Tag Archives: China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! // 中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

People’s Liberation Army must be brave enough to take responsibility for China’s “Cyberspace” Sovereignty // 人民解放軍必須勇敢地對中國的“網絡空間”主權負責

People’s Liberation Army must be brave enough to take responsibility for China’s “Cyberspace” Sovereignty //

人民解放軍必須勇敢地對中國的“網絡空間”主權負責

Original: “National Defense Reference”, No. 3, 2017

作者:安卫平 北部战区副参谋长

  The cyberspace was born in the military field. For example, the first computer, the APA network and the GPS navigation system all originated from the military. Today, cyberspace security has been closely related to national security, and the military has once again become the protagonist of maintaining national cyberspace security. Whether it is facing normalized network penetration or large-scale cyberattacks, it is urgent for the military to move from defending the “network camp gate” to guarding the “network country gate”, breaking through the traditional military mission and mission, breaking through the traditional war preparation mode. With a new network of national defense thinking, the founding of the network era of the country’s strong shield.

  From the “network camp door” to the “network country door”, the new era brings a new trend of military mission

  Cyberspace is not only related to the maintenance of national strategic interests, but also directly affects political, economic, cultural security and social development. It has also become the blood and link of modern battlefield joint operations. The Chinese military cannot be limited to maintaining the internal network security of the military camp. It must also actively adapt to the trend of the times and take the responsibility of the country that guards the “network country.” The strong army of the Internet is an important part of the construction of a network power. From the “network camp door” to the “network country door” is the inevitable trend of the development of the domestic and international situation in the information age.

  Guarding the “network country door” is forced by the cyberspace security situation. As the first major Internet country, China’s security situation is not optimistic, and strategic opponents have never stopped preparing for our network operations. The United States, Britain, France and other countries are actively preparing for cyberspace, giving military functions through cyberspace security legislation, developing cyber warfare forces, developing cyber warfare weapons and equipment, and advancing war to the “fifth space” of mankind, especially in China. In the historical process of the rise, the Western countries used the means of network technology and communication to implement uninterrupted harassment, subversion and cyberattacks under the leadership of the Cold War mentality and the containment subversion strategy, which seriously affected the security and social development of our country. China gradually became National security is at great risk for the hardest hit by cybersecurity threats, the test sites for virus attacks, and the destination of conscious penetration.

  In the coming period, as a new emerging country, China’s conflicts of interest with other parties will intensify. Strengthening the network defense strategy and strengthening the operational readiness of cyberspace are the inevitable ways to actively strive for the dominance and discourse power of cyberspace, and also the rise of China. The only way to go. As the main force of national security and stability, the military must adapt to the characteristics of cyberspace and become the backbone and main force to resist network intrusion and network subversion, and safeguard national security and social stability.

  Winning cyber warfare is the trend of new military revolution in the information age. As one of the most advanced productivity in the information age, network technology has made cyberspace warfare a dominant factor guiding the evolution of modern warfare and affecting the overall situation of war. In recent years, from the “seismic net” attack in Iran, the cyber warfare in the Russian-Georgian conflict, the large-scale obstruction of the Ukrainian power grid , and the cyberattack of the US military against IS, the huge role played by cyberspace in actual combat has gradually emerged, indicating that cyber warfare Has become an important style of future joint operations.

  The US military attaches great importance to the construction of cyberspace armaments, the establishment of the Cyberspace Command, the launch of cyberspace joint warfare, the extensive expansion of cyber warfare forces, the maintenance of its cyberspace hegemony, and the formation of cyberspace control capabilities as a “third offset strategy”. “Absolute advantage is the most important competitive content.

  Many countries in the world have followed suit, and the trend of militarization of cyberspace is obvious. The rigorous cyberspace military struggle situation requires the Chinese military to focus on the changes in the network battlefield space, adapt to the requirements of the information war era, and achieve the strong military goal of smashing and winning in cyberspace.

  Effective network warfare is an inherent need to accelerate the construction of a network powerhouse. In the process of China’s development from a network power to a network power, it is inseparable from the strong cyberspace military power as a guarantee. The international competition in cyberspace is a comprehensive game of the country’s comprehensive strength. Among them, the quality of network military capacity building is directly related to national security and stability, and it is the core element of the entire national security field.

  At present, the interests of countries in the world in the cyberspace are mutually infiltrated, and there is a situation in which you have me, I have you, cooperate with each other, and develop together. However, this kind of common development is not equal. The US and Western powers have taken advantage of the cyberspace dominance, and have already achieved certain network warfare advantages, which has made my network development and interests subject to people. How the military can fulfill its mission of defending the earth in the construction of a network-strength country, the premise is to form a network environment capable of curbing the crisis, controlling the opponent’s network attack and defense capabilities, and ensuring peaceful development.

  Therefore, the military needs to establish a deterrent strategic goal of effective warfare, form a strategic check and balance ability that can “destroy each other” with the enemy, thereby enhancing strategic competitiveness, ending cyberspace aggression, and ensuring the smooth advancement of the network power strategy.

  From “keeping the soil and being responsible” to “protecting the net and defending the country”, the new situation requires the military to undertake new tasks.

  The military is the main force and pillar of national security, and cyberspace is no exception. The National Security Law, which was enacted on July 1, 2015, stipulates: ” Citizens of the People’s Republic of China , all state organs and armed forces, political parties and people’s organizations, enterprises and institutions, and other social organizations have the responsibility to safeguard national security. And obligations.” The Cybersecurity Law, promulgated in November 2016, emphasizes the need to maintain cyberspace sovereignty and national security.

  On the basis of the laws of these two countries, on December 27, 2016, the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “Strategy”) was officially launched, providing overall guidance for creating a new pattern of network powers at a new starting point. Basically follow, clearly put forward nine strategic tasks, further embodying the mission of the military in the process of building a network power.

  With the national mission of protecting the network, the military must be a strong pillar to defend the cyberspace sovereignty. The first of the nine strategic tasks listed in the “Strategy” is “firmly defending the cyberspace sovereignty” and clearly proposes to “take all measures including economic, administrative, scientific, technological, legal, diplomatic, military, etc., and unswervingly maintain our network.” Space sovereignty.” It can be seen that the military must assume the military mission of using physical space and defend the national mission of the sovereign security and interests of virtual cyberspace.

  Cyberspace sovereignty is the core interest of the state and an important component of national sovereignty. It indicates the independence, equal, self-defense and management rights of the state in cyberspace. A once hostile forces violated my cyberspace sovereignty is tantamount to a violation of national sovereignty physical space of my land, sea and so on, China will have the right to take all measures, including military means, including giving resolutely fight back.

  Internationally, the United States has long proposed a cyberspace deterrence strategy, declaring that attacks on US network information facilities are equivalent to war acts, and the United States will take military strikes to retaliate. Military means is a means of safeguarding national sovereignty and plays a vital role in safeguarding national cyberspace security. Therefore, the military, air, sea and air military forces have been given the historical mission of protecting the cyberspace sovereignty. They must rely on the powerful physical space to defend the national interests of cyberspace and effectively deter the hostile forces from cyber-damaging attempts.

  In accordance with the era of the Internet, the military must be the ballast stone to defend national security. The second item of the “Strategy” mission emphasizes the need to resolutely safeguard national security, prevent, deter and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship.

  In the era of information network, the military of all countries in the world has become an important participant in cyberspace. The level of cyberspace capability has become the main indicator for assessing the modernization of a country’s military. It is one of the main duties of the informationized military to carry out cyberspace missions and maintain national security.

  Judging from the historical process of China’s development, it is necessary to be highly vigilant against the danger of the country being invaded, subverted, and divided in cyberspace in order to adapt to the national security strategy needs of building a well-off society in an all-round way. Highly alert to the reform caused by cyberspace. The danger of developing the overall situation is destroyed, and we are highly wary of the danger of interference and destruction in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  Preventing problems before they occur requires the state to have the means to cope with and deal with these dangers, and to have the powerful force to prevent, stop and legally punish cyberspace violations. Defending the country has always been an unshirkable historical responsibility of the military. The inherent mission and mission have determined that the Chinese military must assume the role of taking various measures in the cyberspace to safeguard the country’s political, economic, cultural security and social stability.

  The strategic mission of both offensive and defensive, the military must be a strong backing to enhance the ability of cyberspace protection. The third and eighth items of the Nine Major Tasks in the Strategy clearly state that all necessary measures must be taken to protect critical information infrastructure and its important data from attack and destruction, and that technology and management should be adhered to, protected and shocked; We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and compatible with the network powers. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security. Among all the political, diplomatic, military, and scientific and technological capabilities of the country to maintain security, military power has always been the foundation and support for all capabilities, the fundamental guarantee for all capabilities, and the ultimate support for national security.

  Therefore, the military must undertake the strategic task of strengthening the national cyberspace protection capability. In the real society, the military is the reassurance of safeguarding national security. In the cyberspace, it should also become the security dependence and guarantee of the people. As an important part of the national cyberspace protection capability, the military must achieve both offensive and defensive capabilities, and the ability to resolutely safeguard the interests and security of the country and the people in cyberspace, and effectively eliminate the various crises caused by cybersecurity threats. The turbulence of thoughts enables the people to truly feel that production and life are effectively protected and become the confidence of the people of the whole country in their confidence in the national network protection capabilities.

  The global responsibility of UNPROFOR, the military must be an important support for maintaining global cybersecurity. The last item of the “Strategy” mission clearly proposes to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace, support the United Nations in playing a leading role, promote the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, international anti-terrorism conventions on cyberspace, and improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cybercrime, deepening International cooperation in the areas of policy law, technological innovation, standardization, emergency response, and protection of key information infrastructure.

  Cyber ​​terrorism and cybercrime are new forms of global threat catalyzed by information network fermentation. They pose a huge threat to the political, economic, military and cultural security of all countries in the world. It is not enough to rely solely on the power of the government and the people. Western countries have given the military the responsibility to protect cybersecurity and the power to fight cyber terrorism. Maintaining the security and stability of global cyberspace is in the fundamental interests of China and the rest of the world. The military should become an important defender of global cyberspace security and an important force in combating global cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

  The globalization and unbounded nature of the Internet determine the international demand for combating cyber terrorism and transnational cybercrime. The military should promote military cooperation between countries in the framework of the UN Security Council and use the strategies and technologies of the Internet era to establish joint defense and joint defense. Mechanism to effectively safeguard the security of the national and world cyberspace.

  From “field training” to “network preparation”, new areas require new preparations for the military

  Under the new historical situation, cyberspace puts forward new requirements for the military training and preparation mode. It should adapt to the new characteristics of cyberspace and the new mission of the military to carry out innovative reforms on the traditional model, strengthen the country’s military objectives, and strengthen macro-coordination. Focusing on the legal needs of cyberspace military operations, it closely follows the natural attributes of cyberspace “military and civilian integration”, builds a network security attack and defense system that combines peacetime and warfare, and builds a network defense force of “military and land use”.

  Legislation empowerment provides a legal basis for the military to carry out its functional mission. The countries of the world, especially the western developed countries, attach great importance to the issue of network defense in cyber security legislation. The United States has successively issued a series of policies and regulations such as “National Security No. 16 Presidential Decree”, “Network Space Action Strategy”, and has continuously deepened and standardized on how to protect national network security in the field of network defense.

  At present, it is necessary to clarify the duties and responsibilities of the cyberspace military from the legal level. It should be based on the National Security Law and the Cyber ​​Security Law, and introduce the network defense law and related cyberspace military operational regulations, for the construction of the network defense field and military. The action provides regulatory support and a program of action to make the military’s responsibilities and mission in cyberspace more specific and specific.

  First, further define the network sovereignty and network frontier through the network defense legislation, and clearly define the scope of the military.

