作隨時隨地、四通八達,讓貧困地區群眾在互聯網共建共享中有更多獲得感”,習總書記這一重要指示在紅色革命老區再次宣示,網絡扶貧成為決勝全面小康的新槓桿。

(二)理念要求:踐行五大發展理念先行一步

黨的十八屆五中全會提出了創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的新發展理念,這是在深刻總結國內外發展經驗教訓、深入分析國內外發展大勢的基礎上提出的,集中反映了我們黨對我國經濟社會發展規律的新認識。按照新發展理念推動我國經濟社會發展,是當前和今後一個時期我國發展的總要求和大趨勢。古人說:“隨時以舉事,因資而立功,用萬物之能而獲利其上。”我國網信事業發展要適應這個大趨勢。總體上說,網信事業代表著新的生產力、新的發展方向,應該也能夠在踐行新發展理念上先行一步。

創新是網信事業發展的核心力量。創新是互聯網發展的基因。互聯網的理念創新、技術創新是自身發展的需要,在互聯網大潮中不進則退,沒有創新就沒有生存空間。要始終把創新擺在首要位置,推動體制機制創新、理念創新、技術創新、應用創新,支持鼓勵互聯網企業家、領軍人才和工程技術人員創新創造,為互聯網發展提供不竭動力。習近平在第二屆世界互聯網大會上指出:“中國正在實施‘互聯網+’行動計劃,推進‘數字中國’建設,發展分享經濟,支持基於互聯網的各類創新,提高發展質量和效益。”

協調是網信事業發展的內在要求。無論是國內還是國外,都存在網絡安全和信息化發展不平衡、不協調的問題,解決這些問題,就要樹立協調發展的理念,消除數字鴻溝,縮小城鄉差異、地區差異,保障信息安全,實現均衡發展、全面發展、安全發展。習近平在中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組第一次會議上指出:“要從國際國內大勢出發,總體佈局,統籌各方,創新發展,努力把我國建設成為網絡強國。”

綠色發展是網信事業健康發展的重要保障。信息化產業就是綠色產業,信息化、網絡化正支撐著工業、農業、國防等各個領域的應用和升級,推動著綠色發展、低碳發展、循環發展。要弘揚主旋律,傳播正能量,使網絡空間清朗起來。在2016年4月19日的座談會上習近平指出:“網絡空間天朗氣清、生態良好,符合人民利益。網絡空間烏煙瘴氣、生態惡化,不符合人民利益。” 他還強調:“我們要本著對社會負責、對人民負責的態度,依法加強網絡空間治理,加強網絡內容建設,做強網上正面宣傳,培育積極健康、向上向善的網絡文化,用社會主義核心價值觀和人類優秀文明成果滋養人心、滋養社會,做到正能量充沛、主旋律高昂,為廣大網民特別是青少年營造一個風清氣正的網絡空間。”

開放是網信事業發展的本質特徵。互聯網打開了世界各國開放的大門。習近平指出:“互聯網讓世界變成了’雞犬之聲相聞’的地球村,相隔萬里的人們不再’老死不相往來’。可以說,世界因互聯網而更多彩,生活因互聯網而更豐富。”中國互聯網事業的發展離不開世界,世界的互聯網事業也離不開中國。習近平在第二屆世界互聯網大會上指出:“中國互聯網蓬勃發展,為各國企業和創業者提供了廣闊市場空間。中國開放的大門永遠不會關上,利用外資的政策不會變,對外商投資企業合法權益的保障不會變,為各國企業在華投資興業提供更好服務的方向不會變。”他還強調:“各國應該推進互聯網領域開放合作,豐富開放內涵,提高開放水平,搭建更多溝通合作平台,創造更多利益契合點、合作增長點、共贏新亮點,推動彼此在網絡空間優勢互補、共同發展,讓更多國家和人民搭乘信息時代的快車、共享互聯網發展成果。”我們要積極參與國際互聯網交流與合作,學習借鑒世界各國先進經驗和技術成果,把握和引領國際互聯網發展趨勢,推動網絡空間開放合作、互利共贏。

共享是網信事業發展的根本宗旨。服務百姓、惠及民生是我國互聯網發展的根本出發點和落腳點。習近平強調:“網信事業要發展,必須貫徹以人民為中心的發展思想。要適應人民期待和需求,加快信息化服務普及,降低應用成本,為老百姓提供用得上、用得起、用得好的信息服務,讓億萬人民在共享互聯網發展成果上有更多獲得感。”我們要推動網絡走進千家萬戶,引導人民群眾通過互聯網了解世界、掌握信息、交流思想、創新創業、改善生活,讓互聯網發展成果不僅惠及13億中國人民,同時也造福於世界各國人民。

(三)治理要求:安全與發展齊頭並進

2014年,習近平在中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組第一次會議上就特別強調,“要維護網絡空間安全以及網絡數據的完整性、安全性、可靠性,提高維護網絡空間安全能力。”同時,他還要求統籌好網絡安全和信息化的關係,“網絡安全和信息化是一體之兩翼、驅動之雙輪,必須統一謀劃、統一部署、統一推進、統一實施。做好網絡安全和信息化工作,要處理好安全和發展的關係,做到協調一致、齊頭並進,以安全保發展、以發展促安全,努力建久安之勢、成長治之業。” 兩年之後的座談會上,他再次指出,“網絡安全和信息化是相輔相成的。安全是發展的前提,發展是安全的保障,安全和發展要同步推進。從世界範圍看,網絡安全威脅和風險日益突出,並日益向政治、經濟、文化、社會、生態、國防等領域傳導滲透。特別是國家關鍵信息基礎設面臨較大風險隱患,網絡安全防控能力薄弱,難以有效應對國家級、有組織的高強度網絡攻擊。這對世界各國都是一個難題,我們當然也不例外。”

此外,他指出“面對複雜嚴峻的網絡安全形勢,我們要保持清醒頭腦,各方面齊抓共管,切實維護網絡安全。”第一,樹立正確的網絡安全觀。理念決定行動。當今的網絡安全,有幾個主要特點。一是網絡安全是整體的而不是割裂的。二是網絡安全是動態的而不是靜態的。三是網絡安全是開放的而不是封閉的。四是網絡安全是相對的而不是絕對的。五是網絡安全是共同的而不是孤立的。第二,加快構建關鍵信息基礎設施安全保障體系。第三,全天候全方位感知網絡安全態勢。第四,增強網絡安全防禦能力和威懾能力。

(四)幹部要求:走好網絡群眾路線,共築同心圓

群眾路線是我們黨的根本路線。習近平指出,“網民來自老百姓,老百姓上了網,民意也就上了網。群眾在哪兒,我們的領導幹部就要到哪兒去,不然怎麼聯繫群眾呢?各級黨政機關和領導幹部要學會通過網絡走群眾路線,經常上網看看,潛潛水、聊聊天、發發聲,了解群眾所思所願,收集好想法好建議,積極回應網民關切、解疑釋惑。善於運用網絡了解民意、開展工作,是新形勢下領導幹部做好工作的基本功。”

如何走好網絡群眾路線?習近平給出了方法,“網民大多數是普通群眾,來自四面八方,各自經歷不同,觀點和想法肯定是五花八門的,不能要求他們對所有問題都看得那麼準、說得那麼對。要多一些包容和耐心,對建設性意見要及時吸納,對困難要及時幫助,對不了解情況的要及時宣介,對模糊認識要及時廓清,對怨氣怨言要及時化解,對錯誤看法要及時引導和糾正,讓互聯網成為我們同群眾交流溝通的新平台,成為了解群眾、貼近群眾、為群眾排憂解難的新途徑,成為發揚人民民主、接受人民監督的新渠道。”

同時習近平指出各級幹部的努力方向,“要正確處理安全和發展、開放和自主、管理和服務的關係,不斷提高對互聯網規律的把握能力、對網絡輿論的引導能力、對信息化發展的駕馭能力、對網絡安全的保障能力,把網絡強國建設不斷推向前進。”

(五)管理要求:統一領導,依法管理

中共中央政治局就實施網絡強國戰略進行第三十六次集體學習。加快提高網絡管理水平。

習近平從體制機制上提出了要求,他強調,中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組要發揮集中統一領導作用,統籌協調各個領域的網絡安全和信息化重大問題,制定實施國家網絡安全和信息化發展戰略、宏觀規劃和重大政策,不斷增強安全保障能力。

從管理思路上作出了指示,在我國,7億多人上互聯網,肯定需要管理,而且這個管理是很複雜、很繁重的。企業要承擔企業的責任,黨和政府要承擔黨和政府的責任,哪一邊都不能放棄自己的責任。要深刻認識互聯網在國家管理和社會治理中的作用,以推行電子政務、建設新型智慧城市等為抓手,以數據集中和共享為途徑,建設全國一體化的國家大數據中心,推進技術融合、業務融合、數據融合,實現跨層級、跨地域、跨系統、跨部門、跨業務的協同管理和服務。要強化互聯網思維,利用互聯網扁平化、交互式、快捷性優勢,推進政府決策科學化、社會治理精準化、公共服務高效化,用信息化手段更好感知社會態勢、暢通溝通渠道、輔助決策施政。

從立法規範上指明了方向,要抓緊制定立法規劃,完善互聯網信息內容管理、關鍵信息基礎設施保護等法律法規,依法治理網絡空間,維護公民合法權益。要嚴密防範網絡犯罪特別是新型網絡犯罪,維護人民群眾利益和社會和諧穩定。要加快網絡立法進程,完善依法監管措施,化解網絡風險。要依法加強對大數據的管理。一些涉及國家利益、國家安全的數據,很多掌握在互聯網企業手裡,企業要保證這些數據安全。企業要重視數據安全。如果企業在數據保護和安全上出了問題,對自己的信譽也會產生不利影響。

並對全社會提出了希望,網絡安全為人民,網絡安全靠人民,維護網絡安全是全社會共同責任,需要政府、企業、社會組織、廣大網民共同參與,共築網絡安全防線。這幾個特點,各有關方面要好好把握。

(六)保障要求:技術突破,建設基礎設施和共享體系

習近平強調,我們要掌握我國互聯網發展主動權,保障互聯網安全、國家安全,就必須突破核心技術這個難題,爭取在某些領域、某些方面實現“彎道超車”。核心技術要取得突破,就要有決心、恆心、重心。他希望,我國網信領域廣大企業家、專家學者、科技人員要樹立這個雄心壯志,要爭這口氣,努力盡快在核心技術上取得新的重大突破。正所謂“日日行,不怕千萬里;常常做,不怕千萬事”。

習近平強調,要緊緊牽住核心技術自主創新這個“牛鼻子”,抓緊突破網絡發展的前沿技術和具有國際競爭力的關鍵核心技術,加快推進國產自主可控替代計劃,構建安全可控的信息技術體系。第一,正確處理開放和自主的關係。第二,在科研投入上集中力量辦大事。第三,積極推動核心技術成果轉化。第四,推動強強聯合、協同攻關。第五,可以探索組建產學研用聯盟、揭榜掛帥。要打好核心技術研發攻堅戰,不僅要把衝鋒號吹起來,而且要把集合號吹起來,也就是要把最強的力量積聚起來共同幹,組成攻關的突擊隊、特種兵。

習近平強調,要加快構建關鍵信息基礎設施安全保障體系。金融、能源、電力、通信、交通等領域的關鍵信息基礎設施是經濟社會運行的神經中樞,是網絡安全的重中之重,也是可能遭到重點攻擊的目標。 “物理隔離”防線可被跨網入侵,電力調配指令可被惡意篡改,金融交易信息可被竊取,這些都是重大風險隱患。不出問題則已,一出就可能導致交通中斷、金融紊亂、電力癱瘓等問題,具有很大的破壞性和殺傷力。我們必須深入研究,採取有效措施,切實做好國家關鍵信息基礎設施安全防護。

同時,他指出,要以信息化推進國家治理體系和治理能力現代化,統籌發展電子政務,構建一體化在線服務平台,分級分類推進新型智慧城市建設,打通信息壁壘,構建全國信息資源共享體系,更好用信息化手段感知社會態勢、暢通溝通渠道、輔助科學決策。

(七)宣傳要求:重中之重,凝聚共識

習近平指出,我們要本著對社會負責、對人民負責的態度,依法加強網絡空間治理,加強網絡內容建設,做強網上正面宣傳,培育積極健康、向上向善的網絡文化,用社會主義核心價值觀和人類優秀文明成果滋養人心、滋養社會,做到正能量充沛、主旋律高昂,為廣大網民特別是青少年營造一個風清氣正的網絡空間。

做好網上輿論工作是一項長期任務,要創新改進網上宣傳,運用網絡傳播規律,弘揚主旋律,激發正能量,大力培育和踐行社會主義核心價值觀,把握好網上輿論引導的時、度、效,使網絡空間清朗起來。

形成良好網上輿論氛圍,不是說只能有一個聲音、一個調子,而是說不能搬弄是非、顛倒黑白、造謠生事、違法犯罪,不能超越了憲法法律界限。要把權力關進制度的籠子裡,一個重要手段就是發揮輿論監督包括互聯網監督作用。這一條,各級黨政機關和領導幹部特別要注意,首先要做好。對網上那些出於善意的批評,對互聯網監督,不論是對黨和政府工作提的還是對領導幹部個人提的,不論是和風細雨的還是忠言逆耳的,我們不僅要歡迎,而且要認真研究和吸取。

習近平指出,互聯網新技術新應用不斷發展,使互聯網的社會動員功能日益增強。要傳播正能量,提升傳播力和引導力。要嚴密防範網絡犯罪特別是新型網絡犯罪,維護人民群眾利益和社會和諧穩定。要發揮網絡傳播互動、體驗、分享的優勢,聽民意、惠民生、解民憂,凝聚社會共識。網上網下要同心聚力、齊抓共管,形成共同防範社會風險、共同構築同心圓的良好局面。要維護網絡空間安全以及網絡數據的完整性、安全性、可靠性,提高維護網絡空間安全能力。

習近平指出,互聯網新技術新應用不斷發展,使互聯網的社會動員功能日益增強。要傳播正能量,提升傳播力和引導力。要發揮網絡傳播互動、體驗、分享的優勢,聽民意、惠民生、解民憂,凝聚社會共識。網上網下要同心聚力、齊抓共管,形成共同防範社會風險、共同構築同心圓的良好局面。

(八)人才要求:不拘一格降人才

“得人者興,失人者崩。”習近平強調,建設網絡強國,要把人才資源匯聚起來,建設一支政治強、業務精、作風好的強大隊伍。 “千軍易得,一將難求”,要培養造就世界水平的科學家、網絡科技領軍人才、卓越工程師、高水平創新團隊。

思路上,他指出,網絡空間的競爭,歸根結底是人才競爭。建設網絡強國,沒有一支優秀的人才隊伍,沒有人才創造力迸發、活力湧流,是難以成功的。念好了人才經,才能事半功倍。我們的腦子要轉過彎來,既要重視資本,更要重視人才,引進人才力度要進一步加大,人才體制機制改革步子要進一步邁開。網信領域可以先行先試,抓緊調研,制定吸引人才、培養人才、留住人才的辦法。

範圍上,他指出,我國網信事業發展,必須充分調動企業家、專家學者、科技人員積極性、主動性、創造性。企業家、專家學者、科技人員要有國家擔當、社會責任,為促進國家網信事業發展多貢獻自己的智慧和力量。各級黨委和政府要從心底里尊重知識、尊重人才,為人才發揮聰明才智創造良好條件,營造寬鬆環境,提供廣闊平台。

方法上,他指出,互聯網主要是年輕人的事業,要不拘一格降人才。要解放思想,慧眼識才,愛才惜才。培養網信人才,要下大功夫、下大本錢,請優秀的老師,編優秀的教材,招優秀的學生,建一流的網絡空間安全學院。互聯網領域的人才,不少是怪才、奇才,他們往往不走一般套路,有很多奇思妙想。對待特殊人才要有特殊政策,不要求全責備,不要論資排輩,不要都用一把尺子衡量。

政策上,他指出,要採取特殊政策,建立適應網信特點的人事制度、薪酬制度,把優秀人才凝聚到技術部門、研究部門、管理部門中來。要建立適應網信特點的人才評價機制,以實際能力為衡量標準,不唯學歷,不唯論文,不唯資歷,突出專業性、創新性、實用性。要建立靈活的人才激勵機制,讓作出貢獻的人才有成就感、獲得感。要探索網信領域科研成果、知識產權歸屬、利益分配機制,在人才入股、技術入股以及稅收方面製定專門政策。在人才流動上要打破體制界限,讓人才能夠在政府、企業、智庫間實現有序順暢流動。國外那種“旋轉門”制度的優點,我們也可以藉鑑。

站位上,他指出,在人才選拔上要有全球視野,下大氣力引進高端人才。隨著我國綜合國力不斷增強,有很多國家的人才也希望來我國發展。我們要順勢而為,改革人才引進各項配套制度,構建具有全球競爭力的人才制度體系。不管是哪個國家、哪個地區的,只要是優秀人才,都可以為我所用。這項工作,有些企業、科研院所已經做了,我到一些企業、科研院所去,也同這些從國外引進的人才進行過交談。這方面要加大力度,不斷提高我們在全球配置人才資源能力。

(九)行業要求:注重自律和健康發展

企業的發展與其承擔的社會責任是成正比的。習近平指出,我國互聯網企業由小到大、由弱變強,在穩增長、促就業、惠民生等方面發揮了重要作用。讓企業持續健康發展,既是企業家奮鬥的目標,也是國家發展的需要。企業命運與國家發展息息相關。脫離了國家支持、脫離了群眾支持,脫離了為國家服務、為人民服務,企業難以做強做大。

如何做強做大?習近平指明了方向:對內,要出台支持企業發展的政策,讓他們成為技術創新主體,成為信息產業發展主體。對外,要鼓勵和支持我國網信企業走出去,深化互聯網國際交流合作,積極參與“一帶一路”建設,做到“國家利益在哪裡,信息化就覆蓋到哪裡”。外國互聯網企業,只要遵守我國法律法規,我們都歡迎。

如何避免過去經常出現的“一放就亂、一管就死”現象,走出一條齊抓共管、良性互動的新路?習近平給出了思路:第一,堅持鼓勵支持和規範發展並行。應該鼓勵和支持企業成為研發主體、創新主體、產業主體,鼓勵和支持企業佈局前沿技術,推動核心技術自主創新,創造和把握更多機會,參與國際競爭,拓展海外發展空間。要規範市場秩序,鼓勵進行良性競爭。黨的十八屆四中全會提出健全以公平為核心原則的產權保護製度,加強對各種所有製經濟組織和自然人財產權的保護,清理有違公平的法律法規條款。這些要求要盡快落實到位。第二,堅持政策引導和依法管理並舉。政府要為企業發展營造良好環境,加快推進審批制度、融資制度、專利制度等改革,減少重複檢測認證,施行優質優價政府採購制度,減輕企業負擔,破除體制機制障礙。同時,要加快網絡立法進程,完善依法監管措施,化解網絡風險。要依法加強對大數據的管理。第三,堅持經濟效益和社會效益並重。只有富有愛心的財富才是真正有意義的財富,只有積極承擔社會責任的企業才是最有競爭力和生命力的企業。希望廣大互聯網企業堅持經濟效益和社會效益統一,在自身發展的同時,飲水思源,回報社會,造福人民。我們要鼓勵和支持我國網信企業走出去,深化互聯網國際交流合作,積極參與“一帶一路”建設,做到“國家利益在哪裡,信息化就覆蓋到哪裡”。外國互聯網企業,只要遵守我國法律法規,我們都歡迎。

(十)國際要求:共建命運共同體

隨著世界多極化、經濟全球化、文化多樣化、社會信息化深入發展,互聯網對人類文明進步將發揮更大促進作用。同時,互聯網領域發展不平衡、規則不健全、秩序不合理等問題日益凸顯。不同國家和地區信息鴻溝不斷拉大,現有網絡空間治理規則難以反映大多數國家意願和利益;世界範圍內侵害個人隱私、侵犯知識產權、網絡犯罪等時有發生,網絡監聽、網絡攻擊、網絡恐怖主義活動等成為全球公害。

面對這些問題和挑戰,國際社會應該在相互尊重、相互信任的基礎上,加強對話合作,推動互聯網全球治理體系變革,共同構建和平、安全、開放、合作的網絡空間,建立多邊、民主、透明的全球互聯網治理體系。提出“中國願同國際社會一道,堅持以人類共同福祉為根本,堅持網絡主權理念,推動全球互聯網治理朝著更加公正合理的方向邁進,推動網絡空間實現平等尊重、創新發展、開放共享、安全有序的目標。”

“凡益之道,與時偕行。”網絡空間是人類共同的活動空間,網絡空間前途命運應由世界各國共同掌握。推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,應該堅持四項原則。尊重網絡主權。維護和平安全。促進開放合作。構建良好秩序。各國應該加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,共同構建網絡空間命運共同體。對此,我願提出5點主張。第一,加快全球網絡基礎設施建設,促進互聯互通。第二,打造網上文化交流共享平台,促進交流互鑑。第三,推動網絡經濟創新發展,促進共同繁榮。第四,保障網絡安全,促進有序發展。第五,構建互聯網治理體系,促進公平正義。贏得了世界絕大多數國家贊同。

習近平指出,互聯網是人類的共同家園,攜手構建網絡空間命運共同體。讓這個家園更美麗、更乾淨、更安全,是國際社會的共同責任。讓我們攜起手來,共同推動網絡空間互聯互通、共享共治,為開創人類發展更加美好的未來助力!

Original Referring URL:  http://theory.people.com.cn/n1/

Chinese Military Strategic Support Force – Skynet Army: It Will Change the Face of Cyberwar // 中國軍事戰略支援力量 – 天網軍隊將改變網絡戰的面貌

Chinese Military Strategic Support Force – Skynet Army: It Will Change the Face of Cyberwar //

中國軍事戰略支援力量 – 天網軍隊將改變網絡戰的面貌

Author: Source: Netease military

DTG: 2016-01-04 08:XX:XX

Strategic support forces are not logistical support or more powerful than the Rockets. Three tears on, how effective has China’s SSF become in the realm of cyber warfare?

Abstract: On December 31, 2015, the PLA Army Leadership, Rocket Army, and Strategic Support Forces were established. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State Council, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, awarded the newly established three major units. The major steps marking the reform of the PLA’s army are beginning to be gradually implemented. Among the three new units, the strategic support force is definitely a brand new name, which naturally raises many questions. What kind of force is this?

The strategic support force should be called Skynet Army: it will change the war.

Strategic support is not logistical support

The newly established three units, the Army’s leading body is also the Army’s headquarters. The former PLA has always been the army’s boss. The mainland’s thinking is deeply rooted. Therefore, only the navy and air force headquarters, and no army command, the top leaders of the army are all from The army, the head of the navy and air force ranks among the members of the Central Military Commission, and it is more symbolic. The establishment of the Army Headquarters now means that the status of the Army will gradually be lowered and will be consistent with other services. This will lay the foundation for the model of the highest military leadership in the rotation of the heads of the Western military in the future, and further strengthen the synergy for the various services. The conditions.

The Rockets are no strangers to military fans. They are the former Second Artillery Corps, which is essentially a strategic missile force. The strategic missile unit of the former Soviet Union was called the Strategic Rocket Army. When the PLA established the strategic missile force, the international situation was surging. For the sake of low-key restraint, Zhou Enlai proposed the name of the Second Artillery. Now renamed the Rocket Army, the name is more prestige, more directly strengthen the significance of strategic deterrence.

Relative to the above two units, for those concerned about national defense construction, the strategic support force will be much more strange. When many people hear this name, the first reaction is the logistics support force, which is a big mistake! The strategic support force is actually a genuine combat force. It is nominally supportive. In many cases, it is the first open-minded pioneer to fight, even to enter the battlefield earlier than the land, sea, air force and rocket forces. According to the spokesman of the Ministry of National Defense, the strategic support force is a new type of combat force for safeguarding national security and an important growth point for our military’s new combat capability. It is mainly a strategic, basic, and supportive type. The support force is formed after the functional integration.

The strategic support force should be called Skynet Army: it will change the war.

Specifically, the strategic support force will include five parts: intelligence reconnaissance, satellite management, electronic countermeasures, cyber offense and defense, and psychological warfare. It is a combination of the most advanced corps, the net army, and other battlefields on the battlefield. More specifically, it is a combat force dedicated to the soft kill mission.

This is also the adjustment of the military reform at the military level. The PLA is divided into the traditional land, sea and air force, the strategic deterrent and the attacking rocket army and the most modern “sky-net” army. The three levels of division of labor are clear, and they can strengthen each other. The synergy between the two, to maximize the advantages of the overall war, is undoubtedly the highlight of this military reform.

Five major parts highlight high-tech content

Let’s take a closer look at the five major components of the Strategic Support Army. First, intelligence reconnaissance. This is not a spy war in the traditional sense. It is not like the old movie “The Crossing River Scout”, which disguise itself as a deep enemy. More is technical reconnaissance. With the increasing popularity of modern equipment, the leakage of various technical information is difficult to avoid, such as radio signals, electromagnetic signals, infrared signals, etc., through the collection and analysis of these signals, a large amount of valuable information can be obtained, strategic support forces The reconnaissance is mainly the technical reconnaissance in this respect, which can be carried out through modern equipment such as reconnaissance satellites, reconnaissance planes, drones, and sensors.

The strategic support force should be called Skynet Army: it will change the war.

Satellite management is the so-called “Heavenly Army”. This is a new type of force that has emerged with the rapid development of space technology, especially satellite information reconnaissance, tracking and surveillance, guided navigation and aerospace weapons. The United States established the National Space Command in 1985, marking the birth of the world’s first heavenly army. Russia subsequently separated the military space force and the space missile defense force from the strategic rocket army and established a space force with a total strength of about 90,000 people. Then with the military reform of the People’s Liberation Army, the “Heavenly Army” under the strategic support force was formally formed and became a force dedicated to space operations in the future. The significance is significant.

The history of electronic confrontation is much longer than that of the Tianjun. As early as in the First World War, both sides have had the information of the other party and the communication of the other party. To the Second World War, the means of electronic confrontation. Both the scale and the scale have been greatly developed. In July 1943, the British army used metal foil strips to interfere with the German radar in the bombing of Hamburg, Germany, which was considered the beginning of modern electronic confrontation. During the Middle East War in the 1960s, electronic confrontation played a decisive role. Under today’s technical conditions, there is no need to spend more on electronic countermeasures.

Network attack and defense is also called cyber warfare. It is the rise of the network, exploiting the loopholes and security flaws of the network to attack and destroy the data in the hardware, software and systems of the network system. In 2001, there was a large-scale civil hacking incident between China and the United States, which stimulated the United States to a certain extent. By 2009, the world’s first cyber command was established. Through the opportunity of military reform, China has set up a specialized cyber warfare force and began systematically investing and developing in the fields of information construction and network attack and defense. This is a milestone for the future war, which is bound to spread to the network. meaningful.

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In the end, it is psychological warfare, that is, by applying the principle principle of psychology, taking human psychology as the battlefield, and systematically adopting various means, including the means of communication, such as the Internet, television, and broadcasting, which cannot be separated from modern life. Cognitive, emotional, and will exert influence, mentally disintegrating enemy military and civilian fighting spirits or eliminating the influence of enemy propaganda, thus combating the enemy’s mind, in exchange for the greatest victory and benefits at the least cost. Psychological warfare sounds very mysterious. In fact, as mentioned in “Sun Tzu’s Art of War·The Tactics”: “It is the victorious battle, the good ones who are not good, the soldiers who do not fight and the good, and the good ones.” The “war without a war” is the ultimate goal of today’s psychological war. In the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War, the Allies used a large number of psychological warfare methods, which seriously affected the judgment of the German commander-in-chief and made great contributions to the victory of the battle. Since then, from the Korean War, the Vietnam War, to today’s Iraq War and the Afghan War, the US military has had professional psychological warfare troops to participate in the war. Therefore, this is the most easily overlooked military means, but it is a high level of military struggle, and even more efficient and effective than advanced aircraft cannons.

Therefore, it can be said that the strategic support force is the highest in the five major services after the reform of the PLA’s army. It can even be said to be completely different from the traditional war style of the past, and it is more characterized by ultra-modern flow.