  The second is to establish the operational authority of the military to defend the national cyberspace security through the construction of cyber warfare laws and regulations, and to distinguish military means against network intrusion and network destruction. Third, through the cyberspace international cooperation policy, the military will coordinate with other countries and civilian forces to combat international cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

  The integration of military and civilian provides an innovative driving force for the construction of a network powerhouse. The integration of military and civilian is the main method for the world power to enhance the competitiveness of cyberspace. For the construction of China’s network powerhouse, building a military-civilian network security attack and defense system and developing a military-land dual-use defense information infrastructure is to inspire the innovation of military cyberspace combat capability. Source.

  The first is to coordinate the military, civilian, and functional departments of the state, the military, and various levels of government, set up special command and coordination agencies, mobilize all national network forces, and build a network security attack and defense system that combines “military and civilian integration” and “peace and war.”

  The second is to issue guidance on the in-depth development of cyber security military-civilian integration as soon as possible, and gradually carry out basic legal research and demonstration of military-civilian integration to guide the development of medium- and long-term military-civil integration.

  Third, relying on the country’s existing public mobile communication network, optical fiber communication network and satellite system, the military and civilians will build an information infrastructure covering the entire army of the whole country, and realize the unified construction and sharing of military and civilian.

  The fourth is to establish an emergency response mechanism for military-civilian joints, increase the ability to train military authorities to control events, strengthen experts and emergency professional strength, and enhance the ability to quickly recover damaged networks or information systems.

  Military-civilian joint training provides a practical environment for the generation of cyberspace military capabilities. The military-civilian sharing characteristics of cyberspace make military-civilian joint training an important means of military training in cyberspace around the world. The cyberspace joint military and civilian exercises in the United States and NATO countries have formed a series of series. The “Network Storm” and “Network Guardian” drills have attracted the participation of governments, enterprises, research institutions and even civilian hackers. Our military cyberspace military strength training also needs to attract a wide range of civil forces to participate.

  First, do a good job in military-government cooperation, establish a military-civilian joint offensive and defensive drill mechanism, learn from the red-blue confrontation training methods in the cyber war drills of developed countries such as the United States, actively build a “national network shooting range”, plan a series of joint exercises of the government and non-government organizations, and enhance the integration of the military and the people. The level of attack and defense of the network of the government and the people.

  The second is to do a good job in military-enterprise cooperation, relying on net-based enterprises to set up a training field on the Internet, to promote the ability of attack and defense between the military and civilians, and jointly improve the ability to prevent unknown risks.

  The third is to organize private network security companies and hacker talents, carry out network security competitions and other activities, and mutually verify each other to jointly improve the level of network security protection technology and tactics.

  The network reserve service provides a source of strength for building a powerful network army. As a backup supplement to the national defense force, the reserve has both military and civilian characteristics and is a powerful measure to realize the organic unification of the development of cyberspace economy and national defense.

  First, it is led by the national security department, and overall planning is carried out according to national interests. A series of laws and regulations conducive to the construction of the network national defense reserve are introduced, and the main division of labor, promotion strategy, interest coordination, etc. of the military and civilian construction in the network defense reserve construction are solved from the top level. problem.

  The second is to innovate the reserve organization and comprehensive coordination mechanism, and plan to integrate the reserve construction into all levels and fields of national network information development.

  The third is to focus on the reform of the military and local management models. Based on the management mechanisms of the provincial and municipal governments, the military, and local enterprises and institutions, the network will establish a network of national defense reserve personnel to jointly cultivate and use the mechanism, improve the national emergency mobilization mechanism, and establish a national network defense special talent. The database will include the construction of network militia and reserve forces into the scope of mobilization of the people’s armed forces. In normal times, they will be incorporated into the militia emergency detachment for training. In an emergency, they will select the elite personnel to participate in the non-war military operations missions, and will be recruited and used as needed during wartime. To transform the national defense potential into national defense strength. 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

原題:從守衛“網絡營門”走向守衛“網絡國門”

作者:安衛平北部戰區副參長

原載:“國防參考”2017年年第3期

網絡空間誕生於軍事領域,如首台計算機,阿帕網和GPS導航系統等都源於軍方,時至今日,網絡空間安全已與國家安全息息相關,軍隊又再次成為維護國家網絡空間安全的主角,無論是面對常態化的網絡滲透,還是大規模的網絡攻擊,都迫切需要軍隊從守衛“網絡營門”走向守衛“網絡國門”,突破傳統的軍隊使命任務,突破傳統的應戰備戰模式,以全新的網絡國防思維,鑄造網絡時代國之堅盾。

從“網絡營門”到“網絡國門”,新時代帶來軍隊使命新趨勢

網絡空間不僅事關國家戰略利益維護,直接影響政治,經濟,文化安全和社會發展,也成為現代戰場聯合作戰的血脈和紐帶。中國軍隊不能局限於維護軍營內部網絡安全,更要主動適應時代趨勢,勇於承擔把守“網絡國門”的國家擔當。網絡強軍是網絡強國建設的重要一環,從“網絡營門”走向“網絡國門”是信息時代國內外形勢發展的必然趨勢。

守衛“網絡國門”是網絡空間安全形勢所迫。中國作為第一網絡大國,安全狀況不容樂觀,戰略對手從未停止對我網絡作戰準備。美,英,法等國積極備戰網絡空間,通過網絡空間安全立法賦予軍隊職能,發展網絡戰部隊,研發網絡戰武器裝備,將戰爭推進到了人類的“第五空間”,特別是在中國日益強大崛起的歷史進程中,西方國家在冷戰思維和遏制顛覆戰略的主導下,利用網絡技術手段和傳播方式實施不間斷的騷擾,顛覆和網絡攻擊行動,嚴重影響我國家安全與社會發展,中國逐漸成為網絡安全威脅的重災區,病毒攻擊的試驗場,意識滲透的目的地,國家安全面臨著巨大風險。

未來一段時期內,中國作為新興大國,與各方利益衝突還將加劇,堅定推進網絡國防戰略,加強網絡空間的作戰準備,是積極爭取網絡空間的主導權和話語權的必然途徑,也是中國崛起的必由之路。軍隊作為國家安全穩定的主要力量,必須適應網絡空間特點要求,成為抗擊網絡入侵,網絡顛覆的中堅和主力,維護國家安全和社會穩定。

打贏網絡戰爭是信息時代新軍事變革所趨。網絡技術作為信息時代最先進生產力之一,使得網絡空間作戰成為引導現代戰爭形態演變的主導因素,影響著戰爭全局。近年來,從伊朗“震網“攻擊,俄格衝突網絡戰,烏克蘭電網遭大規模阻癱以及美軍對IS的網絡攻擊,網絡空間在實戰中所展現出的巨大作用逐漸顯現,預示著網絡作戰已成為未來聯合作戰重要樣式。

美軍高度重視網絡空間軍備建設,成立網絡空間司令部,推出網絡空間聯合作戰條令,大幅度擴編網絡戰部隊,極力維護其在網絡空間霸權,把對網絡空間控制能力作為形成“第三次抵消戰略“絕對優勢最重要的競爭內容。

世界多國紛紛跟進,網絡空間軍事化趨勢明顯。嚴峻的網絡空間軍事鬥爭形勢要求中國軍隊著眼網絡戰場空間變化,適應信息化戰爭時代要求,實現在網絡空間能打仗,打勝仗的強軍目標。

有效網絡懾戰是加速網絡強國建設內在所需。在中國由網絡大國向網絡強國發展過程中,離不開強大的網絡空間軍事力量作為保障。網絡空間國際競爭表現為國家綜合實力的全面博弈,其中,網絡軍事能力建設的好壞,直接關係到國家安全與穩定,牽一發而動全身,是整個國家安全領域的核心要素。

當前,世界各國在網絡空間的利益互相滲透,出現“你中有我,我中有你,互相合作,共同發展”的局面。但是這種共同發展是不對等的,美國及西方強國利用網絡空間主導權,已經取得了一定的網絡懾戰優勢,使我網絡發展及利益受制於人。軍隊如何在網絡強國建設中完成守土有責的使命重托,前提就是要形成能夠遏制危機,懾控對手的網絡攻防能力,確保和平發展的網絡環境。

因此,軍隊需要確立有效懾戰的威懾戰略目標,形成能與敵“相互摧毀”的戰略制衡能力,從而增強戰略競爭力,懾止網絡空間侵略,保障網絡強國戰略順利推進。

從“守土有責”到“護網衛國”,新形勢要求軍隊承擔新任務

軍隊是保衛國家安全的主力和柱石,網絡空間也不例外2015年7月1日施行的“國家安全法”規定:“中華人民共和國公民,一切國家機關和武裝力量,各政黨和各人民團體,企業事業組織和其他社會組織,都有維護國家安全的責任和義務。“2016年11月頒布的”網絡安全法“強調了要維護網絡空間主權和國家安全。

在這兩個國家法律的基礎上,2016年12月27日,“國家網絡空間安全戰略”(下文簡稱“戰略”)正式出台,為在新的起點上開創網絡強國新格局提供了總體指導和基本遵循,明確提出了九大戰略任務,進一步體現了軍隊在建設網絡強國進程中的使命任務。

全力護網的國家使命,軍隊要做捍衛網絡空間主權的堅強柱石。“戰略”中列出的九大戰略任務首項就是“堅定捍衛網絡空間主權”,明確提出要“採取包括經濟,行政,科技,法律,外交,軍事等一切措施,堅定不移地維護我國網絡空間主權“。可見,軍隊須承擔起運用實體空間的軍事手段,保衛虛擬網絡空間主權安全和利益的國家使命。

網絡空間主權是國家的核心利益,是國家主權的重要組成,表明國家在網絡空間所擁有的獨立權,平等權,自衛權和管理權。一旦敵對勢力侵犯了我網絡空間主權,就等同於侵犯了我陸海空等實體空間的國家主權,中國將有權利採取包括軍事手段在內的一切措施給予堅決回擊。

在國際上,美國早就提出網絡空間威懾戰略,宣告對美國網絡信息設施的攻擊等同於戰爭行為,美國會採取軍事打擊措施進行報復。軍事手段是維護國家主權的保底手段,在維護國家網絡空間安全中發揮著至關重要的作用。因此,陸海空天軍事力量理所應當地被賦予了保護網絡空間主權的歷史使命,必須憑藉強大的實體空間武力保衛網絡空間的國家利益,有力震懾敵對勢力的網絡破壞企圖。

依網衛國的時代擔當,軍隊要做保衛國家安全的壓艙石。“戰略”任務的第二項著力強調要堅決維護國家安全,防範,制止和依法懲治任何利用網絡進行叛國,分裂國家,煽動叛亂,顛覆或者煽動顛覆人民民主專政政權的行為。

信息網絡時代,世界各國軍隊都已經成為網絡空間重要參與者,網絡空間能力水平成為評估一個國家軍隊現代化程度的主要指標,遂行網絡空間使命任務,維護國家安全成為信息化軍隊的主要職責之一。

從中國發展所處的歷史進程來看,要適應全面建成小康社會決勝階段的國家安全戰略需求,必須高度警惕國家在網絡空間被侵略,被顛覆,被分裂的危險,高度警惕由網絡空間引發改革發展大局被破壞的危險,高度警惕中國特色社會主義發展進程被干擾,破壞的危險。

防患於未然,要求國家必須具有應對和處置這些危險的手段措施,具有防範,制止和依法懲治網絡空間違法破壞行為的強大力量。保衛國家歷來是軍隊不可推卸的歷史責任,固有的使命任務決定了中國軍隊必須承擔起在網絡空間採取各種措施,維護國家政治,經濟,文化安全和社會穩定的時代擔當。

攻防兼備的戰略任務,軍隊要做提升網絡空間防護能力的堅強後盾。“戰略”中九大任務的第三項和第八項明確提出,要採取一切必要措施保護關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據不受攻擊破壞,要堅持技術和管理並重,保護和震懾並舉;要建設與我國國際地位相稱,與網絡強國相適應的網絡空間防護力量,大力發展網絡安全防禦手段,及時發現和抵禦網絡入侵,鑄造維護國家網絡安全的堅強後盾。在國家所有維護安全的政治,外交,軍事,科技能力中,軍事力量歷來是所有能力的基礎和支撐,是所有能力的根本保障,是國家安全的最終依托。