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Soft killing

According to the strategy disclosed on the network, the armbands are supported on the network. The above is the eight-and-five-pointed star. Below is the triangular arrow and the electronic cloud orbit. Surrounded by the surrounding wheat ears, it can be seen from this pattern that the strategic support force is not a traditional one. In the sense of steel contest, you can’t see the scene of the smoke, and there is no such thing as a nuclear weapon to destroy the horror of the sea, but the soft kill of the soldiers. In a sense, soft killing is no less inferior than hard killing, and even playing a role is more important than hard killing.

In contrast, until today, the US military has only independent scattered Tianjun, Net Army and psychological warfare units, but the PLA Strategic Support Forces have integrated these units directly in the preparation, and they are able to cooperate and play the greatest combat effectiveness. . It can be said that this major reform of the military, especially the establishment of the strategic support force, is definitely a major improvement in the system.

Imagine that without the strategic support force’s satellites accurately positioned and navigated, without the electronic escaping forces and cyber warfare forces escorting, the Rocket’s strategic missiles will be difficult to function; if there is no strategic support for the technical reconnaissance intelligence support, Satellite communication links, then the land, sea and air forces on the vast battlefield are blind and deaf, and the combat effectiveness is greatly reduced. Therefore, the strategic support forces will play a major role in the invisible four-dimensional and five-dimensional battlefield space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

战略支援部队可不是后勤支援,或比火箭军更厉害

摘要:2015年12月31日,解放军陆军领导机构、火箭军、战略支援部队成立,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平给新成立的这三大单位授旗。标志着此轮解放军军队改革重大步骤正开始逐步落实,在这三个新单位中,战略支援部队绝对是个全新的名称,自然会引起不少的疑问,这到底是支怎样的部队呢?

战略支援部队就应该叫天网军:将改变战争

战略支援可不是后勤支援

这次新成立的三个单位,陆军领导机构也就是陆军总部,原来解放军历来就是陆军老大,大陆军的思想根深蒂固,所以只有海军、空军司令部,而不设陆军司令部,军队最高领导全都出自陆军,海空军首长位列中央军委委员,也更多是象征意义。现在设立陆军总部,也就意味着陆军的地位逐渐下调,将和其他军种相一致,这为今后仿效西方各军种首长轮流担任军队最高领导的模式打下了基础,同时也对各军种进一步加强协同创造了条件。

火箭军对于军迷来说也是并不陌生,就是以前的第二炮兵,实质就是战略导弹部队。前苏联的战略导弹部队就叫战略火箭军,解放军成立战略导弹部队时,国际形势风起云涌,出于低调克制的考虑,由周恩来提议采用了第二炮兵的名称。现在改称火箭军,在名称上就威风多了,更直接地强化了战略威慑的意义。

相对上述两个单位,对于关心国防建设的人来说,战略支援部队就要陌生多了。很多人一听到这个名称,第一反应就是后勤支援部队,那就大错特错了!战略支援部队其实一样是货真价实的作战部队,名义上是支援,很多时候反而是第一个冲锋陷阵的开路先锋,甚至要比陆海空军和火箭军更早地投入战场。按照国防部发言人的话来说,战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点,主要是将战略性、基础性、支撑性都很强的各类保障力量进行功能整合后组建而成。

战略支援部队就应该叫天网军:将改变战争

具体来说,战略支援部队将包括情报侦察、卫星管理、电子对抗、网络攻防、心理战等五大部分,是综合了这个时代最先进的天军、网军等看不见硝烟的战场上的作战部队,更确切地说是专门担负软杀伤使命的作战力量。

这也是此次军队改革在军种层面的调整,将解放军分为传统的陆海空军、战略威慑和打击的火箭军和最现代化的“天-网”军,三个层次分工明确,又能强化相互之间的协同配合,最大限度地发挥出整体战的优势,无疑是本次军队改革的重头戏。

五大部分凸现高科技含量

再来细看战略支援军的五大组成部分,先是情报侦察,这可不是传统意义上打入敌人内部的谍战无间道,也不是像老电影《渡江侦察记》那样乔装改扮深入敌后,而更多的是技术侦察。随着现代化装备越来越普遍,各种技术信息的泄漏很难避免,比如无线电信号、电磁信号、红外信号等等,通过对这些信号的搜集和分析就可以获取大量宝贵的情报,战略支援部队的侦察主要就是这方面的技术侦察,可以通过侦察卫星、侦察机、无人机、感应器等现代化装备来进行。

战略支援部队就应该叫天网军:将改变战争

卫星管理就是所谓的“天军”,这是随着航天技术的飞速发展,特别是卫星信息侦察、跟踪监视、制导导航及航天兵器的广泛应用,应运而生的新型部队。美国在1985年成立了全美航天司令部,标志着世界上第一支天军的诞生。俄罗斯随后也将军事航天部队和太空导弹防御部队从战略火箭军中分离出来,成立了一支总兵力约9万人的航天部队。那么随着解放军这次军事改革,隶属于战略支援部队的“天军”也正式组建,成为今后专门承担航天作战的部队,意义可谓重大。

电子对抗的历史就要比天军更为悠久,早在第一次世界大战中交战双方就都曾有过侦收对方的信息和干扰对方通信联络,到第二次世界大战,电子对抗的手段和规模都有了很大发展,1943年7月英军在对德国汉堡的轰炸中大规模使用金属箔条干扰德军雷达,被认为是现代电子对抗的开始。到60年代中东战争期间,电子对抗更是发挥了决定性的作用。在今天的技术条件下,电子对抗就不用再多费口舌了。

网络攻防也叫网络战,是随着网络的兴起,利用网络存在的漏洞和安全缺陷对网络系统的硬件、软件及其系统中的数据进行攻击和破坏。2001年中美之间就曾发生过大规模的民间黑客攻击事件,这在一定程度上刺激了美国,到2009年成立了世界上第一个网络司令部。中国此次借着军队改革的契机,组建了专业化的网络战部队,开始系统地在信息化建设和网络攻防领域进行投入和发展,这对于未来战争势必波及到网络的大趋势,是具有里程碑意义的。

003

最后则是心理战,也就是通过运用心理学的原理原则,以人类的心理为战场,有计划地采用各种手段,包括现代生活须臾不能脱离的网络、电视、广播等传播手段,对人的认知、情感和意志施加影响,从精神上瓦解敌方军民斗志或消除敌方宣传所造成的影响的对抗活动,从而打击敌方的心志,以最小的代价换取最大胜利和利益。心理战听起来很是玄乎,其实《孙子兵法·谋攻篇》中所提到的:“是故百战百胜,非善之善者也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。” 这里的“不战而屈人之兵”就是今天心理战所要达到的终极目标。在第二次世界大战中的诺曼底登陆战役,盟军就曾运用了大量的心理战手段,严重影响干扰了德军统帅部的判断,为战役的胜利做出了巨大贡献。此后,从朝鲜战争、越南战争,直到今天的伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争,美军都曾有专业的心理战部队参战。因此,这是最容易被忽视的军事手段,但却是军事斗争的高级层次,甚至要比先进的飞机大炮更有效率和作用。

因此,可以说战略支援部队是解放军军队改革之后五大军种中,高科技含量最高的,甚至可以说是完全不同于过去传统战争的样式,更多地带有超现代流的特色。

004

不容小觑的软杀伤

根据网络上披露的战略支援部队臂章图案,上面是八一五角星,下面是三角箭头和电子云轨道,周围是环绕的麦穗,从这个图案中就可以看出,战略支援部队并不是传统意义上钢铁的较量,看不到硝烟滚滚的场景,更没有核武器那样毁山灭海的恐怖威力,而是兵不血刃的软杀伤。从某种意义上来说,软杀伤丝毫并不比硬杀伤逊色,甚至所发挥的作用更要比硬杀伤重要。

相比之下,直到今天美军才只有独立分散的天军、网军和心理战部队,但解放军战略支援部队则将这些部队直接在编制上整合在一起,更能协同配合,发挥出最大的战斗力。可以说是这次军队的大改革,特别是战略支援部队的成立,在体制上绝对是一大进步。

试想一下,如果没有战略支援部队的卫星准确地定位和导航,没有电子干扰部队、网络战部队的保驾护航,那么火箭军的战略导弹就难以发挥作用;如果没有战略支援部队技术侦察的情报保障、卫星的通讯联系,那么分布在广阔战场上的陆海空军部队就是眼盲耳聋,战斗力也要大打折扣。因此,在看不到的四维、五维战场空间,战略支援部队必将发挥出重大的作用。

Original Referring URL:  http://war.163.com/16/0104/08/

China’s New Military Strategy : An Analysis from Asia Cyber Warfare is a Force Multiplier // 中國的新軍事戰略:亞洲網絡戰的分析是力量倍增器

China’s New Military Strategy : An Analysis from Asia Cyber Warfare is a Force Multiplier //

中國的新軍事戰略:亞洲網絡戰的分析是力量倍增器

Author ; HongAn

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The theory of war can last for a long time because the book is based on the two pillars of “research and observation” and “philosophy and experience”. They complement each other and make war theory in philosophical dialectic, logic, and theoretical reality and effectiveness. More contemporary. The primitive violence, political nature, and the interaction between the government, the people, and the military in the observation of the nature of the Krupp War are mainly oriented to examine China’s national defense strategy and its political influence and planning in the modern war.

Since Tsai Ing-wen came to power, he requested the Ministry of National Defense to propose the adjustment of the military strategy in the emergence stage. The author believes that it must be formulated from the overall thinking of the national security strategy. The preparations for the establishment of the national army are based on the “10-year military conception” as the basis for the reconstruction of the military. The author has led the plan to report on the national defense strategy (imaginary) of the Republic of China from 1995 to 104. At present, in the face of the development of the CCP’s military aircraft carrier and the military aircraft flying over the central line of the strait, the balance of power between the two sides of the strait has been broken. How to adjust the new military strategic view, facing the threat of war in a new situation, the strategic concept should also be adjusted.

20161231 - China's "Liaoning" aircraft carrier broke through the first island chain in the Pacific Ocean and conducted cross-sea area training missions. The Chinese Navy released photos on the official Weibo.  The picture shows the Liaoning and five destroyers.  (taken from the Chinese Navy to publish Weibo)

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20161231 – China’s “Liaoning” aircraft carrier broke through the first island chain in the Pacific Ocean and conducted cross-sea area training missions. The Chinese Navy released photos on the official Weibo. The picture shows the Liaoning and five destroyers. (taken from the Chinese Navy to publish Weibo)

The author believes that the current development of the CCP’s military aircraft carrier and the military aircraft flying over the central line of the strait have broken the balance of power between the two sides of the strait, how to adjust the new military strategic view, face the threat of war in a new situation, and the strategic concept should also be adjusted. . The picture shows the Chinese “Liaoning” aircraft carrier. (taken from the Chinese Navy to publish Weibo)

Deterrence strategy for the purpose of war prevention

Defending and defending is a war act, and effective deterrence is the prevention of war behavior. In the case of the Taiwan defensive warfare, “deterring” the enemy’s military operations “war”, “prevention” means preventing the use of force by the enemy. If the defeat is defeated, the war will erupt. The use of military force in the deterrent strategy is to prevent the enemy from using military force. Therefore, the deterrent theory is skillful nonuse of military forces, so deterrence must go beyond military skills. It is “stunned”. The purpose of deterrence is not to destroy the enemy when the enemy invades, but to make the enemy realize that if he really takes action, he will be eliminated.

As far as China’s new military strategic changes are concerned, Taiwan’s defense operations are of a defensive nature. As far as the defense strategy is concerned, there are only two options: defense and active defense; as far as tactical level considerations are concerned, it is just like defensive operations, only position defense and mobile defense, or both.

The People’s Liberation Army’s force development and strategic deterrence

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s development of force has emphasized the “joint overall war.” It is familiar with the internal forces of the Communists and the people on the two sides of the strait. They are constantly launching strategic deterrence against the CCP. To some extent, the CCP has made military, economic, diplomatic, and political organizations. Comprehensive integration. The CCP’s overall national defense transformation has surpassed the scope of military strategy. It not only combines the strategic thinking of “winning local wars under the conditions of information” and “active defense”, but also enhances the “combined operations of the arms and services” and promotes the “harmonious world”. The diplomatic strategy of the “new security concept” continues to use the “three wars” and “anti-secession laws” to integrate into a new “joint overall warfare” strategy.

The People’s Liberation Army Navy’s South Navy, the missile destroyer “Hefei Ship” officers and men looking for targets (AP)

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The People’s Liberation Army Navy’s South Navy, the missile destroyer “Hefei Ship” officers and men looking for targets (AP)

The CCP’s overall national defense transformation has surpassed the scope of military strategy. It not only combines the strategic thinking of “winning partial wars under information conditions” and “active defense”, but also enhances the ability of “combined operations of arms and services.” The picture shows the naval naval performance of the PLA Navy. (Information, Associated Press)

On November 25th and December 11th, 2016, the Communists twice rounded Taiwan for half a month. On December 11th, the mainland warplanes moved more than 10 fighters across the Miyako Strait and also bypassed the eastern Taiwanese waters! The People’s Liberation Army Air Force fighters flew out of the “first island chain” while crossing the bus strait and the Miyako Strait. After the CCP’s military aircraft detoured to Taiwan, the CCP’s Liaoning aircraft carrier formation also appeared in the outer seas of my east. According to the recent development of the situation, the CCP has been moving frequently, and the political meaning is greater than the military meaning. Especially after the call of Chuan Cai on December 2, 2016, Trump challenged Beijing’s “one China” policy. Of course, Beijing will not show weakness on core interests. Sending military aircraft to bypass Taiwan and dispatching aircraft carriers through the eastern waters of Taiwan is aimed at announcing that the Taiwan issue is a matter of internal affairs to the United States. It also declares that its armed forces can extinguish the Taiwan independence forces themselves, and never It will repeat the events of 1996.

In addition, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s iron boxing force can be said to be the rapid response force established by the People’s Liberation Army in response to the 21st century. The iron boxing force basically includes the People’s Liberation Army’s air force airborne 15th Army, the Military Commission, or the rapid reaction force directly under the military region. The special military battalion directly under the military region and the Chinese Marine Corps have four major fists. According to sources, the General Staff of the People’s Liberation Army, which was established in early 2016 and completed a large division of theaters, held a cross-strait military affairs report, confirming that Chinese national leader Xi Jinping has formally signed important instructions. This is internally called “No. 41″. The military order has authorized the PLA General Staff to add and complete the 16th Airborne Airborne Forces by the end of 2018. It has two fast airborne divisions, the 69th Division Airborne and the 71st Airborne Division. The newly established Airborne Sixteenth Army will assemble elite field divisions from the Nanjing Military Region and the Jinan Military Region, and will be equipped and trained to become part of the Air Force. It will be equipped with special military and missile units to become a professional force”.

In 2017, China's "two sessions" (National People's Congress, Political Consultative Conference) debuted in Beijing, the 5th meeting of the 12th National People's Congress, the People's Liberation Army Representative (AP)

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In 2017, China’s “two sessions” (National People’s Congress, Political Consultative Conference) debuted in Beijing, the 5th meeting of the 12th National People’s Congress, the People’s Liberation Army Representative (AP)

The military commander inside the People’s Liberation Army called “Order No. 41” has authorized the PLA General Staff to add and complete the 16th Airborne Air Force before the end of 2018 and become a “professional force” against Taiwan. The picture shows the representatives of the People’s Congress and the People’s Liberation Army of the Political Consultative Conference. (Information, Associated Press)

If combined with the rapid reaction force that has been completed, that is, the Airborne 15th Army, it is based on the 3rd Airborne Infantry Divisions of the 43rd Division, 44th Division, and 45th Division, and is independent of the Air Force’s 13th Airlift and the 13th Airborne. The regiment has more than 90 large and small transport aircraft, as well as some independent helicopter regiments (Brigades) belonging to the Army Aviation. Together, they can maintain a 60% combat capability and are ready to go on-board to “can fly at any time, and can drop and drop at any time.” Hit the “iron bones” of the attack mission. The General Staff of the People’s Liberation Army has officially issued a formation order. This is also a major role played by the US military in the US-Iraq war, the powerful projection force of the US military and the visual field-distance force, which led to the reform of the traditional forces. It is also impossible for the CCP to surrender to the United States forever. At least, in the East Asian region, it is hoped that it will be equal to the United States and jointly handle the status of Asia-Pacific affairs.

How can a failing strategy and a hundred percent of combat power be played!

Definition of strategic concept: After the judgment of the strategic situation, the action plan adopted should generally consider five major factors: namely, purpose, strength, time, place and means. The so-called military strategy is built under the national (security) strategy and must follow and support the national defense policy. Military strategy is not only a rationale for thinking, but also a strategic concept. It also covers the overall consideration of force design and force building. In other words, military objectives and strategic ideas are the guidance of force planning (construction), and force building is a concrete practice, and the military design combines the above two parties into a complete strategic thinking.

The military strategic adjustment of China’s various stages is a transformation from the past offensive strategy, offensive and defensive integration, defense defense or offensive defensive strategy. The process is closely related to the US global strategy, the Asia-Pacific situation and cross-strait relations. Its purpose is to ensure Taiwan’s security and maintain national sovereignty and territorial integrity. At this stage, the author believes that “preventing war, maintaining the status quo, and safeguarding homeland security.” The Department also focused on the interception of the “defense and defense, deep suppression” to effectively curb the enemy.

Table I

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Table I

Table I

Multi-task goal is means, heavy layer interception force is joint operation deployment

Purpose and means can not cooperate (multiple deterrence is passive defense, heavy deterrence is active defense)?

According to the “multiple deterrence” that the Secretary of Defense, Mr. Feng Shikuan, has recently proposed, the difference between the “repeated resistance” and the “definitely deterrent” is that the “multiple deterrence” tends to be passive defense, that is, the defense operation limited to Taiwan’s main island; It is an active defense. It is based on the island and pushes the defense network layer by layer. The two have passive and active differences. As far as the author has been engaged in strategic teaching experience for many years, there is no passive or active distinction between the so-called “multiple deterrence” and “repeated resistance”.

20170302 Legislative Yuan. Minister of National Defense Feng Shikuan attended the report of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Commission and answered questions (photo by Chen Mingren)

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20170302 Legislative Yuan. Minister of National Defense Feng Shikuan attended the report of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Commission and answered questions (photo by Chen Mingren)

The difference between the “multiple deterrence” proposed by the Secretary of Defense Feng Shikuan and the “repeated resistance” of the final case is that “multiple deterrence” tends to passive defense. (Photo, photo by Chen Mingren)

The author believes that the reason why China has adjusted “defense and obstruction” to “effectively deterring, defending and defending” should be “effectively deterring, defending and defending”, that is, the spirit of offensive and defensive. The choice of multi-task targets is only a means, and the interception of multi-tasking is a joint strategy deployment. The strategic concept of failing to cooperate with the purpose and means is a strategy that fails. It is no longer a defensive, it is a layer. Eliminate, so there is no focus on the war of war, how much money we can play.

Has Taiwan been deterred and prepared? If the CCP attacks the national army will not be defensive again!

When the Defense Minister Feng Shikuan made a reply in the Legislative Yuan, he pointed out that the military strategy of the National Army will be adjusted to “repeated the obstacles” because the weapons developed now are more advanced than before. “Some missiles have developed well”, which can make Taiwan better. Defensive forces; if the CCP launches an attack against Taiwan, the national army will no longer be a defensive, and the “respective deterrence” will begin to turn into “active defense.” At the same time, the national army has multiple, multi-party, multi-capacity capabilities. Through the enemy’s half-crossing, beach battle, and position defense, the sea and air forces could not successfully reach the purpose of landing on the island of Taiwan (quoted from Wu Mingjie, March 13, 2017, Feng Media).

In reply to the question of the Democratic Progressive Party legislator Liu Shifang, he said that if the missile command headquarters moved to the Air Force, it would meet the requirements of the deterrent strategy. The four stages of the Flying Finger Division belonged to different units, and the combat strength continued to increase. Command unity and unity of affairs can be time-honored in the first place. The Air Force Operations Command has this power. And Feng Shikuan said that “some missiles have developed well” and “not a layer of defense, it is a layer of elimination, rejection”, which refers to the deployment and mass production of the male E E cruise missile, Wan Jian bomb, Xiong San missile and patriotic The missiles, such as missiles, intercepted and annihilated the missiles, warplanes, and warships that had come to the enemy, and then began to conduct defensive operations after the troops were projected onto Taiwan’s main island.

Table II

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Table II

Table II

Constructing a multi-layer interception joint warfare missile defense capability is the focus

The National Army’s self-developed warplanes, Tianjian-1 and II missiles, and Tiangong’s first, second and third missiles have all been deployed or mass-produced, and preparatory energy and position deployment work has been prepared. Secondly, the R&D plan of high-resolution radar, electronic warfare equipment, multi-barrel rockets and other weapon systems will be carried out to effectively improve the overall combat strength of the national army. How to improve the defense warfare early warning capability, radar performance and coverage, and strengthen the development and deployment of radar signal processing, electronic defense technology, and mobile radar. We will continue to establish an early warning control mechanism and information link construction, integrate the three-armed referral system, and accurately control the relationship between the military and the various stations.

20160811 - Hualien Air Force Base was opened to local residents and the media on the 11th. The picture shows the IDF through the national warplane.  (photo by Yan Linyu)

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20160811 – Hualien Air Force Base was opened to local residents and the media on the 11th. The picture shows the IDF through the national warplane. (photo by Yan Linyu)

The National Army’s self-developed warplanes have been deployed or entered into mass production, and preparatory energy and position deployment work has been prepared. (Photo, photo by Yan Linyu)

The author believes that the missile defense capability is the key to the joint strategic deployment of constructing heavy-layer interception, especially the ability to recover from war damage is the key to the battle; the CCP’s flight vehicles (missile, patrol missiles and unmanned vehicles, etc.) have a precise impact, and their After the first strike, the national army’s war damage and resilience were the key factors affecting my combat schedule and the CCP’s follow-up battle plan. The national army should consider the ability of independent control after the destruction of the management system and strengthen the ability of attracting, electric warfare and defensive counter-measures; only effective source anti-production warfare can reduce the enemy’s attack firepower.

The concept of “fighting how to fight” – “defense, deep defense”

What kind of war the National Army wants to fight, the National Defense Construction Army wants to build a plan based on “playing, loading, editing, and training,” and secondly, it is a comprehensive national strength to build a deterrent. The strategic concept of “defending and defending” is based on the policy guidance of “training for war, unity of war and training”, and planning the “national military annual major training flow path” for the concept of “how to fight”. The military exercises are divided into four categories: “combat, mobilization, nuclearization, and training.” In order to strengthen the ability of “outside islands and ship joints to attack targets at sea” and “three-armed joint air defense training”, the number of training should be increased to enhance The combined military training capability of the three armed forces.

As a national security indicator, comprehensive national strength has two meanings. Internally, national defense construction needs to be balanced with economic development. Externally, understanding what the enemy cares most is helpful for the formation of the “deep deterrence” program. The “deep deterrence method” can be interpreted as: “The emphasis is on an unbearable revenge for the enemy, rather than the ability to emphasize actual combat and win the war.” For example, in the “Exceeding the Limits”, the war mark is no longer limited to military It is a new trend of war type and military thinking.

According to Wu Mingjie, the wind media, from the perspective of the distance, the future defense circle of the National Army usually includes the island, the east line of the Taiwan Strait, and the ADIZ air defense identification zone. However, during the war, it will be extrapolated to the coastal air and sea bases on the mainland, and even more. Inland missile bases and combat command centers, and the eastern defense range will be extrapolated to areas outside ADIZ. In addition, after the establishment of the fourth service in the future, there is no distance limit for network information warfare. These are the future threats of the national army. The scope of defense. (Wu Mingjie, March 13, 2017, Wind Media). However, this study proposes that “depth suppression” is the distance between non-linear lines. The so-called deep combat, in short, includes the depth of the three-dimensional space warfare. As the PLA calls “land, sea, air, sky, electricity”, the “National Army Defense Operations Guide” edited by the author has divided the defense operations into five. Space, namely space, air, ground, water, underwater combat guidance. At present, what we lack most is the search for space and underwater power. It must rely on international cooperation and exchange of interests.

20170118-The second day of the National Army's Spring Festival to strengthen the war preparations tour, came to the naval left camp base.  The picture shows the Navy's classmate seal submarine on display.  (photo by Su Zhongying)

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20170118-The second day of the National Army’s Spring Festival to strengthen the war preparations tour, came to the naval left camp base. The picture shows the Navy’s classmate seal submarine on display. (photo by Su Zhongying)

The future defense circle of the National Army usually includes the island and the east line of the Taiwan Strait and the ADIZ air defense identification zone. However, during the war, it will be extrapolated to the coastal air and sea bases on the mainland, and even more inland missile bases and operational command centers. The eastern defense range will also be extrapolated to areas outside the ADIZ. The picture shows the Navy’s classmate seal submarine. (Photo, photo by Su Zhongzhen)

Integration of forces in a network-centric overall operation

The idea of ​​joint military operations of the three armed forces of the Chinese army has gradually entered the hearts of the people and adapted to the development of high-tech warfare with the main form of joint operations of the three armed forces. In the construction of military power, it will avoid Taiwan’s C4ISR capability to enter the arms race with the CCP and establish a parasitic and symbiotic relationship, and participate extensively in multinational military R&D and cooperation. Pursuing a reasonable defense space in national defense security, the force is integrated into a network-centric overall operation. In short: “To turn your own army into a company, and to pull the enemy from the mountains and waters into my vision.” Therefore, in light of the above viewpoints, the author suggests that the current military strategy should be better. The better strategic concept is to “defend and defend, deepen the deterrence”, and adhere to the policy of “preventing war”, “maintaining the status quo”, and “defending homeland security”. The combination of strategic and strategic deployment, combined with multi-layer defense guidance, combined with the national defense mobilization force, strive for “strategic lasting” time, create opportunities, destroy enemy and ensure national security.

Conclusion: National security is the common responsibility of all people

In fact, the author observes the 12 national defense blueprints published before the Democratic Progressive Party elections, and the new government-driven national defense policies, such as research and development of military strategy, national shipbuilding, national machine building, improved military recruitment, weekend warriors, and military uniforms. Can not be too demanding, the new government’s national defense policy concept, in the blue book can find clues. In the face of the CCP’s asymmetric military development, and gradually locking into the “safety dilemma” dilemma, it is necessary to maintain a calm observation and thinking plan, the most favorable security strategy for survival and development, national defense policy, and military preparation. I can’t have the mind of being big and small, then I should play the depth of being small and wise.