因此,軍隊必須承擔起提升國家網絡空間防護能力堅強後盾的戰略任務。現實社會中,軍隊是維護國家安全的定心丸,在網絡空間也同樣應成為人民群眾的安全依賴和保障。軍隊作為國家網絡空間防護能力生成的重要一環,必須做到攻防兼備,懾戰一體,有能力堅決維護國家和人民在網絡空間的利益和安全,能夠有效消除網絡安全威脅造成的各種危機和思想動盪,使人民能夠切實感受到生產生活得到有效保護,成為全國人民對國家網絡防護能力充滿信心的底氣所在。

聯防聯治的全球責任,軍隊要做維護全球網絡安全的重要支撐。“戰略”任務最後一項明確提出要強化網絡空間國際合作,支持聯合國發揮主導作用,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則,網絡空間國際反恐公約,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,深化在政策法律,技術創新,標準規範,應急響應,關鍵信息基礎設施保護等領域的國際合作。

網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪是經過信息網絡發酵催化出的全球威脅新形態,對世界上所有國家的政治,經濟,軍事,文化安全都構成巨大威脅,僅僅依靠政府和民間的力量是不夠的,美國等西方國家紛紛賦予軍隊保護網絡安全的職責和打擊網絡恐怖主義的權限。維護全球網絡空間安全與穩定符合中國以及世界各國的根本利益,軍隊應成為全球網絡空間安全的重要維護者,成為打擊全球網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪的重要力量。

網絡的全球化,無界性決定了打擊網絡恐怖主義和跨國網絡犯罪的國際需求,軍隊應在聯合國安理會的框架下,推進國家間網絡治理軍事合作,利用網絡時代的戰略和技術,建立聯防聯治機制,切實維護國家和世界網絡空間安全。

從“沙場練兵”到“網絡備戰”,新領域需要軍隊備戰新舉措

在新的歷史形勢下,網絡空間對軍隊練兵備戰模式提出了全新的要求,應適應網絡空間新特點和軍隊新使命對傳統模式進行創新改革,以強國強軍目標為統攬,加強宏觀統籌,著眼網絡空間軍事行動的法理需求,緊扣網絡空間“軍民一體”的天然屬性,建設“平戰結合”的網絡安全攻防體系,打造“軍地兩用”的網絡國防力量。

立法賦權,為軍隊遂行職能使命提供法理依據。世界各國尤其是西方發達國家在網絡安全立法上高度重視網絡國防問題。美國先後出台了“國家安全第16號總統令”,“網絡空間行動戰略”等一系列政策法規,對如何在網絡國防領域保護國家網絡安全進行了不斷的深化規範。

當前,從法律層面釐清網絡空間軍隊的職責任務非常必要,應以“國家安全法”,“網絡安全法”為依據,出台網絡國防法和有關網絡空間軍事作戰條令法規,為網絡國防領域建設和軍事行動提供法規支撐和行動綱領,使軍隊在網絡空間的職責和使命更加明確具體。

一是通過網絡國防立法進一步界定網絡主權和網絡邊疆,清晰軍隊的職責範圍。

二是通過網絡作戰法規建設,明確軍隊遂行保衛國家網絡空間安全的行動權限,區分應對網絡入侵,網絡破壞等行為的軍事手段。三是通過網絡空間國際合作政策,明確軍隊協同他國,民間力量等打擊國際網絡恐怖主義,網絡犯罪的職能任務。

軍民融合,為網絡強國建設提供創新動力。軍民融合是世界強國提升網絡空間競爭力的主要做法,對於中國網絡強國建設來說,構建軍民融合網絡安全攻防體系,開發軍地兩用的國防信息基礎設施,是激發軍隊網絡空間作戰能力創新的源泉。

一是統籌國家,軍隊和各級政府等軍民融合職能部門,設置專門的指揮協調機構,調動一切國家網絡力量,建設“軍民一體”,“平戰結合”的網絡安全攻防體系。

二是盡快出台網絡安全軍民融合深度發展指導性意見,逐步展開軍民融合基本法律研究論證,指導中長期軍民融合發展。

三是依托國家現有公共移動通信網,光纖通信網及衛星系統,軍民共建覆蓋全國全軍的信息基礎設施,實現軍民統建,分管共享。

四是建立軍民聯合的應急響應機制,加大培訓軍地主管部門控制事態的能力,加強專家和應急專業力量,提升快速恢復受損網絡或信息系統的能力。

軍民聯訓,為網絡空間軍事能力生成提供實戰化環境。網絡空間的軍民共用特性使得軍民聯訓成為世界各國網絡空間軍事演訓的重要方式。美國及北約等國家的網絡空間軍民聯合演習已經形成系列化,“網絡風暴”,“網絡衛士”等演練活動吸引了政府,企業,研究機構甚至民間黑客的廣泛參與。我軍網絡空間軍事力量訓練也需要廣泛吸引民間力量參與。

一是搞好軍政合作,建立軍民聯合攻防演練機制,借鑒美國等發達國家網絡戰演練中的紅藍對抗訓練方法,積極建設“國家網絡靶場”,策劃政府,民間機構系列聯合演習,提升軍民一體,官民一體的網絡攻防水平。

二是搞好軍企協作,在互聯網上依靠網信企業設置演練場區,促進軍民之間攻防能力磨合,共同提高防範未知風險能力。

三是著眼軍隊和地方兩頭管理模式改革,以各省市政府,軍隊和地方企事業單位的管理機制為依托,建立網絡國防預備役人才聯合培養使用機制,完善國家應急動員機制,建立國家網絡防禦專用人才數據庫,將網絡民兵和預備役部隊建設納入人民武裝動員的範圍,平時按規定編入民兵應急分隊進行訓練,急時挑選精幹人員隨隊參加遂行非戰爭軍事行動任務,戰時按需要成建制徵召使用,使國防潛力轉變為國防實力。

Original referring url:  http://mil.huanqiu.com/strategysituation/2017-04/

Anxious US Military Worried about China’s Information Warfare // 焦急美國軍方擔心中國信息戰

Anxious US Military Worried about China’s Information Warfare // 焦急美國軍方擔心中國信息戰

In the past few years, the Chinese military and folk experts have set off a wave of research information warfare. After reading their works, it is not difficult to find that China’s information warfare theory research has several obvious characteristics: First, China is eager to develop its own information warfare theory, which is related to its judgment on its own security threats; secondly, China’s information War theory is deeply influenced by its traditional military command art. Both the ancient “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” and “Thirty-six”, or Mao Zedong’s people’s war thoughts have deeply imprinted in the information warfare theory; third, China’s cognition and classification of information warfare is obviously different. In the United States, the originator of information warfare, the United States, although similar to Russia’s information warfare theory, is only similar and God is not.

Wei Wei Zhao

The advent of the information age has prompted people to rethink the way war is carried out. China is aware that its conventional armed forces are far less powerful than superpowers. In the near future, neither conventional forces nor nuclear weapons can pose a powerful deterrent to the United States. However, the ambitious Eastern Dragon believes that with the advent of the information age, there will be new changes in the form of war, military structure, methods of warfare and command means, and information will replace people in the future battlefield. As long as the focus of strategic research is placed on the warfare of information warfare and grasping the trend of the times, it is not difficult to shorten the distance and further gain a leading position.

In ancient China, there was a military book called “Thirty-six Meters”. One of them, “Wei Wei Zhao”, pointed out that if the enemy’s positive power is too strong, it should be avoided and it should be weak. The Chinese are used for the present, applying this strategy to the current struggle between countries – if you can’t launch a direct attack (nuclear strike), then fight information warfare, weak financial, electricity, etc.

The network system starts. Although conventional armed forces cannot compete with the United States, China’s information warfare forces theoretically threaten the political and economic security of the United States. Americans cannot afford the instant of the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ stock exchange. collapse. The global accessibility of information warfare and the spread of light speed are characteristics that nuclear war does not have. What Chinese want is to defeat opponents with the speed, accuracy and continuity of information warfare.

The power of information warfare can make up for the shortcomings of conventional armed forces. The establishment of various battlefield information networks can not only improve the management level of traditional warfare, enhance the overall combat effectiveness of the troops, but also compensate for the shortage of conventional forces to a certain extent. In the eyes of the Chinese, the information warfare seems to be more powerful, and it is the force multiplier of the conventional armed forces.

Information war think tank

In 1996, Shen Weiguang, the earliest expert on information warfare in China, defined the information warfare as: “The warring parties fight for the battlefield initiative by controlling information and intelligence resources.” and the United States “protecting the friendly information system and attacking enemy information.” Compared with the definition of “system”, Shen Weiguang emphasizes “controlling” the enemy.

In 1998, the Chinese military information warfare authority Wang saves the classification of information warfare: divided into normal time, crisis time, war time according to time; divided into attack and defense according to nature; divided into country, strategy, theater, tactic according to level According to the scale, it is divided into battlefield, theater, and local war. The characteristics of information warfare include command and control warfare, intelligence warfare, electronic warfare, psychological warfare, space control warfare, hacker warfare, virtual warfare, and economic warfare. In principle, information warfare measures such as cutting off, blinding, transparent, rapid, and improving viability. General Wang’s understanding of information warfare is closer to that of the West, and he focuses on the confrontation of advanced technology.

In 1999, Chinese experts launched a big discussion on information warfare. At this time, Shen Weiguang expanded the scope of information warfare. He believes that “information warfare, broadly refers to the war against the information space and the competition for information resources in the military (including political, economic, scientific, and social fields), narrowly refers to war. The confrontation between the two parties in the field of information. It is one of the essential characteristics of modern warfare. The essence of information warfare is to achieve the ‘no war and defeat the soldiers’ by capturing the right to control the system.”

Major military expert Wang Pufeng, who is another information warfare expert in the military, has a deep understanding of information warfare. In 2000, he distinguished information warfare from information warfare. According to his explanation, information warfare refers to a form of warfare, which contains information warfare, and information warfare refers to a kind of warfare activity. He believes that “information warfare includes all combat activities, including a series of intrusion activities and computer virus attacks on enemy information and information systems, such as information theft, tampering, deletion, deception, disruption, blocking, interference, and shackles. The network is not working properly.” He advocates that China’s information warfare theory should have its own characteristics while drawing on foreign advanced combat thinking.

“Mao Network People’s War”

China’s perception of information warfare is very traditional. Many military theorists believe that the information age has given new meaning to Mao Zedong’s people’s war thoughts. Therefore, he advocates relying on and mobilizing the masses of the people to conduct online wars. It is conceivable that no matter which of the same family, playing online with 1.3 billion people is daunting.

The most important feature of the Mao Zedong-style cyber war theory is that it breaks the boundary between the military and the people. The traditional dividing line between military and civilian facilities, military technology and civil technology has been blurred. The sharing of information technology in military and civilian use has created conditions for the widespread use of civilian technology for military purposes. For example, private electronic information equipment can be used for intelligence interception and transmission. Civil communication networks can be used for war mobilization; private computers can be used for network attack and defense. Second, the difference between military and non-military personnel is gradually disappearing. With the development of network technology and the expansion of application fields, a large number of network technology talents stand out. These network elites with special abilities will become gladiators in the future network people’s war. At the same time, information networks such as communications, transportation, and financial systems and international networking have provided the necessary conditions for China to carry out the people’s war.

Today, the idea of ​​the people’s war has been established as the fundamental guiding principle of China’s network information warfare. A Chinese military author wrote: “The strategic and tactical principles of flexible maneuvering are still the soul of network information warfare. The broad masses of the people actively participate in the war, especially the technical support and online warfare, which is the mass base and strength to win the victory of the network information war. Source.”

The power of the Internet People’s War is so terrible. Perhaps we can understand why the Chinese are willing to reduce the size of their armed forces. Imagine that once the war breaks out, China can launch a large number of people to participate in the war, information engineers and civilians will be organized through the home. When computers attack the US network information system, why should we maintain a large-scale combat force?

Information war drill

In the past few years, China has conducted several major information warfare military exercises to test the information warfare theory. The first “special warfare” (information warfare) drill was conducted in October 1997. A group army in a military region was attacked by a virus designed to smash its system. The group used military anti-virus software to defend it. The drill was called “invasion and anti-invasion drills.” Ground logistics, medical and air force units were also used during the exercise.

In October 1998, China held a high-tech comprehensive exercise jointly conducted by the three major military regions. For the first time in the joint defense operations exercise, the “military information highway” was used. The information network system in the command automation system consists of digital, dialing, command network and secret channel. The other parts of the command automation system are subsystems for command operations, audio and graphics processing, control, and data encryption.

In October 1999, the PLA conducted the first battle-level computer online confrontation exercise between two group armies. Reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, interference and anti-interference, blockade and anti-blockade, air strikes and anti-air strikes. In the software environment, six types of operations such as resource sharing, operational command, situation display, auxiliary evaluation, signal transmission and intelligence warfare were carried out. The computer evaluation system performs data and quality analysis on the performance of both sides of the exercise.

In July 2000, a military region also conducted an online confrontation drill. The three training tasks related to this exercise are: organizing and planning campaigns, seizing air and information rights, implementing breakthroughs and counter-breakthroughs. More than 100 terminals were connected to the walkthrough.

Militia detachment

China’s people’s war has a complete system. Its overall development direction is “the combination of a capable standing army and a strong reserve force.” This national defense system is conducive to giving full play to the overall effectiveness of the people’s war and the advantages of “network tactics.”

China’s 1.5 million reserve forces are very keen on playing the online people’s war. In some areas, the PLA has compiled reserve forces into small information warfare units. For example, in Yichang City, Hubei Province, the military division organized 20 municipal departments (electricity, finance, television, medical, etc.) technical personnel to set up a reserve information warfare. The department has a network battle camp, an electronic war camp, an intelligence psychological war camp and 35 technical teams. The Ministry also established the first reserve information warfare training base in China that can accommodate 500 people.

Yichang is not the only area where the reserve and militia are trained in information warfare. In December 1999, a reserve and militia meeting was held in Xiamen, Fujian. In the subsequent exercises, the militia detachment with high-tech equipment carried out electronic countermeasures, cyber attacks and protection, and radar reconnaissance performances. The goal of the imaginary attack is an island that is surrounded, so it is easy for outsiders to think of Taiwan. Xiamen is a special economic zone that brings together a large number of high-tech talents, so it has the superior conditions for implementing information warfare.

In an exercise held by the Jinan Military Region, the Xi’an People’s Armed Forces Information Warfare Division played the blue party responsible for the attack. They developed 10 information warfare measures, including information mines, information reconnaissance, alteration of network information, release of information bombs, and dumping. Web spam, distribution of network flyers, information spoofing, dissemination of false information, organization of information defense, establishment of cyber espionage stations. It can be seen from these network information warfare methods that their research on network information warfare has been quite specific and in-depth.

Chinese military experts also suggest that militia organizations at all levels should set up network technology professional detachments. In order to facilitate command and coordination, the militia network technology professional detachment should implement grouping and vertical management in the province or region. The reserve forces participate in the “network attack and defense” and “network technology guarantee” in the future war, and their actions must be implemented and unified by the military organization.

Medium

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army has developed its own set of information warfare education methods. The steps are: first, teach the basic knowledge of network information warfare; secondly, improve the information warfare knowledge level by telling the advanced military thoughts of foreign troops; then improve the information warfare use skills, especially Electronic technology, psychological warfare techniques, and information offensive and defensive techniques; finally, through exercises, knowledge is translated into practical operational capabilities. In China, it is mainly the responsibility of the PLA Academy to train high-tech talents in information warfare:

The People’s Liberation Army Communication Command College is located in Wuhan. In 1998, the Institute published two books, Information Command and Control Science and Information Warfare Technology. These two books are the most important textbooks for information warfare education in China. The college enjoys a high reputation for its excellent information warfare tutorials, which analyze information warfare requirements at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.

The People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering University, located in Zhengzhou, was formed by the merger of the former People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering College, Electronic Technology College and Surveying and Mapping College. The school’s current main research areas are information security, modern communication technology and space technology, and exploration in some cutting-edge disciplines, such as remote sensing information technology, satellite navigation and positioning technology, geographic information database technology.

The PLA University of Science and Technology, located in Nanjing, was formed by the merger of the former People’s Liberation Army Communication Engineering College, the Engineering Corps Engineering College, the Air Force Meteorological College and the General Staff No. 63 Research Institute. The school specializes in training military personnel in information warfare, command automation and other new disciplines. Nearly 400 experts and professors are engaged in information warfare theory and technology research at the university.

The National Defense Science and Technology University of the People’s Liberation Army is located in Changsha. The school is directly affiliated to the Central Military Commission. Has developed the famous “Galaxy” series supercomputer. During the Kosovo War between April and June 1999, nearly 60 senior officers gathered here to study high-tech wars.

The Naval Engineering University of the People’s Liberation Army, located in Wuhan, is the only institution in the Navy that studies information warfare. The purpose of the school’s research information warfare is to apply information technology to naval equipment so that the Chinese navy can adapt to information warfare.

in conclusion

What conclusions can we draw from China’s information warfare research? What lessons can the US military get from it?

First, Chinese military theorists have found a cheap and effective method of information warfare that gives China a position equal to that of the West in terms of strategic military and international status, thus enabling China to play a more important strategic role in the Asian region.

Second, China’s emphasis on new information warfare forces is extraordinary. Therefore, it is possible to develop various forms of information warfare forces, such as: network forces (independent units), “network warriors” raid units, information protection units, information units, electronic police and joint network people’s war organizations. Interestingly, in terms of current capabilities, Western countries, not China, have the ability to put these ideas into practice.

Third, China’s information warfare theory reflects the combination of Western and Chinese thoughts, and the influence of the former is getting weaker. Due to some common sources of military command art (Marxist dialectical thinking), China’s information warfare is more similar to Russia. However, by its very nature, China’s information warfare theory is different from Russia and the West. China’s information warfare theory emphasizes control, computerized warfare, cyber warfare, knowledge warfare, and information rights.

Fourth, in the field of information warfare, China has crossed several stages of technological development, and using the technology of the Quartet has not only saved time but also saved money. However, China does not fully emulate foreign countries, but adopts a creative information warfare strategy. But no matter what, China is a different information warfare force that is worthy of attention.

For the US military, studying China’s information warfare theory is not just to provide the military with several opinions. “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” said that “knowing that he knows, has won every battle.” From the perspective of foreign information warfare theory to analyze the information warfare capabilities of the United States, we can discover the fatal flaws of the US information warfare system.

As the Chinese say, the losers of information warfare are not necessarily technically backward, and those who lack the ability to direct art and strategy are most likely to be losers. It is time for the United States to reflect on its own information warfare and to study information warfare strategies and tactics. 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

在過去幾年裡,中國軍方與民間專家們掀起了研究信息戰的熱潮。閱讀他們的作品後不難發現,中國的信息戰理論研究具有幾個明顯的特徵:首先,中國正迫不及待地發展自己的信息戰理論,這與其對自身安全威脅的判斷有關;其次,中國的信息戰理論受其傳統軍事指揮藝術影響頗深。無論是古代的《孫子兵法》和《三十六計》,還是毛澤東的人民戰爭思想都在信息戰理論中打下了深深的烙印;第三,中國對信息戰的認知與分類,顯然不同於信息戰的開山鼻祖——美國,雖近似於俄國的信息戰理論,卻也只是形似而神不是。

圍魏救趙

信息時代的到來促使人們對戰爭的進行方式重新進行思索。中國意識到其常規武裝力量與超級大國相比實力懸殊,近期內無論是常規力量還是核武器,中國都無法對美國構成強大威懾。但是,雄心勃勃的東方巨龍認為:隨著信息時代的來臨,戰爭形態、軍隊結構、作戰方式和指揮手段都會有嶄新的變化,信息將取代人充斥於未來戰場。只要把戰略研究的著眼點放到信息戰這一戰爭形態上,把握時代發展潮流,就不難縮短距離,並進一步取得領先地位。

中國古代有部兵書叫《三十六計》,其中的一計“圍魏救趙”就指出,如果敵人正面力量過於強大,應當避實就虛,擊其薄弱之處。中國人古為今用,把這個計謀應用到當前國家間鬥爭——如果你不能發動直接攻擊(核打擊),那就打信息戰,向西方薄弱的金融、電力等

網絡系統下手。常規武裝力量雖然無法與美國抗衡,然而,中國的信息戰部隊在理論上卻實實在在威脅到美國的政治及經濟安全,美國人無法承受紐約股票交易所和納斯達克股票交易所在瞬間崩潰。信息戰的全球可及性、光速傳播性是核戰爭所不具有的特性,中國人要的就是以信息戰的速度、準確性和持續性擊敗對手。

信息戰力量可彌補常規武裝力量的不足。各種戰場信息網絡的建立,不僅可以提高對傳統戰爭的管理水平,增強部隊的整體戰鬥力,還可以在一定程度上彌補常規力量的不足。在中國人眼中,信息戰好似如虎添翼,是常規武裝部隊的力量倍增器。

信息戰智囊

1996年,中國最早提出信息戰的專家沈偉光給信息戰下的定義是:“交戰雙方通過控制信息與情報資源來爭奪戰場主動權的戰爭。”與美國“保護友方信息系統,攻擊敵方信息系統”的定義相比,沈偉光更強調“控制”敵人。

1998年,中國軍方信息戰權威王保存少將對信息戰進行了分類:按時間分為平時、危機時、戰時;按性質分為進攻、防禦;按層次分為國家、戰略、戰區、戰術;按規模分為戰場、戰區、局部戰爭。信息戰表現的特徵包括指揮與控制戰、情報戰、電子戰、心理戰、空間控制戰、黑客戰、虛擬戰、經濟戰等方面的較量。信息戰原則上採取切斷、蒙蔽、透明、快速和提高生存力等措施。王將軍對信息戰的認識與西方較為接近,都把重點放在先進技術的對抗上。

1999年,中國專家對信息戰展開了大討論。沈偉光此時把信息戰的範圍擴大,他認為“信息戰,廣義地指對壘的軍事(也包括政治、經濟、科技及社會一切領域)集團搶占信息空間和爭奪信息資源的戰爭,狹義地指戰爭中交戰雙方在信息領域的對抗。它是現代戰爭的本質特徵之一。信息戰的本質在於通過奪取制信息權達到’不戰而屈人之兵’。”

軍方另一位信息戰專家王普豐少將對信息戰有很深入的理解,2000年,他把信息戰和信息戰爭區別開。根據他的解釋,信息戰爭指的是一種戰爭形態,它包含了信息戰,而信息戰指的是一種作戰活動。他認為“信息戰包括所有作戰活動,其中有對敵信息及信息系統實施信息竊取、篡改、刪除、欺騙、擾亂、阻塞、干擾、癱瘓等一系列的入侵活動和計算機病毒攻擊,最終使敵計算機網絡無法正常工作。”他主張中國的信息戰理論在藉鑒國外先進作戰思想的同時,應具有中國自己的特色。

“毛式網絡人民戰爭”

中國對信息戰的認知非常具有傳統特色。許多軍事理論家認為信息時代賦予了毛澤東人民戰爭思想新的內涵,因此,主張依靠和發動廣大人民群眾進行網上戰爭。可以想像,無論是哪個同家,與13億人打網絡戰都是令人生畏的。

毛澤東式網絡人民戰爭理論的最重要特徵是它打破了軍與民的界限。模糊了軍用設施與民用設施、軍用技術與民用技術的傳統分界線。信息技術在軍用和民用上的共享,為廣泛利用民間技術達成軍事目的創造了條件。例如,可以利用民間的電子信息設備進行情報截獲和傳輸可以利用民間的通信網絡進行戰爭動員;可以利用民間的計算機進行網絡進攻和防禦等。其次,軍事人員與非軍事人員的區別也在逐漸消失。隨著網絡技術的發展和應用領域的擴大,大批的網絡技術人才脫穎而出。這些具備特殊能力的網絡精英將成為未來網絡人民戰爭中的角斗士。與此同時,通信、交通、金融系統等信息網絡與國際聯網,為中國開展人民戰爭提供了必要條件。

如今,人民戰爭思想已經被確立為中國網絡信息戰的根本指導原則。一個中國軍方作者寫道:“靈活機動的戰略戰術原則,仍然是網絡信息戰的靈魂。廣大人民群眾積極參戰,特別是技術支援和網上參戰,則是奪取網絡信息戰勝利的群眾基礎和力量源泉。”

網絡人民戰爭的威力是如此可怕,或許,我們可以明白為何中國人願意削減其武裝部隊規模了——設想一旦戰爭爆發,中國可以發動大量民眾參戰,信息工程師和平民將被組織起來,通過家中的電腦攻擊美國的網絡信息系統,那又何必要維持規模龐大的作戰部隊呢?