The state-made T75-20 cannon was drilled on the "Ilan Ship" of the Sea Guard.  (photo by Yan Linyu)

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The state-made T75-20 cannon was drilled on the “Ilan Ship” of the Sea Guard. (photo by Yan Linyu)

The defense policy promoted by the new government, such as the national shipbuilding and other national propaganda, the new government’s national defense policy concept can be found in the blue book. The picture shows the state-built T75-20 cannon exercise on the “Ilan Ship” of the Sea Guard. (Photo, photo by Yan Linyu)

Defence is too negative, and lack of nuclear weapons is effective in deterring and incapable. There is no cheap national defense in the world, and national security is the common responsibility of the whole people. There is no distinction between political parties and blue and green. The key issue in the preparation of the army is the cultivation of talents. As for the new government’s annuity reform plan, there are no reasons for the military to be included in the reform, and the difficulties in the recruitment system are even more difficult. How can Taiwan implement the reforms under the quality of grassroots personnel and the lack of cadres? Deterring the fighting power.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

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戰爭論所以能歷久彌新,是因該著作是建立「研究與觀察」、「哲學與經驗」兩個支柱上相輔相成、互為保證,使戰爭論在哲學辯證、邏輯、及理論現實和有效性更具時代性。將克氏戰爭本質觀察中的原始暴力、政治性、以及政府、人民、軍隊間三位一體相互作用等面向為主,來檢視我國國防戰略其於現代戰爭中政治、戰略發展時代性影響與規劃。

自蔡英文上台後即要求國防部提出現階段的建軍戰略調整,筆者認為必須從國家安全戰略整體思維來擬定。國軍建軍備戰是以「十年建軍構想」作為兵力整建之基礎。筆者曾主導規劃提報民國95年至104年之國防建軍戰略(假想)構想。當前面對中共軍力航母之發展及軍機飛越海峽中線,已經打破兩岸之間戰力平衡,如何調整新軍事戰略觀,面對一場新情勢的戰爭威脅,戰略構想也應有所調整。

20161231-中國「遼寧號」航母突破太平洋第一島鏈,進行跨海區訓練任務,中國海軍在官方微博發布照片。圖為遼寧號與5艘驅逐艦。(取自中國海軍發布微博)

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20161231-中國「遼寧號」航母突破太平洋第一島鏈,進行跨海區訓練任務,中國海軍在官方微博發布照片。圖為遼寧號與5艘驅逐艦。(取自中國海軍發布微博)

作者認為,當前面對中共軍力航母之發展及軍機飛越海峽中線,已經打破兩岸之間戰力平衡,如何調整新軍事戰略觀,面對一場新情勢的戰爭威脅,戰略構想也應有所調整。圖為中國「遼寧號」航母。(取自中國海軍發布微博)

嚇阻戰略以預防戰爭( war prevention )為目的

防衛固守是戰爭行為,有效嚇阻是戰爭行為的預防。就台澎防衛作戰言,「嚇阻」敵國軍事行動「戰爭」,「預防」即在防止敵國使用武力的行為,若嚇阻失敗,戰爭便爆發。嚇阻戰略中軍事武力的運用,就是阻止敵人使用軍事武力。因此嚇阻理論,就是技巧性的不使用軍事武力(skillful nonuse of military forces),因此嚇阻必須超越了軍事上的技巧。就被「嚇阻」,嚇阻的目的並非是在敵人入侵時消滅敵人,而是使敵人確實認知到假如他真的採取行動,則一定會被消滅掉。

就我國新軍事戰略變革而言,台澎防衛作戰屬守勢作戰性質。就國防戰略層面考量,只有防衛固守與積極防衛兩種選則;就戰術層級考量,正如同防禦作戰,只有陣地防禦與機動防禦,或兩者交相運用。

人民解放軍武力發展及戰略威懾

中共人民解放軍武力發展,強調「聯合總體戰」,據熟悉共軍內部部分人士對兩岸情勢憂心,對於中共不斷發動戰略威懾;某種程度上,中共已將軍事、經濟、外交與政治組織間做全面性整合。中共整體的國防轉型,已超脫軍事戰略範疇,不僅結合「打贏信息條件下的局部戰爭」與「主動防禦」的戰略思維,並提升「軍兵種一體化聯合作戰」能力,全面推動「和諧世界」、「新安全觀」的外交策略,持續運用「三戰」、「反分裂國家法」等作為,整合成為全新的「聯合總體戰」策略。

中國人民解放軍海軍南海軍演,飛彈驅逐艦「合肥艦」官兵尋找目標(美聯社)

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中國人民解放軍海軍南海軍演,飛彈驅逐艦「合肥艦」官兵尋找目標(美聯社)

中共整體的國防轉型,已超脫軍事戰略範疇,不僅結合「打贏信息條件下的局部戰爭」與「主動防禦」的戰略思維,並提升「軍兵種一體化聯合作戰」能力。圖為解放軍海軍南海軍演。(資料照,美聯社)

2016年11月25日及12月11日,共軍半個月來二度繞行台灣,大陸戰機隊12月11日出動10多架戰機穿越宮古海峽,還繞行了台灣東部海域!解放軍空軍戰機,飛出「第一島鏈」,同時穿越巴士海峽與宮古海峽。繼中共軍機繞行台灣後,中共遼寧號航母編隊也出現在我東部外海,我國防安全已經出現警訊。根據近來的情勢發展,中共動作頻頻,政治意涵大於軍事意涵。特別是在2016年12月2日川蔡通話後,川普放話挑戰北京的「一個中國」政策。北京當然不會在核心利益議題上示弱,派軍機繞行台灣與派遣航母經過台灣東部海域,目的在向美國宣示台灣問題是其內政問題,同時也宣告其武力已經可以自行撲滅台獨勢力,絕不會讓1996年的事件重演。

此外,中國人民解放軍鐵拳部隊,可說是解放軍為因應21世紀所建立的快速應變武力,鐵拳部隊,基本上包括了中國人民解放軍的空軍空降第15軍、軍委會或軍區直屬的快速反應部隊、軍區直屬之特戰兵營、中共海軍陸戰隊等共四大拳頭。另據消息人士透露,於2016年初成立並完成大幅度戰區劃分的解放軍總參謀部,於召開兩岸軍事情勢會報,證實中國國家領導人習近平已正式簽署重要指示,這個被內部稱為「第41號令」的軍令,已授權解放軍總參謀部需在2018年底前,增編完成編組空降第16軍,下轄2個快速空降師,分別為空降第69師與空降第71師。新成立的空降十六軍,將會從南京軍區和濟南軍區中抽調精銳野戰師組建,並進行裝備和訓練,成為空軍的一部分,將配屬專用軍機和導彈部隊,成為對台作戰的「專業部隊」。

2017年中國「兩會」(全國人民代表大會、政治協商會議)在北京登場,全國人大第12屆第5次會議,解放軍代表(AP)

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2017年中國「兩會」(全國人民代表大會、政治協商會議)在北京登場,全國人大第12屆第5次會議,解放軍代表(AP)

解放軍內部稱為「第41號令」的軍令,已授權解放軍總參謀部需在2018年底前,增編完成編組空降第16軍,成為對台作戰的「專業部隊」。圖為全國人民代表大會、政治協商會議解放軍代表。(資料照,美聯社)

若結合已經完成組建的快速反應部隊,即空降第15軍,是由第43師、第44師及第45師等3個空降步兵師為基幹,並與空軍第13空運師、第13空降獨立團共90餘架大小運輸機,以及部份陸軍航空兵所屬的獨立直升機團(大隊),共同組成一支能保持60%作戰力且隨時可上機進行「隨時能飛、隨時能降、降之能打」等攻擊任務的「鐵骨頭」。解放軍總參謀部且已正式下達組建令,這也是有監於美伊戰爭中,美軍強大的投射兵力及視距外戰力,對戰局的重大作用,而導致解放軍對傳統戰力進行的改革。中共亦不可能永遠甘於臣服美國之下,至少希望在東亞區域中,被承認具有與美國平起平坐、共同處理亞太事務的地位。

不及格的戰略與一百分的戰力如何能打!

戰略構想之定義:為經戰略狀況判斷後,所採取之行動方案,通常應考量五大要素:即目的、兵力、時間、地點、手段。所謂軍事戰略是建構在國家(安全)戰略之下,必須遵循和支持國家的國防政策。軍事戰略不僅只是思維理則,也包含戰略構想,更涵蓋了兵力設計與兵力整建的整體考量。換言之,軍事目標與戰略構想是兵力規劃(整建)的指導,兵力整建則是具體實踐,而其中的兵力設計又將上述兩方結合成為一個完整的戰略思維。

我國各階段的軍事戰略調,由過去攻勢戰略、攻守一體、防衛守勢或是攻勢守勢各時期戰略的轉變,其過程都與美國全球戰略、亞太情勢及兩岸關係有著密切關係。其目的在確保台灣安全,維持國家主權與領土完整。而現階段筆者以為以「預防戰爭、維持現狀、保衛國土安全」。並署重點於「防衛固守、縱深遏阻」之攔截兵力整建,以有效遏阻制敵於境外。

表一

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表一

表一

多重任務目標是手段、重層攔截戰力是聯合作戰部署

目的與手段不能配合(多重嚇阻是被動防禦,重層嚇阻是主動防禦)?

據國防部長馮世寬日前曾提出的「多重嚇阻」,和最後定案的「重層嚇阻」差異,在於「多重嚇阻」傾向被動防禦,也就是侷限在台灣本島的防衛作戰;「重層嚇阻」則屬主動防禦,是以本島為中心,再一層層向外推建構防禦網,兩者有被動和主動的差異性。就筆者曾任多年戰略教學經驗來談,所謂「多重嚇阻」與「重層嚇阻」並無被動、主動之分;

20170302立法院.國防部長馮世寬出席外交及國防委員會報告及答詢(陳明仁攝)

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20170302立法院.國防部長馮世寬出席外交及國防委員會報告及答詢(陳明仁攝)

國防部長馮世寬日前曾提出的「多重嚇阻」,和最後定案的「重層嚇阻」差異,在於「多重嚇阻」傾向被動防禦。(資料照,陳明仁攝)

筆者認為當初我國之所以將「防衛固守、有效嚇阻」調整為「有效嚇阻、防衛固守」,應「有效嚇阻、防衛固守」即包含攻勢與守勢的精神。而多重任務目標選擇只是手段、重層攔截戰力則是聯合作戰部署一環,將目的與手段不能配合配合的戰略構想,是不及格的戰略;試問「重層嚇阻」不再是守勢,是一層層消滅,如此沒有重點打消耗戰持久戰,我們有多少本錢可以打。

台灣有嚇阻戰力整備?假如中共攻擊國軍不會再是守勢!

國防部長馮世寬日前在立院答詢時曾指出,國軍軍事戰略會調整為「重層嚇阻」,是因為現在研發的武器較之前進步,「有些飛彈發展得不錯」,可以讓台灣有更好防衛力量;假如中共對台攻擊發起,國軍就不會再是守勢,「重層嚇阻」將會開始轉為「積極防禦」;同時國軍已具備多重、多方、多能力戰力,將可經由擊敵半渡、灘岸決戰、陣地防禦,讓海空兵力無法順利達成登陸台灣本島目的(引自吳明杰, 2017年03月13日,風傳媒)。

他在答覆民進黨立委劉世芳質詢時說,像是飛彈指揮部移到空軍轄下,就符合重層嚇阻戰略要求,飛指部4個階段隸屬不同單位,戰力不斷增強,現在是指揮統一、事權統一,可在第一時間爭取時效,空軍作戰指揮部有這權責。而馮世寬所指「有些飛彈發展得不錯」、「不是一層層的防衛,是一層層的消滅、拒止」,就是指已經部署及量產的雄二E巡弋飛彈、萬劍彈、雄三飛彈和愛國者飛彈等武器,把來犯敵軍的飛彈、戰機、軍艦,分別先從陸海空各空間向外一層層攔截和殲滅,而非等到兵力投射到台灣本島後才開始進行防衛作戰。

表二

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表二

表二

構建重層攔截的聯戰戰力飛彈防禦能力是重點

國軍自力研製之經國號戰機、天劍一、二型飛彈、天弓一、二、三型飛彈,均已成軍部署或進入量產,並籌建後續能量及陣地部署工作。其次進行高解析度雷達、電子戰裝備、多管火箭等武器系統之研發計畫,有效提升國軍整體戰力。如何提升防衛作戰預警能力、雷達性能與涵蓋範圍,強化雷達信號處理、電子防禦技術、機動雷達之研發與部署。賡續建立早期預警管制機制與資訊鏈路構建,整合三軍指管通情系統,精確戰管與各觀通站台情資聯繫等。

20160811-花蓮空軍基地11日搶先開放給當地居民及媒體參訪,圖為現場展示IDF經國號戰機。(顏麟宇攝)

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20160811-花蓮空軍基地11日搶先開放給當地居民及媒體參訪,圖為現場展示IDF經國號戰機。(顏麟宇攝)

國軍自力研製之經國號戰機,已成軍部署或進入量產,並籌建後續能量及陣地部署工作。(資料照,顏麟宇攝)

筆者認為飛彈防禦能力,是構建重層攔截的聯合戰略部署是重點,特別是戰損復元能力為續戰關鍵;中共飛行載具(導彈、巡弋飛彈與無人載具等)精準打擊力,以及其第一擊後國軍戰損與復原能力,為影響我作戰期程與中共後續作戰計畫遂行之關鍵因素。國軍應考量指、管體系損毀後獨立作戰能力及強化誘標、電戰、防禦性反制能力;唯有效源頭反制作戰,方能降低敵攻擊火力。

針對「如何打」的用兵理念-「防衛固守、縱深遏阻」

國軍想打怎樣的戰爭,國防建軍構想要依據「打、裝、編、訓」,策定兵力整建計畫,其次是綜合國力組建嚇阻戰力。「防衛固守」的戰略構想,依據「為戰而訓、戰訓合一」的政策指導,針對「如何打」的用兵理念,規劃「國軍年度重大演訓流路」。部隊演訓區分為「作戰、動員、核化、訓練」等四大類;為加強「外島艦岸砲聯合對海上目標攻擊」與「三軍聯合防空作戰訓練」能力,尤應增加訓練次數,以增進三軍聯合作戰演訓能力。

綜合國力做為國家安全指標,有兩層意義;對內而言,國防建設需要與經濟發展兼顧;對外而言,瞭解敵人最在意的是什麼,有助「縱深嚇阻」方案的形成。對「縱深嚇阻方式」可以詮釋為:「強調的是一個令敵人難以忍受的報復,而非強調實戰及贏得戰爭的能力」,如《超限戰》中也提出戰爭標的不再僅限於軍事,是戰爭型態與建軍思維的新趨向。

據風傳媒吳明杰報導,從距離來看,國軍未來的防衛圈,平時包括本島、台海中線以東、ADIZ防空識別區,但戰時則將外推到大陸當面沿岸海空基地,甚至更內陸的飛彈基地和作戰指揮中心,而東部防禦範圍也會外推到ADIZ以外區域,加上未來第四軍種成立後,網路資訊戰更沒有距離限制,這些都是國軍未來「重層嚇阻」的防禦範圍。(吳明杰, 2017年03月13日,風傳媒)。但本研究所提「縱深遏阻」非直線間之距離。所謂縱深作戰,簡言之包含立體空間作戰之縱深,正如解放軍所稱「陸、海、空、天、電」,就筆者所主編之《國軍防衛作戰教則》,已將防衛作戰區分為五度空間,即太空、空中、地面、水面、水下作戰指導。目前我們最缺乏的是太空與水下之戰力情蒐,必須有賴國際合作及情資交換。

20170118-國軍春節加強戰備巡弋第二日,來到海軍左營基地。圖為現場展示的海軍茄比級海豹潛艦。(蘇仲泓攝)

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20170118-國軍春節加強戰備巡弋第二日,來到海軍左營基地。圖為現場展示的海軍茄比級海豹潛艦。(蘇仲泓攝)

國軍未來的防衛圈,平時包括本島、台海中線以東、ADIZ防空識別區,但戰時則將外推到大陸當面沿岸海空基地,甚至更內陸的飛彈基地和作戰指揮中心,而東部防禦範圍也會外推到ADIZ以外區域。圖為海軍茄比級海豹潛艦。(資料照,蘇仲泓攝)

兵力整合在以網路為中心的整體作戰

國軍三軍聯合作戰思想漸入人心,適應三軍聯合作戰為主要型態的高科技戰爭發展需要。軍力建構上,避免與中共進入軍備競賽,建立寄生與共生關係的台灣C4ISR能力,廣泛參與多國軍事研發與合作。在國防安全上追求合理的防衛空間,兵力整合在以網路為中心的整體作戰。簡言之:「把自己千軍萬馬變成一個連,把敵人從千山萬水拉到我我方視野之內」。因此,綜合上述觀點,筆者建議當前軍事戰略的走向,較佳的戰略構想為「防衛固守、縱深遏阻」,秉持「預防戰爭」、「維持現狀」、「保衛國土安全」的政策,構建「重層攔擊」聯合戰略部署戰力,依多層防衛指導,結合全民防衛動員力量,爭取「戰略持久」時間,創機造勢,殲滅犯敵,確保國家安全。

結論:國家安全是全民共同的責任

事實上,筆者觀察民進黨選前出版的12本國防藍皮書,新政府推動的國防政策,諸如研訂軍事戰略、國艦國造、國機國造、改良式募兵制、周末戰士、軍中連坐不能過當等主張,新政府的國防政策構想,在藍皮書中都可找出蛛絲馬跡。我國在面對中共不對稱軍備發展升溫,而且逐漸鎖入「安全兩難」困境之際,實有必要保持冷靜觀察思考規劃,對生存發展最有利的安全戰略、國防政策,以及軍事準備,其如不能有以大事小以仁的胸懷,則我應發揮以小事大以智的深度。

海巡署「宜蘭艦」上之國造T75-20機砲操演。(顏麟宇攝)

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海巡署「宜蘭艦」上之國造T75-20機砲操演。(顏麟宇攝)

新政府推動的國防政策,諸如國艦國造等主張,新政府的國防政策構想,在藍皮書中都可找出蛛絲馬跡。圖為海巡署「宜蘭艦」上之國造T75-20機砲操演。(資料照,顏麟宇攝)

防衛固守過於消極,欠缺核武戰力有效嚇阻沒有能力。天下沒有亷價的國防,國家安全是全民共同的責任,沒有政黨之分、藍綠之別。建軍備戰關鍵問題還是人才的培育,就目前新政府的年金改革方案,也將軍人沒有理由納入改革對象,更導致募兵制的困難重重,試問如此基層人員素質及幹部缺乏下,台灣如何能執行重層嚇阻戰力。

Original URL: https://goo.gl/mZV3tX

Chinese Military: Cyber security is a matter of war. In the information war, cyberspace has become a new dimension of battlefield space // 中國軍隊:網絡安全是戰爭問題。 在信息戰中,網絡空間已成為戰場空間的新維度

Chinese Military: Cyber security is a matter of war. In the information war, cyberspace has become a new dimension of battlefield space //

中國軍隊:網絡安全是戰爭問題。 在信息戰中,網絡空間已成為戰場空間的新維度

 

Author:   來源: 解放軍報 作者: 周鴻禕 張春雨

DTG: 2018年05月22日 16:XX:XX

 ● Promote network security. The integration of military and civilian needs to integrate and optimize the allocation at the national level, and promote the two-way flow of technology, talents and resources.

  ● Whether it is network security analysis, situation research, emergency response, or network protection hardware and software development, a large number of information technology talents are needed.

  

        President Xi profoundly pointed out that there is no national security without cyber security. In the digital age, cyberspace has penetrated into various fields such as politics, economy, military, culture, etc. It has the natural attributes of military and civilian integration, and is an important aspect of the integration and development of military and civilians in the new era. At present, China is marching toward a network power and building a network great wall combining military and civilian integration. It is not only the basic system design for building a network power and information army, but also an important driving force for promoting the deep development of military and civilian integration. Under the new situation, we will actively promote the in-depth development of cyber security, military and civilian integration, and urgently need to break down institutional barriers, structural contradictions, and policy issues, and constantly improve the level of integration and enhance joint protection capabilities.

Cybersecurity is related to the overall security of the country, and it is necessary for the military to walk away from the road of comprehensive integration.

  In the information age, cyberspace security has become a new commanding height of the national strategy. Last year, the “Eternal Blue” ransomware that broke out in the world, the Ukrainian power grid attacked, and the US election “mail door” and other events showed that cyber security concerns national security, social stability and war victory or defeat. The cyber security contest has risen to the national level of confrontation, beyond the scope of the military’s respective management and control, and it is necessary to rely on the integration of the military and the local forces to manage and manage well.

  Cybersecurity is a national interest. As the network’s tentacles extend to economic, social, cultural and other fields, its security will affect economic security, social security, cultural security, and information security. In May 2017, the “Eternal Blue” ransom virus swept through more than 150 countries and regions, including government, banks, communications companies, energy companies and other important departments, and the infrastructure was paralyzed, causing an uproar in the world. Earlier, Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure was attacked by cyber attacks. In just a few minutes, the computer hard drive was destroyed, all data was emptied, and the attacker tried to cause an explosion. If it succeeded, it would undoubtedly have serious consequences.

  Cybersecurity is a matter of war. In the information war, cyberspace has become a new dimension of battlefield space. At present, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan have established cyber warfare forces and vigorously developed various cyber weapons. In the Iraq war, the US military first destroyed the five key command and radar facilities of the Iraqi army, and used electronic interference to firmly grasp the information superiority, making the Iraqi army blind and paralyzed, and the defense system quickly paralyzed. With the accelerated evolution of war forms, the competition for information superiority has increasingly become the core content of war wins and losses. As the “main battlefield” of information control, cyberspace has increasingly become the commanding height of war games.

  Cybersecurity is a common practice in the world. At present, many countries in the world regard military and civilian integration as an important way to improve the security of cyberspace. For example, the United States has made cybersecurity the focus of national security. The White House and the Pentagon have designated Boeing and Lockheed Martin as the national network security team, and designated information technology giants such as Microsoft, Intel, Cisco, Apple, and Google for network security. Professional team, designated Symantec, McAfee and other network security protection companies for the network security special team. In Israel, after the retiring of many Israeli cyber security forces, they became the elite of local high-tech enterprises and founded several network security companies. These companies have come back to cooperate with the Israeli army in the field of network security to enhance the security of the military network and promote the development of the entire network space security.

Network security resources are diversified and diverse, requiring military to strengthen top-level design coordination

  Promoting the integration of military and civilian development is a systematic project. It is necessary to use system science, system thinking, and systematic methods to solve problems. At present, China’s various information network systems are developing at a high speed, and network functions of different functions and types are being put into use one after another. The overall framework of the network security protection system is basically established. However, network security resources are widely distributed in the military and local areas. Promoting network security and military-civilian integration, improving synergy protection needs to strengthen top-level design coordination, break down institutional barriers and departmental interests, unify integration and optimize allocation at the national level, and promote technology, talents, resources, etc. Two-way flow conversion of features.

  Establish and improve the leadership system of the network security organization. It is necessary to speed up the establishment of a leading agency for cybersecurity work organizations with Chinese characteristics in order to ensure a clear hierarchy and division of labor. The national cybersecurity leadership agency’s work focuses on strengthening the top-level design and macro-management of cybersecurity military-civilian integration, formulating development strategies and planning plans, fulfilling the overall coordination function in military-civilian integration, and being responsible for domestic cybersecurity defense and emergency response, and combating cybercrime. And cyber terrorism; military cyber security authorities focus on the overall planning and construction of military cybersecurity, integrating the areas of military and civilian integration into the overall development of national cybersecurity, and doing a good job of connecting with national cybersecurity development plans, We will clarify the relevant processes and management methods for military-land coordination, improve the work system for regular military conferences, important situation notifications, and major operational coordination, and form joint prevention, joint management, and joint control of cyberspace security.

  Coordinate the planning standards for military network security construction. With the goal of effectively responding to the current and future cyber offensive and defensive measures, the overall framework of military and civilian cybersecurity construction will be scientifically formulated, the construction model will be classified, the short-term and long-term construction goals will be defined, and the supporting measures for completing the tasks will be determined. The first is to adhere to the standard. Actively promote the unification of technical standards for network security basic products such as autonomously controllable secure operating systems and secure database systems, and achieve full integration of systems at key moments to create a solid and reliable network security defense line. The second is to insist on a unified assessment. Strengthen the assessment of network security construction and technical risk assessment of network security products, clarify the evaluation procedures and links, and adopt scientific and effective evaluation methods to ensure that the network is secure and controllable after it is built.

  Establish a network security military resource sharing mechanism. To realize the sharing of military network security resources, the key is to establish a mechanism for military land demand. The information on military and civilian technical achievements should be released in a timely manner. The real-time table of “the battlefield needs to be lacking” and “market ownership” should be fully shared with the military and land needs, technologies, standards, products and other information resources; accelerate the construction of military information integration and sharing platform, Expand Unicom channels, standardize interoperability standards, and achieve full complementarity and sharing of military and territorial information resources; establish a network security access system, clearly define the scope of confidentiality levels, and the military business authorities and the “Ministry of the Army” enterprises regularly meet, information, and demand docking Collaborate with research and development to prevent civil network security forces from developing technology and losing targets, reducing targets, protecting tactics from losing rivals, and lacking direction; establishing a network threat information exchange mechanism, timely interoperating with domestic and international network security updates and major event notifications, encouraging private Enterprises and governments, the military share real-time network security threat information, improve the professional and real-time response capabilities of research and analysis.

The essence of cybersecurity is the contest of talents.

  The essence of cybersecurity is cyber confrontation, which is essentially the competition of talents. Whether it is network security analysis, planning, situation research, response and disposal, or network protection hardware and software development, a large number of information technology talents are needed. In order to meet the huge demand of military network security talents, it is necessary to firmly establish a joint thinking.

  Jointly train talents. In recent years, important progress has been made in the training of national cyber security personnel. Cyberspace security has been added to the first-level discipline by the Academic Degrees Committee and the Ministry of Education, and nearly 10,000 graduates in the field of cyberspace security each year. However, compared with the demand for building a network strong country and strengthening the army, there is still a big gap, such as a large gap in the talent team, a need to improve the training system, and insufficient reserve of practical talents. We should actively explore the military, local colleges, research institutes and network security enterprises to carry out joint training channels for talents, build a team of teachers, jointly set up experimental sites, and set up a practice base to realize the organic combination of classroom teaching and practical practice, through network security training. Camp, safety operation and maintenance personnel training, etc., to enhance the professional capabilities of network security practitioners, improve the rapid, large-scale, actual combat security operation and maintenance, analysis and response, attack and defense penetration and other network security personnel joint training mechanism.

  Joint use of strength. We should coordinate the use of various forces in the military, strengthen operational coordination, and establish a relatively comprehensive network security joint prevention and control mechanism. On the one hand, give full play to the role of local network security talents, open up the military network security top-level design, core technology research and development, and network security overall construction to meet the needs of military network security for talents; on the other hand, give full play to the military network security needs The role of the booster is to use the military’s advanced network technology to test the security of national critical infrastructure networks such as nuclear power, communications, transportation, and finance, and to verify the effectiveness of the emergency response system.

  Joint research and development technology. Military and civilian collaborative innovation is an important way to achieve breakthroughs in network protection technology innovation. We should focus on the use of military demand for cutting-edge innovation, and focus on breaking key network technologies, promoting the sharing of military and civilians on the basic platform, and vigorously promoting the mutual transformation of military and civilian technologies; encouraging universities, research institutes, military enterprises, and superior private enterprises to strengthen alliances. Focus on military, human, material and financial resources, and focus on key chips, core devices, operating systems, etc.; explore military and civilian integration network security equipment technology innovation model, develop a new generation of firewalls, intrusion detection, information encryption, information hiding, anti-eavesdropping And other protection technologies to jointly foster an ecological chain of autonomous network security industry.