信息戰演練

過去幾年裡,中國舉行過數次重大信息戰軍事演習對信息戰理論進行檢驗。首次“特種戰”(信息戰)演練於1997年10月進行。某軍區的一個集團軍遭到旨在癱瘓其係統的病毒攻擊,該集團軍用殺毒軟件進行了防衛。該演練被稱為“入侵與反入侵演練”。演習時還動用了地面後勤、醫療和空軍部隊。

1998年10月,中國舉行了一場由三大軍區聯合進行的高科技綜合演練。聯合防禦作戰演練中首次使用了“軍事信息高速公路”。指揮自動化系統中的信息網絡系統由數字、撥號、指揮網和保密信道組成。指揮自動化系統的其他部分是指揮作戰、音頻和圖形處理、控制和數據加密等子系統。

1999年10月,解放軍首次進行了兩個集團軍之間的戰役級計算機網上對抗演習。演練了偵察與反偵察、干擾與反干擾、封鎖與反封鎖、空襲與反空襲等科目。在軟件環境下進行了資源共享、作戰指揮、態勢顯示、輔助評估、信號傳輸和情報戰等6類作業。計算機評估系統對演習雙方的表現進行數據與質量分析。

2000年7月,某軍區也進行了網上對抗演練。與此次演練有關的3項訓練任務是:組織和計劃戰役、奪取制空權和製信息權、實施突破和反突破。有100多台終端聯網參與了演練。

民兵分隊

中國的人民戰爭有一套完備的體制,其總體發展方向是“精幹的常備軍與強大的後備力量相結合”,這種國防體制有利於發揮人民戰爭的整體效能和“網海戰術”優勢。

中國150萬預備役部隊十分熱衷於打網絡人民戰爭。在一些地區,解放軍已經把預備役部隊編成小型信息戰部隊。例如,在湖北省宜昌市,軍分區組織了20個市政部門(電力、財政、電視、醫療等)的技術人員成立了預備役信息戰團。該部擁有網絡戰營、電子戰營、情報心理戰營及35個技術分隊。該部還建立了中國第一個能容納500人的預備役信息戰訓練基地。

宜昌並不是組織預備役和民兵進行信息戰訓練的唯一地區。 1999年12月在福建廈門召開了預備役和民兵會議。在隨後進行的演習中,擁有高技術裝備的民兵分隊進行了電子對抗、網絡攻擊和防護、雷達偵察表演。山於假想攻擊的目標是一座被包圍的島嶼,因此很容易讓外人聯想到是針對台灣。廈門是經濟特區,匯集了大量高科技人才,因此有實施信息戰的優越條件。

在一次由濟南軍區舉行的演習中,西安人武部信息戰分隊扮演負責攻擊的藍方,他們制定了10種信息戰措施,其中有安放信息地雷、信息偵察、改動網絡資料、釋放信息炸彈、傾倒網絡垃圾、分發網絡傳單、信息欺騙、散佈虛假信息、組織信息防禦、建立網絡間諜站。從這些網絡信息戰法可以看出,他們對網絡信息戰的研究已相當具體、深入。

中國的軍事專家還建議,各級民兵組織都應成立網絡技術專業分隊,為便於指揮協調,民兵網絡技術專業分隊應以省或者地區為單位實行條條編組,垂直管理。後備力量參與未來戰爭中的“網絡攻防”和“網絡技術保障”,其行動要由軍隊組織實施和統一協調。

培養基地

中國人民解放軍發展出自己的一套信息戰教育方法,其步驟是:首先傳授網絡信息戰基礎知識;其次通過講述外軍的先進軍事思想提高信息戰知識水平;然後提高信息戰使用技能,特別是電子技術、心理戰技術和信息攻防技術;最後,通過演習把知識轉化為實際操作能力。在中國,主要由解放軍院校擔負培養信息戰高技術人才的責任:

解放軍通信指揮學院,位於武漢。 1998年,該院出版了兩部書籍,分別是《信息作戰指揮控制學》和《信息作戰技術學》,這兩部書籍是中國信息戰教育最重要的教材。該學院以其優良的信息戰教程設置而享有很高的聲譽,這些教程分析了戰略、戰役、戰術層次的信息作戰要求。

解放軍信息工程大學,位於鄭州,由原解放軍信息工程學院、電子技術學院和測繪學院合併而成。該校目前主要研究領域是信息安全,現代通信技術和空間技術,並且在一些尖端學科領域進行探索,如遙感信息技術、衛星導航與定位技術、地理信息數據庫技術。

解放軍理工大學,位於南京,由原解放軍通信工程學院、工程兵工程學院、空軍氣象學院和總參第63研究所合併而成。該校專門負責訓練信息戰、指揮自動化和其它新學科的軍事人才。有近400名專家教授在該大學從事信息戰理論與技術研究。

解放軍國防科技大學,位於長沙,該校直接隸屬於中央軍委。曾開發了著名的“銀河”系列超級計算機。 1999年4月到6月科索沃戰爭期間,近60名高級軍官匯集在此研究高科技戰爭。

解放軍海軍工程大學,位於武漢,是海軍唯一研究信息戰的院校。該校研究信息戰的目的是把信息技術應用到海軍裝備,使中國海軍能適應信息化戰爭。

結論

我們從中國的信息戰研究中能得到什麼結論呢?美國軍隊又能從中得到什麼啟示呢?

首先,中國的軍事理論家找到了一廉價而有效的信息戰方法,它使中國在戰略軍事和國際地位上取得與西方相等的位置,從而使中國在亞人地區發揮更重要的戰略角色。

其次,中國對新型信息戰部隊的重視非同尋常。因此可能會發展形式各樣的信息戰部隊,例如:網絡部隊(獨立兵種)、“網絡勇士”突襲分隊、信息保護部隊、信息兵團,電子警察和聯合網絡人民戰爭機構。有意思的是,就現階段的能力而言,西方國家,而不是中國,更具有把這些設想付諸實施的能力。

第三,中國的信息戰理論反映了西方和中國思想的結合,而且前者的影響力越來越弱。由於軍事指揮藝術的一些共同淵源(馬克思主義辯證思想),中國的信息戰思想更類似於俄國。但是,就其本質而言,中國的信息戰理論與俄國和西方都不同。中國的信息戰理論強調控制、電腦化戰爭、網絡戰、知識戰和製信息權。

第四,在信息戰領域,中國跨越了若干技術發展階段,利用四方的技術,不僅節省了時間而且還節省了金錢。不過,中國沒有完全仿效外國,而是採用創造性的信息戰策略。但不管怎麼樣,中國都是值得關注的一支不同於其他國家的信息戰力量。

對美軍而言,研究中國的信息戰理論絕非僅僅為了給軍方提供幾條意見。 《孫子兵法》稱“知彼知已,百戰百勝”。從外國信息戰理論的角度來分析美國的信息戰能力,才能發現美國信息戰系統的致命缺陷。

正如中國人所言,信息戰的失敗者不一定是技術落後方,那些缺乏指揮藝術和戰略能力的人才最可能是失敗者。美國到了該反省自己的信息戰思想,並研究信息戰戰略和戰術的時候了。

Original Referring url:

China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! // 中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! //

中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

According to CCTV news client reports, today (27th) morning, the National Internet Information Office released the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy “, which is the first time China released a strategy on cyberspace security. The “Strategy” clarifies China’s major positions and propositions on the development and security of cyberspace, clarifies the strategic guidelines and main tasks, and is a programmatic document guiding national cybersecurity work.

“Strategy” pointed out that information networks such as the Internet have become a new channel for information dissemination, a new space for production and life, a new engine for economic development, a new carrier for cultural prosperity, a new platform for social governance, a new bond for exchanges and cooperation, and a national sovereignty. New territory. With the in-depth development of information technology, the network security situation is becoming more and more serious. The use of network interference in other countries’ internal affairs and large-scale network monitoring and stealing activities seriously endangers national political security and user information security. The critical information infrastructure has been attacked and destroyed, and major security incidents have occurred. Harmful to national economic security and public interests, network rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information eroding cultural security and youth physical and mental health, cyber terror and illegal crimes directly threaten people’s lives and property security, social order, around cyberspace The international competition for resource control, rulemaking, and strategic initiative is becoming increasingly fierce, and the cyberspace arms race challenges world peace. Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, and opportunities outweigh challenges. We must adhere to active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure security, resolutely safeguard network security, maximize the utilization potential of cyberspace, better benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, benefit all mankind, and firmly safeguard world peace.

The “Strategy” requires that the overall national security concept should be taken as a guide to implement the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, enhance risk awareness and crisis awareness, coordinate the two domestic and international situations, and coordinate the development of two major events. Actively defend and effectively respond to promote the peaceful, secure, open, cooperative, and orderly cyberspace, safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and realize the strategic goal of building a network power.

The Strategy emphasizes that a safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with other countries to respect and uphold cyberspace sovereignty, peacefully utilize cyberspace, manage cyberspace according to law, coordinate network security and development, strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, actively promote global Internet governance system reform, and jointly maintain cyberspace. Peace and security. China is committed to safeguarding the sovereignty, security, and development interests of the country’s cyberspace, promoting the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promoting the peaceful use and common governance of cyberspace.

The Strategy clarifies that the strategic task of national cyberspace security work in the current and future period is to firmly defend cyberspace sovereignty, resolutely safeguard national security, protect key information infrastructure, strengthen network culture construction, combat cyber terrorism and crimes, and improve the network. Governance system, solid foundation of network security, improvement of cyberspace protection capability, and strengthening international cooperation in cyberspace.

The full text of the National Cyberspace Security Strategy

On December 27th, approved by the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office released the National Cyberspace Security Strategy, the full text of which is as follows.

The widespread use of information technology and the development of cyberspace have greatly promoted economic and social prosperity and progress, but also brought new security risks and challenges. Cyberspace security (hereinafter referred to as cybersecurity) is related to the common interests of mankind, to world peace and development, and to national security. Safeguarding China’s cybersecurity is an important measure to coordinate and promote the comprehensive construction of a well-off society, comprehensively deepen reforms, comprehensively ruling the country according to law, and comprehensively and strictly manage the party’s strategic layout. It is to achieve the goal of “two hundred years” and realize the great Chinese rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. An important guarantee. In order to implement the “Four Principles” of Chairman Xi Jinping’s promotion of the global Internet governance system reform and the “five-point proposal” for building a community of cyberspace destiny, clarify China’s important position on cyberspace development and security, guide China’s cybersecurity work, and maintain The state develops this strategy in the interests of sovereignty, security, and development of cyberspace.

I. Opportunities and challenges

(1) Major opportunities

With the rapid development of the information revolution, the cyberspace composed of the Internet, communication networks, computer systems, automation control systems, digital devices and their applications, services and data is transforming people’s production and life styles and profoundly affecting the history of human society. Development process.

New channels for information dissemination. The development of network technology has broken through the limitations of time and space, expanded the scope of communication, and innovated the means of communication, which triggered a fundamental change in the pattern of communication. The Internet has become a new channel for people to obtain information, learn and communicate, and become a new carrier of human knowledge transmission.

A new space for production and life. In today’s world, the depth of the network is integrated into people’s learning, life, and work. Online education, entrepreneurship, medical care, shopping, and finance are becoming more and more popular. More and more people exchange ideas, achieve careers, and realize their dreams through the Internet.

The new engine of economic development. The Internet has increasingly become the leading force for innovation-driven development. Information technology has been widely used in various industries of the national economy, promoting the upgrading and upgrading of traditional industries, and has spawned new technologies, new formats, new industries, and new models, and promoted the adjustment of economic structure and the transformation of economic development mode. It has injected new impetus into economic and social development.

A new carrier of cultural prosperity. The network promotes cultural exchanges and knowledge popularization, releases the vitality of cultural development, promotes cultural innovation and creation, enriches people’s spiritual and cultural life, and has become a new means of disseminating culture and providing new means of public cultural services. Network culture has become an important part of cultural construction.

A new platform for social governance. The role of the network in promoting the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity has become increasingly prominent. The application of e-government has become more in-depth, and government information has been publicly shared. It has promoted the scientific, democratic, and rule-based government decision-making, and has smoothed the channels for citizens to participate in social governance. An important way to protect citizens’ right to know, participate, express, and supervise.

A new link for exchanges and cooperation. The interweaving of informationization and globalization has promoted the global flow of information, capital, technology, talents and other factors, and has enhanced the exchange and integration of different civilizations. The Internet has turned the world into a global village, and the international community has increasingly become a community of destiny among you and me.

The new territory of national sovereignty. Cyberspace has become a new field of human activity that is as important as land, sea, sky and space. The expansion of national sovereignty extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty has become an important part of national sovereignty. Respecting cyberspace sovereignty, maintaining cybersecurity, seeking common governance, and achieving win-win results are becoming the consensus of the international community.

(2) Severe challenges

The cyber security situation is becoming increasingly severe. The country’s political, economic, cultural, social, and national defense security and citizens’ legitimate rights and interests in cyberspace are facing serious risks and challenges.

Network penetration harms political security. Political stability is the basic prerequisite for national development and people’s happiness. The use of the network to interfere in his internal affairs, attack the political system of other countries, incite social unrest, subvert the political power of other countries, and large-scale network monitoring, network theft and other activities seriously endanger the political security of the country and the security of user information.

Cyber ​​attacks threaten economic security. Network and information systems have become the backbone of critical infrastructure and the entire economic society. Attacks and destruction and major security incidents will lead to rampant infrastructure such as energy, transportation, communications, and finance, causing disastrous consequences and seriously jeopardizing national economic security. And the public interest.

Harmful information on the Internet erodes cultural security. Various ideological and cultural networks on the Internet are in conflict and confrontation, and excellent traditional culture and mainstream values ​​are facing impact. Internet rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information that violates the core values ​​of socialism erodes the physical and mental health of young people, ruin the social atmosphere, mislead value orientation and endanger cultural security. Online morality is out of order, lack of integrity is frequent, and the degree of network civilization needs to be improved.

Cyber ​​terror and illegal crimes undermine social security. Terrorism, separatism, extremism and other forces use the Internet to incite, plan, organize and implement violent terrorist activities, directly threatening people’s lives and property, and social order. Computer viruses, Trojans, etc. spread in the cyberspace. Internet fraud, hacker attacks, intellectual property infringement, and misuse of personal information are abundant. Some organizations deliberately steal user information, transaction data, location information, and corporate trade secrets, seriously damaging the country. , corporate and personal interests, affecting social harmony and stability.

The international competition in cyberspace is on the rise. The international competition for competing for and controlling cyberspace strategic resources, seizing the rule-making power and strategic commanding heights, and seeking strategic initiative is becoming increasingly fierce. Individual countries have strengthened their network deterrence strategies and intensified the cyberspace arms race, and world peace has been challenged by new challenges.

Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, and opportunities outweigh challenges. We must adhere to active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure security, resolutely safeguard network security, maximize the utilization potential of cyberspace, better benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, benefit all mankind, and firmly safeguard world peace.

Second, the goal

Guided by the overall national security concept, we will implement the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, enhance risk awareness and crisis awareness, coordinate the two major domestic and international situations, and coordinate the development of two major events, actively defending and responding effectively. Promote cyberspace peace, security, openness, cooperation, orderly, safeguard national sovereignty, security, development interests, and achieve the strategic goal of building a network power.

Peace: Information technology abuse has been effectively curbed, and activities such as the cyberspace arms race that threaten international peace have been effectively controlled, and cyberspace conflicts have been effectively prevented.

Security: The network security risks are effectively controlled, the national network security assurance system is sound and complete, the core technical equipment is safe and controllable, and the network and information systems are stable and reliable. Network security talents meet the needs, and the society’s cyber security awareness, basic protection skills and confidence in using the network have increased significantly.

Openness: Information technology standards, policies and markets are open and transparent, product circulation and information dissemination are smoother, and the digital divide is increasingly bridging. Regardless of size, strength, or wealth, countries around the world, especially developing countries, can share development opportunities, share development results, and participate fairly in cyberspace governance.

Cooperation: All countries in the world have closer cooperation in the fields of technology exchange, combating cyber terrorism and cybercrime. The multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system is sound and perfect, and the cyberspace destiny community with cooperation and win-win as the core has gradually formed.

Orderly: The public’s right to know, participation, expression, and supervision in the cyberspace is fully protected, and the privacy of cyberspace is effectively protected and human rights are fully respected. The domestic and international legal systems and standards of cyberspace have been gradually established. The cyberspace has been effectively governed according to law. The network environment is honest, civilized and healthy. The free flow of information and the maintenance of national security and public interests are organically unified.

Third, the principle

A safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with other countries to strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, actively promote the transformation of the global Internet governance system, and jointly safeguard cyberspace peace and security.

(1) Respect for maintaining cyberspace sovereignty

The cyberspace sovereignty is inviolable and respects the right of countries to choose their own development path, network management model, Internet public policy and equal participation in international cyberspace governance. The network affairs within the sovereignty of each country are the responsibility of the people of each country. The countries have the right to formulate laws and regulations concerning cyberspace according to their national conditions and draw on international experience, and take necessary measures to manage their own information systems and network activities on their own territory. The domestic information systems and information resources are protected from intrusion, interference, attacks and destruction, guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of citizens in cyberspace; prevent, prevent and punish harmful information that endangers national security and interests from spreading in the domestic network and maintain the cyberspace order. No country engages in cyber hegemony, does not engage in double standards, does not use the network to interfere in its internal affairs, and does not engage in, condone or support network activities that endanger the national security of other countries.

(2) Peaceful use of cyberspace

The peaceful use of cyberspace is in the common interest of mankind. All countries should abide by the UN Charter’s principle of not using or threatening to use force, prevent information technology from being used for the purpose of maintaining international security and stability, and jointly resist the cyberspace arms race and prevent cyberspace conflicts. Adhere to mutual respect, treat each other as equals, seek common ground while reserving differences, embrace mutual trust, respect each other’s security interests and major concerns in cyberspace, and promote the building of a harmonious network world. Oppose the use of national security as an excuse to use technological superiority to control other countries’ networks and information systems, collect and steal data from other countries, and not to seek their own absolute security at the expense of other countries’ security.

(3) Governing cyberspace according to law

We will comprehensively promote the rule of law in cyberspace, adhere to the rule of law, establish networks according to law, and go online according to law, so that the Internet can operate healthily on the rule of law. Establish a good network order according to law, protect the cyberspace information in a legal and orderly free flow, protect personal privacy, and protect intellectual property rights. Any organization or individual who enjoys freedom and exercise rights in cyberspace must abide by the law, respect the rights of others, and be responsible for their words and deeds on the Internet.

(4) Coordinating network security and development

Without cybersecurity, there is no national security. Without informationization, there will be no modernization. Network security and informationization are two wings of the two wings and the drive. Correctly handle the relationship between development and security, adhere to safety and development, and promote safety through development. Security is a prerequisite for development, and any development at the expense of security is difficult to sustain. Development is the foundation of security, and development is the biggest insecurity. Without information development, network security is not guaranteed, and existing security may even be lost.

Fourth, strategic tasks

China’s number of Internet users and network scale is the highest in the world. Maintaining China’s network security is not only its own needs, but also of great significance for maintaining global network security and even world peace. China is committed to safeguarding the sovereignty, security, and development interests of the country’s cyberspace, promoting the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promoting the peaceful use and common governance of cyberspace.

(1) Firmly defending cyberspace sovereignty

In accordance with the Constitution and laws and regulations, we will manage the network activities within the scope of our sovereignty, protect the security of our information facilities and information resources, and adopt all measures including economy, administration, science and technology, law, diplomacy, and military, and unswervingly safeguard China’s cyberspace sovereignty. Resolutely oppose all acts of subverting our state’s political power and undermining our national sovereignty through the Internet.

(2) Resolutely safeguard national security

Prevent, stop and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship; prevent, deter and punish the use of the Internet for theft, disclosure of state secrets and other acts that endanger national security; Prevent, stop and punish foreign forces in the use of the network for infiltration, destruction, subversion and separatist activities.

(iii) Protection of critical information infrastructure

National key information infrastructure refers to information facilities that are related to national security, national economy and people’s livelihood. Once data leakage, destruction or loss of function may seriously endanger national security and public interest, including but not limited to providing services such as public communication and radio and television transmission. Information networks, important information systems in the fields of energy, finance, transportation, education, scientific research, water conservancy, industrial manufacturing, medical and health care, social security, public utilities, and state agencies, and important Internet application systems. Take all necessary steps to protect critical information infrastructure and its critical data from attack. Adhere to the combination of technology and management, focus on protection, prevention, detection, early warning, response, disposal, etc., establish and implement key information infrastructure protection systems, and increase investment in management, technology, talents, and capital. Comprehensively implement policies to effectively strengthen the security protection of key information infrastructure.

The protection of key information infrastructure is the common responsibility of the government, enterprises and the whole society. The competent authorities, operating units and organizations must take necessary measures to ensure the security of key information infrastructures in accordance with the requirements of laws, regulations and system standards, and gradually realize the first evaluation and use. Strengthen risk assessment of key information infrastructure. Strengthen the security protection of party and government organs and websites in key areas, and build and operate the website of grassroots party and government organs in an intensive mode. Establish an orderly sharing mechanism for cyber security information of government, industry and enterprises, and give full play to the important role of enterprises in protecting key information infrastructure.

Adhere to opening up and maintain network security in an open environment. Establish and implement a network security review system, strengthen supply chain security management, conduct security reviews on important information technology products and services purchased by party and government organs and key industries, improve the security and controllability of products and services, and prevent product service providers. And other organizations use the advantages of information technology to implement unfair competition or harm the interests of users.

(4) Strengthening the construction of network culture

Strengthen the construction of online ideological and cultural positions, vigorously cultivate and practice the core values ​​of socialism, implement network content construction projects, develop a positive and upward network culture, spread positive energy, unite powerful spiritual strength, and create a good network atmosphere. Encourage the development of new business, create new products, create a network culture brand that reflects the spirit of the times, and continuously improve the scale of the network culture industry. Implement the China Excellent Culture Online Communication Project and actively promote the digitalization, network production and dissemination of excellent traditional culture and contemporary cultural products. Give full play to the advantages of the Internet communication platform, promote the exchange of excellent cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries, let the people of all countries understand the excellent Chinese culture, let the Chinese people understand the excellent culture of each country, jointly promote the prosperity and development of the network culture, enrich people’s spiritual world, and promote the progress of human civilization.

Strengthen the network ethics and network civilization construction, give play to the role of moral education, and use the excellent results of human civilization to nourish cyberspace and repair the network ecology. Building a civilized and honest network environment, advocating civilized network and civilized Internet access, and forming a safe, civilized and orderly information dissemination order. Resolutely crack down on illegal and harmful information such as rumors, obscenity, violence, superstition, and cults in the cyberspace. Improve the network civilization of young people, strengthen the protection of minors online, and create a good network environment for the healthy growth of young people through the joint efforts of the government, social organizations, communities, schools, and families.