  In addition, due to the comprehensive complexity of network security, military and regional forces are needed to strengthen regulatory and policy guarantees. Formulate a legal system for network security and military-civilian integration, relevant policies to support the integration of cyber security and civil-military, and relevant documents in the field of cybersecurity military-civilian integration key protection, ensure that the measures for network security and military-civilian integration take root, and form a joint support system for military and land.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

要點提示

●推動網絡安全軍民融合,需要在國家層面統一整合、優化配置,促進技術、人才、資源等要素雙向流動轉化。

●無論是網絡安全分析、態勢研判、應急處置,還是網絡防護硬件、軟件的研發,都需要大量的信息科技人才。

習主席深刻指出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全。數字化時代,網絡空間已滲透到政治、經濟、軍事、文化等各個領域,具備軍民一體的天然屬性,是新時代軍民融合發展的重要方面。當前,我國正向網絡強國邁進,打造軍民融合的網絡長城,既是建設網絡強國和信息化軍隊的基本製度設計,也是推動軍民融合深度發展的重要驅動力量。新形勢下,積極推動網絡安全軍民融合深度發展,亟須破解體制性障礙、結構性矛盾、政策性問題,不斷提高融合水平、提升聯合防護能力。

網絡安全事關國家整體安全,需軍地走開全面融合之路

信息化時代,網絡空間安全已經成為國家戰略新的製高點。去年全球爆發的“永恆之藍”勒索病毒、烏克蘭電網遭攻擊、美國大選“郵件門”等事件表明,網絡安全事關國家安全、社會穩定和戰爭勝敗。網絡安全的較量已上升為國家層面的對抗,超出軍地各自管理控制的範疇,需要依靠軍地一體合力集中統管才有可能管得住、管得好。

網絡安全事關國家利益。由於網絡觸角延伸到經濟、社會、文化等各個領域,其安全必將影響到經濟安全、社會安全、文化安全、信息安全等。 2017年5月,“永恆之藍”勒索病毒席捲150多個國家和地區,包括政府、銀行、通信公司、能源企業等重要部門機構基礎設施陷入癱瘓,在全球引起軒然大波。早前,沙特的基礎設施遭網絡攻擊,僅僅數分鐘內,計算機硬盤就被破壞,所有數據被清空,攻擊者還試圖引發爆炸,如果得逞無疑會造成十分嚴重的後果。

網絡安全事關戰爭勝負。信息化戰爭中,網絡空間已成為新維戰場空間。當前,美國、英國、日本等都已建立網絡作戰部隊,並大力研發各種網絡武器。伊拉克戰爭中,美軍首先摧毀了伊軍非常關鍵的5個指揮與雷達設施,並使用電子乾擾等方式牢牢掌握信息優勢,使伊軍又盲又聾,防禦體系迅速癱瘓。隨著戰爭形態的加速演變,信息優勢爭奪日益成為戰爭勝負的核心內容,網絡空間作為信息控制的“主戰場”,日益成為戰爭博弈的製高點。

網絡安全軍民一體是世界普遍做法。當前,世界很多國家都將軍民一體看作是提升網絡空間安全的重要途徑。例如,美國就將網絡安全作為國家安全的重點,白宮和五角大樓指定波音、洛克希德·馬丁等公司為網絡安全國家隊,指定微軟、英特爾、思科、蘋果、谷歌等信息技術巨頭為網絡安全的專業隊,指定賽門鐵克、邁克菲等網絡安全防護企業為網絡安全的特種隊。在以色列,許多以軍網絡安全部隊的軍人退役後,成為地方高科技企業的精英,並創辦多家網絡安全公司。這些公司回過頭來與以軍在網絡安全領域展開全方位合作,提升以軍網絡防護能力的同時,推動整個網絡空間安全的發展。

網絡安全資源分散多元,需軍地強化頂層設計統籌

推動軍民融合發展是一個系統工程,要善於運用系統科學、系統思維、系統方法研究解決問題。目前,我國各類信息網絡系統高速發展,不同功能、類型的網絡安全設施陸續配套投入使用,網絡安全防護系統的總體框架基本建立。但網絡安全資源廣泛分佈於軍隊和地方,推動網絡安全軍民融合,提高協同防護能力需要強化頂層設計統籌,打破體制壁壘和部門利益,在國家層面統一整合、優化配置,促進技術、人才、資源等要素雙向流動轉化。

構建完善網絡安全組織領導體制。應加快建立軍地一體具有中國特色的網絡安全工作組織領導機構,確保層級清晰、分工協作。國家網絡安全領導機構的工作重點是加強網絡安全軍民融合的頂層設計和宏觀管控,制定發展戰略和規劃計劃,履行軍民融合中的統籌協調職能,負責國內網絡安全的防禦與應急反應,打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義等;軍隊網絡安全主管機構側重於擬制軍隊網絡安全的整體規劃和建設,將可以實施軍民融合的領域納入國家網絡安全發展全局,做好與國家網絡安全發展規劃的相互銜接,明確軍地協調的相關流程和管理辦法,健全軍地定期會商、重要情況通報、重大行動協同等工作制度,形成網絡空間安全的聯防、聯管、聯控。

統籌軍地網絡安全建設規劃標準。以有效應對當前和未來一段時期網絡攻防手段為目標,科學制定軍民網絡安全建設總體框架,分類確立建設模式,明確近期和長遠建設目標,確定完成任務的配套措施。一是堅持統一標準。積極推動自主可控的安全操作系統、安全數據庫系統等網絡安全基礎產品的技術標準統一,關鍵時刻能實現各系統的全面融合,打造堅固可靠的網絡安全防線。二是堅持統一評估。加強網絡安全建設評估和網絡安全產品的技術風險評估,明確評估程序和環節,採取科學有效的評估方法,確保網絡建成后防得牢、控得住。

建立網絡安全軍地資源共享機制。實現軍地網絡安全資源共享,關鍵是建立軍地需求共提機制。應及時發布軍民兩用技術成果信息,實時對錶“戰場需缺”與“市場所有”,實現軍地雙方需求、技術、標準、產品等信息資源充分共享;加快構建軍地信息融合共享平台,拓展聯通渠道,規範互通標準,實現軍地信息資源充分互補共用;建立網絡安全准入制度,明確劃定保密等級範圍,軍隊業務主管部門與“民參軍”企業定期會商、信息通報、需求對接和協作攻研,防止民用網絡安全力量技術研發丟了目標、少了靶子,防護戰術失去對手、缺乏指向;建立網絡威脅信息互通機制,及時互通國內外網絡安全最新動態和重大事件通報,鼓勵民營企業與政府、軍隊實時共享網絡安全威脅信息,提高研究分析的專業性和實時響應能力。

網絡安全實質是人才的較量,需軍地樹牢聯合思想

網絡安全的本質是網絡對抗,實質是人才的競爭較量。無論是網絡安全分析、規劃、態勢研判、響應和處置,還是網絡防護硬件、軟件的研發,都需要大量的信息科技人才。為滿足軍地網絡安全人才巨大需求,需要牢固樹立聯合思想。

聯合培養人才。近年來,國家網絡安全人才培養取得重要進展,網絡空間安全被國務院學位委員會和教育部增設為一級學科,每年網絡空間安全領域畢業生近萬名。但與打造網絡強國和強軍興軍需求相比還存在較大差距,存在人才隊伍缺口較大、培養體係有待完善、實踐型人才儲備不足等問題。應積極探索軍隊、地方高校、科研院所和網絡安全企業開展人才聯合培養渠道,共建師資隊伍、共搭實驗場所、共設實習基地,實現課堂教學、實習實踐的有機結合,通過網絡安全訓練營、安全運維人才培養等,提升網絡安全從業人員的專業能力,完善快速化、規模化、實戰化的安全運維、分析響應、攻防滲透等網絡安全人才聯合培養機制。

聯合運用力量。應統籌軍地各種力量的運用,加強行動協同,建立較為完善的網絡安全聯防聯控機制。一方面,充分發揮地方網絡安全人才的作用,開放軍隊網絡安全頂層設計、核心技術研發、網絡安全整體建設等領域,以滿足軍隊網絡安全對人才的需求;另一方面,充分發揮軍隊網絡安全需求的助推器作用,利用軍方先進的網絡技術,測試核能、通信、交通、金融等國家關鍵基礎設施網絡的安全性,檢驗應急響應體系的有效性。

聯合研發技術。軍民協同創新是實現網絡防護技術創新突破的重要途徑。應圍繞發揮軍事需求對前沿創新的牽引帶動作用,聚力突破關鍵網絡技術,促進基礎平台軍民共享,大力推動軍民技術相互轉化;鼓勵高校、科研院所、軍工企業和優勢民營企業強強聯合,集中軍地人力、物力和財力,對關鍵芯片、核心器件、操作系統等領域集智攻關;探索軍民融合網絡安全裝備技術創新模式,研發新一代防火牆、入侵檢測、信息加密、信息隱藏、反竊聽等防護技術,共同培育自主化網絡安全產業生態鏈。

此外,由於網絡安全具有綜合性複雜性,還需軍地合力來強化法規政策保障。制定網絡安全軍民融合的法規體系、支撐網絡安全軍民融合的相關政策,以及網絡安全軍民融合重點保障領域的相關文件,確保網絡安全軍民融合的措施落地生根,形成軍地聯合支撐體系。

Chinese Military Review : US Army issued the “cyberspace and electronic warfare operations” doctrine // 中國軍事評論美國陸軍頒布《網絡空間與電子戰行動》條令

US Army issued the “cyberspace and electronic warfare operations” doctrine// 中國軍事評論美國陸軍頒布《網絡空間與電子戰行動》條令

The field command FM3-12 provides instructions and guidance for the Army to implement cyberspace and electronic warfare operations using cyberspace electromagnetic activity in joint ground operations. The Fields Act FM3-12 defines the Army’s cyberspace operations, electronic warfare, roles, relationships, responsibilities, and capabilities, and provides an understanding of this to support Army and joint operations. It details how Army forces protect Army networks and data, and explains when commanders must integrate custom cyberspace and electronic warfare capabilities within military operations.

On the basis of the 2006 National Cyberspace Operations Military Strategy (NMS-CO), the US Joint Chiefs of Staff announced the joint publication JP 3-12 in February 2013 as an internal document. October 21, 2014 The published document for public release is Joint Publication JP 3-12(R). The order states that “the global reliance on cyberspace is increasing, and careful control of offensive cyberspace operations is required, requiring national-level approval.” This requires commanders to recognize changes in national network policies that are mandated by operations. Potential impact. On April 11, 2017, the US Army issued the field command FM3-12 “Network Space and Electronic Warfare Action” on this basis. The field war said that in the past decade of conflict, the US Army has deployed the most powerful communication system in its history. In Afghanistan and Iraq, enemies lacking technological capabilities challenge the US military’s advantages in cyberspace, and the US military has taken the lead in cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) operations. However, regional rivals have demonstrated impressive capabilities in a mixed-operational environment that threatens the US Army’s dominance in cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum. Therefore, the Order states that the integration of cyberspace electromagnetic activity at all stages of combat operations is the key to acquiring and maintaining freedom of maneuver in the cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum, while preventing the enemy from doing so. Cyberspace electromagnetic activity can synchronize capabilities across a variety of domains and operational functions, and maximize synergies within and through the cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum. Intelligence, signal, information operations (IO), cyberspace, space and firepower operations are critical to planning, synchronizing, and implementing cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

The Fields Order FM3-12 supports the Joint Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Act and the Army Doctrine Reference Publication ADRP3-0, Combat, and provides a background to define the Army’s doctrine reference publication ADRP5-0 “Operational Process” and Cyberspace and The relationship between electronic warfare operations. In order to understand the basic principles of integration and synchronization of cyberspace and electronic warfare operations, you must first read the Army’s doctrine publication ADP2-0, the Army’s doctrine reference publication ADRP2-0, the Army doctrine publication ADP3-0, and the Army doctrine reference publication ADRP3. -0, Army doctrine publication ADP5-0, Army doctrine reference publication ADRP5-0, Army doctrine publication ADP6-0, Army doctrine reference publication ADRP6-0, Army technical publication ATP2-01.3, field bar FM3-13 And FM6-0. By planning, integrating, and synchronizing cyberspace and electronic warfare operations, cyberspace electromagnetic activities can integrate functions and capabilities across operational functions, defend networks, and provide critical capabilities to commanders at all levels during joint ground operations. Cyberspace and electronic warfare operations affect all combat functions and are also affected by them.

Network space visualization operating environment of electromagnetic spectrum

The field battles present detailed tactics and procedures for Army cyberspace and electronic warfare operations. The field command replaced the field title FM3-38 dated February 2014. The Fields Order FM3-12 is an Army cyberspace and electronic warfare campaign advocacy publication. The field battles contain the basic principles and guiding principles of cyberspace operations, electronic warfare, and cyberspace electromagnetic activities in a single publication. It provides a comprehensive account of how they support and achieve action, and how to support the missions and functions of the various levels of force. The field battles laid the foundation for subordinate Army technical publications.

Cyberspace and e-war operations incorporate established joint and Army processes into operations such as intelligence processes, targeting processes, and military decision-making processes (MDMPs). The field battles explain the basic ideas of the Army’s cyberspace and electronic warfare operations. Content includes staff responsibilities, contributions to military decision-making processes, cyberspace and target work in the electromagnetic spectrum, and reliance on intelligence and operational environment readiness (OPE) in cyberspace.

The field battles describe the relationship between cyberspace operations, missions, operations, electronic warfare, electromagnetic spectrum, and each other’s actions. This elaboration also includes cyberspace electromagnetic activity, providing compliance for military forces and the following combat forces planning, integration, and simultaneous electromagnetic activities.

Schematic diagram of electromagnetic spectrum

The first chapter provides an understanding of cyberspace, cyberspace operations, missions, actions, and effects. It describes cyberspace and situational understanding, situational awareness, threats, risks, vulnerabilities, and their relationship to information and operational environments. The level and characteristics of cyberspace confirm the legal authorization applicable to cyberspace and cyberspace operations, and discuss the basic information and spectrum management functions of electronic warfare related to cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

Chapter 2 provides information on the use of cyberspace operations and tasks, rather than day-to-day operations, pointing out that information operations, intelligence, space operations, and targeted work can affect cyberspace, electromagnetic spectrum, cyberspace operations, and electronic warfare operations. Commanders and staff officers have integrated and synchronized all of these aspects of cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

The third chapter expounds the Army’s cyberspace electromagnetic activity and mission-style command, the role of the commander, the cyberspace with combat functions and the electronic warfare action, and discusses how to incorporate the planning elements of cyberspace and electronic warfare operations into the operational process. This includes planning, preparation, implementation, evaluation, and targeting. The discussion of the operational environment is combined with the military decision-making process, followed by an overview of the preparation requirements, implementation tactics, and how to assess cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

Figure cyberspace electromagnetic activity combat framework

Appendix A discusses cyberspace operations and various joint operations partners.

Appendix B highlights the location of cyberspace operational information in the Combat Command and Appendix 12 to Annex C. This appendix includes an example of Appendix 12 to Annex C, which describes the types of information contained in this appendix and sections.

Appendix C contains the procedures for handling cyberspace operations requests from military, military, and military units, as well as fields and information for the Cyber ​​Operations Application Form (CERF). Blank copies of the cyber operations application form and field explanations are all part of the process.

Appendix D includes fields and information for the Electronic Attack Request Form (EARF). A blank copy of the electronic attack application form and a five-line brief with field interpretation are part of the program.

Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Actions Directory

Preface

preface

Chapter 1 Network Space and the Basic Principles of Electronic Warfare Action

Section 1 Overview of Cyberspace and Electromagnetic Spectrum

First, the network space domain

Second, combat operations and cyberspace domain

Third, cyberspace tasks and actions

Section 2 Understanding Network Space and Environment

1. Network space and electromagnetic spectrum

Second, cyberspace and information environment

Third, the network space level

Fourth, the characteristics of cyberspace

5. Cyberspace as part of the operational environment

Sixth, risk in cyberspace

Seven, authorization

Section III Electronic Warfare Action

First, the electromagnetic spectrum action

Second, electronic warfare

Third, the application of matters needing attention

Fourth, spectrum management

Chapter 2 Relationship with Cyberspace and Electromagnetic Spectrum

I. Interdependence

Second, information operations

Third, intelligence

Fourth, space operations

V. Target determination

Chapter III Electromagnetic Activities in Cyberspace in Operation

First, the basic principle

Second, matters needing attention

Third, the role of the commander

Fourth, empower resources

V. Planning work and cyberspace electromagnetic activities

Sixth, network effect application form and target determination activities

Appendix A Integration with Unified Action Partners

Appendix B Cyberspace in Combat Commands

Appendix C Network Effect Application Form

Appendix D Electronic Attack Application Form

Thanks for compiling/reviewing: Shen Song

Article source: Zhiyuan Strategy and Defense Research Institute

Electric Defense Research

Original Mandarin Chinese:

野战条令FM3-12为陆军在联合地面作战中使用网络空间电磁活动实施网络空间和电子战行动提供了指示与指导。野战条令FM3-12界定了陆军网络空间行动、电子战、角色、关系、职责和能力,并提供了对此的理解,从而为陆军和联合作战提供支持。它详述了陆军部队保护陆军网络与数据的方法,并阐述了指挥官必须在军事行动范畴内整合定制网络空间与电子战能力的时机。

在2006年《国家网络空间作战军事战略(NMS-CO)》基础上,美军参谋长联席会议在2013年2月只是以内部文件形式公布了联合出版物JP 3-12。2014年10月21日对外公开发布的条令文件为联合出版物JP 3-12(R)。该条令指出,“在全球范围内,对网络空间的依赖日益增加,需要仔细控制进攻性网络空间作战,需要国家层面的批准。”这就要求指挥官认识到国家网络政策的变化对作战授权的潜在影响。2017年4月11日,美国陆军在此基础上颁布了野战条令FM3-12《网络空间与电子战行动》。该野战条令认为,在过去十年的冲突中,美国陆军已经部署了其历史上最强大的通信系统。在阿富汗和伊拉克,缺少技术能力的敌人挑战美军在网络空间内的优势,美军在网络空间和电磁频谱(EMS)行动中取得了主导权。但是,地区同等对手已经在一种混合作战环境中展示了令人印象深刻的能力,这种混合作战环境威胁了美国陆军在网络空间和电磁频谱中的主导权。因此,该条令指出,在作战行动的所有阶段整合网络空间电磁活动是在网络空间和电磁频谱内获取和保持机动自由的关键,同时可以阻止敌人这么做。网络空间电磁活动可以同步贯穿各种域和作战职能中的能力,并在网络空间和电磁频谱内及通过它们最大程度地发挥互补效果。情报、信号、信息作战(IO)、网络空间、太空和火力作战对计划、同步和实施网络空间与电子战行动是至关重要的。

野战条令FM3-12支持联合网络空间与电子战行动条令以及陆军条令参考出版物ADRP3-0《作战》,并提供了条令背景以明确陆军条令参考出版物ADRP5-0《作战过程》和网络空间与电子战行动之间的关系。为了理解整合与同步网络空间与电子战行动的基本原理,必须首先要阅读陆军条令出版物ADP2-0、陆军条令参考出版物ADRP2-0、陆军条令出版物ADP3-0、陆军条令参考出版物ADRP3-0、陆军条令出版物ADP5-0、陆军条令参考出版物ADRP5-0、陆军条令出版物ADP6-0、陆军条令参考出版物ADRP6-0、陆军技术出版物ATP2-01.3、野战条令FM3-13和FM6-0。通过计划、整合和同步网络空间与电子战行动,网络空间电磁活动就可以横跨作战职能整合各种职能与能力,保卫网络,并在联合地面作战期间为各级指挥官提供关键能力。网络空间和电子战行动影响到所有的作战职能,也会受到它们的影响。

电磁频谱的网络空间可视化操作环境

本野战条令提出了陆军网络空间和电子战行动的详细战术和程序。该野战条令取代了日期标注为2014年2月的野战条令FM3-38。野战条令FM3-12是陆军网络空间和电子战行动倡导出版物。本野战条令将网络空间作战、电子战和网络空间电磁活动的基本原理与指导原则都包含在一本出版物中。它全面阐述了他们如何支持并达成行动,以及如何支持各级部队的使命任务和职能。本野战条令为下属陆军技术出版物奠定了基础。

网络空间和电子战行动将已经制定的联合和陆军流程纳入作战行动之中,比如情报流程、目标确定流程和军事决策流程(MDMP)。本野战条令阐释了陆军网络空间与电子战行动的基本想法。内容包括参谋职责、对军事决策流程的贡献、网络空间和电磁频谱中的目标工作、网络空间中对情报和作战环境准备(OPE)的依赖性。

本野战条令阐述了网络空间作战、任务、行动、电子战、电磁频谱以及相互间与所有陆军行动之间的关系。这种阐述还包括网络空间电磁活动,为军及以下规模的作战部队计划、整合和同步电磁活动提供遵循。

电磁频谱示意图

第一章提供了对网络空间、网络空间作战、任务、行动和效果的理解,阐述了网络空间和态势理解、态势感知、威胁、风险、脆弱性及其与信息和作战环境的关系,阐述了网络空间的层次与特点,确认了适用于网络空间和网络空间作战的法律授权,论述了与网络空间和电子战行动有关的电子战基本信息和频谱管理职能。

第二章提供了有关使用网络空间行动与任务的信息,而不是日常业务,指出信息作战、情报、太空作战和目标工作可能影响网络空间、电磁频谱、网络空间作战和电子战行动。指挥官和参谋人员对网络空间和电子战行动中的所有这些方面进行了整合和同步。

第三章阐述了陆军网络空间电磁活动和任务式指挥、指挥官的作用、具有作战职能的网络空间和电子战行动,论述了如何将网络空间和电子战行动的计划工作要素纳入作战流程。这包括计划、准备、实施、评估和目标确定。对作战环境的论述与军事决策流程结合在一起,随后概述了准备要求、实施战术以及如何评估网络空间和电子战行动。

图 网络空间电磁活动作战框架

附录A 论述了网络空间作战与各种联合行动伙伴。

附录B 强调了网络空间作战信息在作战命令和附件C之附录12中的位置。本附录包括一个附件C之附录12的例子,描述了本附录和各部分所包含的信息类型。

附录C 包含了在军、军以下、军以上级别部队处理网络空间作战行动申请的程序,以及网络作战行动申请表(CERF)的字段和信息。网络作战行动申请表的空白副本和字段解释都是该程序的组成部分。

附录D包括了电子攻击申请表(EARF)的字段和信息。电子攻击申请表的空白副本和带有字段解释的五行式简令都是该程序的组成部分。

《网络空间与电子战行动》目录

序言

导言

第一章 网络空间与电子战行动基本原理

第一节 网络空间和电磁频谱概述

一、网络空间域

二、作战行动与网络空间域

三、网络空间任务与行动

第二节 了解网络空间与环境

一、网络空间和电磁频谱

二、网络空间和信息环境

三、网络空间层次

四、网络空间的特点

五、作为作战环境组成部分的网络空间

六、网络空间中的风险

七、授权

第三节 电子战行动

一、电磁频谱行动

二、电子战

三、运用注意事项

四、频谱管理

第二章与 网络空间和电磁频谱的关系

一、相互依存

二、信息作战

三、情报

四、太空作战

五、目标确定

第三章 作战中的网络空间电磁活动

一、基本原理

二、注意事项

三、指挥官的作用

四、赋能资源

五、计划工作与网络空间电磁活动

六、网络效果申请表与目标确定活动

附录A 与统一行动伙伴的整合

附录B 作战命令中的网络空间

附录C 网络效果申请表

附录D 电子攻击申请表

感谢编译/述评:沈松

文章来源:知远战略与防务研究所

转载请注明出处

电科防务研究

Original Source:  http://cpc.people.com.cn/

Chinese Military Informationization Trends – Cyber Integrated Battlefield // 中國軍事信息化趨勢 – 網絡綜合戰場

Chinese Military Informationization Trends – Cyber Integrated Battlefield // 中國軍事信息化趨勢 – 網絡綜合戰場

Source: PLA Daily

The army has given birth to the military and other military services. With the advent of the information age, the integration of battlefields and combat operations has made the integration of services a new trend and destination for the development of military construction.

Service integration: the general trend of informationized army construction

■Wang Xueping

The development of things often presents a spiral rising path, following the law of negation of negation. The development of human military activities, especially military construction, is also in line with this law. Before the information age, the army of the army was from one to many. The army had given birth to the sea and air. With the advent of the information age, the rapid development of technology has made the integration of military services a trend and a destination for the development of new military construction.

The future battlefield does not distinguish between land, sea and air

Under the condition of mechanization, the pattern of independent existence of land, sea, air and sky battlefields began to merge under the catalysis of the new military revolution. Multidimensional and multi-war occasions are the basic forms of the future battlefield.

The promotion of rapid development of science and technology. With the continuous development of science and technology and the improvement of mankind’s ability to control the battlefield, it is an inevitable trend that the battlefield will be dispersed from integration to integration. Science and technology are the driving force for the integration of battlefields and unlimited expansion into the air. The development of high-tech such as information technology, positioning and guidance technology has made the performance of weapons and equipment surpass the traditional land, sea and airspace boundaries. Global mobility, global arrival and global strike have become the targets of the development of the military of the world’s military power. The development of space situational awareness technology integrates surveillance, reconnaissance, intelligence, meteorology, command, control and communication, and integrates the battlefield information network to realize battlefield information sharing. Joint operations and precision strikes become the basic style of future warfare. The rapid development of space technology has made the surface information and the information of the global environment unobstructed. The expansion of the battlefield into space has condensed the traditional land, sea and air battlefields into one, becoming a stepping stone and pedal for the vast innocent space battlefield.

The inevitable evolution of the form of war. With the in-depth development of the new military revolution, the intensity of the war to informationization will further increase. Informatized warfare is not only a “speed war” but also a “precise war” and an “integrated war.” The acceleration of the war integration process is first manifested in the integration of land, sea and airspace, and the integration of the scope of the battlefield as the war develops. This is the basic condition for information warfare. The speed of war and the improvement of precision strike capability require that the military must have global maneuver, global combat and precision strike capability that transcends land, sea and air, cross-border, trans-ocean, and vacant, and battlefield integration is the basic guarantee. The war science and technology contest has intensified, and the requirements for battlefield resource sharing have become more obvious. Military personnel have broken through the geographical and military barriers and broke the boundary between land, sea and airspace. It is an important weight to win the war.

The requirements for quick fixes in combat objectives. Speed ​​and precision are the main thrust of future wars. Eliminating battlefield barriers, integrating land, sea, air, and battlefields is the way to reach a speedy battle. The quickness and determination of the purpose of informatized warfare has promoted the integration of force preparation, equipment and operations. The integration of force preparation, equipment and operations has also promoted the arrival of battlefield integration. The military system is integrated into the arms and services. The scope of action has surpassed the narrow space of a single service. The ability to operate in a wide area and in a large space makes it difficult to divide the battlefield into a land battlefield, a sea battlefield, and an air battlefield. Weapons and equipment combines the performance of land, sea and air weapons. Its combat function surpasses the land, sea and airspace range, providing material conditions and support for battlefield integration. The strategic battle tactical action is integrated into one, the joint operations are divided into groups, the small squad completes the large task, and the informatized war characteristics of the tactical action strategy purpose will inevitably catalyze the dispersed battlefield toward one.

Signs of military integration appear quietly

While the development of science and technology is promoting the rapid birth of new arms, the cohesiveness of war integration is also affecting the integration of military construction. Under the conditions of informationization, the trend of integration of arms and services is becoming more and more obvious, and there is a tendency to accelerate development.

The theory of integration theory is repeated. The fusion of theory is a prelude to the integration of the military, and it is the magic weapon and sword to win the information war. Under the impact of the new military revolution, theoretical innovations have surpassed the waves, especially the integration of theoretical innovations aimed at joint operations. In order to adapt to the new changes in the form of war and the international pattern, in the 2010 “four-year defense assessment report” of the United States, the theory of joint operations of “sea and air warfare” was clearly put forward. In order to adapt to the requirements of the network-centric warfare, the French military integration theory innovation is at the forefront. The Army proposed the air-to-ground combat bubble theory, and the Navy proposed the theory of joint action from sea to land. The Indian Army has referenced and learned from the US “air-ground integration” and “quick-decisive” operational theories, and put forward the “cold-start” operational theory. The core is to strengthen the cooperation between the army and the sea and air force in order to seek the initiative of the operation and strive for the shortest time. The purpose of the battle is achieved within.

Integrated equipment surfaced. The rapid development of science and technology has continuously enhanced the comprehensive functions of weapons and equipment, and integrated equipment integrating land, sea, air and sky has become a material support and an important driving force for the development of military services. In order to win the initiative of integrated joint operations, the world’s military powers have accelerated the research and development of integrated equipment. The US military “Independence” stealth warship, which was once popular, is a very typical new integrated equipment. The ship integrates anti-submarine, mine-clearing, surveillance, reconnaissance and force deployment functions. It can carry three helicopters, some special forces and armored vehicles, and integrates the “ground and air” equipment. The ship-borne gun can carry out three-dimensional attacks on missiles launched from air, land and underwater targets, which greatly enhances the integrated combat capability of the equipment.

The integrated forces first appeared. The future informationized warfare is an integrated joint warfare operation carried out in multi-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, sky, and information. It is required that the participating troops must be an integrated military system. To meet this requirement, the army of the world’s powerful countries has intensified the construction of integrated forces. Joint expeditionary forces such as the US military include the Army Division, the Naval Aircraft Carrier Combat Group, the Marine Corps Division (sub-) and the Air Force Fighter Wing. The Russian military formed a mobile unit that spanned three services and one independent unit, including the Army’s Mobility Division, tank division, special brigade, rocket brigade, air force fighter, attack aircraft, bomber regiment, naval marine battalion and airborne troops. Airborne division. The rapid reaction force formed by France consists of different types of divisions of five arms. In accordance with operational needs, Germany has directly organized the Defence Forces into three units: the Intervention Force, the Stabilization Force and the Support Force. It can be seen that the integrated forces of multiple arms and services have become the direction of army construction and development in the information age.

Looking into the future, planning the army of today

The integration of the services and the ultimate integration are the inherent requirements of the information war and the basic law of the army’s construction and development. This law does not shift from people’s will. In order to seek the initiative of army building, we should follow this trend and make forward-looking decisions in promoting the integration of the military.