(5) Combating cyber terror and illegal crimes

Strengthen the network’s anti-terrorism, anti-espionage and anti-stealing capabilities, and crack down on cyber terror and cyber espionage activities.

Adhere to comprehensive governance, source control, and legal prevention, and severely crack down on illegal activities such as online fraud, cyber theft, drug trafficking, infringement of citizens’ personal information, dissemination of obscene pornography, hacking, and infringement of intellectual property rights.

(6) Improve the network governance system

Adhere to the rule of law, open and transparent management of the network, and earnestly do the law, the law must be enforced, the law enforcement must be strict, and the law must be investigated. We will improve the network security laws and regulations, formulate laws and regulations such as the Cyber ​​Security Law and the Minor Network Protection Regulations, clarify the responsibilities and obligations of all aspects of society, and clarify the requirements for network security management. Accelerate the revision and interpretation of existing laws to make them applicable to cyberspace. Improve the network security related system, establish a network trust system, and improve the scientific and standardized level of network security management.

Accelerate the construction of a network governance system that combines legal norms, administrative supervision, industry self-discipline, technical support, public supervision, and social education, promotes network social organization management innovation, and improves basic management, content management, industry management, and network crime prevention and combat. Work linkage mechanism. Strengthen the protection of cyberspace communication secrets, freedom of speech, trade secrets, and the legitimate rights and interests of property rights and property rights.

Encourage social organizations to participate in network governance, develop online public welfare undertakings, and strengthen the construction of new types of network social organizations. Encourage netizens to report cyber violations and bad information.

(7) Consolidating the foundation of network security

Adhere to innovation-driven development, actively create a policy environment conducive to technological innovation, pool resources and strength, take enterprises as the main body, combine production, study and research, coordinate research, point-to-face, and overall advancement, and make breakthroughs in core technologies as soon as possible. Pay attention to software security and accelerate the promotion and application of security and trusted products. Develop network infrastructure and enrich cyberspace information content. Implement the “Internet +” initiative and vigorously develop the network economy. Implement national big data strategy, establish a big data security management system, and support next-generation information technology innovation and application such as big data and cloud computing. Optimize the market environment, encourage network security enterprises to become bigger and stronger, and consolidate the industrial foundation for safeguarding national network security.

Establish and improve the national network security technology support system. Strengthen the basic theory of network security and research on major issues. Strengthen network security standardization and certification and accreditation, and make greater use of standards to standardize cyberspace behavior. Do basic work such as level protection, risk assessment, and vulnerability discovery, and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and network security major incident emergency response mechanism.

Implement network security talent project, strengthen the construction of network security disciplines, build a first-class network security college and innovation park, and form an ecological environment conducive to talent cultivation and innovation and entrepreneurship. We will do a good job in the network security publicity week and vigorously carry out publicity and education on the national network security. Promote cybersecurity education into teaching materials, enter the school, enter the classroom, improve the network media literacy, enhance the cyber security awareness and protection skills of the whole society, and improve the identification and resilience of the majority of netizens on illegal criminal activities such as network illegal information and online fraud.

(8) Improving the ability of cyberspace protection

Cyberspace is a new frontier of national sovereignty. We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and compatible with the network powers. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security.

(9) Strengthening international cooperation in cyberspace

On the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, we will strengthen international cyberspace dialogue and cooperation and promote the transformation of the Internet global governance system. We will deepen dialogue and exchanges and information communication with bilateral and multilateral networks in various countries, effectively control differences, actively participate in network security cooperation between global and regional organizations, and promote the internationalization of basic resource management such as Internet addresses and root name servers.

Support the United Nations to play a leading role in promoting the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, cyberspace international counter-terrorism conventions, sound judicial assistance mechanisms against cybercrime, deepening policy and law, technological innovation, standards and norms, emergency response, and critical information infrastructure International cooperation in areas such as protection.

Strengthen support for Internet technology diffusion and infrastructure construction in developing and underdeveloped regions, and strive to bridge the digital divide. Promote the construction of the “Belt and Road”, improve the level of international communication and interconnection, and smooth the information silk road. Establish a global Internet sharing and governance platform, such as the World Internet Conference, to jointly promote the healthy development of the Internet. Through active and effective international cooperation, we will establish a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system to jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly network space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

據央視新聞客戶端報導,今天(27日)上午,國家互聯網信息辦公室發布了《國家網絡空間安全戰略》,這是我國首次發布關於網絡空間安全的戰略。 《戰略》闡明了中國關於網絡空間發展和安全的重大立場和主張,明確了戰略方針和主要任務,是指導國家網絡安全工作的綱領性文件。

《戰略》指出,互聯網等信息網絡已經成為信息傳播的新渠道、生產生活的新空間、經濟發展的新引擎、文化繁榮的新載體、社會治理的新平台、交流合作的新紐帶、國家主權的新疆域。隨著信息技術深入發展,網絡安全形勢日益嚴峻,利用網絡干涉他國內政以及大規模網絡監控、竊密等活動嚴重危害國家政治安全和用戶信息安全,關鍵信息基礎設施遭受攻擊破壞、發生重大安全事件嚴重危害國家經濟安全和公共利益,網絡謠言、頹廢文化和淫穢、暴力、迷信等有害信息侵蝕文化安全和青少年身心健康,網絡恐怖和違法犯罪大量存在直接威脅人民生命財產安全、社會秩序,圍繞網絡空間資源控制權、規則制定權、戰略主動權的國際競爭日趨激烈,網絡空間軍備競賽挑戰世界和平。網絡空間機遇和挑戰並存,機遇大於挑戰。必須堅持積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全,堅決維護網絡安全,最大限度利用網絡空間發展潛力,更好惠及13億多中國人民,造福全人類,堅定維護世界和平。

《戰略》要求,要以總體國家安全觀為指導,貫徹落實創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念,增強風險意識和危機意識,統籌國內國際兩個大局,統籌發展安全兩件大事,積極防禦、有效應對,推進網絡空間和平、安全、開放、合作、有序,維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,實現建設網絡強國的戰略目標。

《戰略》強調,一個安全穩定繁榮的網絡空間,對各國乃至世界都具有重大意義。中國願與各國一道,堅持尊重維護網絡空間主權、和平利用網絡空間、依法治理網絡空間、統籌網絡安全與發展,加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,積極推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,共同維護網絡空間和平安全。中國致力於維護國家網絡空間主權、安全、發展利益,推動互聯網造福人類,推動網絡空間和平利用和共同治理。

《戰略》明確,當前和今後一個時期國家網絡空間安全工作的戰略任務是堅定捍衛網絡空間主權、堅決維護國家安全、保護關鍵信息基礎設施、加強網絡文化建設、打擊網絡恐怖和違法犯罪、完善網絡治理體系、夯實網絡安全基礎、提升網絡空間防護能力、強化網絡空間國際合作等9個方面。

資料圖

《國家網絡空間安全戰略》全文

12月27日,經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室發布《國家網絡空間安全戰略》,全文如下。

信息技術廣泛應用和網絡空間興起發展,極大促進了經濟社會繁榮進步,同時也帶來了新的安全風險和挑戰。網絡空間安全(以下稱網絡安全)事關人類共同利益,事關世界和平與發展,事關各國國家安全。維護我國網絡安全是協調推進全面建成小康社會、全面深化改革、全面依法治國、全面從嚴治黨戰略佈局的重要舉措,是實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興中國夢的重要保障。為貫徹落實習近平主席關於推進全球互聯網治理體系變革的“四項原則”和構建網絡空間命運共同體的“五點主張”,闡明中國關於網絡空間發展和安全的重大立場,指導中國網絡安全工作,維護國家在網絡空間的主權、安全、發展利益,制定本戰略。

一、機遇和挑戰

(一)重大機遇

伴隨信息革命的飛速發展,互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的網絡空間,正在全面改變人們的生產生活方式,深刻影響人類社會歷史發展進程。

信息傳播的新渠道。網絡技術的發展,突破了時空限制,拓展了傳播範圍,創新了傳播手段,引發了傳播格局的根本性變革。網絡已成為人們獲取信息、學習交流的新渠道,成為人類知識傳播的新載體。

生產生活的新空間。當今世界,網絡深度融入人們的學習、生活、工作等方方面面,網絡教育、創業、醫療、購物、金融等日益普及,越來越多的人通過網絡交流思想、成就事業、實現夢想。

經濟發展的新引擎。互聯網日益成為創新驅動發展的先導力量,信息技術在國民經濟各行業廣泛應用,推動傳統產業改造升級,催生了新技術、新業態、新產業、新模式,促進了經濟結構調整和經濟發展方式轉變,為經濟社會發展注入了新的動力。

文化繁榮的新載體。網絡促進了文化交流和知識普及,釋放了文化發展活力,推動了文化創新創造,豐富了人們精神文化生活,已經成為傳播文化的新途徑、提供公共文化服務的新手段。網絡文化已成為文化建設的重要組成部分。

社會治理的新平台。網絡在推進國家治理體系和治理能力現代化方面的作用日益凸顯,電子政務應用走向深入,政府信息公開共享,推動了政府決策科學化、民主化、法治化,暢通了公民​​參與社會治理的渠道,成為保障公民知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權的重要途徑。

交流合作的新紐帶。信息化與全球化交織發展,促進了信息、資金、技術、人才等要素的全球流動,增進了不同文明交流融合。網絡讓世界變成了地球村,國際社會越來越成為你中有我、我中有你的命運共同體。

國家主權的新疆域。網絡空間已經成為與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。尊重網絡空間主權,維護網絡安全,謀求共治,實現共贏,正在成為國際社會共識。

(二)嚴峻挑戰

網絡安全形勢日益嚴峻,國家政治、經濟、文化、社會、國防安全及公民在網絡空間的合法權益面臨嚴峻風險與挑戰。

網絡滲透危害政治安全。政治穩定是國家發展、人民幸福的基本前提。利用網絡干涉他國內政、攻擊他國政治制度、煽動社會動亂、顛覆他國政權,以及大規模網絡監控、網絡竊密等活動嚴重危害國家政治安全和用戶信息安全。

網絡攻擊威脅經濟安全。網絡和信息系統已經成為關鍵基礎設施乃至整個經濟社會的神經中樞,遭受攻擊破壞、發生重大安全事件,將導致能源、交通、通信、金融等基礎設施癱瘓,造成災難性後果,嚴重危害國家經濟安全和公共利益。

網絡有害信息侵蝕文化安全。網絡上各種思想文化相互激盪、交鋒,優秀傳統文化和主流價值觀面臨衝擊。網絡謠言、頹廢文化和淫穢、暴力、迷信等違背社會主義核心價值觀的有害信息侵蝕青少年身心健康,敗壞社會風氣,誤導價值取向,危害文化安全。網上道德失範、誠信缺失現象頻發,網絡文明程度亟待提高。

網絡恐怖和違法犯罪破壞社會安全。恐怖主義、分裂主義、極端主義等勢力利用網絡煽動、策劃、組織和實施暴力恐怖活動,直接威脅人民生命財產安全、社會秩序。計算機病毒、木馬等在網絡空間傳播蔓延,網絡欺詐、黑客攻擊、侵犯知識產權、濫用個人信息等不法行為大量存在,一些組織肆意竊取用戶信息、交易數據、位置信息以及企業商業秘密,嚴重損害國家、企業和個人利益,影響社會和諧穩定。

網絡空間的國際競爭方興未艾。國際上爭奪和控製網絡空間戰略資源、搶占規則制定權和戰略制高點、謀求戰略主動權的競爭日趨激烈。個別國家強化網絡威懾戰略,加劇網絡空間軍備競賽,世界和平受到新的挑戰。

網絡空間機遇和挑戰並存,機遇大於挑戰。必須堅持積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全,堅決維護網絡安全,最大限度利用網絡空間發展潛力,更好惠及13億多中國人民,造福全人類,堅定維護世界和平。

二、目標

以總體國家安全觀為指導,貫徹落實創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念,增強風險意識和危機意識,統籌國內國際兩個大局,統籌發展安全兩件大事,積極防禦、有效應對,推進網絡空間和平、安全、開放、合作、有序,維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,實現建設網絡強國的戰略目標。

和平:信息技術濫用得到有效遏制,網絡空間軍備競賽等威脅國際和平的活動得到有效控制,網絡空間衝突得到有效防範。

安全:網絡安全風險得到有效控制,國家網絡安全保障體系健全完善,核心技術裝備安全可控,網絡和信息系統運行穩定可靠。網絡安全人才滿足需求,全社會的網絡安全意識、基本防護技能和利用網絡的信心大幅提升。

開放:信息技術標準、政策和市場開放、透明,產品流通和信息傳播更加順暢,數字鴻溝日益彌合。不分大小、強弱、貧富,世界各國特別是發展中國家都能分享發展機遇、共享發展成果、公平參與網絡空間治理。

合作:世界各國在技術交流、打擊網絡恐怖和網絡犯罪等領域的合作更加密切,多邊、民主、透明的國際互聯網治理體系健全完善,以合作共贏為核心的網絡空間命運共同體逐步形成。

有序:公眾在網絡空間的知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權等合法權益得到充分保障,網絡空間個人隱私獲得有效保護,人權受到充分尊重。網絡空間的國內和國際法律體系、標準規範逐步建立,網絡空間實現依法有效治理,網絡環境誠信、文明、健康,信息自由流動與維護國家安全、公共利益實現有機統一。

三、原則

一個安全穩定繁榮的網絡空間,對各國乃至世界都具有重大意義。中國願與各國一道,加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,積極推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,共同維護網絡空間和平安全。

(一)尊重維護網絡空間主權

網絡空間主權不容侵犯,尊重各國自主選擇發展道路、網絡管理模式、互聯網公共政策和平等參與國際網絡空間治理的權利。各國主權範圍內的網絡事務由各國人民自己做主,各國有權根據本國國情,借鑒國際經驗,制定有關網絡空間的法律法規,依法採取必要措施,管理本國信息系統及本國疆域上的網絡活動;保護本國信息系統和信息資源免受侵入、干擾、攻擊和破壞,保障公民在網絡空間的合法權益;防範、阻止和懲治危害國家安全和利益的有害信息在本國網絡傳播,維護網絡空間秩序。任何國家都不搞網絡霸權、不搞雙重標準,不利用網絡干涉他國內政,不從事、縱容或支持危害他國國家安全的網絡活動。

(二)和平利用網絡空間

和平利用網絡空間符合人類的共同利益。各國應遵守《聯合國憲章》關於不得使用或威脅使用武力的原則,防止信息技術被用於與維護國際安全與穩定相悖的目的,共同抵製網絡空間軍備競賽、防範網絡空間衝突。堅持相互尊重、平等相待,求同存異、包容互信,尊重彼此在網絡空間的安全利益和重大關切,推動構建和諧網絡世界。反對以國家安全為藉口,利用技術優勢控制他國網絡和信息系統、收集和竊取他國數據,更不能以犧牲別國安全謀求自身所謂絕對安全。

(三)依法治理網絡空間

全面推進網絡空間法治化,堅持依法治網、依法辦網、依法上網,讓互聯網在法治軌道上健康運行。依法構建良好網絡秩序,保護網絡空間信息依法有序自由流動,保護個人隱私,保護知識產權。任何組織和個人在網絡空間享有自由、行使權利的同時,須遵守法律,尊重他人權利,對自己在網絡上的言行負責。

(四)統籌網絡安全與發展

沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。網絡安全和信息化是一體之兩翼、驅動之雙輪。正確處理髮展和安全的關係,堅持以安全保發展,以發展促安全。安全是發展的前提,任何以犧牲安全為代價的發展都難以持續。發展是安全的基礎,不發展是最大的不安全。沒有信息化發展,網絡安全也沒有保障,已有的安全甚至會喪失。

四、戰略任務

中國的網民數量和網絡規模世界第一,維護好中國網絡安全,不僅是自身需要,對於維護全球網絡安全乃至世界和平都具有重大意義。中國致力於維護國家網絡空間主權、安全、發展利益,推動互聯網造福人類,推動網絡空間和平利用和共同治理。

(一)堅定捍衛網絡空間主權

根據憲法和法律法規管理我國主權範圍內的網絡活動,保護我國信息設施和信息資源安全,採取包括經濟、行政、科技、法律、外交、軍事等一切措施,堅定不移地維護我國網絡空間主權。堅決反對通過網絡顛覆我國國家政權、破壞我國國家主權的一切行為。

(二)堅決維護國家安全

防範、制止和依法懲治任何利用網絡進行叛國、分裂國家、煽動叛亂、顛覆或者煽動顛覆人民民主專政政權的行為;防範、制止和依法懲治利用網絡進行竊取、洩露國家秘密等危害國家安全的行為;防範、制止和依法懲治境外勢力利用網絡進行滲透、破壞、顛覆、分裂活動。

(三)保護關鍵信息基礎設施

國家關鍵信息基礎設施是指關係國家安全、國計民生,一旦數據洩露、遭到破壞或者喪失功能可能嚴重危害國家安全、公共利益的信息設施,包括但不限於提供公共通信、廣播電視傳輸等服務的基礎信息網絡,能源、金融、交通、教育、科研、水利、工業製造、醫療衛生、社會保障、公用事業等領域和國家機關的重要信息系統,重要互聯網應用系統等。採取一切必要措施保護關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據不受攻擊破壞。堅持技術和管理並重、保護和震懾並舉,著眼識別、防護、檢測、預警、響應、處置等環節,建立實施關鍵信息基礎設施保護製度,從管理、技術、人才、資金等方面加大投入,依法綜合施策,切實加強關鍵信息基礎設施安全防護。

關鍵信息基礎設施保護是政府、企業和全社會的共同責任,主管、運營單位和組織要按照法律法規、制度標準的要求,採取必要措施保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,逐步實現先評估後使用。加強關鍵信息基礎設施風險評估。加強黨政機關以及重點領域網站的安全防護,基層黨政機關網站要按集約化模式建設運行和管理。建立政府、行業與企業的網絡安全信息有序共享機制,充分發揮企業在保護關鍵信息基礎設施中的重要作用。

堅持對外開放,立足開放環境下維護網絡安全。建立實施網絡安全審查制度,加強供應鏈安全管理,對黨政機關、重點行業採購使用的重要信息技術產品和服務開展安全審查,提高產品和服務的安全性和可控性,防止產品服務提供者和其他組織利用信息技術優勢實施不正當競爭或損害用戶利益。

(四)加強網絡文化建設

加強網上思想文化陣地建設,大力培育和踐行社會主義核心價值觀,實施網絡內容建設工程,發展積極向上的網絡文化,傳播正能量,凝聚強大精神力量,營造良好網絡氛圍。鼓勵拓展新業務、創作新產品,打造體現時代精神的網絡文化品牌,不斷提高網絡文化產業規模水平。實施中華優秀文化網上傳播工程,積極推動優秀傳統文化和當代文化精品的數字化、網絡化製作和傳播。發揮互聯網傳播平台優勢,推動中外優秀文化交流互鑑,讓各國人民了解中華優秀文化,讓中國人民了解各國優秀文化,共同推動網絡文化繁榮發展,豐富人們精神世界,促進人類文明進步。

加強網絡倫理、網絡文明建設,發揮道德教化引導作用,用人類文明優秀成果滋養網絡空間、修復網絡生態。建設文明誠信的網絡環境,倡導文明辦網、文明上網,形成安全、文明、有序的信息傳播秩序。堅決打擊謠言、淫穢、暴力、迷信、邪教等違法有害信息在網絡空間傳播蔓延。提高青少年網絡文明素養,加強對未成年人上網保護,通過政府、社會組織、社區、學校、家庭等方面的共同努力,為青少年健康成長創造良好的網絡環境。

(五)打擊網絡恐怖和違法犯罪

加強網絡反恐、反間諜、反竊密能力建設,嚴厲打擊網絡恐怖和網絡間諜活動。

堅持綜合治理、源頭控制、依法防範,嚴厲打擊網絡詐騙、網絡盜竊、販槍販毒、侵害公民個人信息、傳播淫穢色情、黑客攻擊、侵犯知識產權等違法犯罪行為。

(六)完善網絡治理體系

堅持依法、公開、透明管網治網,切實做到有法可依、有法必依、執法必嚴、違法必究。健全網絡安全法律法規體系,制定出台網絡安全法、未成年人網絡保護條例等法律法規,明確社會各方面的責任和義務,明確網絡安全管理要求。加快對現行法律的修訂和解釋,使之適用於網絡空間。完善網絡安全相關製度,建立網絡信任體系,提高網絡安全管理的科學化規範化水平。

加快構建法律規範、行政監管、行業自律、技術保障、公眾監督、社會教育相結合的網絡治理體系,推進網絡社會組織管理創新,健全基礎管理、內容管理、行業管理以及網絡違法犯罪防範和打擊等工作聯動機制。加強網絡空間通信秘密、言論自由、商業秘密,以及名譽權、財產權等合法權益的保護。

鼓勵社會組織等參與網絡治理,發展網絡公益事業,加強新型網絡社會組織建設。鼓勵網民舉報網絡違法行為和不良信息。

(七)夯實網絡安全基礎

堅持創新驅動發展,積極創造有利於技術創新的政策環境,統籌資源和力量,以企業為主體,產學研用相結合,協同攻關、以點帶面、整體推進,盡快在核心技術上取得突破。重視軟件安全,加快安全可信產品推廣應用。發展網絡基礎設施,豐富網絡空間信息內容。實施“互聯網+”行動,大力發展網絡經濟。實施國家大數據戰略,建立大數據安全管理制度,支持大數據、雲計算等新一代信息技術創新和應用。優化市場環境,鼓勵網絡安全企業做大做強,為保障國家網絡安全夯實產業基礎。

建立完善國家網絡安全技術支撐體系。加強網絡安全基礎理論和重大問題研究。加強網絡安全標準化和認證認可工作,更多地利用標準規範網絡空間行為。做好等級保護、風險評估、漏洞發現等基礎性工作,完善網絡安全監測預警和網絡安全重大事件應急處置機制。

實施網絡安全人才工程,加強網絡安全學科專業建設,打造一流網絡安全學院和創新園區,形成有利於人才培養和創新創業的生態環境。辦好網絡安全宣傳周活動,大力開展全民網絡安全宣傳教育。推動網絡安全教育進教材、進學校、進課堂,提高網絡媒介素養,增強全社會網絡安全意識和防護技能,提高廣大網民對網絡違法有害信息、網絡欺詐等違法犯罪活動的辨識和抵禦能力。

(八)提升網絡空間防護能力

網絡空間是國家主權的新疆域。建設與我國國際地位相稱、與網絡強國相適應的網絡空間防護力量,大力發展網絡安全防御手段,及時發現和抵禦網絡入侵,鑄造維護國家網絡安全的堅強後盾。

(九)強化網絡空間國際合作

在相互尊重、相互信任的基礎上,加強國際網絡空間對話合作,推動互聯網全球治理體系變革。深化同各國的雙邊、多邊網絡安全對話交流和信息溝通,有效管控分歧,積極參與全球和區域組織網絡安全合作,推動互聯網地址、根域名服務器等基礎資源管理國際化。

支持聯合國發揮主導作用,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則、網絡空間國際反恐公約,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,深化在政策法律、技術創新、標準規範、應急響應、關鍵信息基礎設施保護等領域的國際合作。

加強對發展中國家和落後地區互聯網技術普及和基礎設施建設的支持援助,努力彌合數字鴻溝。推動“一帶一路”建設,提高國際通信互聯互通水平,暢通信息絲綢之路。搭建世界互聯網大會等全球互聯網共享共治平台,共同推動互聯網健康發展。通過積極有效的國際合作,建立多邊、民主、透明的國際互聯網治理體系,共同構建和平、安全、開放、合作、有序的網絡空間。

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