In-depth exploration of the theory of military integration. Theory is the forerunner of action, and it is the reflection on the top of the mountain. Aiming at the trend of the times, accumulating strength and finding countermeasures through theoretical research is the experience and practice of world-class military construction and development. The first is to strengthen the theoretical exploration of integrated construction. We should study the issue of integrated military construction as soon as possible, explore the construction goals, standards, paths, methods, and methods of the integrated military, and build bridges and paved roads for the military integration. The second is to strengthen the exploration of integrated operational theory. The development trend of military integration will inevitably bring about new changes in combat theory. It is necessary to strengthen the study of the characteristics of the integrated military operations, strengthen the study of integrated military operations and command methods, strengthen the study of the basic military tactics of the integrated military, and make forward-looking theories a traction in the development of military construction. The third is to strengthen the theoretical exploration of new talent training. To train new talents that meet the needs of the development of integrated military construction needs to be prepared in theory. The institutional structure, teaching content and teaching methods of colleges and universities need to focus on the law of integrated military construction and development, theoretically research, clear, and even through pilot exploration, so that the training of college personnel can adapt to the general trend of military integration development as soon as possible. For the development of integrated military construction, it is necessary to make a good talent reserve.

Accelerate the development of integrated equipment for the military. Integrated equipment is the material basis for the integration of services. In line with the general trend of the development of integrated military construction, our military should speed up the research and development of military integrated weapons and equipment. The first is the “collection” type of equipment. For example, the aircraft carrier-style “collection” type of equipment, with the hull as the basic platform, fuses fighters, artillery, anti-aircraft guns, missiles, and chariots into one, so that the equipment has the ability to multi-domain and multi-air combat. Our military should develop such “collection” type equipment based on land or sea or air, and promote the development of weapons and equipment to the integration of various arms and services. The second is the “all-round” type of equipment. In the future, the equipment must be able to run on the ground, fly in the air, swim in the water, and operate at high speed on the water, underwater, on land, and in the air, and the “human outfit” is integrated. The combatants follow the operational needs. Become a super equipment that “takes the sea and catches the moon, and picks up the moon.”

Explore the construction of a military united army. Comply with the general trend of the integration and development of the informatized military, actively promote the exploration of the construction of the military-integrated forces, and explore ways to accumulate experience for the development of military integration. Under the current circumstances, it is mainly necessary to build a large article on the integration of hybrid force preparation and create conditions for the integration of the military system. The establishment of a multi-service hybrid pilot unit will be rolled forward in actual combat training. Take the Army as an example, it is to build a hybrid force that integrates rifle, tan, gun, and land. For example, the integrated ground detachment consisting of armored forces, artillery, machine infantry, missile corps, attack and transport helicopter detachments, which was formed by the US Army, foreshadowed the development trend of integrated force formation that broke the arms and even the service line. With the accumulation of experience, the maturity of the conditions, and the improvement of the level of science and technology, the scope of the composition of the force has gradually expanded, and eventually an integrated experimental unit with complete strengths of the arms and services has been established.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

陸軍曾孕育了海、空等軍種。信息時代的到來,戰場、作戰行動的一體化,使得軍種融合成為新型軍隊建設發展的走向與歸宿——

軍種融合:信息化軍隊建設大趨勢

■王雪平

事物的發展往往呈現著螺旋式上昇道路,遵循著否定之否定的規律。人類軍事活動發展特別是軍隊建設也暗合著這種規律要求。在信息時代以前,軍隊的軍種是從一到多,陸軍曾孕育了海、空等軍種。而信息時代的到來,技術的迅猛發展使得軍種融合成為新型軍隊建設發展的走向與歸宿。

未來戰場不分陸海空天

機械化條件下,陸、海、空、天戰場獨立存在的格局,在新軍事革命的催化下開始走向融合,多維立體、多戰場合一是未來戰場的基本形態。

科技快速發展的推動。隨著科技的不斷發展和人類對戰場控制能力的提高,戰場由分散走向融合是必然趨勢。而科學技術則是戰場融合一體,並向空天無限擴展的推動力。信息技術、定位與製導技術等高新技術的發展,使武器裝備性能超越了傳統的陸、海、空域界線,全球機動、全球到達、全球打擊成為世界軍事強國軍隊發展的目標。空間態勢感知技術的發展,使監視、偵察、情報、氣象、指揮、控制和通信等融合一體,一體化戰場信息網絡,實現了戰場信息共享,聯合作戰、精確打擊成為未來戰爭的基本樣式。太空技術的快速發展,使地表信息和地球環境信息盡收眼底,戰場向太空的拓展,使傳統的陸海空戰場濃縮為一體,成為廣闊無垠太空戰場的墊腳石與踏板。

戰爭形態演變的必然。隨著新軍事革命的深入發展,戰爭向信息化演變的力度將進一步加大。信息化戰爭,既是“速度戰爭”,又是“精確戰爭”,更是“一體化戰爭”。戰爭一體化進程的加快,首先表現為陸域、海域、空域的融合,以及隨著戰爭發展而不斷拓展的戰場空間範圍的一體化,這是進行信息化戰爭的基本條件。戰爭速度與精準打擊能力的提升,要求軍隊必須具有超越陸海空界線,跨境、跨海、騰空的全球機動、全球作戰和精確打擊能力,而戰場一體化則是基本保障。戰爭科技較量加劇,戰場資源共享的要求更加明顯,軍事人才更衝破了地域、軍種壁壘,打破陸域、海域、空域戰場界線,是贏得戰爭的重要砝碼。

作戰目的速決的要求。速度與精確是未來戰爭的主旨。而消除戰場壁壘,融陸、海、空、天戰場為一體,則是達成戰爭速決的通道。信息化戰爭作戰目的速決性,推動了部隊編制、裝備、行動的融合。而部隊編制、裝備、行動的融合,又促進了戰場一體化的到來。部隊體制編制諸軍兵種融於一體,行動範圍已超越了單一軍種的狹小空間,廣地域、大空間行動的能力,使戰場很難再分為陸戰場、海戰場和空戰場。武器裝備集陸海空天兵器性能於一身,其作戰功能超越了陸域、海域、空域範圍,為戰場一體化提供了物質條件和支撐。戰略戰役戰術行動融於一體,聯合作戰分隊化,小分隊完成大任務,戰術行動戰略目的的信息化戰爭特性,必然催化分散的戰場走向一體。

軍種融合跡象悄然出現

科技發展在推動新軍兵種快速誕生的同時,戰爭一體化的內聚力也在牽動軍隊建設走向融合。信息化條件下,軍兵種一體化的趨勢日漸明顯,大有加速發展之勢。

一體化理論見解迭出。理論融合是軍種融合的前奏,更是打贏信息化戰爭的法寶與利劍。在新軍事革命大潮衝擊下,理論創新一浪高過一浪,特別是瞄準聯合作戰需要的一體化理論創新更是見解迭出。為適應戰爭形態和國際格局的新變化,2010年度美國《四年防務評估報告》中,明確提出了“海空一體戰”聯合作戰理論。為適應網絡中心戰的要求,法國軍隊一體化理論創新更是走在了前列,陸軍提出了空地作戰氣泡理論,海軍提出了由海向陸聯合行動理論。印度陸軍參考和借鑒美軍“空地一體”和“快速決定性”作戰理論,提出了“冷啟動”作戰理論,核心是強化陸軍與海、空軍的配合作戰,以謀求作戰的主動性,爭取在最短時間內達成作戰目的。

一體化裝備浮出水面。科技的快速發展,使武器裝備的綜合功能不斷增強,融陸、海、空、天於一身的一體化裝備不斷問世,成為軍兵種編制向一體化發展的物質支撐和重要推動力。為贏得一體化聯合作戰的主動權,世界軍事強國紛紛加快了一體化裝備的研發力度。曾經熱炒的美軍“獨立號”隱形戰艦,就是非常典型的新型一體化裝備。該艦融反潛、掃雷、監視、偵察和兵力部署綜合功能於一體,可載3架直升機、一些特種部隊和裝甲車,融“地空”裝備於一身。艦載炮可對空中、陸地和水下目標發射導彈進行立體攻擊,使裝備的一體化戰鬥力大大提升。

一體化部隊初見端倪。未來信息化戰爭,是在陸、海、空、天、信息等多維空間進行的一體化聯合作戰行動,要求參戰部隊必須是一體化的軍事系統。適應這一要求,世界強國軍隊紛紛加大了一體化部隊建設的力度。如美軍組建的聯合遠征部隊包括陸軍師、海軍航母戰鬥群、海軍陸戰隊部(分)隊和空軍戰鬥機聯隊。俄軍組建的機動部隊橫跨3個軍種和1個獨立兵種,包括陸軍的摩步師、坦克師、特種旅、火箭旅,空軍的戰鬥機、強擊機、轟炸機團,海軍的陸戰隊營和空降兵的空降師。法國組建的快速反應部隊由5個軍兵種的不同類型師組成。德國則根據作戰需求把國防軍直接編組為乾涉部隊、穩定部隊和支援部隊三種性質部隊。足見,多軍兵種一體化部隊已成為信息時代軍隊建設發展的方向。

放眼未來謀劃今日之軍

軍種融合,並最終走向一體,是信息化戰爭的內在要求,是軍隊建設發展的基本規律。這一規律不以人們的意志為轉移。謀求軍隊建設的主動性,我們就應該順應這一趨勢,在推進軍隊一體化建設上前瞻決策,未雨綢繆。

深入探索軍種一體理論。理論是行動的先導,更是“山頂”上的思考。瞄準時代走向,通過理論研究積蓄力量、尋找對策,是世界一流軍隊建設發展的經驗做法。一是加強一體化建設理論探索。應儘早研究一體化軍隊建設問題,探索一體化軍隊的建設目標、標準、路徑、方式、方法,為軍隊一體化建設從理論上搭好橋樑、鋪好路基。二是加強一體化作戰理論探索。軍隊一體化發展趨勢必然帶來作戰理論的全新變化。要加強一體化軍隊作戰運用的特點規律研究,加強一體化軍隊作戰行動和指揮方法研究,加強一體化軍隊基本戰法研究,讓前瞻性的理論成為軍隊建設發展的牽引。三是加強新型人才培養理論探索。培養適應一體化軍隊建設發展需要的新型人才,需要在理論上早做準備。院校的體制格局、教學內容、教學方法都需要著眼一體化軍隊建設發展規律,從理論上研究透,搞清楚,甚至通過試點探索,使院校人才培養儘早適應軍隊一體化發展的大趨勢,為一體化軍隊建設發展需要做好人才儲備。

加速軍種一體裝備研製。一體化裝備是軍種融合的物質基礎。順應一體化軍隊建設發展的大趨勢,我軍應加快軍種一體武器裝備的研發。一是“集合”型裝備。如航空母艦式的“集合”型裝備,其以艦體為基本平台,融戰機、火砲、高炮、導彈、戰車於一體,使裝備具有海陸空天多域多空作戰的能力。我軍應研發這種以陸或海或空為基本平台的“集合”型裝備,推進武器裝備建設向諸軍兵種融合一體方向發展。二是“全能”型裝備。今後的裝備要達到地上能跑、空中能飛、水中能遊,水上水下、陸上、空天都可高速機動作戰,而且“人裝”一體,戰鬥人員根據作戰需要隨進隨出,真正成為“下海捉鱉,上天摘月”的超能裝備。

進行軍種一體部隊建設探索。順應信息化軍隊一體化建設發展的大勢,積極推進軍種一體部隊建設探索,為軍隊一體化建設發展探索路子、積累經驗。當前情況下,主要應做好建設混合型部隊編制融合的大文章,為軍種體制編制走向一體創造條件。組建多兵種混合一體試點部隊,在實戰訓練中滾動推進。以陸軍為例,就是建設融步、坦、炮、陸航等兵種於一體的混合型部隊。如,美陸軍組建的由裝甲兵、砲兵、機步兵、導彈兵、攻擊與運輸直升機分隊組成的一體化地面分隊,預示了打破兵種甚至軍種界線的一體化部隊編制的發展趨勢。隨著經驗的積累、條件的成熟,以及科技水平的提高,部隊力量構成的範圍逐漸擴大,最終組建成軍兵種力量齊全的一體化試驗部隊。

Original referring url: http://www.mod.gov.cn/mobilization/2017-07/28/

Chinese Military Analysis of Korean Army Network Centric Warfare Capabilities // 中國軍事韓軍“網絡中心戰”建設現狀及未來發展趨勢

Chinese Military Analysis of Korean Army Network Centric Warfare Capabilities //

中國軍事韓軍“網絡中心戰”建設現狀及未來發展趨勢

  

“Network-centric warfare” is an important symbol in the evolution of mechanized warfare to informatized warfare. It is a high-level form of joint warfare in the information age, and a new type of warfare on the information-based battlefield of the “platform center warfare”. In recent years. Han Jun continues to deepen his understanding of network-centric warfare. Accelerated the pace of the army’s informatization construction. Han Jun’s network-centric warfare concept is embodied by the Korean military command and control system, the military information system, and the Korea-US Joint Operational Information System. This paper analyzes the status quo and future development trend of Han Jun’s “network center warfare” from the aspects of network center warfare, Korean military defense informationization, Hanjun C4I system construction, and Korea-US joint information system construction.

First, the composition of national defense information

  The field of national defense informationization in Korea consists of five areas: basic system, modeling and simulation (M&S: Modeling & Simulation), interoperability and standardization, information security, and application systems. The basic system field consists of communication networks, servers, computers, and basic software. The field of modeling and simulation refers to the training exercise simulation system and simulation analysis system for NC Cent (Network Centric Warfare), and the simulation based acquisition (SBA) for procurement management.

  Interoperability and standardization are prerequisites for the implementation of network-centric warfare theory. Through interoperability and standardization, information interconnection, interoperability, interoperability and real-time perception and sharing of battlefield information can be realized. Interoperability and standardization cover technical standardization, system construction standardization, and user interface standardization.

  Information network technology brings high benefits to military construction and operational command, and also brings high risks to military information security. At present, information network technology is widely used in various fields of the Korean Army, and information security is also facing various severe challenges. The main contents of information security include: in order to ensure the integrity, availability and confidentiality of information, establish a security system under the wireless local area network (LAN) and ALL-IP environment, establish a sound information security system, and establish the security of the Korean-American information system. Program and other aspects.

  The application system consists of a battlefield management system and a resource management system. The battlefield management system consists of a command and control system called the C4I system, a military information system that collects, processes, and transmits information, and a Korean-US joint operational information system. Han Jun’s command and control system consists of the Korean Joint Command and Control System (KJCCS: Korea Joint Command and Control System), the Ground Tactical Command Information System (ATCIS), and the Naval Tactical C4I System (KNCCS: Korea Naval Command Control System). ), Air Force Command and Control System (AFCCS), Joint Fire Operation System (JFOS-K: Joint Fire Operation System-Korea), Rear Area Tactical C4I System, Brigade Command System (B2CS: Battalion Battle Command System). The Korean military military information system consists of the Military Information Management System (MIMS). The Korea-US Joint Operations Information System consists of the Joint Operations C4I System – Joint Command and Control System (AKJCCS: Allied Korea Joint Command and Control System), Joint Military Information Distribution System (MIMS-C) and the US Army Global Joint Information Exchange System – Korea System (CENTRIXS-K), US Pacific Command Automated Data Processing System – PASS-K: Pacific Command Automated Data Processing Server Site-Korea.

  The resource management system is an automated information system for improving the utilization efficiency of national defense resources. It is divided into four major areas: planning finance, personnel mobilization, military needs facilities, and electronic administration. There are comprehensive financial information systems and results management systems in the planning and finance field; personnel information systems, integrated distance education systems, and mobilization information systems in the personnel mobilization field; military needs comprehensive information systems, facility information systems, transportation information systems, and ammunition information systems in the field of military needs. , defense terrain information system, medical information system; electronic administrative field has a comprehensive defense knowledge management system, business management system, record management system.

<Figure 1> Defense Information Application System.
<Figure 1> Defense Information Application System.

Second, the construction of the Korean Army C4I system

  Han Jun’s battlefield management system consists of five major systems: KJCCS, ATCIS, KNCCS, AFCCS, and MIMS. As of 2010, all these systems have been completed. Performance improvements were made to the ATCIS system and the AFCCS system in 2011, and performance improvements were made to the KJCCS system since 2012. In 2010, the system development of the ATCIS system in the rear area was completed, and the actual deployment was completed in June 2011. Since 2009, the research and development work of the B2CS system and the preliminary research work of the ATCIS system have been carried out. In 2011, B2CS system development and ATCIS system performance improvement research and development projects were comprehensively promoted. It is estimated that in 2015, system development and test evaluation will be completed, and in 2020, it will be deployed to military-level combat units.

  KJCCS’s performance improvement work is mainly to prepare for the establishment of the first group army and the third group army integrated/merged ground combat command. It is expected that after the performance improvement of KJCCS, the powerful new features will be greatly improved in terms of reliability, survivability and security.

  ATCIS in the rear area will establish an information sharing system between the Army’s 2nd Combat Command and each team. The ATCIS in the rear area will be able to effectively adapt to the operational tasks and types of operations undertaken by the 2nd Combat Command, and it is highly targeted and operable. In addition, ATCIS in the rear area will be able to interoperate with KJCCS, MIMS and other systems to provide an integrated information environment for the vast rear battlefield management, ensuring high information sharing.

  The B2CS system is the command and control system used by the Army Brigade to the squad combat units. The B2CS system will use situational awareness and information acquisition as the forerunner to realize a variety of data information sharing and visual interaction. It is a system integrating command, control, communication and intelligence, which can effectively guarantee the command and control (C2OTM) in action.

  At present, the Korean Army’s brigade-level units are only equipped with limited C4I terminals and Position Reporting Equipment (PRE), and the commanders below the squad level are not equipped with relevant equipment. After the actual deployment of the B2CS system, it will realize the visual sharing of the battlefield information from the military to the squad through interconnection with ATCIS, and provide the basis for the close cooperation and real-time coordinated action of various combat forces and the integration of command and control.

  The ATCIS system performance improvement project is to build a network platform for the existing system to achieve interaction between the ATCIS system and 50 weapon systems. In addition, as a supplement and extension of the wired network, a command center wireless local area network (LAN) will be constructed for the ATCIS system to enhance the flexibility of the operational network.

  In response to the transfer of wartime operational command, Han Jun is promoting the research and development of AKJCCS system, MIMS-C system and JFOS-K system. It is expected that the AKJCCS system will interact with the CENTRIXS-K system, the CENTRIXS-K system will interact with the CENTRIXS-K system, and the JFOS-K system will interact with the US military’s firepower system.

  In the course of using the battlefield information management system of Han Jun, many problems were discovered. At present, system improvement work for KJCCS, ATCIS, and AFCCS is underway, but KNCCS and MIMS have made little progress in this regard. The system performance upgrade work mainly focuses on interoperability with other systems, improving the authentication system, adding some application functions, and diversifying system expansion.

Judging from the current situation, the construction of the Korean Army C4I system mainly has the following problems:

  First, in the battlefield management information system construction needs assessment stage, the proposed conceptual operational performance (ROC, Required Operational Capability) is directly reflected in the concept research phase, and then through the entire process of system development. In this way, the ROC is only based on the judgment of the R&D personnel, and is out of line with the level, type, and actual situation of the troops. As a result, the battlefield management system is singular and cannot provide the required information to the combat units in a targeted manner, resulting in users usually using only some of the functions.

  In order to solve these problems, the ROC should first be completed with the participation of developers and users. This will fully reflect the user’s needs and make the system more practical for practical use. The user interface and usage functions should also be personalized. According to the different positions and responsibilities of the troops, the corresponding functions should be set up, and a number of nodes with different functions, which can be randomly combined, aggregated in efficiency, and can adapt and act in one body, Provide a strong foundation for the combat system.

  Second, in the specific promotion stage of battlefield management information system construction, from the communication network to the application system construction, the old road of “chimney development” has been taken, resulting in “chimneys” and mutual disjoint, which greatly restricted the army. The improvement of comprehensive combat capability. Although the Korean Ministry of Defense issued a number of regulations and guidelines, it is required to follow the relevant technical standards from system development to system construction, but the actual situation is that these regulations have not been specifically implemented. As a result, the information of the Korean military battlefield management system is not well connected. The three military C4I systems—ATCIS, KNCCS, AFCCS, and military information system MIMS can only be indirectly linked through KJCCS.

  In the 2009 and 2010 “Key Decisions/鹞鹰” joint exercises, there was a problem with the Common Operational Picture (COP), which failed to accurately and real-time update and improve the comprehensive sensory intelligence information of the battlefield. The results of the 2011 review by the Institute of the Ombudsman confirmed this. The specific errors are the position of the troops, the number of troops, the size of the troops, and the major equipment intelligence. The main reasons are serious problems in coding management, system interaction, database (DB) management, and information input.

  In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to introduce not only a system based on a command and control personal computer (C2PC) that the US military is using, but also to standardize COP data. The common use in the Common Commitment Map (COP) does not mean that all users in the information system are watching the same picture. Universal means that all users share the same data source. That is, the Joint Chiefs of Staff shared the true standardized common operational map data with the three armed forces. Each user saw different presentations provided by the same data source that he or she needed.

  Third, the core of the battlefield management information system–the application system has the necessary functions required for the troops to perform tasks, but at present it only realizes the automation of the business and functions, and can not achieve the organic integration of command and control at all levels. In addition, the functional development of the application system lacks top-level design and system planning, lacks communication and collaboration, and objectively causes low level of interconnection between systems, which cannot meet the actual needs of users. From the current point of view, it is difficult to provide resource optimization configuration plans and strong decision support to commanders and operational staff.

  The information system is only automated, meaning that there is no business process analysis (BPA) in the system development process, and no reasonable and scientific business processes are formed. It can be said that one of the most important aspects of system development is Business Process Analysis (BPA). In the specific development, the current business process status analysis (As-Is) should be performed first. Once problems are identified or areas that need improvement, they are redesigned to the type of process that the user expects (to-Be) or optimizes. In this way, business process reengineering (BPR) based on the analysis of existing business processes can generate new and more reasonable business processes.

  System function development does not only include software development. Research and development personnel of information systems generally believe that software development is the entire content of system function development, and data is only the content that the system transmits during the operation. In fact, the purpose of the software is to process the data, not independent. That is to say, in the process of business process, the system and data should be promoted in parallel; in the process of system development, the data should be processed into the form required by the user. This means that business process modeling (BPM: Business Process Modeling) and data modeling (DM: Data Modeling), business standardization and data standardization should be carried out simultaneously.

  Fourth, for the weapon system, if the improvement needs are found after the development is completed, the performance improvement work will be carried out after all the problems are integrated, and there will not be too many problems. However, for the information system, even if the function is very perfect, if a specific user proposes a new functional requirement, it cannot be updated in time and improved in time, which will directly affect the actual use of the system. Without the flexibility and reliability to meet business and performance needs, information systems can hardly play a role in improving operational effectiveness.

  It is very important to establish a sound information system optimization and maintenance system, and timely reflect business requirements/performance requirements in the operation of the system. This is simpler and more effective than directly advancing performance improvement projects. Therefore, it is necessary to designate the system R&D department to be responsible for the optimization and upgrading of the system throughout its life cycle. To this end, it is also necessary to invest the corresponding budget.

III. Construction of the joint information system between Korea and the United States

  The CENTRIXS-K system and the PASS-K system were designed and used by the US military to share information with the Korean Army C4I system and military information systems. It is particularly worth mentioning that the CENTRIXS-K system is the joint operational command and control system of Korea and the United States under the leadership of the Korea-US Joint Command.

  After the transfer of wartime operational command, the command of wartime operations will be dominated by the current joint command of South Korea and the United States, becoming a new model dominated by the Korean army and supported by the US military. This means that the command organization has changed from the current single system of the Korea-US Joint Command to the two command systems of the Korean Army and the US Army in Korea. At present, both Korea and the United States are considering the disintegration of the Korea-US Joint Command, the adaptation of the Korea-Jin United Association, and the establishment of the US Korean Command (US KORCOM). At that time, the chairman of the Korean Federation of Senate will be responsible for commanding the Korean army, and the US South Korean Command (Commander of the US Army in South Korea) will be responsible for commanding the troops under the jurisdiction of the US military. In addition, South Korea and the United States will also establish new cooperation institutions, in which the Alliance Military Cooperation Headquarters will assist the Military Commission (MC) to carry out strategic cooperation; the theater-level cooperation agencies will be responsible for specific cooperation matters between the Korean Federation of Senate and the US Korean Command; The Combatant Command-level cooperation agency will be responsible for specific cooperation matters between the Korean-American combat command-level forces.

  In the face of this change in organizational structure, it is necessary for the ROK to strengthen the system construction required by Korea’s leading command and control and the Korea-US cooperation mechanism. To this end, Hanshen is developing the AKJCCS system and the MIMS-C system. It is expected that the AKJCCS system and the MIMS-C system will be used as a theater-level information circulation, joint operational command and control, joint operational function support, and cooperation means of military cooperation agencies between the two countries. As a result, changes will be brought to the command and control systems and support systems in the Korea-US Joint Information System. That is, the Korean Army through the KJCCS system, the US military through the CENTRIXS-K system to command and control their respective combat forces; the Korean Army’s Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Korean Army’s various combat command through the KJCCS system using the main functions of the AKJCCS system, the United States and South Korea Command And the US military combat command uses the main functions of the AKJCCS system through the CENTRIXS-K system.

  In 2015, after the transfer of wartime operational command, the Korean Army’s battlefield management information system and the US military’s C4I system will achieve a fairly level of interconnection, interoperability, and interoperability. Han Jun’s battlefield management will be implemented through the KJCCS system and the three military C4I systems – ATCIS system, KNCCS system, AFCCS system, and the joint operation of Korea and the United States will be implemented through the CENTRIXS-K system and the AKJCCS system. The existing system interaction mechanism will be maintained between the Korean-American Air Force/Naval Combat Force, and the non-interoperability between the Korean-US Army/Marine Corps combat units will continue.

  The MIMS-C system is currently in the research and development stage, and the MIMS system is only used as the Korean military’s own military information system.

  From the perspective of joint operations, it is important that the AKJCCS system function as much as possible in the interoperability with CENTRIXS-K. The CENTRIXS-K system operation data is provided by various underlying systems, but the AKJCCS system does not have such a lower system application support system, so some functions of the CENTRIXS-K system are difficult to run on the AKJCCS system. These functions include the Crisis Action Standard Operating Procedures (CASOP), the Integrated Decision Support Framework (IDSF), and the Commander’s Critical Information Requirement (CCIR), 5X8 Card. SIGEVENT: Significant Event, etc. It is expected that after the transfer of wartime operational command, the AKJCCS system will be able to obtain the information provided by the above functions from the CENTRIXS-K system through a network link.

  Joint Warning and Reporting Network, Joint Weather Impacts System, Theater Battle Management Core System, Theater Ballistic Missile Warning (TBMW) Wait. The CENTRIXS-K system can effectively interconnect, interoperate and interoperate with so many systems. Therefore, the functions of command and control, information sharing, cooperation and coordination, and business support are excellent, and the operation is very smooth without any problems or obstacles. However, Han Jun’s AKJCCS system can only obtain limited data from the KJCCS system, so it has great limitations in function. Therefore, it is also necessary for Han Jun to build the lower system of the AKJCCS system to ensure safe, efficient and stable operation of the AKJCCS system.

Fourth, the trend of the construction of the joint information system between Han Jun and Korea-US

  From the point of view of the Korean military’s individual operations, to improve the combat effectiveness of the battlefield management system, it must have the necessary performance required for the mission.

  First of all, it is necessary to realize the interaction of the Korean and American tactical C4I systems to ensure information sharing and collaboration between Korean and American tactical forces. That is to realize the Korean-American ground forces–Hanjun ATCIS system and the US Army ABCS system, the Korean-American naval–Korean army KNTDS system and the US military CENTRIXS-M system, the Korea-US Air Force–Hanjun AFCCS system and the US Air Force tactics C4I System (ACC-COIN), Korea-US Marine Corps–Hanjun ATCIS system interacts with the US Marine Corps system in real-time or near-real-time systems, and information sharing is very important.

  Secondly, the interactive mode of the current three-armed tactical system-ATICS system, KNCCS system, and AFCCS system centered on the KJCCS system should be changed. This mode has limited the improvement of combat effectiveness. For example, direct interconnection between the three military tactical systems will effectively improve the rapid response capability, rapid maneuverability and coordinated combat capability of the troops. In addition, it is also very important to resolve the transmission delay, data loss and data inconsistency between the three military tactical C4I systems.

  In addition, we should proactively complete the construction of basic communication networks such as top-level design, system integration, continuous promotion of TACT (Tactical Information Communication Network), satellite communication network, etc., and accelerate the establishment of a unified and complete information platform and integrated information network.

In summary, the development direction of the Korean Army C4I system can be summarized as the following four points:

  First, the operational performance requirements (ROC) of the C4I system should be completed with the participation of R&D personnel and users. The system user interface and usage functions should be personalized, providing a strong foundation for situational awareness, command and control, and decision support. support.

  Second, the standardization of data between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the three armed forces, sharing a unified data source (data source) and data standardization common operational map.

  Third, the application system of the C4I system realizes interconnection, interworking, interoperation, data retrieval and troubleshooting can all be performed in the same screen. In addition, in order to form a reasonable and scientific business process, business process analysis (BPA), business process modeling (BPM) and data modeling (DM: Data Modeling) are required.

  Fourth, timely reflect the user’s business needs, performance requirements and improvement requirements, and establish and improve the information system’s optimal maintenance system.

 In addition, the development direction of the Korean-American C4I system can be summarized as the following two points:

  First, learn from the CENTRIXS-K system and build the lower system of the AKJCCS system to ensure efficient and stable operation of the system.

  Second, realize the interaction of the Korean and American tactical C4I systems to ensure information sharing and collaboration between Korean and American tactical forces. Zhiyuan / Everest

Original Mandarin Chinese:

“網絡中心戰”是機械化戰爭形態向信息化戰爭形態演變過程中的一個重要標誌,是信息時代聯合作戰的高級形態,是相對“平台中心戰”的信息化戰場上的一種新型作戰模式。近年來。韓軍不斷深化對網絡中心戰的認識。加快了軍隊信息化建設的步伐。韓軍的網絡中心戰概念是通過韓軍指揮控制系統,軍事信息系統和韓美聯合作戰信息系統來體現的。本文以網絡中心戰為主線,從韓軍國防信息化組成,韓軍C4I系統建設情況,韓美聯合信息系統建設情況等方面分析了韓軍“網絡中心戰”建設現狀和未來發展趨勢。

一,國防信息化組成

韓國國防信息化領域由基礎體系,建模與仿真(M&S:Modeling&Simulation),互操作性與標準化,信息安全,應用系統等五大領域組成。基礎系統領域由通信網,服務器,計算機,基礎軟件等組成。建模與仿真領域指應對網絡中心戰(NCW:Network Centric Warfare)的訓練演習模擬系統和模擬分析系統,用於採辦管理工作的基於仿真的採辦(SBA:Simulation Based Acquisition)等。

互操作性及標準化是網絡中心戰理論得以實踐的前提條件。通過互操作性及標準化,可實現信息互聯,互通,互操作及作戰要素對戰場信息的實時感知與共享。互操作性及標準化的內容涵蓋技術標準化,系統建設標準化,用戶界面標準化等諸多方面。

信息網絡技術在給軍隊建設,作戰指揮帶來高效益的同時,也給軍隊信息安全帶來高風險。目前,信息網絡技術在韓軍各個領域得到廣泛應用,同時信息安全也面臨各種嚴峻挑戰。信息安全的主要內容包括:為了確保信息的完整性,可用性和保密性,制定無線局域網(LAN),ALL-IP環境下的安全制度,建立健全信息安全保障體系,確立韓美信息系統互聯互通安全方案等方面。

應用系統由戰場管理系統和資源管理系統組成。戰場管理系統由被稱為C4I系統的指揮控制系統,收集,處理及傳遞信息的軍事信息系統,韓美聯合作戰信息系統構成。韓軍的指揮控制系統由韓軍聯合指揮控制系統(KJCCS:韓國聯合指揮控制系統),地面戰術C4I系統(ATCIS:陸軍戰術指揮信息系統),海軍戰術C4I系統(KNCCS:韓國海軍指揮控制系統),空軍戰術C4I系統(AFCCS:空軍指揮控制系統),戰區聯合火力運用系統(JFOS-K:聯合火力作戰系統 – 韓國),後方地區戰術C4I系統,大隊級以下戰鬥指揮系統(B2CS:營戰指揮系統)組成。韓軍軍事信息系統由軍事信息綜合處理系統(MIMS:Military Intelligence Management System)組成。韓美聯合作戰信息系統由聯合作戰C4I系統 – 聯合指揮控制系統(AKJCCS:盟軍韓國聯合指揮控制系統),聯合軍事信息流通系統(MIMS-C)和美軍全球聯合情報交換系統 – 韓國分系統(CENTRIXS-K),美國太平洋司令部自動數據處理系統 – 韓國分系統(PASS-K:Pacific Command Automated Data Processing Server Site – 韓國)組成。

資源管理系統是用於提高國防資源利用效率的自動化信息系統,具體分企劃財政,人事動員,軍需設施,電子行政四大領域企劃財政領域有綜合財政信息系統,成果管理系統;人事動員領域有人事信息系統,綜合遠程教育系統,動員信息系統;軍需設施領域有軍需綜合信息系統,設施信息系統,運輸信息系統,彈藥信息系統,國防地形信息系統,醫療信息系統;電子行政領域有國防綜合知識管理系統,業務管理系統,記錄管理系統。

<圖1>國防信息化應用系統。
<圖1>國防信息化應用系統。
二,韓軍C4I系統建設情況
韓軍的戰場管理系統由KJCCS,ATCIS,KNCCS,AFCCS,MIMS等五大系統組成。截止到2010年為止,這些系統已全部建設完畢。2011年對ATCIS系統和AFCCS系統進行了性能改進,2012年起對KJCCS系統進行性能2010改進。年完成後方地區ATCIS系統的體系研發工作,2011年6月完成了實戰部署。2009年年起,進行了B2CS系統的研發工作和ATCIS系統的先期研究工作。2011年, B2CS系統研發和ATCIS系統性能改進研發項目全面推進。預計2015年,將完成體系開發和測試評估工作2020年實戰部署至軍級作戰單位。

KJCCS的性能改進工作主要是為第一集團軍,第三集團軍整合/合併後的地面作戰司令部的設立做準備。預計KJCCS性能改進後,在具備強大的全新功能的同時,在可靠性,生存性,安全性方面會有大幅提升。

後方地區ATCIS將在陸軍第2作戰司令部和各大隊間建立起信息共享系統。後方地區ATCIS將能夠有效適應第2作戰司令部擔負的作戰任務,作戰類型,具有很強的針對性和可操作另外,後方地區ATCIS還將能夠與KJCCS,MIMS等系統實現互聯互通互操作,為廣闊的後方地區戰場管理提供一體化信息環境,保證信息的高度共享。

B2CS系統為陸軍大隊至小隊作戰部隊使用的指揮控制系統.B2CS系統將以態勢感知,信息獲取為先導,實現多種數據信息共享和可視化交互,是集指揮,控制,通信,情報為一體的系統,可有效保障行動中的指揮和控制(C2OTM)。

目前,韓陸軍大隊級部隊僅配備有限的C4I終端和位置報告設備(PRE:Position Reporting Equipment),小隊級以下的指揮官根本沒有配備相關裝備.B2CS系統的實戰部署後,將通過與ATCIS的互聯互通,實現從軍到小隊的戰場信息可視化共享,為實現各種作戰力量的密切配合和實時協調行動以及指揮控制一體化提供基礎。

ATCIS系統性能改進項目是為現有系統搭建網絡平台,實現ATCIS系統與50個武器系統互動。另外,作為有線網絡的補充和延伸,還將為ATCIS系統構築指揮所無線局域網(LAN),以加強作戰網絡的靈活性。

為了應對戰時作戰指揮權移交,韓軍正在推進AKJCCS系統,MIMS-C系統,JFOS-K系統的研發工作。預計,AKJCCS系統將與CENTRIXS-K系統實現互動,CENTRIXS-K系統將於CENTRIXS- ķ系統實現互動,JFOS-K系統將與美軍的火力系統實現互動。

韓軍的戰場信息管理系統在使用過程中,發現了很多問題。目前,對KJCCS,ATCIS,AFCCS的系統改進工作正在進行,但KNCCS和MIMS卻在這個方面幾乎沒有任何進展。系統性能升級工作主要圍繞與其他系統互聯互通,完善認證系統,增加一些應用功能,多元化系統擴張等方面進行。

從目前的情況看,韓軍C4I系統建設工作主要存在如下問題:

第一,在戰場管理信息系統建設需求評估階段,提出的概念性的作戰性能要求(ROC,Required Operational Capability)被直接反映到概念研究階段,進而貫穿系統研發的整個過程。這樣,ROC只是根據研發人員的判斷做出的,與部隊的水平,類型,實際情況脫節,結合的不夠緊密。其結果戰場管理系統是單一化的,不能向作戰單位有針對性地提供所需情報,導致用戶通常只使用其中的部分功能。

為了解決這些問題,首先ROC應在研發人員和用戶的共同參與下完成。這樣就能充分反映用戶的需求,使系統更便於實際操作使用。用戶界面,使用功能也應該進行個性化配置,根據部隊不同的崗位,職責設定相應的功能,建設一批具有不同功能,既可隨機組合,效能聚合,又能自主適應,一體行動的節點,為作戰體系提供強大的基礎支撐。

第二,在戰場管理信息系統建設的具體推進階段,從通信網到應用系統建設都走了“煙囪式發展”的老路,導致彼此之間“煙囪林立”,互不相通,極大地限制了軍隊綜合作戰能力的提升。雖然韓國防部下發了一些規定和指針,要求從體系開發到系統建設都要遵循相關的技術標準,但是實際情況是這些規定並未能得到具體落實。其結果韓軍戰場管理系統信息間互聯互通不暢,三軍C4I系統-ATCIS,KNCCS,AFCCS和軍事信息系統MIMS只能通過KJCCS進行間接聯動。

在2009年和2010年的“關鍵決心/鷂鷹”聯合演習中通用作戰圖(COP:Common Operational Picture)出現問題,未能準確,實時地更新和完善戰場綜合感知情報信息。2011年監察院的審查結果也證實了這一內容。具體的錯誤內容為部隊位置,部隊數量,兵力規模,主要裝備情報等,其原因主要是編碼管理,系統互動,數據庫(DB)管理,信息輸入等方面出現嚴重漏洞。

為了解決這些問題,不但要引進類似美軍正在使用的指揮與控制個人計算機(C2PC)等為基礎的系統,還要實現COP數據標準化。通用作戰圖(COP)中的通用並非意味著信息系統中的所有用戶都在觀看同一畫面,通用實際上是指所有用戶在共享同樣的數據來源(數據源)。即,參聯會與三軍部隊共享著真正的標準化通用作戰圖數據,每個用戶看到的是自己所需的同一數據來源提供的不同的展示畫面。

第三,戰場管理信息系統的核心 – 應用系統雖然具備部隊執行任務所需的必備功能,但是目前只是實現了業務及功能的自動化而已,並不能實現各級指揮與控制的有機融合另外。 ,應用系統的功能開發缺乏頂層設計和系統規劃,缺乏溝通與協作,客觀造成系統間互聯互通水平低,無法滿足用戶的實際需求。從目前來看,很難向指揮官及作戰參謀提供資源優化配置方案和強有力的決策支持。

信息系統只是實現了自動化,意味著在系統開發過程中沒有進行業務流程分析(BPA:業務流程分析),沒有形成合理,科學的業務流程。可以說,系統開發中,最為重要的環節之一是業務流程分析(BPA)。在進行具體開發時,首先應進行當前業務流程狀況分析(AS-IS)。一旦發現問題或需要改進的方面,就要重新設計成用戶期望的(待)或優化了的流程類型。這樣,在分析現有業務流程的基礎上進行業務流程重組(BPR),可以產生新的更為合理的業務流程。

系統功能開發並非只包括軟件開發這一項。信息系統的研發人員通常認為,軟件開發是系統功能開發的全部內容,數據只是系統在運行過程中傳遞的內容而已。而事實上,軟件的目的是為了處理數據,並不是獨立存在著也就是說,在業務流程過程中,系統與數據應並行推進;在系統開發過程中,數據應被處理成用戶所需的形態這意味著業務流程建模(BPM:Business Process Modeling)和數據建模(DM:Data Modeling),業務標準化和數據標準化應同時進行。

第四,對於武器系統而言,開發完畢後,若發現需要改進的地方時,綜合所有問題後再進行性能改進工作,也不會有太多的問題。但是對於信息系統而言,即便功能非常完善,若特定用戶提出新的功能需求時,不能及時更新,及時改進,那麼就會直接影響到系統的實際使用。如果不能靈活可靠地滿足業務需求和性能需求,那麼信息系統就很難在提高作戰效能方面發揮作用。

建立起完善的信息系統優化維護體系,在系統的運營過程中,及時反映業務需求/性能需求等方面非常重要。這比直接推進性能改進項目更為簡單有效。所以,有必要指定系統研發機關負責系統整個生命週期內的優化升級工作。為此,投入相應的預算也是非常必要的。

三,韓美聯合信息系統建設情況

CENTRIXS-K系統和PASS-K系統是美軍為了與韓軍C4I系統和軍事信息系統實現信息共享而設計和使用的。特別值得一提的是,CENTRIXS-K系統是目前韓美聯合司令部主導下的韓美聯合作戰指揮控制系統。

戰時作戰指揮權移交後,戰時作戰指揮權將由現在的韓美聯合司令部主導,變成韓軍主導,美軍支援的新模式。這意味著指揮機構由現在的韓美聯合司令部單一體制變成韓軍,駐韓美軍兩個指揮體制。目前,韓美雙方正考慮韓美聯合司令部解體,韓參聯會機構改編,設立美國韓國司令部(US KORCOM)的方案。屆時,韓參聯會主席將負責指揮韓國軍隊,美國韓國司令部(駐韓美軍司令)將負責指揮美軍所轄部隊。另外,韓美還將新設合作機構,其中同盟軍事合作本部將協助軍事委員會(MC)進行戰略層面的合作;戰區級合作機構將負責韓參聯會與美國韓國司令部間的具體合作事項;作戰司令部級合作機構將負責韓美作戰司令部級部隊間的具體合作事項。

面對這種組織結構變化,韓軍有必要加強韓國主導指揮控制及韓美合作機制所需的系統建設。為此,韓參聯正在開發AKJCCS系統和MIMS-C系統。預計,AKJCCS系統和MIMS -C系統將作為韓美兩國間戰區級信息流通,聯合作戰指揮控制,聯合作戰功能支援,軍事合作機構合作手段等來使用。其結果,就將會給韓美聯合信息系統中的指揮控制系統,支援系統帶來變化即,韓軍通過KJCCS系統,美軍通過CENTRIXS-K系統對各自的作戰力量進行指揮控制;韓軍的參聯會及韓軍各作戰司令部通過KJCCS系統使用AKJCCS系統的主要功能,美國韓國司令部及美軍各作戰司令部通過CENTRIXS-K系統使用AKJCCS系統主要功能。

2015年,戰時作戰指揮權移交後,韓軍的戰場管理信息系統和美軍的C4I系統將實現相當水平的互聯,互通,互操作韓軍的戰場管理將通過KJCCS系統及三軍C4I系統 – ATCIS系統,KNCCS系統,AFCCS系統來實施,韓美聯合作戰將通過CENTRIXS-K系統和AKJCCS系統來實施。韓美空軍/海軍作戰部隊間將保持現有系統互動機制,另外韓美陸軍/海軍陸戰隊作戰部隊間系統不互通的狀態將會繼續持續下去。

MIMS-C系統目前正處於研發階段,MIMS系統只作為韓軍自己的軍事信息系統來使用。

從聯合作戰的角度來看,AKJCCS系統在與CENTRIXS-K的互聯互通中,盡可能多地發揮作用非常重要.CENTRIXS-K系統運行數據都是由各種下層系統提供的,但是AKJCCS系統卻不具備這樣的下層系統應用支援體系,因此CENTRIXS-K系統的部分功能很難在AKJCCS系統上運行。這些功能主要有危機處置標準操作程序(CASOP:危機行動標準操作程序),綜合決策支持框架(IDSF) :綜合決策支持框架),指揮官重要信息需求(CCIR:指揮官的關鍵信息要求),5X8卡,主要狀況(SIGEVENT:重大事件)等。預計戰時作戰指揮權移交後,AKJCCS系統將能夠通過網絡鏈結的方式從CENTRIXS-K系統獲取上述功能所提供的信息。

CENTRIXS-K系統的下層系統由參聯的C4I-全球指揮控制系統(GCCS:全球指揮控制系統),美地面部隊戰術C4I系統 – 陸軍作戰指揮系統(ABCS:陸軍作戰指揮控制系統)的機動控制系統(MCS:機動控制系統),高級野戰砲兵戰術數據系統(AFATDS:AdvancedField Artillery Tactical Data System),防空和導彈防禦工作站(AMDWS:Air&Missile Defense Workstation),全信源分析系統(ASAS) ,美海軍戰術C4I系統(CENTRIXS-M),美空軍戰術C4I系統(ACC-COIN:空中部隊司令部 – 興趣網絡),防空系統(ADSI:防空系統集成商),全球廣播服務(GBS:Global廣播服務),聯合監視目標攻擊雷達系統(JSTARS:聯合監視和目標攻擊雷達系統),聯合報警與報告網絡(聯合警報和報告網絡),聯合氣象影響系統(聯合天氣影響系統),戰區作戰管理中心系統(Theatre Battle Management Core Sy ():戰區彈道導彈預警(TBMW:Theatre Ballistic Missile Warning)等.CENTRIXS-K系統能夠和如此多的系統實現有效互聯,互通,互操作,所以指揮控制,信息共享,合作協調,業務支援等功能十分優異,運行非常流暢,不存在任何問題和障礙。但是韓軍的AKJCCS系統只能從KJCCS系統獲取有限的資料,所以在功能上有很大的局限性。因此,韓軍也有必要建設AKJCCS系統的下層系統,以保證AKJCCS系統安全高效,穩定運行。

四,韓軍及韓美聯合信息系統建設趨勢

從韓軍單獨作戰的角度來看,提高戰場管理系統體系戰鬥力,必須具備任務所需的必要性能。

首先,需實現韓美戰術級C4I系統的互動,保證韓美戰術部隊間的信息共享與協作即實現韓美地面部隊間 – 韓軍ATCIS系統與美軍ABCS系統,韓美海軍間 – 韓軍KNTDS系統與美軍CENTRIXS-M系統,韓美空軍間 – 韓軍AFCCS系統與美空軍戰術C4I系統(ACC-COIN),韓美海軍陸戰隊間 – 韓軍ATCIS系統與美海軍陸戰隊系統實時或近實時系統互動,信息共享是非常重要的。

其次,應改變目前以KJCCS系統為中心的三軍戰術系統–ATICS系統,KNCCS系統,AFCCS系統的互動模式,這種模式已限制了作戰效能的提升。如三軍戰術系統間直接互聯互通,將能夠有效提高部隊快速反應能力,快速機動能力及協同作戰能力。此外,解決三軍戰術C4I系統間傳輸遲延,數據丟失,數據不一致現象也是非常重要的。

另外,還應積極主動地完成頂層設計,系統集成,持續推進戰術信息通信系統(TICN:戰術信息通信網絡),衛星通信網等基礎通信網絡建設,加快建立統一完善的信息平台及綜合信息網絡。

綜上所述,韓軍C4I系統的發展方向可以概括為以下四點:

第一,C4I系統的作戰性能要求(ROC)應在研發人員和用戶的共同參與下完成,系統用戶界面和使用功能應進行個性化配置,為態勢感知,指揮控制,決策支持等提供強大的基礎支撐。

第二,參聯會與三軍間實現數據標準化,共享統一的數據來源(數據源)和數據標準化通​​用作戰圖。

第三,C4I系統的應用系統實現互聯,互通,互操作,數據檢索和故障排除都可以在同一畫面中進行。另外,為了形成合理,科學的業務流程,要進行業務流程分析(BPA),業務流程建模(BPM:Business Process Modeling)和數據建模(DM:Data Modeling)。

第四,及時反映用戶業務需求,性能需求及改進要求,建立完善信息系統的優化維護體系。

另外,韓美C4I系統的發展方向可以概括為以下兩點:

第一,借鑒CENTRIXS-K系統的做法,建設AKJCCS系統的下層系統,保證系統高效,穩定運行。

第二,實現韓美戰術級C4I系統的互動,保證韓美戰術部隊間的信息共享與協作。知遠/珠峰

Original Referring url:

 

Chinese Military Review: From Army Information Construction to Construction of Information Army // 中國軍事評論:從軍隊信息建設到建設信息化軍隊

Chinese Military Review: From Army Information Construction to Construction of Information Army //

中國軍事評論:從軍隊信息建設到建設信息化軍隊

2006年04月20日 22:00

From the Army Information Construction to the Construction of Informatized Army——Opening the Eyes to See the New Military Revolution in the World

  Li Bingyan

  A few years ago, there was a curtain factory abroad that was on the verge of bankruptcy and turned to the consulting company. The consulting company only asked them to change the curtain factory to a shading technology factory, and the factory would survive.

  A name change has broadened the horizon of development; a concept change has opened up the mind shackles. Updating the concept is inseparable from the concept of renewal. In the new military revolution, we need to adopt new concepts in a timely manner to show new development ideas.

  Although the ongoing new military revolution still does not see the other side, it is clear that the change has entered a new stage.

  This new military revolution was triggered by a new technological revolution centered on information technology. In the 1990s, the revolutionary impact of information technology on the military mainly remained at the stage of “construction”, that is, information technology embedding, networking, networking, and integration within the framework of the mechanized military organization. Technology strengthens mechanization and enhances mechanization. The theoretical community often refers to this stage of change as a revolution in the military field, which is to promote the army.

Information construction. At that time, the digital division and the digital army to be built by the US Army were carried out within the structure of the original mechanized army. Later, the US military learned from the experience of informatization of some large enterprises and multinational corporations in the society and changed the way of thinking.

  In the past, military changes were first to change military technology, weapons and equipment, and finally to complete the transformation of the military organizational system to adapt to the new methods of warfare. The new military revolution, characterized by informatization, especially the post-launch army, should be reversed. The experience of the business community is also “first rationalization of organizational structure, re-automation, informationization.”

  Before the 1990s, the US business community carried out informatization construction, focusing only on improving work efficiency. Although effective, it still cannot be changed. Ford Motor Company has spent a lot of money on automation, and its office efficiency has improved significantly. For example, the financial department of the North American branch has reduced the number of employees from 500 to 400 after office automation. The company leaders think it is good. Later, they learned about Japan.

Mazda Motor Company did the same job and used only five people. In contrast, Ford’s leadership was shocked. After in-depth investigation, they found that Mazda started to adjust the organizational structure, first change the workflow, and then engage in office automation. Ford’s financial system, organizational structure or traditional model has caused a lot of useless work. Later, Ford Company optimized its structure, re-engineered its business processes, and started office automation on this basis. The company’s financial staff was compressed to a quarter.

  In the development of human society, there is a phenomenon of “path dependence”. After a social system is formed, it will continue to strengthen itself in the actual operation, so that people will not be able to get rid of the influence of the original ideas afterwards.

  In addition, the organizational structure does not change, it is difficult to make the right decision in information. Usually, people are standing in their own units and planning work in this department, forming a “professional syndrome.” The research informatization is first of all the informationization of the unit, beyond the scope of construction of the unit, the leadership vision will not be achieved. This has led to the emergence of new “isomorphic diseases” – large and complete, small and complete, you have me, can not be interconnected, interoperable, interoperable. In this regard, some people call it the “potato effect”: a sack of potatoes, all sprouting, each self-contained system, self-enclosed, and not connected. Building these systems may be reasonable from a local perspective, but it may not be scientific or irrational from the overall perspective of informatization.

  In the practice, the foreign military realized that if informationization is not detoured, it should start with rationalizing the system and adjusting the command system. Otherwise, all levels and departments are busy with informationization. It is likely that the faster and the more the action is now, the greater the losses will be caused once reworked in the future.

  The rationalization of the organizational structure, the consideration of informationization, or the rationalization of organizational structure and informationization, and the simultaneous development have become a new consensus on the new military revolution. After entering the 21st century, the US military proposed a military transformation, marking a new stage in military transformation. At this stage, information technology has shifted from a “construction” role to a “deconstruction” role. That is: instead of strengthening mechanization, it is reorganizing mechanization. As a result, the army’s informatization construction has turned to the construction of an information-based army; the changes in the military field have turned to real military changes.

  In the theoretical preparation stage of the US military, the future army that was designed was: the sensor army, the precision strike army, the dominant mobile army, and the logistics army. In the transition, after a new argument, the future goals of the US military reorganization are proposed: the full-dimensional battlefield perception army, the precision firepower strike army, the efficient command and control army, and the intelligent logistics support army.

  In 2005, Germany proposed the idea of ​​building a “new three armed forces”, namely: rapid reaction forces, standing combat troops, and logistics support forces.

  At the end of last year, the Russian General Staff Department completed the reform of the armed forces. The Russian military’s new round of structural reforms eliminated the arms, military regions and fleets and re-established three functional headquarters and three regional headquarters. The three functional commands are: Strategic Nuclear Power Command, Transportation Command, and Aerospace Defense Command. The three regional commands are: Western European Command, Central Asian Command and Far East Command.

  Generally speaking, although the structural changes of the military have their own characteristics, the common point is that they tend to be integrated and tend to be integrated, and the boundaries between the traditional arms and services are increasingly blurred. The informationized army is not just a technology, but a new structure that is linked to new technologies – ultimately, a structural decision function.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

從軍隊信息建設到建設信息化軍隊——放開眼界看世界新軍事變革

李炳彥

幾年前,國外有一家窗簾廠,瀕臨倒閉之際,求助於諮詢公司。諮詢公司只讓他們把窗簾廠改為遮光技術廠,這個廠子便活了起來。

一個名字改變,拓寬了發展視野;一個概念更換,撬開了心智枷鎖。更新觀念,離不開更新概念。在新軍事變革中,我們需要適時採用新的概念,來展現新的發展思路。

持續發生的新軍事變革雖然至今仍看不到彼岸,但清晰可見變革已經進入到一個新階段。

這場新軍事變革,是由以信息技術為核心的新技術革命引發的。上個世紀90年代,信息技術對軍隊的革命性影響,主要還停留於“建構”階段,即在機械化軍隊的組織結構框架內進行信息技術嵌入、建網、聯網、集成,實際上是用信息技術加強機械化、提昇機械化。理論界常把這一階段的變革,稱之為軍事領域裡的變革,是推動軍隊

信息化建設。當時,美陸軍要建設的數字化師、數字化軍,都是在原來機械化軍隊的結構內進行的。後來,美軍汲取社會上一些大企業、跨國公司進行信息化的經驗,改變了變革的思路。
以往的軍事變革,都是先變革軍事技術、武器裝備,最後完成軍事組織體制的變革,以適應新的作戰方式。而信息化為標誌的新軍事變革,特別是後發之軍,應當反過來進行。企業界的經驗也是“先組織結構合理化,再自動化、信息化”。

上個世紀90年代以前,美國企業界進行信息化建設,只著眼於提高工作效率,雖有成效,但還談不上變革。美福特汽車公司,曾花大筆金錢搞自動化,辦公效率明顯提高,如北美分公司的財務部,實現辦公自動化後,人員由原來的500人減少到400人,公司領導自認為不錯。後來,他們得知日本

馬自達汽車公司做同樣的工作,一共只用了5個人。兩者相對照,福特公司的領導大吃一驚。他們深入調查後發現,馬自達公司從調整組織結構入手,先改變工作流程,再搞辦公自動化。福特公司的財務制度、組織結構還是傳統模式,造成許多無用功。後來,福特公司經過優化結構,再造業務流程,在此基礎上搞辦公自動化,公司財務員工壓縮到了原來的四分之一。
人類社會在發展中,存在一種“路徑依賴”現象,即一個社會系統形成後,必將在實際運作中不斷自我強化,以致後來人們改進它的種種嘗試,都難以擺脫原有思路的影響。

另外,組織結構不改變,很難做出信息化的正確決策。通常,人們都是站在本單位、本部門謀劃工作,形成了一種“職業官能症”。研究信息化首先是本單位的信息化,超出本單位的建設範圍,領導視野就達不到了。致使出現新的“同構病”——大而全、小而全,你有我也有,不能互聯、互通、互操作。對此,有人稱之為“馬鈴薯效應”:一麻袋馬鈴薯,個個都發芽,個個自成小系統,自我封閉,互不相聯。建這些系統,從局部來看可能合理,但從信息化的全局看可能並不科學、不合理。

外軍在實踐中認識到:要想信息化不走彎路,還應從理順編制體制、調整指揮體系入手。否則,各級、各部門都忙著信息化,很可能現在動作愈快、投入愈多,將來一旦返工,造成的損失就愈大。

先組織結構合理化,在信息化,或者組織結構合理化與信息化一併考慮,同時進行,成了新軍事變革的一種新共識。進入21世紀後,美軍提出軍隊轉型,標誌著軍事變革進入了一個新階段。在這個階段,信息技術從“建構”作用,轉向“解構”作用。即:不是加強機械化,而是重組機械化。由此,軍隊信息化建設,轉向了建設信息化軍隊;軍事領域裡的變革,轉向真正的軍事變革。

美軍在理論準備階段,曾設計出的未來軍隊是:傳感器軍,精確打擊軍,主導機動軍,聚焦後勤軍。在轉型中,經過新的論證,提出美軍重組的未來目標:全維戰場感知軍,精確火力打擊軍,高效指揮控制軍,智能後勤保障軍。

德國於2005年,提出了建設“新三軍”設想,即:快速反應部隊,常備作戰部隊,後勤支援部隊。

去年底,俄軍總參謀部完成了關於武裝力量改革方案。俄軍新一輪結構改革方案,取消了軍兵種、軍區和艦隊,重新成立三個職能司令部和三個地區司令部。三個職能司令部是:戰略核力量司令部、運輸司令部、空天防禦司令部。三個地區司令部是:西歐司令部、中亞司令部和遠東司令部。

從總體上看,軍隊結構變革雖然各國都有自己的特色,但共同點是趨於綜合、趨於一體化,傳統的軍兵種之間的界限日益模糊。信息化軍隊不只是技術,重要的是與新技術相聯繫的新的結構方式——最終還是結構決定功能。

Original Referring url: http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/2006-04-20/

People’s Liberation Army must be brave enough to take responsibility for China’s “Cyberspace” Sovereignty // 人民解放軍必須勇敢地對中國的“網絡空間”主權負責

People’s Liberation Army must be brave enough to take responsibility for China’s “Cyberspace” Sovereignty //

人民解放軍必須勇敢地對中國的“網絡空間”主權負責

Original: “National Defense Reference”, No. 3, 2017

作者:安卫平 北部战区副参谋长

  The cyberspace was born in the military field. For example, the first computer, the APA network and the GPS navigation system all originated from the military. Today, cyberspace security has been closely related to national security, and the military has once again become the protagonist of maintaining national cyberspace security. Whether it is facing normalized network penetration or large-scale cyberattacks, it is urgent for the military to move from defending the “network camp gate” to guarding the “network country gate”, breaking through the traditional military mission and mission, breaking through the traditional war preparation mode. With a new network of national defense thinking, the founding of the network era of the country’s strong shield.

  From the “network camp door” to the “network country door”, the new era brings a new trend of military mission

  Cyberspace is not only related to the maintenance of national strategic interests, but also directly affects political, economic, cultural security and social development. It has also become the blood and link of modern battlefield joint operations. The Chinese military cannot be limited to maintaining the internal network security of the military camp. It must also actively adapt to the trend of the times and take the responsibility of the country that guards the “network country.” The strong army of the Internet is an important part of the construction of a network power. From the “network camp door” to the “network country door” is the inevitable trend of the development of the domestic and international situation in the information age.

  Guarding the “network country door” is forced by the cyberspace security situation. As the first major Internet country, China’s security situation is not optimistic, and strategic opponents have never stopped preparing for our network operations. The United States, Britain, France and other countries are actively preparing for cyberspace, giving military functions through cyberspace security legislation, developing cyber warfare forces, developing cyber warfare weapons and equipment, and advancing war to the “fifth space” of mankind, especially in China. In the historical process of the rise, the Western countries used the means of network technology and communication to implement uninterrupted harassment, subversion and cyberattacks under the leadership of the Cold War mentality and the containment subversion strategy, which seriously affected the security and social development of our country. China gradually became National security is at great risk for the hardest hit by cybersecurity threats, the test sites for virus attacks, and the destination of conscious penetration.

  In the coming period, as a new emerging country, China’s conflicts of interest with other parties will intensify. Strengthening the network defense strategy and strengthening the operational readiness of cyberspace are the inevitable ways to actively strive for the dominance and discourse power of cyberspace, and also the rise of China. The only way to go. As the main force of national security and stability, the military must adapt to the characteristics of cyberspace and become the backbone and main force to resist network intrusion and network subversion, and safeguard national security and social stability.

  Winning cyber warfare is the trend of new military revolution in the information age. As one of the most advanced productivity in the information age, network technology has made cyberspace warfare a dominant factor guiding the evolution of modern warfare and affecting the overall situation of war. In recent years, from the “seismic net” attack in Iran, the cyber warfare in the Russian-Georgian conflict, the large-scale obstruction of the Ukrainian power grid , and the cyberattack of the US military against IS, the huge role played by cyberspace in actual combat has gradually emerged, indicating that cyber warfare Has become an important style of future joint operations.

  The US military attaches great importance to the construction of cyberspace armaments, the establishment of the Cyberspace Command, the launch of cyberspace joint warfare, the extensive expansion of cyber warfare forces, the maintenance of its cyberspace hegemony, and the formation of cyberspace control capabilities as a “third offset strategy”. “Absolute advantage is the most important competitive content.

  Many countries in the world have followed suit, and the trend of militarization of cyberspace is obvious. The rigorous cyberspace military struggle situation requires the Chinese military to focus on the changes in the network battlefield space, adapt to the requirements of the information war era, and achieve the strong military goal of smashing and winning in cyberspace.

  Effective network warfare is an inherent need to accelerate the construction of a network powerhouse. In the process of China’s development from a network power to a network power, it is inseparable from the strong cyberspace military power as a guarantee. The international competition in cyberspace is a comprehensive game of the country’s comprehensive strength. Among them, the quality of network military capacity building is directly related to national security and stability, and it is the core element of the entire national security field.

  At present, the interests of countries in the world in the cyberspace are mutually infiltrated, and there is a situation in which you have me, I have you, cooperate with each other, and develop together. However, this kind of common development is not equal. The US and Western powers have taken advantage of the cyberspace dominance, and have already achieved certain network warfare advantages, which has made my network development and interests subject to people. How the military can fulfill its mission of defending the earth in the construction of a network-strength country, the premise is to form a network environment capable of curbing the crisis, controlling the opponent’s network attack and defense capabilities, and ensuring peaceful development.

  Therefore, the military needs to establish a deterrent strategic goal of effective warfare, form a strategic check and balance ability that can “destroy each other” with the enemy, thereby enhancing strategic competitiveness, ending cyberspace aggression, and ensuring the smooth advancement of the network power strategy.

  From “keeping the soil and being responsible” to “protecting the net and defending the country”, the new situation requires the military to undertake new tasks.

  The military is the main force and pillar of national security, and cyberspace is no exception. The National Security Law, which was enacted on July 1, 2015, stipulates: ” Citizens of the People’s Republic of China , all state organs and armed forces, political parties and people’s organizations, enterprises and institutions, and other social organizations have the responsibility to safeguard national security. And obligations.” The Cybersecurity Law, promulgated in November 2016, emphasizes the need to maintain cyberspace sovereignty and national security.

  On the basis of the laws of these two countries, on December 27, 2016, the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “Strategy”) was officially launched, providing overall guidance for creating a new pattern of network powers at a new starting point. Basically follow, clearly put forward nine strategic tasks, further embodying the mission of the military in the process of building a network power.

  With the national mission of protecting the network, the military must be a strong pillar to defend the cyberspace sovereignty. The first of the nine strategic tasks listed in the “Strategy” is “firmly defending the cyberspace sovereignty” and clearly proposes to “take all measures including economic, administrative, scientific, technological, legal, diplomatic, military, etc., and unswervingly maintain our network.” Space sovereignty.” It can be seen that the military must assume the military mission of using physical space and defend the national mission of the sovereign security and interests of virtual cyberspace.

  Cyberspace sovereignty is the core interest of the state and an important component of national sovereignty. It indicates the independence, equal, self-defense and management rights of the state in cyberspace. A once hostile forces violated my cyberspace sovereignty is tantamount to a violation of national sovereignty physical space of my land, sea and so on, China will have the right to take all measures, including military means, including giving resolutely fight back.

  Internationally, the United States has long proposed a cyberspace deterrence strategy, declaring that attacks on US network information facilities are equivalent to war acts, and the United States will take military strikes to retaliate. Military means is a means of safeguarding national sovereignty and plays a vital role in safeguarding national cyberspace security. Therefore, the military, air, sea and air military forces have been given the historical mission of protecting the cyberspace sovereignty. They must rely on the powerful physical space to defend the national interests of cyberspace and effectively deter the hostile forces from cyber-damaging attempts.

  In accordance with the era of the Internet, the military must be the ballast stone to defend national security. The second item of the “Strategy” mission emphasizes the need to resolutely safeguard national security, prevent, deter and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship.

  In the era of information network, the military of all countries in the world has become an important participant in cyberspace. The level of cyberspace capability has become the main indicator for assessing the modernization of a country’s military. It is one of the main duties of the informationized military to carry out cyberspace missions and maintain national security.

  Judging from the historical process of China’s development, it is necessary to be highly vigilant against the danger of the country being invaded, subverted, and divided in cyberspace in order to adapt to the national security strategy needs of building a well-off society in an all-round way. Highly alert to the reform caused by cyberspace. The danger of developing the overall situation is destroyed, and we are highly wary of the danger of interference and destruction in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  Preventing problems before they occur requires the state to have the means to cope with and deal with these dangers, and to have the powerful force to prevent, stop and legally punish cyberspace violations. Defending the country has always been an unshirkable historical responsibility of the military. The inherent mission and mission have determined that the Chinese military must assume the role of taking various measures in the cyberspace to safeguard the country’s political, economic, cultural security and social stability.

  The strategic mission of both offensive and defensive, the military must be a strong backing to enhance the ability of cyberspace protection. The third and eighth items of the Nine Major Tasks in the Strategy clearly state that all necessary measures must be taken to protect critical information infrastructure and its important data from attack and destruction, and that technology and management should be adhered to, protected and shocked; We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and compatible with the network powers. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security. Among all the political, diplomatic, military, and scientific and technological capabilities of the country to maintain security, military power has always been the foundation and support for all capabilities, the fundamental guarantee for all capabilities, and the ultimate support for national security.

  Therefore, the military must undertake the strategic task of strengthening the national cyberspace protection capability. In the real society, the military is the reassurance of safeguarding national security. In the cyberspace, it should also become the security dependence and guarantee of the people. As an important part of the national cyberspace protection capability, the military must achieve both offensive and defensive capabilities, and the ability to resolutely safeguard the interests and security of the country and the people in cyberspace, and effectively eliminate the various crises caused by cybersecurity threats. The turbulence of thoughts enables the people to truly feel that production and life are effectively protected and become the confidence of the people of the whole country in their confidence in the national network protection capabilities.

  The global responsibility of UNPROFOR, the military must be an important support for maintaining global cybersecurity. The last item of the “Strategy” mission clearly proposes to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace, support the United Nations in playing a leading role, promote the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, international anti-terrorism conventions on cyberspace, and improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cybercrime, deepening International cooperation in the areas of policy law, technological innovation, standardization, emergency response, and protection of key information infrastructure.

  Cyber ​​terrorism and cybercrime are new forms of global threat catalyzed by information network fermentation. They pose a huge threat to the political, economic, military and cultural security of all countries in the world. It is not enough to rely solely on the power of the government and the people. Western countries have given the military the responsibility to protect cybersecurity and the power to fight cyber terrorism. Maintaining the security and stability of global cyberspace is in the fundamental interests of China and the rest of the world. The military should become an important defender of global cyberspace security and an important force in combating global cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

  The globalization and unbounded nature of the Internet determine the international demand for combating cyber terrorism and transnational cybercrime. The military should promote military cooperation between countries in the framework of the UN Security Council and use the strategies and technologies of the Internet era to establish joint defense and joint defense. Mechanism to effectively safeguard the security of the national and world cyberspace.

  From “field training” to “network preparation”, new areas require new preparations for the military

  Under the new historical situation, cyberspace puts forward new requirements for the military training and preparation mode. It should adapt to the new characteristics of cyberspace and the new mission of the military to carry out innovative reforms on the traditional model, strengthen the country’s military objectives, and strengthen macro-coordination. Focusing on the legal needs of cyberspace military operations, it closely follows the natural attributes of cyberspace “military and civilian integration”, builds a network security attack and defense system that combines peacetime and warfare, and builds a network defense force of “military and land use”.

  Legislation empowerment provides a legal basis for the military to carry out its functional mission. The countries of the world, especially the western developed countries, attach great importance to the issue of network defense in cyber security legislation. The United States has successively issued a series of policies and regulations such as “National Security No. 16 Presidential Decree”, “Network Space Action Strategy”, and has continuously deepened and standardized on how to protect national network security in the field of network defense.

  At present, it is necessary to clarify the duties and responsibilities of the cyberspace military from the legal level. It should be based on the National Security Law and the Cyber ​​Security Law, and introduce the network defense law and related cyberspace military operational regulations, for the construction of the network defense field and military. The action provides regulatory support and a program of action to make the military’s responsibilities and mission in cyberspace more specific and specific.

  First, further define the network sovereignty and network frontier through the network defense legislation, and clearly define the scope of the military.

  The second is to establish the operational authority of the military to defend the national cyberspace security through the construction of cyber warfare laws and regulations, and to distinguish military means against network intrusion and network destruction. Third, through the cyberspace international cooperation policy, the military will coordinate with other countries and civilian forces to combat international cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

  The integration of military and civilian provides an innovative driving force for the construction of a network powerhouse. The integration of military and civilian is the main method for the world power to enhance the competitiveness of cyberspace. For the construction of China’s network powerhouse, building a military-civilian network security attack and defense system and developing a military-land dual-use defense information infrastructure is to inspire the innovation of military cyberspace combat capability. Source.

  The first is to coordinate the military, civilian, and functional departments of the state, the military, and various levels of government, set up special command and coordination agencies, mobilize all national network forces, and build a network security attack and defense system that combines “military and civilian integration” and “peace and war.”

  The second is to issue guidance on the in-depth development of cyber security military-civilian integration as soon as possible, and gradually carry out basic legal research and demonstration of military-civilian integration to guide the development of medium- and long-term military-civil integration.

  Third, relying on the country’s existing public mobile communication network, optical fiber communication network and satellite system, the military and civilians will build an information infrastructure covering the entire army of the whole country, and realize the unified construction and sharing of military and civilian.

  The fourth is to establish an emergency response mechanism for military-civilian joints, increase the ability to train military authorities to control events, strengthen experts and emergency professional strength, and enhance the ability to quickly recover damaged networks or information systems.

  Military-civilian joint training provides a practical environment for the generation of cyberspace military capabilities. The military-civilian sharing characteristics of cyberspace make military-civilian joint training an important means of military training in cyberspace around the world. The cyberspace joint military and civilian exercises in the United States and NATO countries have formed a series of series. The “Network Storm” and “Network Guardian” drills have attracted the participation of governments, enterprises, research institutions and even civilian hackers. Our military cyberspace military strength training also needs to attract a wide range of civil forces to participate.

  First, do a good job in military-government cooperation, establish a military-civilian joint offensive and defensive drill mechanism, learn from the red-blue confrontation training methods in the cyber war drills of developed countries such as the United States, actively build a “national network shooting range”, plan a series of joint exercises of the government and non-government organizations, and enhance the integration of the military and the people. The level of attack and defense of the network of the government and the people.

  The second is to do a good job in military-enterprise cooperation, relying on net-based enterprises to set up a training field on the Internet, to promote the ability of attack and defense between the military and civilians, and jointly improve the ability to prevent unknown risks.

  The third is to organize private network security companies and hacker talents, carry out network security competitions and other activities, and mutually verify each other to jointly improve the level of network security protection technology and tactics.

  The network reserve service provides a source of strength for building a powerful network army. As a backup supplement to the national defense force, the reserve has both military and civilian characteristics and is a powerful measure to realize the organic unification of the development of cyberspace economy and national defense.

  First, it is led by the national security department, and overall planning is carried out according to national interests. A series of laws and regulations conducive to the construction of the network national defense reserve are introduced, and the main division of labor, promotion strategy, interest coordination, etc. of the military and civilian construction in the network defense reserve construction are solved from the top level. problem.

  The second is to innovate the reserve organization and comprehensive coordination mechanism, and plan to integrate the reserve construction into all levels and fields of national network information development.

  The third is to focus on the reform of the military and local management models. Based on the management mechanisms of the provincial and municipal governments, the military, and local enterprises and institutions, the network will establish a network of national defense reserve personnel to jointly cultivate and use the mechanism, improve the national emergency mobilization mechanism, and establish a national network defense special talent. The database will include the construction of network militia and reserve forces into the scope of mobilization of the people’s armed forces. In normal times, they will be incorporated into the militia emergency detachment for training. In an emergency, they will select the elite personnel to participate in the non-war military operations missions, and will be recruited and used as needed during wartime. To transform the national defense potential into national defense strength. 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

原題:從守衛“網絡營門”走向守衛“網絡國門”

作者:安衛平北部戰區副參長

原載:“國防參考”2017年年第3期

網絡空間誕生於軍事領域,如首台計算機,阿帕網和GPS導航系統等都源於軍方,時至今日,網絡空間安全已與國家安全息息相關,軍隊又再次成為維護國家網絡空間安全的主角,無論是面對常態化的網絡滲透,還是大規模的網絡攻擊,都迫切需要軍隊從守衛“網絡營門”走向守衛“網絡國門”,突破傳統的軍隊使命任務,突破傳統的應戰備戰模式,以全新的網絡國防思維,鑄造網絡時代國之堅盾。

從“網絡營門”到“網絡國門”,新時代帶來軍隊使命新趨勢

網絡空間不僅事關國家戰略利益維護,直接影響政治,經濟,文化安全和社會發展,也成為現代戰場聯合作戰的血脈和紐帶。中國軍隊不能局限於維護軍營內部網絡安全,更要主動適應時代趨勢,勇於承擔把守“網絡國門”的國家擔當。網絡強軍是網絡強國建設的重要一環,從“網絡營門”走向“網絡國門”是信息時代國內外形勢發展的必然趨勢。

守衛“網絡國門”是網絡空間安全形勢所迫。中國作為第一網絡大國,安全狀況不容樂觀,戰略對手從未停止對我網絡作戰準備。美,英,法等國積極備戰網絡空間,通過網絡空間安全立法賦予軍隊職能,發展網絡戰部隊,研發網絡戰武器裝備,將戰爭推進到了人類的“第五空間”,特別是在中國日益強大崛起的歷史進程中,西方國家在冷戰思維和遏制顛覆戰略的主導下,利用網絡技術手段和傳播方式實施不間斷的騷擾,顛覆和網絡攻擊行動,嚴重影響我國家安全與社會發展,中國逐漸成為網絡安全威脅的重災區,病毒攻擊的試驗場,意識滲透的目的地,國家安全面臨著巨大風險。

未來一段時期內,中國作為新興大國,與各方利益衝突還將加劇,堅定推進網絡國防戰略,加強網絡空間的作戰準備,是積極爭取網絡空間的主導權和話語權的必然途徑,也是中國崛起的必由之路。軍隊作為國家安全穩定的主要力量,必須適應網絡空間特點要求,成為抗擊網絡入侵,網絡顛覆的中堅和主力,維護國家安全和社會穩定。

打贏網絡戰爭是信息時代新軍事變革所趨。網絡技術作為信息時代最先進生產力之一,使得網絡空間作戰成為引導現代戰爭形態演變的主導因素,影響著戰爭全局。近年來,從伊朗“震網“攻擊,俄格衝突網絡戰,烏克蘭電網遭大規模阻癱以及美軍對IS的網絡攻擊,網絡空間在實戰中所展現出的巨大作用逐漸顯現,預示著網絡作戰已成為未來聯合作戰重要樣式。

美軍高度重視網絡空間軍備建設,成立網絡空間司令部,推出網絡空間聯合作戰條令,大幅度擴編網絡戰部隊,極力維護其在網絡空間霸權,把對網絡空間控制能力作為形成“第三次抵消戰略“絕對優勢最重要的競爭內容。

世界多國紛紛跟進,網絡空間軍事化趨勢明顯。嚴峻的網絡空間軍事鬥爭形勢要求中國軍隊著眼網絡戰場空間變化,適應信息化戰爭時代要求,實現在網絡空間能打仗,打勝仗的強軍目標。

有效網絡懾戰是加速網絡強國建設內在所需。在中國由網絡大國向網絡強國發展過程中,離不開強大的網絡空間軍事力量作為保障。網絡空間國際競爭表現為國家綜合實力的全面博弈,其中,網絡軍事能力建設的好壞,直接關係到國家安全與穩定,牽一發而動全身,是整個國家安全領域的核心要素。

當前,世界各國在網絡空間的利益互相滲透,出現“你中有我,我中有你,互相合作,共同發展”的局面。但是這種共同發展是不對等的,美國及西方強國利用網絡空間主導權,已經取得了一定的網絡懾戰優勢,使我網絡發展及利益受制於人。軍隊如何在網絡強國建設中完成守土有責的使命重托,前提就是要形成能夠遏制危機,懾控對手的網絡攻防能力,確保和平發展的網絡環境。

因此,軍隊需要確立有效懾戰的威懾戰略目標,形成能與敵“相互摧毀”的戰略制衡能力,從而增強戰略競爭力,懾止網絡空間侵略,保障網絡強國戰略順利推進。

從“守土有責”到“護網衛國”,新形勢要求軍隊承擔新任務

軍隊是保衛國家安全的主力和柱石,網絡空間也不例外2015年7月1日施行的“國家安全法”規定:“中華人民共和國公民,一切國家機關和武裝力量,各政黨和各人民團體,企業事業組織和其他社會組織,都有維護國家安全的責任和義務。“2016年11月頒布的”網絡安全法“強調了要維護網絡空間主權和國家安全。

在這兩個國家法律的基礎上,2016年12月27日,“國家網絡空間安全戰略”(下文簡稱“戰略”)正式出台,為在新的起點上開創網絡強國新格局提供了總體指導和基本遵循,明確提出了九大戰略任務,進一步體現了軍隊在建設網絡強國進程中的使命任務。

全力護網的國家使命,軍隊要做捍衛網絡空間主權的堅強柱石。“戰略”中列出的九大戰略任務首項就是“堅定捍衛網絡空間主權”,明確提出要“採取包括經濟,行政,科技,法律,外交,軍事等一切措施,堅定不移地維護我國網絡空間主權“。可見,軍隊須承擔起運用實體空間的軍事手段,保衛虛擬網絡空間主權安全和利益的國家使命。

網絡空間主權是國家的核心利益,是國家主權的重要組成,表明國家在網絡空間所擁有的獨立權,平等權,自衛權和管理權。一旦敵對勢力侵犯了我網絡空間主權,就等同於侵犯了我陸海空等實體空間的國家主權,中國將有權利採取包括軍事手段在內的一切措施給予堅決回擊。

在國際上,美國早就提出網絡空間威懾戰略,宣告對美國網絡信息設施的攻擊等同於戰爭行為,美國會採取軍事打擊措施進行報復。軍事手段是維護國家主權的保底手段,在維護國家網絡空間安全中發揮著至關重要的作用。因此,陸海空天軍事力量理所應當地被賦予了保護網絡空間主權的歷史使命,必須憑藉強大的實體空間武力保衛網絡空間的國家利益,有力震懾敵對勢力的網絡破壞企圖。

依網衛國的時代擔當,軍隊要做保衛國家安全的壓艙石。“戰略”任務的第二項著力強調要堅決維護國家安全,防範,制止和依法懲治任何利用網絡進行叛國,分裂國家,煽動叛亂,顛覆或者煽動顛覆人民民主專政政權的行為。

信息網絡時代,世界各國軍隊都已經成為網絡空間重要參與者,網絡空間能力水平成為評估一個國家軍隊現代化程度的主要指標,遂行網絡空間使命任務,維護國家安全成為信息化軍隊的主要職責之一。

從中國發展所處的歷史進程來看,要適應全面建成小康社會決勝階段的國家安全戰略需求,必須高度警惕國家在網絡空間被侵略,被顛覆,被分裂的危險,高度警惕由網絡空間引發改革發展大局被破壞的危險,高度警惕中國特色社會主義發展進程被干擾,破壞的危險。

防患於未然,要求國家必須具有應對和處置這些危險的手段措施,具有防範,制止和依法懲治網絡空間違法破壞行為的強大力量。保衛國家歷來是軍隊不可推卸的歷史責任,固有的使命任務決定了中國軍隊必須承擔起在網絡空間採取各種措施,維護國家政治,經濟,文化安全和社會穩定的時代擔當。

攻防兼備的戰略任務,軍隊要做提升網絡空間防護能力的堅強後盾。“戰略”中九大任務的第三項和第八項明確提出,要採取一切必要措施保護關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據不受攻擊破壞,要堅持技術和管理並重,保護和震懾並舉;要建設與我國國際地位相稱,與網絡強國相適應的網絡空間防護力量,大力發展網絡安全防禦手段,及時發現和抵禦網絡入侵,鑄造維護國家網絡安全的堅強後盾。在國家所有維護安全的政治,外交,軍事,科技能力中,軍事力量歷來是所有能力的基礎和支撐,是所有能力的根本保障,是國家安全的最終依托。

因此,軍隊必須承擔起提升國家網絡空間防護能力堅強後盾的戰略任務。現實社會中,軍隊是維護國家安全的定心丸,在網絡空間也同樣應成為人民群眾的安全依賴和保障。軍隊作為國家網絡空間防護能力生成的重要一環,必須做到攻防兼備,懾戰一體,有能力堅決維護國家和人民在網絡空間的利益和安全,能夠有效消除網絡安全威脅造成的各種危機和思想動盪,使人民能夠切實感受到生產生活得到有效保護,成為全國人民對國家網絡防護能力充滿信心的底氣所在。

聯防聯治的全球責任,軍隊要做維護全球網絡安全的重要支撐。“戰略”任務最後一項明確提出要強化網絡空間國際合作,支持聯合國發揮主導作用,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則,網絡空間國際反恐公約,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,深化在政策法律,技術創新,標準規範,應急響應,關鍵信息基礎設施保護等領域的國際合作。

網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪是經過信息網絡發酵催化出的全球威脅新形態,對世界上所有國家的政治,經濟,軍事,文化安全都構成巨大威脅,僅僅依靠政府和民間的力量是不夠的,美國等西方國家紛紛賦予軍隊保護網絡安全的職責和打擊網絡恐怖主義的權限。維護全球網絡空間安全與穩定符合中國以及世界各國的根本利益,軍隊應成為全球網絡空間安全的重要維護者,成為打擊全球網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪的重要力量。

網絡的全球化,無界性決定了打擊網絡恐怖主義和跨國網絡犯罪的國際需求,軍隊應在聯合國安理會的框架下,推進國家間網絡治理軍事合作,利用網絡時代的戰略和技術,建立聯防聯治機制,切實維護國家和世界網絡空間安全。

從“沙場練兵”到“網絡備戰”,新領域需要軍隊備戰新舉措

在新的歷史形勢下,網絡空間對軍隊練兵備戰模式提出了全新的要求,應適應網絡空間新特點和軍隊新使命對傳統模式進行創新改革,以強國強軍目標為統攬,加強宏觀統籌,著眼網絡空間軍事行動的法理需求,緊扣網絡空間“軍民一體”的天然屬性,建設“平戰結合”的網絡安全攻防體系,打造“軍地兩用”的網絡國防力量。

立法賦權,為軍隊遂行職能使命提供法理依據。世界各國尤其是西方發達國家在網絡安全立法上高度重視網絡國防問題。美國先後出台了“國家安全第16號總統令”,“網絡空間行動戰略”等一系列政策法規,對如何在網絡國防領域保護國家網絡安全進行了不斷的深化規範。

當前,從法律層面釐清網絡空間軍隊的職責任務非常必要,應以“國家安全法”,“網絡安全法”為依據,出台網絡國防法和有關網絡空間軍事作戰條令法規,為網絡國防領域建設和軍事行動提供法規支撐和行動綱領,使軍隊在網絡空間的職責和使命更加明確具體。

一是通過網絡國防立法進一步界定網絡主權和網絡邊疆,清晰軍隊的職責範圍。

二是通過網絡作戰法規建設,明確軍隊遂行保衛國家網絡空間安全的行動權限,區分應對網絡入侵,網絡破壞等行為的軍事手段。三是通過網絡空間國際合作政策,明確軍隊協同他國,民間力量等打擊國際網絡恐怖主義,網絡犯罪的職能任務。

軍民融合,為網絡強國建設提供創新動力。軍民融合是世界強國提升網絡空間競爭力的主要做法,對於中國網絡強國建設來說,構建軍民融合網絡安全攻防體系,開發軍地兩用的國防信息基礎設施,是激發軍隊網絡空間作戰能力創新的源泉。

一是統籌國家,軍隊和各級政府等軍民融合職能部門,設置專門的指揮協調機構,調動一切國家網絡力量,建設“軍民一體”,“平戰結合”的網絡安全攻防體系。

二是盡快出台網絡安全軍民融合深度發展指導性意見,逐步展開軍民融合基本法律研究論證,指導中長期軍民融合發展。

三是依托國家現有公共移動通信網,光纖通信網及衛星系統,軍民共建覆蓋全國全軍的信息基礎設施,實現軍民統建,分管共享。

四是建立軍民聯合的應急響應機制,加大培訓軍地主管部門控制事態的能力,加強專家和應急專業力量,提升快速恢復受損網絡或信息系統的能力。

軍民聯訓,為網絡空間軍事能力生成提供實戰化環境。網絡空間的軍民共用特性使得軍民聯訓成為世界各國網絡空間軍事演訓的重要方式。美國及北約等國家的網絡空間軍民聯合演習已經形成系列化,“網絡風暴”,“網絡衛士”等演練活動吸引了政府,企業,研究機構甚至民間黑客的廣泛參與。我軍網絡空間軍事力量訓練也需要廣泛吸引民間力量參與。

一是搞好軍政合作,建立軍民聯合攻防演練機制,借鑒美國等發達國家網絡戰演練中的紅藍對抗訓練方法,積極建設“國家網絡靶場”,策劃政府,民間機構系列聯合演習,提升軍民一體,官民一體的網絡攻防水平。

二是搞好軍企協作,在互聯網上依靠網信企業設置演練場區,促進軍民之間攻防能力磨合,共同提高防範未知風險能力。

三是著眼軍隊和地方兩頭管理模式改革,以各省市政府,軍隊和地方企事業單位的管理機制為依托,建立網絡國防預備役人才聯合培養使用機制,完善國家應急動員機制,建立國家網絡防禦專用人才數據庫,將網絡民兵和預備役部隊建設納入人民武裝動員的範圍,平時按規定編入民兵應急分隊進行訓練,急時挑選精幹人員隨隊參加遂行非戰爭軍事行動任務,戰時按需要成建制徵召使用,使國防潛力轉變為國防實力。

Original referring url:  http://mil.huanqiu.com/strategysituation/2017-04/

Chinese Military Analysis of American Information Warfare Strategy Theory and Its Practical Conception // 中國對美國信息戰戰略理論的軍事分析及其實踐觀

Chinese Military Analysis of American Information Warfare Strategy Theory and Its Practical Conception //

中國對美國信息戰戰略理論的軍事分析及其實踐觀

By 胡 堅

 From various news media, we can often read reports of hacking attacks on US information systems and computer networks, especially when the United States is arrogant and provocative in the world. . As a country with the most reliance on computers and information technology and the most popular application in the world, the vulnerability of the US information system and the vulnerability caused by its huge number are obvious. However, we must not forget that the United States is not only the only superpower in the world today, but also the number one information technology power. The importance of the United States to information warfare and the depth of research are unmatched by any country in the world. In addition to theoretical research, the United States has conducted several information warfare simulations and practical exercises of varying sizes. The US information war strategy is consistent with the starting point of its global military strategic thinking and is based on aggressiveness and expansion. While arguing and even exaggerating hackers pose a serious threat to its information infrastructure, on the other hand, the United States is quietly taking an active position in its information warfare in the future, and even launching large-scale information to other countries. Attack and make positive preparations. Therefore, people should not take it lightly and relax their vigilance. This article intends to briefly explain some important viewpoints of the United States on the strategic theory of information warfare for reference. 
    I. The United States’ definition of information warfare The 
    United States has been studying information warfare theory for a long time, and has published a large number of research literatures in this area, but the definition of information warfare has been constantly revised and improved. At the beginning of 1996, the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States gave an earlier definition of 
    information warfare : information warfare refers to the impact of capturing information superiority, the enemy information systems and computer networks, and the existing information systems and Facilities such as computer networks are protected and information is taken.
    The above includes two aspects of attack and protection of the information infrastructure (NII). In October 1998, the Joint Chiefs of Staff made a perfection and supplement to the definition of information warfare in the newly promulgated “Information Warfare Common Dogma”. The most striking thing is that it is the first time in the form of government documents. The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is included in the scope of the information warfare. There are two main points: First, civilian facilities such as telephone, electric power and air traffic control systems will become the targets of information warfare attacks; second, the act of using any means to interfere with and destroy the enemy’s information decision-making process has been put into practice. . 
    The above definition shows that in order to achieve its strategic goals, the United States will not hesitate to destroy the vital infrastructure of a country as a means to force the other party to submit, in the process, it does not care about any loss that may be caused to civilians. With casualties. This was fully taught in the conflict that erupted in Kosovo from April to June 1999. 
    Second, the enemy 
    of information warfare The definition of the enemy of the information warfare in the United States is very complicated and ambiguous. The definition in the “Information Warfare Common Dogma” is as follows: 
    “The enemy of information warfare refers to the influence of my decision makers. Information threats and terrorist acts that are organized, premeditated and politically motivated or politically motivated. Hackers, individuals or organized criminals, internal apostates, industrial and economic agents who attack attacks on protected information systems and Terrorists are among the following. 
    From this definition, we can find that under certain circumstances, the United States can include foreign individuals or organizations, even a sovereign country, among its opponents of information warfare. Let us take an analogy: an energy company in a third world country negotiates with a US company and intends to purchase the electric equipment produced by the latter. Since the energy company’s information management system was purchased from the Netherlands and managed by Dutch engineering and technical personnel, these managers inadvertently learned about the transaction and reported the home country company, which led to the involvement of Dutch power equipment manufacturing companies. Competing with US companies ultimately led to major changes in the outcome of the deal. So the Dutch contender has in fact become a hostile party to the US information warfare. 
    Third, the strategic considerations of information warfare
    The US information war strategy is one of the means of dismantling the enemy and forcing the opponent to obey the will of the United States and act according to the will of the United States. The explanation in the “Information Warfare Common Dogma” is as follows: 
    “In the peace year and the initial stage of the crisis, information warfare may be the best deterrent means to exert influence on the other party. Information warfare is to resolve the crisis and shorten the confrontation cycle. Enhancing the effectiveness of intelligence, diplomacy, economic and military means, and avoiding the use of mercenaries in conflict zones will play a major role.” 
    Please pay close attention to the “best deterrent measures in peace years…” In a word, this is a very threatening phrase because it shows that the United States can initiate an information attack from any country that it considers to be an opponent without declaring war. That is to say, in the form of a formal program document, the United States has unambiguously stated to the world that information warfare will be an effective tool for intervening in other countries’ internal affairs and interfering in other countries’ internal affairs during the years of peace. 
    US information warfare expert William Church From the above theory, several different types of conflicts or crises in the world that may occur in the future, information warfare is proposed to solve several hypothetical means: 
    one hypothetical: war territorial dispute triggered by 
the first Second British, Ama Island War. The traditional war process is considered to be that Argentina once again sent troops and reclaimed the Malvinas Islands (Falkland Islands). The United Kingdom is convinced that Argentina is difficult to find international carriers because it does not have aircraft carriers and intercontinental ballistic missiles. Holding the island, the end of the war will still be the same as last time, with the British sending a powerful fleet to attack the island, Argentina defeated and summed, Britain won the return to the island. 
    But after considering the factors of information warfare, another situation may arise. Since information warfare will become an important weapon in future wars, Argentina can make full use of it to change its obvious weakness and counterattack Britain. And the final peace talks opportunity may also be created by the clever use of information warfare. In the war, the information warfare that Argentina can implement has the following aspects:
    1. Obstructing each other’s war preparations: Through the means of information attacks, the British military’s communication systems and equipment are ineffective, destroying the British military’s personnel and equipment database, delaying the preparations for war in the UK, and increasing the huge expenditure for this. In the end, it may even force the British government to reconsider its ability and feasibility to take military action. 
    2. Psychological warfare changes the public opinion of the British public: psychological warfare can be varied, from spreading rumors to creating false news and stories that can dominate the entire paradox. The effect of using psychological warfare alone may not be ideal, but if combined with other means of information warfare, it can produce excellent results. 
    3. Creating a national information infrastructure crisis: If Argentina can launch an effective attack on the UK’s telecommunications, telephone, rail and air traffic control information infrastructure, it will be paralyzed or awkward. In this case, the British government wants to The determination to send troops to a war thousands of miles away will be difficult. In the half-month voyage of the aircraft carrier battle group to the destination, the voices and plans for seeking a peaceful solution that accompanied the domestic panic are likely to be brewing or negotiating. 
    4. Destroy the economic and financial means of maintaining war in the UK: weaknesses and shortcomings in the financial system can be exploited to create financial crises and panic. In 1998, there was an incident in the US stock market that caused the stock index to fall 200 points in just a few minutes due to computer program errors. The cause of the incident was that when a computer program reported the proceeds of several investment funds, the data was wrong due to incorrect programming. As a result, the stock price fluctuations of these funds caused a French businessman to be shocked and first hit. The order of immediately throwing the disk, the result triggered a panic that should not have occurred, causing the stock market to plummet, and many companies and shareholders suffered heavy losses. Information warfare experts believe that such defects can be replicated by means of information. It can attract the attention of the government and create a serious illusion of economic problems, thus affecting the government’s decision-making and financial support for war. 
    Hypothesis 2: Disagreements caused by economic dependence
    Singapore is a city with a combination of international trading port, Far East financial center and Southeast Asian sea transportation center. It is economically developed and the people are rich, but it is a small country. The neighboring Malaysia is vast, but it is very poor and backward. Due to the small size of the country, Singapore’s air routes will pass through the southern part of Malaysia. This route is called the “air corridor” and it is a lifeline of Singapore. Although the two countries are both ASEAN countries, the relationship is still good, but there have been differences in how to use the “air corridor.” If one day Malaysia refuses to continue to use Singapore’s route through its airspace, the differences between the two countries may develop into a confrontation. 
    Information warfare can have many different ways of expression in this dispute. The most noticeable thing is that Singapore refused to provide advanced air traffic control services to Malaysia to pressure Malaysia to surrender and was forced to sit down and negotiate to solve the problem. And disputes. Because there is no binding clause in international law for such retaliation, once such incidents occur, it will surely attract strong attention from the international community. 
    The illusion of three: 
    a typical example of military confrontation and nuclear competition is the nuclear race and long-term military confrontation between India and Pakistan. Information weapons are likely to play a key role in resolving and eliminating this growing competition. The use of advanced electromagnetic pulse weapons, or the use of hacker infiltration methods to smash the nuclear weapons control information system and destroy the database of research data, can shake the nuclear weapons research programs of these two countries. This approach can also be extended to attack and destroy all important manufacturing, production and test equipment. 
    The illusion of the fourth: to change the attitude of a country from the eradication of the economy 
    In the information war, do not underestimate the impact of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) attack, it can give attackers an ideal opportunity to manipulate the economic situation of the other side. The direct result is that it can force hostile countries to greatly reduce their military spending, turn their financial resources to restore the economy, or force hostile countries to move from confrontation to easing.
    Let us use an imaginary information attack example to illustrate its great destructiveness: A country confronts with B. During this period, State A found that B has an important water conservancy project (such as the river dam) and the national economy and people’s livelihood. It is closely related, so the country took the means of information attack, invaded and took over the monitoring and management system of the dam, and by changing the water storage capacity of the dam reservoir, it achieved the purpose of significantly changing the climate dry humidity in a certain area of ​​B; Further, if State A puts a virus or destructive code in the dam’s control system, the reservoir’s control and regulation system suddenly fails at critical moments (such as the flood season), and as a result, the reservoir is lost due to flooding. The role of flooding, causing serious natural disasters and economic losses, in the end, the original economic advantages of the country B completely lost, under the pressure of internal and external, the country B had to succumb to the country. 
    The illusion of the fifth: the use of information weapons to obtain the same effect of using weapons of mass destruction in information warfare research, a problem that US information warfare experts are very interested in is: using information attacks, can create similar pearls of the year The massive damage effect of the Hong Kong incident? The conclusion is that, in theory, this possibility is completely present and necessary in hostile action, because it can greatly weaken the other’s ability to respond, resulting in the same possible military cost. effect. However, to achieve this, it is impossible to achieve without careful planning and sufficient resources to support and support. The US research program in this area is highly classified and unknown to outsiders. 
    The US military strategy theory believes that a country’s infrastructure can be greatly weakened by exerting a long-lasting military strike against it. But the ultimate goal of this is to clear the obstacles for the peace talks and force the other party to accept harsh conditions for peace talks. To this end, not only detailed and thorough target strike plans and multiple simulation rehearsals for attack plans, but also contingency measures in case of retaliatory counterattacks, as well as a complete command and logistics support system, etc., are required. Wait. NATO’s humanitarian signage and the brutal invasion of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia are an actual rehearsal of this theory. 
    four. The traditional strategic defense priority theory faces severe challenges
    In the spring of 1998, American military experts Stephen Van Evra and Charles L. Glazer published the “Attack, Defence, and War Causes” in the American Journal of International Security, Vol. 22, No. 4. “The concept of “attack and defense balance point and its measurement” and many other articles, that during the Cold War after World War II, it belongs to the era of strategic defense theory. At that time, the confrontational East and West sides were evenly matched and indifferent to each other in terms of the quantity and quality of their own conventional weapons and nuclear weapons. They always tried to avoid direct conflicts and confrontation. The main concern of both sides at the time was the balance and constraints of each other. 
    But nowadays, due to the emergence of a new war mode—-the emergence of information warfare, it is possible to use information attacks to directly attack the infrastructure of a country. Especially in information warfare, the cost of the attacker is far less than that of the defender. Therefore, some military experts in the United States believe that the old strategic theory must be revised to meet the needs of the new situation. In addition, they also stressed that implementation of the new strategic theory, depends on three factors simultaneously: 
    · On the basis of a strong military machine as a backup and security, and gradually reduce the investment in traditional military equipment; 
    · globalization The neoliberal trend of thought and the appreciation and acceptance of global market mechanisms; 
    • The dependence of developed and developing countries on information infrastructure is growing. The heart of speculation can be seen here. 
    American military critic Lawrence Friedman made a profound understanding and elaboration of the above-mentioned theory among American military personnel: “Western countries (the United States and NATO) have never considered the ultimate in developing military capabilities. The way of thinking has developed to such a dangerous point: if the military strength cannot reach the full overwhelming tendency of the enemy and the enemy has no power to fight, it cannot be regarded as qualified; the purpose of military action is to follow the set. The plan creates a very favorable negotiating position for one’s own side. Therefore, this time (the introduction of the new strategic theory), it is also necessary to take the lead in the comprehensive consideration of various factors.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

從各種新聞媒體上,我們經常可以讀到美國的信息系統和計算機網絡遭到黑客攻擊的報導,特別是當美國在世界上蠻橫霸道、挑起事端時,這種攻擊就愈發激烈。作為世界上對計算機和信息技術依賴最重、應用最普及的一個國家,美國信息系統的易受攻擊性和由其龐大數量所帶來的脆弱性,是顯而易見的。但是,我們不要忘了,美國不僅是當今世界上唯一的超級大國,而且也是頭號信息技術強國,美國對信息戰的重視程度和研究的深度,是世界上任何一個國家都無法比擬的。除理論研究外,美國還進行過多次規模不等的信息戰模擬和實戰演習。美國的信息戰戰略,與其全球軍事戰略思想的出發點一致,也是建立在攻擊性和擴張性基礎上的。在大肆宣揚甚至誇張黑客對其信息基礎設施構成了嚴重威脅的同時,另一方面,美國卻在不聲不響地為其未來在信息戰戰爭中佔據主動地位、乃至向他國發動大規模的信息攻擊,進行著積極的準備。因此,人們切不可以掉以輕心,放鬆警惕。本文擬對美國在信息戰戰略理論上的一些重要觀點做一簡要的闡述,以供參考。
一、美國對信息戰的定義
美國對信息戰理論的研究由來已久,並發布過大量這方面的研究文獻,但對信息戰的定義卻一直在不斷地修改​​和完善之中。 1996年初,美國參謀長聯席會議曾給信息戰下過一個較早的定義:
信息戰是指為奪取信息優勢,對敵方信息系統與計算機網絡等設施施加影響,並對已方的信息系統和計算機網絡等設施進行保護,所採取的信息行動。
上述的內容包括對信息基礎設施(NII)的攻擊與防護兩個方面。 1998年10月,參謀長聯席會議在最新頒布的《信息戰共同教條》中,又對信息戰的定義做了完善和補充,其中最引人注目的,就是它首次以政府文件的形式,把國家信息基礎設施(NII)列入了信息戰打擊的對象範圍之內。其要點有二:一是民用設施如電話、電力與空中交通管制系統等,將會成為信息戰攻擊的目標;二是把用任何手段干擾和破壞敵方信息決策過程的行為,付諸了條文。
上述定義說明,為了實現自己的戰略目標,美國將不惜以摧毀一個國家生死攸關的基礎設施為手段,來達到迫使對方就範的目的,而在此過程中,它並不在乎可能給平民帶來的任何損失與傷亡。 1999年4-6月在科索沃爆發的衝突中,人們就充分領教了這一點。
二、信息戰的敵方
美國對於信息戰敵對一方的定義,是十分複雜而又含混的,在《信息戰共同教條》中的定義如下:
“信息戰的敵方,是指影響我決策者的有組織、有預謀並帶有政治目的或受政治動機所激發的信息威脅與恐怖行為。對受保護的信息系統發動攻擊的黑客、個人或有組織的罪犯、內部變節者、工業和經濟間諜及恐怖主義分子,均屬此列。”
從該定義中我們可以發現,在特定情況下,美國可以把國外的個人或組織、甚至某個主權國家,都納入其信息戰的對手之列。我們不妨來打一個比方:某個第三世界國家的能源公司與美國某企業進行商談,打算購買後者生產的電力設備。由於該能源公司的信息管理系統購自荷蘭,且受荷蘭工程技術人員管理,這些管理人員在無意中知悉了這一交易,並報告了母國公司,結果使荷蘭的電力設備製造公司也介入進來,與美國公司開展競爭,最終使這筆交易的結果發生了很大的變化。於是荷蘭的這個競爭者,事實上就成了美國信息戰的敵對一方。
三、信息戰的戰略考慮
美國的信息戰戰略,是把它作為瓦解敵方,強制對手順從美國的意願,按美國的意志行事的手段之一。在《信息戰共同教條》中的闡述如下:
“在和平年月以及危機爆發的最初階段,信息戰有可能是對對方施加影響的最好的威懾手段。信息戰對於化解危機、縮短對抗週期,增強情報、外交、經濟與軍事手段的效能,盡量避免在衝突地區採用僱傭軍等,都將發揮重大的作用。”
請仔細注意上文中“在和平年月……的最好的威懾手段”這一段話,這是非常具有威脅性的辭句,因為它表明美國可以從自身的利益出發,在不宣戰的情況下向任何一個它認為是對手的國家發起信息攻擊。也就是說,美國以正式的綱領文件的形式,向世人明白無誤地聲明了信息戰將是它在和平年月時介入別國內部事務、干涉別國內政的一個有效的工具。
美國信息戰專家威廉·丘奇從上述理論出發,對未來世界上可能發生的幾種不同類型的衝突或危機,提出了幾種假想的信息戰解決手段:
假想之一:領土爭端引發的戰爭
第二次英、阿馬島戰爭。傳統的戰爭進程考慮是,阿根廷再次出兵,收回了馬爾維納斯群島(福克蘭群島),英國確信阿根廷由於沒有航空母艦和洲際彈道導彈,以及難以尋求到國際上的實質性援助,所以很難守住馬島,因此戰爭的結局仍會同上次一樣,以英國派出強大的艦隊向馬島發起進攻,阿根廷戰敗求和,英國奪回馬島而告終。
但是考慮信息戰的因素後,就可能出現另外的情況,由於信息戰在未來戰爭中必將成為一個重要的武器,阿根廷可以充分利用它來改變自己的明顯弱勢,反擊英國。並且最終的和談機會,也可能由對信息戰的巧妙運用而營造出來。在戰爭中,阿根廷可以實施的信息戰手段有以下幾個方面:
1.阻礙對方的戰爭準備:通過信息攻擊手段,使英國軍方的通信系統和設備喪失效能,破壞英軍的人員和裝備數據庫,遲緩英國的戰爭準備,並使其為此增加巨大的開支。最終,甚至可能迫使英國政府重新考慮它採取軍事行動的能力和可行性。
2.以心理戰改變英國公眾的輿論向背:心理戰的方式可以有多種多樣,從散佈各種謠言,到製造能夠主導整個輿論向背的虛假新聞和故事等等,不一而足。單獨採用心理戰的手法效果可能不會很理想,但若是與信息戰的其他手段結合使用,則可以產生出色的效果。
3.製造國家信息基礎設施危機:如果阿根廷能對英國的電信、電話、鐵路與航空管制等信息基礎設施發起有效的攻擊,使其陷入癱瘓或半癱瘓,在這種情況下,英國政府要想出兵進行一場遠在幾千英里之外的戰爭,其決心將會是很難下的。在航空母艦戰鬥群開赴目的地的半個多月航程中,伴隨著國內恐慌而誕生的尋求和平解決的呼聲及方案,很可能就已經在醞釀或商談之中。
4.破壞英國維持戰爭的經濟和財源手段:金融體制上的弱點和缺陷,可以被利用來製造金融危機和恐慌。 1998年,美國股市曾發生一起因電腦程序錯誤導致在短短幾分鐘內股指狂跌200點的事件。事件的起因是,一個電腦程序在報告幾個投資基金的收益時,由於程序設計有誤使數據出錯,結果引起這幾個基金股價的波動,一位法國商人見狀大驚失色,首先打出“立即拋盤”的指令,結果引發了一場本來不該發生的恐慌,造成股市大跌,不少企業和股東損失慘重。信息戰專家認為,這種缺陷是可以利用信息手段進行複制的,它可以吸引政府的注意力,造成一種經濟問題嚴重的假象,從而影響政府對戰爭的決策與財力支持。
假想之二:經濟依存關係導致的分歧
新加坡是一個集國際貿易港、遠東金融中心、東南亞海上交通中心於一身的城市國家,經濟發達、人民富裕,但卻是個彈丸小國;而毗鄰的馬來西亞國土遼闊,但卻十分貧困和落後。由於國土很小,新加坡的空中航線要穿過馬來西亞的南部地區,這段航線被叫做“空中走廊”,它是新加坡的一條生命線。兩國雖同屬東盟國家,關係尚好,但在如何使用“空中走廊”上一直存在分歧。如果有一天馬來西亞拒絕新加坡繼續使用穿越其領空的這條航線,兩國之間的分歧就可能會發展成為一種對抗。
信息戰在這場糾紛中可以有很多不同的表現方式,而最能引起人們注意的,就是新加坡以拒絕向馬來西亞提供先進的空中交通管制服務,來壓馬來西亞屈服,最終被迫坐下來談判解決問題和糾紛。因為國際法中沒有對這種報復行為的約束條款,一旦這類事件發生,必將引起國際社會強烈的注意。
假象之三:軍事對峙與核競賽
這方面的典型例子是印度、巴基斯坦的核競賽與長期軍事對峙。而信息武器在化解和消弭這場愈演愈烈的對抗賽中,有可能發揮關鍵的作用。利用先進的電磁脈衝武器,或者採取黑客滲透的方法來癱瘓雙方核武器的控制信息系統、破壞其存放研究資料的數據庫,可以動搖這兩個國家的核武器研究計劃。這種方法還能夠擴大到對所有重要的製造、生產與試驗設備進行攻擊和破壞。
假象之四:從搞垮經濟入手轉變一個國家的態度
在信息戰中,切不要小看對國家信息基礎設施(NII)的攻擊效果,它可以使攻擊者獲得一個理想的操縱對方經濟形勢的機會,其直接的結果,就是能夠迫使敵對國大大減少其軍事開支、將財力轉向恢復經濟,或者使敵對國被迫從對抗走向緩和。
讓我們用一個假象的信息攻擊的例子,來說明它的巨大破壞性:甲國與乙國發生對抗,在此期間,甲國發現乙國有一個重要的水利工程(如攔河大壩)與國計民生息息相關,於是甲國採取信息攻擊的手段,入侵並接管了這個大壩的監控管理系統,並通過改變大壩水庫蓄水量的做法,達到了明顯改變乙國某地區氣候乾濕度的目的;更進一步,如果甲國在大壩的控制系統中安放了病毒或破壞性的代碼,使水庫的控制調節系統在關鍵時刻(如洪澇季節)突然失靈,結果在洪水來臨時水庫喪失了應有的調節作用,造成洪水氾濫,產生嚴重的自然災害和經濟損失,最終,乙國原有的經濟優勢完全喪失,在內外壓力下,乙國不得不屈服於甲國。
假象之五:用信息武器獲得採用大規模毀傷性武器得到的同樣效果在信息戰研究中,美國的信息戰專家們很感興趣的一個問題是:利用信息攻擊手段,能否創造出類似當年珍珠港事件那樣的大規模毀傷效果?結論是,從理論上講,這種可能性是完全存在的,而且在敵對行動中非常必要,因為它能夠大大削弱對方的應變能力,從而產生要花極大的軍事代價才有可能得到的同樣效果。但是,要想做到這一點,沒有周密的計劃和足夠的資源配合與支持,是不可能實現的。美國在這​​方面的研究計劃被列入高度機密,外人無從知曉。
美國的軍事戰略理論認為,一個國家的基礎設施,可以通過對其施以長時間持續不斷的軍事打擊,來予以大大削弱。但這樣做的最終目的,是為和談掃清障礙,迫使對方接受苛刻的和談條件。為此,不但需要詳細而又周密的目標打擊計劃和針對攻擊行動方案的多次模擬預演,還要製定在遭到對方報復性反擊情況下的應變措施,以及完善的指揮與後勤保障系統,等等。北約打著人道主義招牌,對南聯盟實施的野蠻入侵行為,就是對這一理論的一次實際預演。
四.傳統的戰略防禦優先理論面臨嚴峻的挑戰
1998年春,美國軍事專家斯蒂芬·範·埃弗拉與查爾斯·L·格拉澤等人,在美國出版的刊物《國際安全》第22卷第4期上,發表了“進攻,防禦與戰爭的起因”、“攻防平衡點的概念及其度量”等多篇文章,認為二戰後的冷戰期間,屬於戰略防禦理論優先的時代。那時,對峙的東、西雙方在各自擁有的常規武器和核武器的數量與質量上,勢均力敵、難分伯仲,彼此都忌憚三分,因此總是力求避免爆發直接的衝突和對抗。當時雙方關注的主要問題,是相互的平衡與製約。
但是如今,由於新的戰爭模式—-信息戰的出現,使利用信息攻擊手段直接打擊一個國家的基礎設施成為了可能,尤其是在信息戰中,進攻方的代價要遠遠小於防禦方,因此美國的一些軍事專家們認為,必須修改舊的戰略理論,以適應新的形勢發展的需要。此外,他們還強調新的戰略理論的實施,有賴於以下三個因素的同步進行:
·在有強大軍事機器作為後盾和保障的基礎上,逐步降低在傳統軍事裝備上的投資;
·對全球化的新自由主義思潮,以及全球市場機制採取讚賞和接受的態度;
·發達國家和發展中國家對信息基礎設施的依賴越來越大。叵測之心,於此可窺一斑。
美國軍事評論家勞倫斯·弗里德曼,對美國軍方人士中的上述理論,作了深刻的認識和闡述:“西方國家(美國和北約)在發展軍事能力上,是永遠沒有終極考慮的。其思想方式已經發展到瞭如此危險的地步:軍事實力若不能達到對敵呈完全壓倒之勢、使敵方毫無招架之力,則不能算做合格;軍事行動的目的,就是要按照即定的計劃,為己方製造出一個極為有利的談判地位。因此這一次(新的戰略理論思想的提出),同樣是在綜合考慮各種因素的前提下,要想把先機佔盡。”

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